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# Soil Mechanics −

Seepage Analysis
Chih-Ping Lin
National Chiao Tung Univ.
cplin@mail.nctu.edu.tw

Outline
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Laplace Equation of Continuity
1-D Example

Flow Nets (2-D)
 Computations using Flow Nets
 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil
 Seepage through an Earth Dam
 3-D Flow


Laplace Eqn. Laplace’s Equation of Continuity ∂v x ⎞ ∂v z ⎞ ⎡⎛ ⎤ ⎛ v + dx dz dy + v + dz dx dy ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ x z ⎢ ⎥ ∂x ∂z ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎣⎝ ⎦ − [v x dz dy + v z dx dy] = 0 ∂v x ∂v z + =0 ∂x ∂z ∂h ∂x ∂h v z = k zi z = k z ∂z v x = k xi x = k x ∂ 2h ∂ 2h kx 2 + kz 2 = 0 ∂x ∂z If kx=ky ∂ 2h ∂ 2h + 2 =0 2 ∂z ∂x . Laplace’s Equation of Continuity Laplace Eqn.

so we can get v2 = h1 H A / k A + H B / kB For 0 ≤ z < LA. At z = LA. we can get C1A = h1. h = h1. hA(LA) = hB(LA).Laplace Eqn. 1-D Example ∂ 2h =0 ∂z 2 h = C1 + C2 z At z = 0. At z = HA. and we get C1B = −C2 B (H A + H B ) = v2 (H A + H B ) / k B v ( H + H B ) v2 − z hB ( z ) = 2 A kB kB Laplace Eqn. v = v2 = − k B (∂h / ∂z )B = − k B C2 B C 2 B = − v2 / k B At z = HA+ HB. h = 0. ⎛ kB h( z ) = h1 ⎜⎜1 − ⎝ H Ak B + H B k A ⎞ z ⎟⎟ ⎠ For LA ≤ z< LA + LB. v = v2 = − k A (∂h / ∂z )A = − k AC2 A C2 A = −v2 / k A hA ( z ) = h1 − v2 z kA At z = HA. ⎛ ⎞ kA (H A + H B − z )⎟⎟ h = h1 ⎜⎜ ⎝ H Ak B + H B k A ⎠ .

Solution to 2-D flow Analytical solution possible only for simple boundary conditions. But most seepage problems have complex boundary conditions.  Alternative solution   Flow net (Graphical solution)  Electrical analogy models  Numerical solutions Flow Nets Flow through a Dam Phreatic line Unsaturated Soil Drainage blanket Flow of water z x ∂2 h ∂2 h + 2 =0 2 ∂x ∂z .

h(x. Equipotentials Lines of constant head. Flow lines Paths followed by water particles tangential to flow Phreatic line Flow line (FL) Equipotential (EP) .Flow Nets Graphical representation of solution 1.z) Equipotential (EP) Flow Nets Graphical representation of solution 2.

z) = constant (1a) Thus: ∂h ∂h dx + dz = 0 ∂z ∂x (1b) Equipotenial slope ∂h / ∂x ⎡ dz ⎤ = − ⎢⎣ dx ⎥⎦ ∂h / ∂z EP (1c) Flow Nets Properties of Flow Lines ∆z ∆x Geometry Flow line (FL) vx Equipotential (EP) Kinematics From the geometry vx ⎡ dx ⎤ = ⎢⎣ dz ⎥⎦ vz FL Now from Darcy’s law ∂h = −k ∂x Hence vx vz vz = − k ∂h ∂x ⎡ dx ⎤ = ⎢⎣ dz ⎥⎦ ∂h ∂z FL (2b) ∂h ∂z (2c) .Flow Nets Properties of Equipotentials Flow line (FL) Equipotential (EP) h(x.

Flow Nets Orthogonality of flow and equipotential lines Flow line (FL) Equipotential (EP) On an equipotential ∂h / ∂x ⎡ dz ⎤ = − ⎢⎣ d x ⎥⎦ ∂h / ∂z EP On a flow line ∂h ∂x ⎡ dx ⎤ = ⎢⎣ d z ⎥⎦ ∂h ∂z FL Hence ⎡ dx ⎤ ⎡ dx ⎤ × = −1 ⎢⎣ d z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ d z ⎥⎦ FL EP (3) Flow Nets Geometric properties of flow nets From the definition of flow h+∆h Y Z h+2∆h v = h FL v = k t ∆Q X y FL X Conclusion yx YX = zt ZT ∆h zt (4b) Combining (4a)&(4b) yx ∆Q = k∆ h zt z (4a) From Darcy’s law T EP ∆Q ∆Q yx (4c) Similarly (5) YX ∆Q = k∆ h ZT (4d) .

Line of constant pore pressure . Impermeable soil boundary .eg.Flow Line c.Flow Nets Geometric properties of flow nets ∆Q From the definition of flow B v= EP( h ) ∆Q C v=k A d b h) EP ( h + +∆ ∆h a cd ∆Q = k∆h ab Conclusion ab = CD AB ∆h ab (6b) Combining (6a)&(6b) c cd (6a) From Darcy’s law D FL ∆Q cd Similarly ∆Q CD = k∆h AB (6c) (6d) Flow Nets Graphical Construction of Flow Net Boundary conditions: • 1. Equipotential line ⊥ flow line 2. phreatic surface . Flow element ~ square Submerged soil boundary – Equipotential b.

 Refine the flow net by repeating the previous step. (It is usually easier to visualise the pattern of flow so start by drawing the flow lines).Flow Nets Procedure for drawing flow nets  Mark all boundary conditions  Draw a coarse net which is consistent with the boundary conditions and which has orthogonal equipotentials and flow lines. Flow Nets .  Modify the mesh so that it meets the conditions outlined above and so that rectangles between adjacent flow lines and equipotentials are square.

using dam base as datum h = 9m h= h = 6m h = 3m uw +z γw u w = [12 − ( −5)] γ w .Computations using Flow Nets Calculation of flow Phreatic line 15 m h = 15m h=0 h =12m h = 9m h = 6m h = 3m For a single Flow tube of width 1m: ∆Q = k ∆h For k = 10-5 m/s and a width of 1m ∆Q = 10-5 x 3 m3/sec/m For 5 such flow tubes Q = 5 x 10-5 x 3 m3/sec/m For a 25m wide dam Q = 25 x 5 x 10-5 x 3 m3/sec Q= k Note that per metre width H Nf Nh Computations using Flow Nets Calculation of pore pressure Phreatic line 15 m 5m h = 15m h=0 P h = 12m Pore pressure from At P.

13 (a) A weir. (b) uplift under a hydraulic structure Anisotropic Flow Nets Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil Transformation Governing Equation ∂ 2h ∂ 2h kH 2 + kV 2 = 0 ∂x ∂z + x = α x z = z kH ∂ 2h ∂ 2h + =0 α 2 k V ∂x 2 ∂ z 2 + ∂ 2h ∂ 2h + 2 =0 2 ∂x ∂z α= kH kV . Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. a division of Thomson Learning.©2001 Brooks/Cole. Computations using Flow Nets Figure 7. Inc.

Anisotropic Flow Nets Example1: Flow net for anisotropic soil The figure shows the dam drawn at its natural scale Impermeable dam H1 z H2 L Z Soil layer x Impermeable bedrock Anisotropic Flow Nets Example1: Flow net for anisotropic soil Let us assume that the soil has different horizontal and vertical permeabilities such that kH = 4 kV Transformation α kH = = kV 4 x kV kV =2 so x = 2x z =z or x= x 2 .

Anisotropic Flow Nets Example1: Flow net for anisotropic soil The figure shows the dam drawn to its transformed scale H1 H2 z L/2 x Z Soil layer Impermeable bedrock Anisotropic Flow Nets Example2: Flow net for anisotropic soil .

∆h h ∆Q Natural scale h .∆h h transformed scale t x x Considering horizontal flow we have ∆h x ∆h ∆h k H t = k eq t x x kV (a) Natural scale ∆Q = k H t (7a) (b) Transformed scale ∆Q = k eq (7b) Equating 7a and 7b gives k eq = k H kV Anisotropic Flow Nets Example1: Seepage under a dam h1 = 13.Anisotropic Flow Nets Equivalent permeability for anisotropic flow h .5 m 3 / s / m = 9 ´ 10 − 6 m 3 / s / m thus .5 ´ 10 − 6 m 3 / s / m Q = 6 ´ 1. 5 ) = 0 .75 ) = 1.5 m kV = 10-6 m/s kH = 4 x10-6 m/s k eq = (4 × 10 −6 ) × (10 −6 ) = 2 × 10 −6 m / sec ∆h = (1 3 − 2 .7 5 m 14 ∆Q = ( 2 ´ 10 − 6 ) ´ ( 0.0 m h2 = 2.

calculate q by . 3.3 ∆ Calculate d With know values of α and d. 4. calculate L by With known value of L. 5.Seepage in Earth Dam Seepage through a dam on impervious base Seepage in Earth Dam 1. Obtain α Calculate ∆ and then 0. 2.

becomes ∂ 2h ∂ 2h ∂ 2h + + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Difficult to solve for most 3-dimentional problems.  Exception: flow to wells   Pumping tests-confined acquifer  Pumping tests-unconfined aquifer .Seepage in Earth Dam Seepage through a dam on impervious base 3-D Flow 3-Dimentional Flow  Laplace Eqn.

3-D Flow Pumping Tests-Confined Aquifer 3-D Flow Pumping Tests-Unconfined Aquifer .