Dr Zain Yusufzai

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

1. Learning objectives • • • • • • • Appreciate the dynamics in the business world that have caused project Understand how the practice of project management is affected by List the functions and tasks performed by project managers Know the difference between competencies and skills required of an Assess your own competencies and skills. Put a plan together for your own professional development as a project Identify the specific skills that you personally wish to develop. 2. Project management: Your company owns your job, and you own your career. Never default to your company to take care of your career. At the same time, always look for opportunities in your company to further your career in line with your career plan. 3. Demand for project managers: The demand for project managers has never been greater than it is today. There are at least four reasons for this:     • • customer. • Their success is measured using metrics that are directly related to the customer. Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane 1 Organizations have become customer-driven. Organizations have evolved from function to process structures. Organizations are using task forces more frequently. Organizations have become more project-focused. 4. Customer-driven organizations: Organizations are customer-driven. Their processes and practices are designed to relate directly to the management to be a growing profession. organizational structure.

effective project manager.

manager.

Dr Zain Yusufzai

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

These Organizations often assign responsibility for the care of feeding of a customer’s request by turning the request into a project, or projectizing that request, and assigning a specific person (a project manager) to that customer’s request. 5. Evolution from function to process: Most customer-driven organizations have made the transition from • • • functional silos (marketing, sales, finance and so forth) To a more focused process structure. This transition makes it possible for the company to define itself in A good example is integrating the steps that the organization undertakes to receive and completely process a customer order. •       • • basis. •  Organizations forms task forces to address a large number of A problem arises unexpectedly, and a task force is commissioned to one-time situations…… For example: study the problem and recommend a solution. In the functional silo organization, this can involve the following steps: Order entry by the sales department. Credit approval by the accounting department. Production scheduling by the manufacturing department. Acceptance into the warehouse by the inventory control department. Picking and packaging by the shipping department. Invoicing and collections by the accounts receivable department. 6. Task force: (Task forces are temporary) Once the charge has been met, the task force is dissolved. These situations are similar to a project structure except that

terms of those processes that relate directly to the customer.

the team members are generally assigned to the task force on a part-time

Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane

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Dr Zain Yusufzai 

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52) A new employee benefit program has become available, and a task A suggestion is made to put an employee-find-an-employee program

force is formed to evaluate it and its impact on existing benefit programs.  in place, and task force is commissioned to look into the suggestion. The permanent task force has a specific responsibility, acts independently of the department, and draws on the functional areas for advice and training. The functional areas perform a support role only. There are four advantages of the permanent task force: I. II. authority. III. IV. I. II. III. IV. It generally fosters higher morale. It generates higher levels of productivity and quality. Implementation time is long. There are few opportunities to develop special skills. There is a high risk of failure. There is no clear career path. 7. project-driven organizations: The project-driven organization aligns its professional staff with projects. In these organizations, • • • A person is assigned to only one project at a time. When that project is complete, he or she is reassigned to another project. Project teams tend to be self-sufficient, that is, they possess all of the Disadvantages of permanent task force: It is the same as pure project form. It empowers workers and develops responsibility and

skills needed to achieve their goal. The project-driven structure has some advantages:     Everybody understands the work of the whole project. It is highly receptive to new ideas. It offers better individual visibility. It has greater adaptability. 3

Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane

Dr Zain Yusufzai      

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

It is more amenable to planning/ scheduling. It has better cost control. It has poor stability. It demands continuous management attention. There are few opportunities to develop special skills. There is no clear career path.

Traditional organization environments: Many companies are holding fast to the old ways. The environment in which the project team must function can be a great help or hindrance to the successful practice of project management. Examples of the traditional organizational environments are discussed below: 1. • • • •    Functional structures: Each major functional area is represented as a unit in the The units’ scope of responsibility is limited to the functional Work is transmitted to the unit; they do their work and pass it Team work exists within the unit but not across units. Disadvantages: Management time needed for between-function problems. Development opportunities are limited. Communication across functions is more difficult.

organization with a line manager and reporting staff. area in which they work. along to the next functional unit.

Department Head Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane 4

Dr Zain Yusufzai

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

Function Manager

Function Manager

Function Manager

Function Manager

Advantages:     consider:   The functional home of individual. The project home of the individual. The functional home deals with development and deployment of individuals to projects. This is where the line manager of individual is found. The project home is where the individual actually engages in work. The individual team members are accountable to project manager. Everybody understands his or her task. It is more stable than other forms. It provides for checks and balances. Standardization within functions is possible.

Matrix structures: (In the matrix organization, there are two entities to

Department Head

Function Manager Project A Project B

Function Manager

Function Manager

Project C Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane

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Dr Zain Yusufzai

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

        

It offers better assessment of skill and development needs. It better utilizes specialized skills. It is flexible and can adapt to changing environments. It has few communication problems (dual reporting) Everybody understands the work of the whole. Project objectives are clear and visible. Morale is high It develops future project managers. (on the job development) Project shut down is not too traumatic. Disadvantages: Success depends on manager interactions. Project management is difficult. Potential for politics is greater. Each project team member has two bosses. There are conflicting goals (project versus function) There is the potential for balance-of-power conflicts. Management costs are higher. It is more complex than other forms.

       

Project management in contemporary environments: Today there is a trend in organizations to use cross-functional teams. Members of cross-functional teams include people from different business functions. This adds several areas of concern for the project manager. New issues:      Ownership Commitment Authority Process-oriented Self-managed teams 6

Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane

Dr Zain Yusufzai 

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

Inter-enterprise. The project support office (PSO) is a staffed function within those organizations that have recognized that the successful completion of projects is a critical success factors. In general, the PSO is a support unit to project managers and their teams that ensures the success of all projects in the portfolio. The Project Support Office (PSO) serves six purposes:

Project support office:

o o o o o o

Establish, monitors, and enforce standards. Manage communications Provide administrative support to the project managers. Provide training and development. Fill a mentoring role. Facilitate deployment. Job functions and tasks for project management: List of most common responsibilities of the project managers are:

1) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. 2)

Project planning (strategic and tactical): Develops preliminary study with project team, identifying Identifies key project results and milestones. Develops project plan and work-breakdown structure and Determines needed resources; including client involvement. Estimates timelines and phases. Influences selection of project team members. Assigns project responsibilities based on assessment of Defines clear individual roles and performance expectations Establishes acceptance criteria. Determines appropriate technological approach. Managing the project: 7

business problem, requirements, project scope and benefits.

communicates to team and client.

individual skills and development needs.

Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane

Dr Zain Yusufzai a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 3)

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52) Continually reviews project status. Reviews work against key results criteria. Uses systematic method for logging project status, checking against Uses change management/ request procedure. Uses project meetings to measure progress against plan, Assesses skill-needed documentation of meetings, work, Measures quality through testing against requirements. Conducts project reviews and walk-through (with appropriate client

schedule.

communicate chances and issues. conversations and decisions.

involvement) Lead project team: Assessing competencies and skills: Two levels of characteristics determine success or failure as a project manager: skills and competencies. At the visible levels are skills whose level of mastery can be measured and that a person can acquire through training. Estimating time and estimating cost are two examples. That is the easy part. More difficult are competencies, those traits that lie below the surface, out of range of the visible. . visible
Skills

.

Competencies

hidden The well rounded project manager has skills and competencies in all of these categories. Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane 8

Dr Zain Yusufzai    

How to become a World Class Project Manager Chapter # 2 (page 13-52)

Business Personal Interpersonal Management Skills profile of project manager: Knowledge. Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation A career planning template Where are you? Where do you want to go? How will you get there? Step 1: Gap Analysis Step 2: Prioritize the gaps to get to the next project manager class. Step 3: Look for learning opportunities to close the gaps Step 4: Go back to step one.

             

Effective Project Management (Second Edition) Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr, David B. Crane

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