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1. Heat energy travels from one place to another as a result of differences in
2. When two objects are brought into contact, heat energy will flow from a
hotter object to a cooler object.
3. As a result, the temperature of cooler object rises, while that of the hotter
object falls.
4. The flow of heat energy will stop when the objects in contact have reached
the same temperature.
5. The rate of heat transfer depends on the difference in temperatures between
two objects. The greater the difference in temperature, the faster rate of
heat flow.
6. Heat is transferred in three different ways:

1. Conduction is the transfer of heat energy through solids.
2. The particles in the medium do not flow.
3. Heat is transferred from the hotter end of the object to the cooler end by the
vibration of
particles in the object.

4. Different materials conduct heat at different rates.
5. Generally, metal such as copper, iron, aluminium and silver are good conductors
of heat.
6. Non-metal such as wood, glass plastics and rubber are poor conductors and are
insulators of heat.

CONVECTION 1. in order. Can be absorbed or reflected. Properties of radiant heat: i. B. 2. ii. This circulating movement is called a convection. by the thumbtack stuck to aluminium rod. This is because different materials conduct heat at different rates. iron rod and glass rod. 3. Travels in straight line iv.  The thumbtack that is stuck to the copper rod drop first. The heat from the Sun is transferred to the Earth by radiation. Radiation can take place in a vacuum. Convection is the transfer of heat from one part of a fluid (substances which can flow) to another by the circulating movement of the heated fluid. 2. Liquid and gases are fluids. C. . Radiation is a process of heat transfer that does not require a medium. 3. This is followed. Travels as electromagnetic waves. Travel through vacuum v. 4. Travel at the speed of light iii. RADIATION 1.

3.HEAT FLOW IN NATURAL PHENOMENA A. both land and sea absorb heat from the Sun. . This movement is called sea breeze. During day time. the air on land becomes less dense and rises. the land gets heated up faster than the sea. The cooler air over the sea which is denser moves toward the land. SEA BREEZE 1. However. As a result. 2.

4. THE WARMING OF THE EARTH BY THE SUN 1. glass. Generally. 2. The Earth and the Sun is separated by vacuum. 3. The hot air above the sea less dense and rises. Insulator also called poor conductors of heat. Examples: air. 2. Metals are good conductors of heat. The infrared waves travel through vacuum in space to reach the Earth by radiation. Cool air from the land moves in to take its place. 3. Examples: mercury. An insulator is a substance does not conduct heat easily. THE USES OF CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS OF HEAT . LAND BREEZE 1. non-metals are good insulators. HEAT CONDUCTORS AND HEAT INSULATORS CONDUCTORS 1. copper. C. At night. This movement of air is called land breeze. 2. The sea becomes warmer than the land. 4. the land cools faster than the sea. 2. iron and lead. water. 3. 3. silver.B. The Earth and its atmosphere are warmed by radiation. 4. The heat from the Sun travels as energy waves called infrared. wood and polystyrene. aluminium. INSULATORS 1. plastic. cotton. zinc. rubber. cork. A heat conductor is a substance that allows heat to move through it easily.