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Ombilin Basin

Tugas mata kuliah Geologi Tektonik

Disusun Oleh :
Hanagia Saputra


Cekungan Ombilin
Ombilin basin is a pull apart basin. The wide of the basin is approximately
25 X 10 km, elongate parallel direction with the main structure of sumatera. It has
4600 m of thickness, it is too thick for the basin that length 60 km and wide is 25
km.It shows that the rapid degradation of the basin floor is closely related with
the main dextral Sumatra fault . Stratigraphy of ombilin basin is composed of the
succession of tertiary sedimentation that uncomformity deposited on the
pratertiary rocks.

(picture 1) Structural of Ombilin Basin (Situmorang dkk., 1981)

Ombilin basin located in the magmatic arc. This magmatic arc didominsi
also by cesarean horizontal trans Sumatra / Semangko (Katili ,, 1975). Ombilin
basin is a low area that is filled by sediment layers of early Tertiary age, result
destruction of pre-Tertiary age rocks from the ranks of the front row and row

ranks Schiefer rock in the west. In the east, the basin is bounded by faults Takung
where the Pre-Tertiary rocks on top of a layer of Tertiary (Cameron et al, 1981).
To the west, the basin Ombilin in rapidly growing, where layers of Tertiary
tersesarkan and move down through the fault-fault ride northwest-southeast
direction (Gb.1), which may be associated with cesarean mandatar (T. Koning,
Geological structure of the basin Ombilin :
a. Fault
Ombilin basin geological structure has been studied in detail by
Koesoemadinata and Matasak (1981) the eastern edge of the basin bounded by
faults takung where pre-Tertiary age rocks cover the old rock tertiary (Cameroon
et al ,, 1981). The southern part of sekungan not limited by cesarean. orogen cause
a rise in the southeastern part of sekungan and erosional truncation led to the
formation of the tertiary age limit memperlihatakan ekungan the south and
southwest in its present form.
Fault headland divides the basin Ombilin Ampolo into two large groups,
where the northern part of the fault forming protruding piece that separates the
deeper part of the basin Ombilin against sigalut altitude in the north.
Reverse fault in the basin are known to all parallel and interconnected by cesarean
takung. Southwestern part of the reverse fault that is found in the north basin
separating the pre-Tertiary age rocks tarhadap Tertiary age rocks. Relations with
this reverse fault is a fault horizontal directional heading to the US to UTL-SBD
and go to the left horizontal fault with NE-SW direction.
Fault promontory ampalo a normal fault that beraarah US and TTG-BBL
TB up to, as well as in the southern basin fault that caused the western block
down. All the structures including the folds that occur during the Plio-Pleistocene
associated with cesarean takung.
b. Fold

Ombilin basin especially in the eastern bloc form a large syncline

structure, in the northern part of the syncline structure is not symmetric about the
axis of the basin trending NW-TG, asymmetric folds is associated with takung
reverse fault that forms the northeastern edge of the basin.
Besides syncline structure in the basin is also dominated by Palangki
anticline. Where this Palangki shaped anticline formed by the movement of the
fault on the block of bedrock. Both edges of the basin may be controlled by
normal faults on the part of the parent. Incongruent contact between sediments
Oligocene and early Miocene age in Palangki thought to be caused by anticline
Palangki experiencing uplift between these times.
In the western part of fault cape ampalo strktur suimbu trending folds with
EW, fold axis is often found in shale formations Sangkawerang and formation of
Sawahlunto, this illustrates that this structure is a big fold.

(Picture 2) Longitudinal Section from North West-South East

(picture 3) Longitudinal Section Ombilin Basin from west-east

Stratigrafi cekungan ombilin
As explained above, the basin is a basin Ombilin pull apart basin (pull
split) that have traits - traits, among others:
a. High deposition process.
b. Atimetri pattern of sequence and sedimentary facies.
c. Form of precipitation that shows the boundary fault on the edge of the
basin sediment alluvial fans 'konglomerates', affluent flood, lacustrine
The properties of the deposition as above, found in the basin Ombilin. Of
seismic data and drilling (T. Koning, 1986) as well as the calculation of the
erosion that has taken place during the Tertiary. it is predicted that this basin has
received no less than 9100 cubic meters of sediment during its deposition.
Ombilin basin stratigraphy is made up of runs sedimentation Tertiary lithologies

precipitated tidakselaras above lithologies Pratersier. Pratersier lithologies consist

of Kuantan Formation, Formation and Formation Silungkang Tuhur that
terinstrusi granite. The third formation menjari-finger touch. Tertiary lithologies
consist of Brani Formation, Formation Sangkarewang, Sawahlunto Formation,
Formation Sawahtambang and Ombilin Formation.

(pictur 4) Stratigraphy of Ombilin Basin

1. Brani Formation
Brani formations are generally found on the slopes of the hills of
bedrock as

fan alluvium


consisting of breccias


conglomerates. Rock composer composed of cutouts - cutouts rock

Pratersier which include granite, limestone, quartzite, filit, quartz and
marble. The spread of these formations originated from the northwest to
the east and southeast. Based keratannya position, lithologies at Brani
Formation can be divided into two parts. In the western part, keratannya
derived from Silungkang Formation, Formation Tuhur, covering quartzite

and granite, quartz, basalt, chert, and granite. The grain size is composed
of gravel - gravel with a grain shape angled - angled responsibility. In the
eastern part keratannya derived from Kuantan and granite formations,
consisting of marble, limestone, filit, and volcanic. Rounded granular
shape - rounded responsibilities, sized gravel - gravel. Towards the center
of the basin, increasingly fining grain size and shape of the rounded grains
- rounded responsibilities. Brani Formation depositional environment is a
fan alluvium. On Formation Brani not found fossils that can be used for
age determination.
2. Formation Sangkarewang
Sangkarewang Formation consists of sandstone, siltstone and
claystone with inserts conglomerate in some parts. Sandstones show
decker bedding and in some places, conglomerates occupy the bottom.
Medium grain size - coarse fining upwards. Formation deployment there
Sangkarewang northwest and northern part of the basin. The abundance of
rocks consisting of shale and carbonaceous mudstone indicate depositional
environment close to the source material - organic materials. The
discovery of fossils of freshwater fish in the area Tigotanjung, is indicative
of the environment of the lake. Inserts sandstone with bedding granulated
sediment structure change gradually, indicating that the rock deposition
process does not take place in a stable condition but interspersed basin
subduction - subduction sediments towards the center of the lake.
Based on the analysis of sample Palynology claystone in the area btukuali,
age Sangkarewang Formation is Middle Eocene - Late Eocene (Hima &
Thunder, 1992).
3. Formation Sawahlunto
Sawahlunto formation characterized by shale, silty shale, siltstone,
quartz sandstones and coal seams are fairly thick. Gray flakes in general brownish gray, carbonaceous, and contains a drain - the drain of coal.

Brown sandstone, compact, shows the structure of refining grains towards

the top, sometimes - kang layered thin, planar manifold cross maze, and
surging waters. Coal on umumnyaberselingan with siltstone and mudstone.
Formation Sawahlunto limited deployment in the northwest and
north basin.
Formation depositional environment Sawahlunto is a meandering
river that marked encountered carbonaceous shale, coal and charred river
sediment. This formation contains no fossils of foraminifera that can be
used as a pointer age, but based on the analysis Palynology Sawahlunto
known that formation is not older than Eocene precipitated out of tune
over Sangkarewang formations and formations Brani.
4. Formation Sawahtambang
Sawahtambang formation composed of sandstone unit volkanikan,
tuffaceous sandstones, and sandstones kuarsaan. The lower part of this
formation consists of alternating units of quartz sandstones with mudstone
unit. At the top, the unit kuarsaan colored sandstone - gray, medium-sized gravel, with a thin layered sedimentary structures cross- confusing. The
unit was deposited on colored claystone unit - gray-green which is above
the formation Sawahlunto. Sawahtambang the spread formations located
in the southern, central and eastern basins.





characterized by rivers woven encountered sedimentary structures crossmaze, grain refinement upward, pasirkasar-sized gravel, and not found a
thick layer of mudstone. This formation is aligned over Sawahlunto and
Oligocene formations.
5. Formation Ombilin
Ombilin formation mainly composed by gray shale -abu generally
calcareous and sandstones containing organic matter, nodule calcareous
sandstones and lenses - thin lenses of limestone at the bottom. At the top

of the formation, tuffaceous sandstones encountered with inserts

containing glauconite marl and molluscs. Deployment of this formation is
in the east and southeast basins.
The thickness of the formation Ombilin never know for sure,
because some have been eroded. Maximum thickness measured is + 1600
meters are found in Sub-basin Sinamar. Based on the presence of
glauconite mineral and fossil collection of mollusks, depositional
environment is neritik in. Paleontological analyzes carried out on
limestone, give the age of the early Miocene Middle Miocene top to
bottom. This formation is not aligned at the top of the formation
Sawahtambang (LEMIGAS Tertiary Basin Study Team, 1994).
6. Formation Ranau
Ranau formation mainly composed by sediment tuff, lapilli, and
lava breccia laharan andesitan. The precipitate tuffs generally maroon, not
experienced Compaction and fine grain size. This precipitate Pleistocene
age, derived from volcanic dust Singgalang, Malintang, and Merapi which
is located in the north basin Ombilin.Dengan met Lava andesitan, lapilli
and tuff and marine influence is not met, this formation was deposited in
the terrestrial environment.
7. Alluvium
The youngest sediment basin Ombilin are aged Holocene alluvium
sediment. These deposits consist of a mixture of loose rock lempung- sized
lumps that come from old rock result destruction older. Contact with the
rock below it in the form of field erosion.
The geological history of the basin Ombilin
Tertiary beginning probably Paleocene, block-faulting occurred as
a result of tensional stress as a result of old orogen chalk on. As a result,

the basin-type intramountaine graben formed by steep cliffs on its side

alluvial fan formed on all sides of the basin produces Brani conglomerate
formation. A lake formed in the central basin of the results of turbidite
deposited in the northwestern part represented by sangkawerang
At the time of Eocene precipitation occurs due to the continuing
decline in the basin, except in the center and northwest of the former lake
basin where the marshy areas with vegetation of the lake formed by the
type of river flood plains winding, this deposition resulted in the formation
of coal from Sawahlunto. Precipitation continues to make swamp areas dry
out and removal of the surrounding hills followed by sediments klastika
rough shape Rasau members members paddy mines, leading to the end of
the deposition of a river meanders winding along the flood plains of Poro
member, a member of the formation paddy mine where baubara thin layer
is formed and bedding flakes.
Late Oligocene occur pengankatan locally produce surface erosion
in palangkipada earliest Miocene decline in large areas and trangresi of the
sea resulting in changes in depositional environment which is sealed from
the environment neritik be abysal This can be proved from the lenses of
limestone danserpih the Miocene beginning of formation Ombilin ,
Beberqapa volcanic activity occurred in tuff intercalation at the top of the
formation Ombilin.
The historical record precipitation in the Miocene and Pliocene is
unknown but it appears folds and faults that occur in the Plio-Pleistocene
when the ranks of experienced mountain chain appointment followed by
erosion and deposition of Pleistocene age tuff formations ranau.
Potential basin Ombilin
Basin Ombilin turns mepunyai petroleum potential as evidenced
from shale results lacustrine berurumur Eocene and flakes precipitated

marine old Oligocene estimated sourcerock for hydrocarbons and is where

oil seeps located along the edge of the basin such statements are based on
research conducted in the well Sinamar 1 by T.Koning 1981.
At Singkarak block there are two oil seeps located along the edge
of the southern and western basin, in the area found the flow of oil is very
small to flow into a small river close to the southern side of the basin are
both found in the area kolok where the area is known to have oil seeps
from results coal drilling before the second world war 2. The oil seeps
have a similar type to the type of crude oil that is contained in a field of
thorns, central Sumatra.
Both of these oil seeps prove that there is a source rock in the basin
Ombilin and with a high enough temperature will produce oil.
Daftar pustaka
Hastuti, sulistya,dkk, 1996. Analisis Tegasan Purba dan Implikasinya Pada
Evolusi Tektonik Cekungan Ombilin Sumatera Barat. Jogjakarta : UGM.
Hardjanto, sigit, 1992. Laporan ekskursi heologi sumatra tengah. Jatinangor :