You are on page 1of 11

Comparative Study of work life balance between women employees in organization of

Iran & India


Matin Arablou
PhD student of Management Science and Engineering, Wuhan University Of Technology, Hubei, China.
ABSTRACT:
In this study, we are seeking to find word life balance among woman employees in organization of Iran & India.
The statistical population consists of The statistical universe comprises All working women in Iran and India and
their husband . The statistical sample is obtained equal to 115 according to Cochran formula. After designing the
questionnaire, its validity and reliability are studied and the research variables identified. The research results
indicate that the role over load, quality of life and suport network are effective in work life balance.
Keywords: Work life balance, role over load, quality of health, dependent care, time management, support
network
INTRODUCTION
Work-life balance is the term used to describe those
practices at workplace that acknowledge and aim to
support the needs of employees in achieving a
balance between the demands of their family (life)
and work lives. (Agarwala., 2009) The Work
Foundation, earlier known as The Industrial
Society, believes that work-life balance is about
people having a measure of control over when,
where and how they work. It is achieved when an
individuals rights to a fail filled life inside and
outside paid work is accepted and respected as the
norms, to the mutual benefit of the individual,
business and society.(Allen,2008)
Work-life balance is not merely work-family
balance. More specifically, it refers to the
management of ones professional responsibilities
and family responsibilities, towards children, aging
parents, any disabled family member, or a partner /
spouse effectively. One can have work-family
balance, but may not have anything left for oneself,
for ones community, for ones own personal
growth and development, rest and relaxation. So, it
the possible to have work family balance and still
need to achieve work-life balance. (Balmforth,
2006)
The concept of work-family (life) balance has
emerged from the acknowledgement that
an individuals work-life and personal/family life
which may exert conflicting demands
on each other. Conflict is a normal part of life and
is a natural result of the conflicting demands arising
from multiple roles, such as that of a mother,
daughter, daughter-in-law, wife, friends and
employees. In order to manage the negative
spillover of conflict, it is important to balance the

demands from both the domains(Barnett,2006).


Work-life balance is about adjusting work patterns
to achieve overall fulfillment: A good work-life
balance enables business to thrive and at the same
time facilities the employees to easily combine
work with other aspiration and responsibilities.
Work-life balance should not be understood as
scheduling equal number of hours for each of ones
work and personal activities. A positive work-life
balance involves achievement and enjoyment. A
good working definition of work-life balance may
be meaningful if daily achievement and enjoyment
in each of the four quadrants of life-work, family,
friends and self are attained. (Benko,2007)
The best work-life balance varies for an
individual during the life span. At different stages
of career and age, different factors demand
importance at once. There is no one work-life that
fits all because all of us have different priorities and
different styles of life. However, it is not just the
balance that an individuals desires, but the
fulfillment in the roles enacted in life.(
Buddhapriya,2009)
Feminist theory has long been concerned with the
importance of language as a promoter or challenger
of sexist assumptions and practices.(smith,2005)
The effects of recent feminist theorizing can be
seen in the changes in terminology for legislation
and workplace policies over the last few decades,
which reflect important discursive and political
changes
(Sinclair,
2002).
Contemporary
organizational,
government
and
academic
discourses in the word increasingly utilize the
language of choice, of flexibility, and of worklife
balance or worklife integration, in contrast to
earlier discourses of equal opportunities, positive

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

discrimination, and of family-friendly policies


(Hogarth et al, 2000).
Individuals experience more conflict between
work and personal life as they continue to pursue
the quality of life that they need (Casper et al.,
2011). Thus, successfully balancing work and
family life is one of the major challenges facing
current individual workers. (Sally,2012)
Work-family balance is defined as satisfaction
and good functioning at work and at home, with a
minimum of role conflict (Clark, 2000, p. 751).
Moreover, Parkes and Langford (2008) defined this
as an individuals ability to meet work and family
commitments, as well as other non-work
responsibilities and activities.(kim,2014)
Recent research shows that both employees and
organizations benefit from successfully balanced
work and family life (e.g., Greenhaus and Powell,
2006; Hammer et al., 2005). In family domains,
when people experience a lack of work-life
balance, this experience threatens key domains of
their personal lives (Lachman and Boone-James,
1997); on the other hand, work-life balance
enhances their well-being and family satisfaction
(Grzywacz, 2000). In work domains, the absence of
work-life balance causes poor performance and
more absenteeism of employees (Frone et al.,
1997), but balanced work and family life is
associated with increased job satisfaction and
organizational commitment (Cegarra-Leiva et al.,
2012; Wayne et al., 2004). In other words,
employees work-life balance experiences deepen
their role-related engagement, which is related to
organizational performance improvement (Carlson
et al., 2008).
1- Literature Review

education and revolution in the industrial sector,


there has been a little change in Indian men too.
Both the partners need to schedule their working
hours and personal hours so that they lead a
professionally and personally healthy life. The
women should also educate her children to share
responsibilities to make life better and fruitful.
Worklife balance is a concept including proper
prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition)
and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and
spiritual development/meditation). Related, though
broader, terms include "lifestyle calm balance" and
"lifestyle choices".(Mukhtar,2012)
worklife balance has come to the forefront of
policy discourse in developed countries in recent
years, against a backdrop of globalization and rapid
technological change, an ageing population and
concerns over labour market participation rates,
particularly those of mothers at a time when
fertility rates are falling (Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD],
2004). Within the European Union the
reconciliation of work and family has become a
core concern for policy and encouraged debate and
policy intervention at national levels. From as far
back as the 1960s studies have proliferated (Lewis
and Cooper, 2005,) on the linkages between work
and family roles, originally concerned mainly with
women and workfamily stress. New concepts
emerged, such as workfamily conflict or
interference, workfamily accommodation, work
family compensation, workfamily segmentation,
work family enrichment, workfamily expansion
and, of course, workfamily balance (for full
definitions, see Greenhaus and Singh, 2003,). This
last concept preceded that of worklife balance and
implies the extent to which individuals are equally
involved in- and equally satisfied with their
work role and family role (Greenhaus and Singh,
2003), thus suggesting that by giving equal priority
to both roles, workfamily conflict mutually
incompatible pressures from the two domains
could be rapidly resolved. By focusing on
employees with family responsibilities, however,
the notion of workfamily balance was considered
in practice as triggering off a backlash in the
workplace among non-parents (Haar and Spell,
2003).(Donna,2014) The term worklife balance
gained widespread use in English language research
and policy arenas, enabling a wider understanding
of non-work concerns to be encompassed in
employment research. As Alan Felstead and his
colleagues note (Felstead et al., 2002), worklife
balance can be defined as the relationship between
the institutional and cultural times and spaces of
work and non-work in societies where income is
predominantly generated and distributed through
labour markets. Worklife balance practices in the
workplace are therefore those that, intentionally or
otherwise, increase the flexibility and autonomy of

Work-Life Balance
Work-Life Balance does not mean an equal
balance. It means the capacity to schedule the hours
of professional and personal life so as to lead a
healthy and peaceful life. It is not a new concept. It
emphasizes the values, attitudes and beliefs of
women regarding their age to work in organizing
and balancing their work and personal life. When a
woman achieves a successful work-life balance, she
has job satisfaction and becomes highly committed
and productive and succeeds in her career. But, in
certain cases the women is not able to succeed due
to incapability in balancing her work and personal
life. She is unable to set her priorities. As a result
she withdraws from her work due to simple reasons
like taking care of her children, aged in
laws/parents, and other family pressures. If the man
is able to share some of her responsibilities, she
would be successful women. A survey in the UK
reveals that the majority of the women has had
successful WLB, because their husbands shared an
equal partnership both in professional and personal
life. With the advancement in technology, and

243

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

the worker in negotiating their attention (time) and


presence in the workplace, while worklife balance
policies exist where those practices are
intentionally designed and implemented. Work
life balance is, however, a contested term. For
some, the term balance suggests that work is not
integral to life, and implies a simple trade-off
between the two spheres. It encourages quick-fix
solutions that do not address fundamental
inequalities, and that therefore shift responsibility
for balancing work and home life onto individuals
(Burke, 2004; Lewis et al., 2007). Other terms that
suggest the mutual reinforcement of the two
spheres, such as workpersonal life integration,
worklife articulation, or workpersonal life
harmonization, are therefore preferred (Crompton
and Brockmann, 2007; Lewis and Cooper, 2005;
Rapoport et al., 2002). However, this terminology
too remains contentious: integration, while
creating the image of more positive organizational
change, nevertheless implies the two spheres must
be merged, leading to fears of a contamination or
the domination of personal life by the demands of
paid employment (Lewis and Cooper, 2005).
Worklife
harmonization
and
worklife
articulation, while promising, came to prominence
after our call for papers and have not to date been
widely used in the English language literature. For
this reason we have retained the original, longstanding, and easily-understood term, worklife
balance
throughout
this
special
issue.(
Jarrod,2014)
The popularity of worklife balance research was
confirmed at the 2005 conference of Gender, Work
and Organization, when we received more than
double the expected number of paper submissions
for a stream under that title, and a similar response
met our subsequent call for papers for this special
issue(Erica,2014).
The
presentations
and
discussions in the 2005 conference stream
demonstrated the vitality of research in this area, as
well as the breadth of methodological approaches
(qualitative and quantitative, comparative and
single-country case studies, sectoral and
organizational
studies,
individual
and
organizational perspectives).
In formulating our call for papers for the special
issue we decided to focus particularly on issues of
choice and constraint. Worklife balance policies
are predicated on perceived or recorded employee
preferences for certain types of work arrangement,
relating to their time and presence, and in policy
discourse today it is often taken for granted that the
worklife balance should be formulated in terms of
a winwin situation, where employees preferences
coincide with their employers desire for greater
flexibility of working practices, particularly
working time. However, many of the papers
presented in 2005 raised questions about such
assumptions; whether in relation to entrenched

gender attitudes in organizations (notably, the


choice between male career patterns or the
mommy track: see also Smithson and Stokoe,
[2005]), gendered sectoral cultures, the advantages
and disadvantages of particular worklife balance
measures, or cultural attitudes and the negotiation
of gender roles in the household and at
work.(Erica,2014)
Major factors that affect work family conflict
among women executives are harmony in home and
office, organisational support, family expectations,
parenting effect and professional skills, nature of
organisation, education (Sandhu and Mehts,2006)
In another study, five factors that are considered to
contribute to work life balance are assessed. Three
are of work related and two are family related
factors. Work based factors are flexi time, option to
work part time and freedom to work from home and
the family related factors considered in this survey
are availability of child care facility and flexibility
to take care of emergencies at home (Niharika and
Supriya, 2010).
Role overload, dependent care issues, quality of
health, problems in time management and lack of
proper social support are the major factors
influencing work life balance of women employees
in India (Mathew and Panchanatham, 2011). The
major factors that affect are education, incoming
ratio, professional experience, spouse stress and
work load and stressors of professional women's
work family conflict (Fan Wei and Liangliang,
2009).
workfamily balance and quality of life
Workfamily balance is generally thought to
promote well-being. Kofodimos (1993) suggests
that imbalancein particular work imbalance
arouses high levels of stress, detracts from quality
of life, and ultimately reduces individuals
effectiveness at work. Hall (1990) proposes an
organization-change approach to promoting work
family balance, and the popular press is replete with
advice to companies and employees on how to
promote greater balance in life (Cummings, 2001).
Why should workfamily balance enhance an
individual s quality of life? First, involvement
in multiple roles protects or buffers individuals
from the effects of negative experiences in any one
role (Barnett & Hyde, 2001). Beyond this buffering
effect, workfamily balance is thought to promote
well-being in a more direct manner. Marks and
MacDermid (1996), believe that balanced
individuals are primed to seize the moment
when confronted with a role demand because no
role is seen as less worthy of ones alertness than
any other. According to this reasoning, balanced
individuals experience low levels of stress when
enacting roles, presumably because they are
participating in role activities that are salient to
them. In fact, Marks and MacDermid (1996) found

244

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

that balanced individuals experienced less role


overload, greater role ease, and less depression than
their imbalanced counterparts. Moreover, a
balanced involvement in work and family roles may
also reduce chronic workfamily conflict. Because
balanced individuals are fully engaged in both
roles, they do not allow situational urgencies to
hinder role performance chronically (Marks &
MacDermid, 1996). Instead, they develop routines
that enable them to meet the long-term demands of
all roles, presumably avoiding extensive work
family conflict. In sum, a balanced engagement in
work and family roles is expected to be associated
with individual well-being because such balance
reduces work family conflict and stress, both of
which detract from well-being (Frone, Russell,&
Cooper, 1992).
However, the beneficial effects of balance are
based on the assumption of positive balance. We
suggested that an equally high investment of time
and involvement in work and family would reduce
workfamily conflict and stress thereby enhancing
an individual's quality of life. To determine whether
there are different effects of positive balance and
negative balance on quality of life, it is necessary to
distinguish individuals who exhibit a high total
level of engagement across their combined work
and family roles from those who display a low total
level of engagement. For example, those
individuals who devote a substantial amount of
time to their combined work and family roles and
distribute this substantial time equally between the
two roles exhibit positive time balance.( Yuan
Lia,2013) By contrast, those individuals who
devote only a limited amount of time to their
combined work and family roles and distribute the
limited time equally between the two roles exhibit
negative time balance. Similarly, individuals who
invest a substantial amount of psychological
involvement in their combined roles and distribute
their substantial involvement equally between their
work and family roles exhibit positive involvement
balance, whereas those who distribute their limited
involvement equally exhibit negative involvement
balance. We believe that positive balance has a
more substantial positive impact on quality of life
than negative balance. When individuals invest
substantial time or involvement in their combined
roles, there is more time or involvement to
distribute between work and family. In this
situation, imbalance can reflect sizeable differences

between work time and family time or between


work involvement and family involvement, and
therefore produce extensive workfamily conflict
and stress that detract from quality of life.
However, we expect little or no benefit of balance
when individuals invest limited time or
involvement in their combined roles. In this
situation, because there is so little time or
involvement to distribute, imbalance reflects small
differences. between work time and family time or
between
work
involvement
and
family
involvement, and arouses little or no work family
conflict and stress that detract from the quality of
ones life. (Yuan Lia,2013)
2- Research Methodology
This paper is regarded as an applied research in
terms of its objective. Also it is regarded as a
descriptive- correlative research in terms of
research method and a field study in terms of data
collection
Statistical population and sampels:
The statistical universe comprises All working
women in Iran and India and their husband. The
studied sample size is calculated equal to 115
according to Cochran formula and considering the
possible precision (0.08) as well as the values of P
and q equal to 0.5 and 0.5, respectively (due to the
same statistical population in terms of demographic
characteristics).

Primary and secondary Data


collection
Data collection method of the present paper is
composed of two parts namely, library studies and
field research.
To review the research literature (library
studies), Persian and Latin books, papers,
and references obtained by searching the
internet, databases and libraries will be
used.
To prepare data required for indices (field
research), questionnaire will be applied.
To prepare questionnaire and gather the
required data and obtain a general vision
towards the research subject, interviews
with the experts will be carried out in this
regard.

245

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

Research Model

Figure 1 : Research Model


Data Analysis Tools

With regard to comparison working woman in India


& Iran, for analyzing the research data, data
analysis tools include spss software.

The questionnaire of the present paper is a


researcher made questionnaire that investigatesthe

role over load, quality of health, dependent care


issue,time management and support network.
Role overload:

As my employees look after all the


business roles, I am quite contented in my
life
I have become a successful entrepreneur
by sacrificing many of my family roles
Dute to the excessive work load and lack
of time , I am not able to give proper
attention in my personal life as well as in
my business
As I have to do multiple roles in the family
,I could not succeed in the entrepreneurial
domain
My family life seldom suffers due to my
entrepreneurial role
As I am burdened with business and
family roles,I find it difficult to attend
social / community activities
I am too fatigued to look after my business
due to my work load in my family
I have to perform many roles in a given
time
Quality of health:
Due to the work / family issues and
lack of time , I find it difficult to take
care of my health
The role conflicts in the business and
family life given me a lot of stress

I feel angry with my employees and


family members as I am not able to
balance my work and family issues
As my business drains away my
energy and time , I feel sick at home
Being satisfied in the entrepreneurial
and family domains , I feel relaxed
and sleep very well
After becoming an entrepreneur , I
frequently visit my physician for
health issues
My health problems are related to the
long and continuous work schedule

Dependent care:
I feel free and enjoy my profession as I
have no dependent care issues
My kid(s) are looked after by me
I cant concentrate in my business due to
dependent care problems
My spouse demands greater attention from
me
I am taking care of my aged parent(s) / in
law (s)
I find it more difficult to manage the elder
care issues
I find it more difficult to manage the child
care needs
I find it more difficult to manage my
business and dependent care issues at
home simultaneously
My pre- occupation with business does not
allow me to provide dependent care needs
at home , leading to conflicts
Time Management:
I often came from the office very late in
the evening

246

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

to determine normality of the variables,


Kolmogorov- Smirnov test has been used, t test was
used to compare means between the Iranian and
Indian women and also Friedman ranking test has
been used to prioritize factors. In the end, to
analyze the related data, Excel and SPSS have been
applied that are explained separately in the
following. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
Validity of questionnaire
The interviews and professors and experts' views
and possible modifications are utilized for assessing
the validity of questionnaire. This technique and the
experts and university professors' views on the
questions and their abilities to test the research
hypotheses helped us to find to what extent the
research method and measurement tool can fulfill
the research objectives, whether obtained results in
pre-test can evaluate the hypotheses and answer the
research questions, and finally to what extent
adopting this method and relying on these tools can
measure the reality of issue. The validity of
questionnaire is obtained after obtaining the
industrial experts and academic professors' view,
and advisor and supervisor professor' desired
modifications, and changing some of the questions
and making them as more understandable questions
for statistical population, and ultimately removing
some of indexes or questions and adding other
important.

I have enough time to spend on family


duties and social roles.
The long hours of work make me stressed
and short tempered
I have to leave the home early in the
morning to engage in my entrepreneurial
activity
My entrepreneurial activity does not give
me time to perform family/social duties
I remain engaged in my business related
work fore more than 10 hours per day
Due to the business needs , I find it
difficult to spend the evening and
weekends with my family
My time resources are equally distributed
between the business and home
I could have concentrated more in the
entrepreneurial activity if the social
support network was available to me

Support network:
My social support network is very helpful
in dealing with the dependent care issues
Being an entrepreneur , I am respected and
helped by the society
My family provides me the strength and
support to face the challenges of business
My family members are over stretched of
make me a successful entrepreneur
My family members are not willing to
listen to my work related/ personal
problems
My spouse understands and accommodates
my pre-occupation as an entrepreneur
Data analysis methods and tools
This Research has used analytic
descriptive methods including frequency and
frequency percentage of sample demographic
information along with the related diagrams. Also

Reliability of questionnaire
In this study, Cronbach's alpha coefficient is
applied to identify the reliability of questionnaire.
Cronbach's alpha coefficient is equal to 0.899 in
initial sample of questionnaires and more than 0.70.
Therefore, the reliability of questionnaire is
confirmed. The output of SPSS software for
determining the reliability is presented as follows:

Table 1: Reliability of Statistics


Cronbach's Alpha
.899

N of Items
39
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is utilized for
investigating the normality of variables. If the
significance level calculated in Smirnov test
through Z statistic, is higher than 0.05 at the error
level of 0.05, the target variable is normal, and if it
is smaller than 0.05, the variable is not normal. The
table of SPSS software output is as follows in this
regard:

3- Data Analyzing:
The research data of should be normal for
application of parametric methods and tests,
otherwise we should use the nonparametric
methods to analyze and test the hypotheses. Since
the accuracy of parametric methods is higher than
the nonparametric ones, these models are preferred
in studies. In this section, the validated

Table 2: Investigating the data normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov test


variable
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
Role over load

1.391

.417

247

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

Quality of health

1.163

.134

Depend care issue

1.107

.172

Time management

.628

.825

Support net work

.914

.373

Work life

.717

.682

Since the significance level for all variables is


greater than 0.05 at the confidence level of 95%,
the normality distribution of target population is not
rejected, thus the parametric tests can be applied for
testing the research hypotheses.
According to this hypothesis, the factors
Research hypotheses test
with the mean of over 3 are approved and have the
The one-sample T-test is initially applied for
acceptable influence, but the factors with the mean
investigating the impact of each variable on signing
of below 3, have no significant influence.
the strategic alliance in the oil industry, and then
the following hypothesis is suggested:
Table 3: Investigating the data effect by t test
Mean

T statistics

df

P-value

Role over load

3.5844

10.252

114

.000

Quality of health

2.8956

-2.728

114

.007

Depend care issue

3.0667

1.208

114

.230

Time management

3.1514

1.902

114

.060

Support net work

3.2466

3.948

114

.000

Work life

3.1883

4.207

114

.000

Given the significance levels in the table above,


the, role over load, quality of health, support
network, and work life are less than 0.05, thus the
null hypothesis based on =3 is rejected. Now, the
main hypothesis is obtained by examining the mean
values for each variable, and since the mean of all
three variables is greater than 3, the factors are as
the factors which affected at the significance level
of 5% . in this test role over world,support network
and as finaly the work life balance are the factores
which effected in womans life.

P value
0.543

was used T test to compare work life balance with


Iran and India women:
H0:work life balance among women employees in
organization of Iran & India is equal.
H1: work life balance among women employees in
organization of Iran & India is not equal.
First, the lone test should be monitored the
assumption of equality of variances is rejected or
accepted

Table 4: lone test


F
0.372

Given the significance of the above test, assuming


equal variances approved, Thus, according to the

Work life balance

results of the above tests, the appropriate output is


given in the following table:

248

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

Table 5: independent t test for analyze work life balance among women employees in organization of Iran
& India
P value
df
t
0.021
113
-1.251
Work life balance
Due to significant levels in the table above, with
95%, work life balance is different between Iranian
women and Hindi staff. So to answer the original
question of this study we can conclude that the role
of the employee's work life balance for Iranian

women and Hindi staff play is not the same.


Considering the mean values between Iranian
women and Hindi, We can conclude that work life
balance have been greater in women Iranian
employee.

Table 6: mean for analyze work life balance among women employees in organization of Iran & India
Sd
Mean
frequency
group
0.4719
3.1717
58
Indian woman
work life balance
0.4918
3.1996
57
Iranian woman
life imbalances and conflict has become a common
Conclusion:
feature of the lives of many Indian and Iranian
Student's t test is applied for evaluating the effect of
women.
each variable. According to the significance level
lower than 0.05 for role over load, quality of health
References:
and support network, the null hypothesis based on
1. Agarwala T., (2009), Strategic Human
=3 is rejected. At the next stage, the main
Resource Management, Oxford University
hypothesis is achieved according to the study of
Press, New Delhi, India
mean variables and since the mean of all three
2. OECD (2000) E-commerce: impacts and
variables is more than 3, these three factors are
policy challenges (Economic Outlook, 67,1,
known as the factors affecting the work life balance
June, Chap. VI). Paris: Organization for
at the significance level of 5%. We find that role
Economic Co-operation and Development.
over world, support network and as finally the work
3. Kossek, E. E. (2005). Workplace policies and
life balance are the factors which effected in
practices to support work and families. In S.
weman life.
Bianchi, L. Casper, & R. King (Eds.), Work,
So to answer the original question of this study we
family health and well-being (pp. 97
can conclude that the role of the employee's work
116).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
life balance for Iranian women and Hindi staff play
Associates.
is not the same. Considering the mean values
4. Rubery, J., Smith, M. and Fagan, C. (1998)
between Iranian women and Hindi, We can
National working-time regimes and equal
conclude that work life balance have been greater
opportunities. Feminist Economics, 4,1, 103
in women Iranian employee.
26.
The present study incorporates the results of an
5. Carlson DS, Kacmar KM. Work-family
empirical analysis of the WLB issues faced by the
conflict in the organization: Do life role values
women employee of India and Iran. Because of the
make a difference? J Manag. 2000;26:1031
paucity of specific studies in the area, a
54.
psychometric tool was developed, based on
6. Allen (2008). Integrating Career development
preliminary qualitative research and a literature
and work-family policy, In Poelmans & paula
survey, to measure the WLB issues of these
(Eds.) Harmonizing Work, family, and
entrepreneurs. Using 39 items, five factors, and a
Personal Life Cambridge University Press
five-point scale, an explorative area (cluster7. Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. (1996), Affective,
random) sampling survey of the WLB issues of
continuance, and normative commitment to the
women entrepreneurs in India and Iran was
organization: An examination of construct
conducted. The prominent WLB issues that they
validity, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol.
face are role overload, health maintenance
49 No.3, pp. 252-276.
problems, poor time management, dependent care
8. Balmforth Kelly and Gardner Dianne (2006).
issues and lack of sufficient support networks. The
Conflict and Facilitation between Work and
complexity of these issues poses very specific
Family:
Realizing the Outcomes for
demands on the individual's role system. As the
Organizations.
New Zealand Journal of
work roles of women entrepreneurs and their
Psychology, 35
personal and familial roles quite often contradict
9. Barling, Kelloway and Frone, eds., 2004. M.
each other, these women struggle to strike a balance
Shields. Stress, health and the benefits of social
between work and personal life. As a result, worksupport. Health Reports. 15 (1): 938, 2004

249

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

Matin Arablou

10. Barnett, R. C. (1998). Toward a review and


reconceptualization of the work/family
literature. Genetic,Social, and
General
Psychology Monographs, 124(2), 125182.
11. Barnett. Rosalind Chait and Gareis. Karen C
(2006), Role Theory Perspectives on Work and
Family, In Catsouphes. Marcie Pitt, Kossek.
Ellen Ernst and Sweet Stephen (Eds). The
Work and Family Handbook: MultiDisciplinary Perspectives and Approahes,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisers
Mahwah, New Jersy, London.
12. Benko, C. and Weisberg, A. (2007), Mass
Career Customization:
Aligning the
Workplace with Todays Non-traditional
Workforce, Harvard Business School Press,
Boston, MA.
13. Buddhapriya Sanghamitra ( 2009). Work Faily
challenges and their impact o career decisions:
A study of Indian women professionals.
Vikalpa, 34(1)
14. Buddhapriya Sanghamitra ( 2009). Work Faily
challenges and their impact on career
decisions: A study of Indian women
professionals. Vikalpa, 34(1)
15. Burke, R.J. (2004) Work and family
integration. Equal Opportunities International,
23,12, 15.
16. Carlson, D.S., Grzywacz, J.G. and Zivnuska, S.
(2009), Is work-family balance more than
conflict and enrichment? Human Relations,
Vol. 62 No. 10, pp. 1459-1486.
17. Carlson, D.S., Witt, L.A., Zivnuska, S.,
Kacmar, K.M. and Grzywacz, J.G. (2008),
Supervisor appraisal as the link between
family-work
balance
and
contextual
performance, Journal of Business Psychology,
Vol. 23 No. 1-2, pp. 37-49.
18. Casper, W.J., Harris, C., Taylor-Bianco, A. and
Wayne, J.H. (2011), Work-family conflict,
perceived
supervisor
support
and
organizational commitment among Brazilian
professionals, Journal of Vocational Behavior,
Vol. 79 No. 3, pp. 640-652.
19. Casper, W.J., Harris, C., Taylor-Bianco, A.
and Wayne, J.H. (2011), Work-family
conflict, perceived supervisor support and
organizational commitment among Brazilian
professionals, Journal of Vocational Behavior,
Vol. 79 No. 3, pp. 640-652.
20. Cegarra-Leiva, D., Snchez-Vidal, M.E. and
Cegarra-Navarro, J.G. (2012), Understanding
the link between work life balance practices
and organizational outcomes in SMEs,
Personnel Review, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 359-379.
21. Cegarra-Leiva, D., Snchez-Vidal, M.E. and
Cegarra-Navarro, J.G. (2012), Understanding
the link between work life balance practices
and organizational outcomes in SMEs,
Personnel Review, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 359-379

22. Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border


theory: A new theory of work/family balance.
Human Relations, 53, 747770.
23. Clark, S.C. (2000), Work/family border
theory: A new theory of work/family balance,
Human Relations, Vol. 53 No. 6, pp. 747-770
24. Clark, S.C. (2000), Work/family border
theory: A new theory of work/family balance,
Human Relations, Vol. 53 No. 6, pp. 747-770.
25. Crompton, R. and Brockmann, M. (2007)
Class, gender and worklife articulation. In
Perrons, D., Fagan, C., McDowell, L., Ray, K.
and Ward, K. (eds) Gender Divisions and
Working Time in the New Economy. Changing
Patterns of Work, Care and Public Policy in
Europe and North America, pp. 103122.
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
26. Dex, S. and Smith, C. (2002) The Nature and
Pattern of Family-Friendly Employment in
Britain. Bristol: Policy Press and Joseph
Rowntree Foundation
27. Donna L. Haegera, Tony Linghamb (2014)A
trend toward WorkLife Fusion: A multigenerational shift in technology use at work,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 89, November 2014, Pages 316325
28. Erica M. Southworth(2014)Shedding gender
stigmas: Work-life balance equity in the 21st
century, Business Horizons Volume 57, Issue
1, JanuaryFebruary 2014, Pages 97106.
29. Felstead, A., Jewson, N., Phizacklea, A. and
Walters, S. (2002) Opportunities to work at
home in the context of worklife balance.
Human Resource Management Journal, 12,1,
5476.
30. Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L.
(1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work
family conflict: Testing a model of the work
family interface. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 77, 6578
31. Frone, M.R., Yardley, J.K. and Markel, K.S.
(1997), Developing and testing an integrative
model of workfamily interface, Journal of
Vocational Behavior, Vol. 50, pp. 145-167.
32. Frone, R.M., Russell, M. & Barnes M.G.,
Work-family conflict, gender, and healthrelated outcomes: A study of employed parents
in two community samples, Journal of
Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 1, No 1,
1996, pp. 57-69.
33. Gambles, R., Lewis, S. and Rapoport, R.
(2007) Evolutions and approaches to equitable
divisions of paid work and care in three
European countries: a multi-leve challenge. In
Crompton, R. Lewis, S. and Lyonette, C. (eds)
Women, Men, Work and Family in Europe, pp.
1734. London: Polity.
34. Greenhaus, J.H., and Powell, G.N. (2006),
When Work and Family Are Allies: A Theory
of WorkFamily Enrichment, Academy of

250

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.
44.

45.

46.

Matin Arablou

Management Review, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 7292.


Grzywacz,
J.G.
(2000),
Workfamily
spillover and health during midlife: Is
managing conflict everything? American
Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 14 No. 4,
pp. 236-243
Haar, J. and Spell, C.S. (2003) Where is the
justice? Examining workfamily backlash in
New Zealand: the potential for employee
resentment. New Zealand Journal of Industrial
Relations, 28,1, 5975.
Hall, D. T. (1990). Promoting work/family
balance: An organization-change approach.
Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 518
Hammer, L.B., Neal, M.B., Newson, J.T.,
Brockwood, K.J. and Colton, C.L. (2005), A
longitudinal study of the effects of dual-earner
couples
utilization
of
family-friendly
workplace supports on work and family
outcomes, Journal of Applied Psychology,
Vol. 90 No. 4, pp. 799-810
Hogarth, T., Hasluck, C., Pierre, G.,
Winterbotham, M. and Vivian, D. (2000)
worklife Balance 2000: Baseline Study of
worklife Balance Practices in Great Britain
London: DfEE.
Hye Kyoung Kim (2014),Work-Life Balance
and Employees Performance: The Mediating
Role of Affective Commitment, Global
Business and Management Research: An
International Journal Vol. 6, No. 1 (2014)
JARROD M. HAAR, MARCELLO RUSSO,
ALBERT
SUNE,
ARIANE
OLLIERMALATERRE,2014, Outcomes of work life
balance on job satisfaction and mental health: a
study across seven cultures, Forthcoming in
Journal of Vocational Behavior Accepted
August 29, 2014,
Kim Hye Kyoung,(2014) Work-Life Balance
and Employees Performance: The Mediating
Role of Affective Commitment, Global
Business and Management Research: An
International Journal Vol. 6, No. 1 (2014)
Kofodimos, J. R. (1993). Balancing act. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Lachman, M.E. and Boone-James, J. (1997),
Charting the course of midlife development:
An overview, In Lachman, M. E. and BooneJames, J. (Eds.), Multiple paths of midlife
development, The University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, pp. 1-20.
Lee, M.D., MacDermid, S.M. and Buck, M.L.
(2000) Organizational paradigms of reducedload work: accommodation, elaboration and
transformation. Academy of Management
Journal, 43,6, 121126.
Lewis, S. and Cooper, C. (2005) Worklife
Integration. Case Studies of Organisational
Change. Chichester: Wiley.

47. Lewis, S., Gambles, R. and Rapoport, R.


(2007) The constraints of a worklife balance
approach: an
international
perspective.
International Journal of Human Resource
Management, 18,3, 36073.
48. Marks, S. R., &MacDermid, S. M. (1996).
Multiple roles and the self: A theory of role
balance. Journal of Marriage and the Family,
58, 417432.
49. Mathew Rincy V.,Panchanatham N.(2011),AN
EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE WORKLIFE
BALANCE
OF
WOMEN
ENTREPRENEURS IN SOUTH INDIA,
Asian Academy of Management Journal, Vol.
16, No. 2, 77105, July 2011
50. Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J. and Smith, C.A.
(1993), Commitment to organizations and
occupations: Extension and test of a threecomponent model, Journal of Applied
Psychology, Vol. 78 No. 4, pp. 538-551
51. Mukhtar, Farah, "Work life balance and job
satisfaction among faculty at Iowa State
University" (2012). Graduate Theses and
Dissertations. Paper 12791
52. Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) (2004) Babies and
Bosses Reconciling Work and Family Life,
Vol. 4: Canada, Finland Sweden, UK, Paris:
OECD.
53. Park, Y.-S. & Kim, U. (2006), Family, parentchild relationship, and academic achievement
in
Korea:
Indigenous,
cultural
and
psychological analysis, In Kim, U., Yang, K.S. and Hwang, K.-K. (Eds.), Indigenous and
cultural psychology: Understanding people in
context, Spring Science + Business Media,
New York, NY, pp. 421-443.
54. Parkes, L.P. and Langford, P.H. (2008),
Work-life balance or work-life alignment? A
test of the importance of work-life balance for
employee engagement and intention to stay in
organizations, Journal of Management &
Organization, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 267-284.
55. Parkes, L.P. and Langford, P.H. (2008),
Work-life balance or work-life alignment? A
test of the importance of work-life balance for
employee engagement and intention to stay in
organizations, Journal of Management &
Organization, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 267-284
56. Rapoport, R., Bailyn, L., Fletcher, J.K. and
Pruitte, B. (2002) Beyond Workfamily
Balance: Advancing Gender Equity and
Workplace Performance. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey Bass
57. Rubery, J., Smith, M. and Fagan, C. (1998)
National working-time regimes and equal
opportunities. Feminist Economics, 4,1, 103
26.
58. Rubery, J., Smith, M. and Fagan, C. (1998)
National working-time regimes and equal

251

GMP Review, 2015; V18(6)

59.

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.

Matin Arablou

opportunities. Feminist Economics, 4,1, 103


26.
Sally Khallash, Martin Kruse(2012)The future
of work and work-life balance 2025, Futures
Volume 44, Issue 7, September 2012, Pages
678686
Sinclair, A. (2000) Women within diversity:
risks and possibilities. Women in Management
Review, 15,5/6, 23745.
Smithson Janet and Elizabeth H. Stokoe
(2005)Discourses of WorkLife Balance:
Negotiating
Genderblind
Terms
in
Organizations,
Gender,
Work
and
Organization. Vol. 12 No. 2 March 2005
Smithson Janet. Stokoe Elizabeth H(2005),
Discourses of WorkLife Balance: Negotiating
Gender blind
Terms in Organizations,
Gender, Work and Organization. Vol. 12 No. 2
March
Wayne, J. H., Musisca, N. and Fleeson, W.
(2004), Considering the role of personality in
the workfamily experience: Relationships of
the big five to workfamily conflict and
facilitation, Journal of Vocational Behavior,
Vol. 64 No. 1, pp. 108-130.
Yuan Lia, Li Miaob, Xinyuan Zhaoc, Xinran
Lehto(2013), When family rooms become
guest lounges: Workfamily balance of B&B
innkeepers, International Journal of Hospitality
Management Volume 34, September 2013,
Pages 13814.

65.

252