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Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County





Aerial Attacks
QF THE Great


White Shark

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U N F L company







New studies

of the white shark (aka great u'hite)






and hunting


are surprisingly complex.




Traces of lifestyles

ago are


retained in




abandoned millions of years

decipherable in "fossil genes








Carnivorous plants that seem

employ a simple dunk-and-drown

tactic for


capturing prey turn out

have more up

their leaves.



ON THE cover:
White shark launches
in pursuit



of seal, False Bay, South Africa.

Photograph by Chris and Monique Fallows

Raskoff 6 UP FRONT Editor's 8 Notebook CONTRIBUTORS 10 LETTERS 12 SAMPLINGS News from Nature 16 PERSPECTIVES As Time Goes By 26 Robert L. Daniels Nice Threads Adam Summers and 64 Sanchez StepliaiiieJ. Marschall 69 nature.DEPARTMENTS 4 THE NATURAL MOMENT Blast Off! Photograph by Kevin A.Jaffe NATURALISTS AT LARGE Blues' Revival 24 BIOMECHANICS Jaret C. BOOKSHELF Laurence Muffet's Heart 12 .net Ripping Earth Robert Anderson 70 OUT THERE My Three Suns Charles Liu 75 16 THE SKY IN OCTOBER Joe Rao 76 EXPLORING SCIENCE AND NATURE 80 ENDPAPER Winning Miss Rebecca Rupp PICTURE CREDITS: Page 67 I'isit our Web site at www.naturalhistorymag.

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museums have exhibitions that expand on stories and Stephanie J. "Winning Miss how well. Daniels extinction (see "Blues' Revival. The siphonophore pictured here belongs to the genus Mantis and measures anywhere from a foot long scrunched-up as in the photograph to a stretched-out length of six feet. the colony trawls its tentacles like a too hastily. Arachnophiles will find two pages. to replace the temporal parochiahsm of the famihar second. Moreover. Aidan Martin and Anne Martin. off the coast of South Africa. tells .Jaffe ("As Time Goes By. "like a Polaris missile" is surely one of the most heart-stopping spectacles in the animal kingdom. Raskoff worked with a a team of fellow marine scientists to bring the siphonophore safely up from a depth of nearly a mile. was enough to convince them to return to False Bay. its cells flash a bright blue — self- generated bioluniinescence. but they are far from uniform. others dangle in a mass of stomach tissue. Sanchez describe the near-demise of the Miami blue butterfly. In Rebecca Rupp wittily tarantula turned into A . pictured nous siphonophore pumps too its way much all like an machine to the surface breaking it Techniques for capturing siphonophores a group of animals that includes the Portuguese man-of-war have vastly improved in the past few years. you'll risk apart. Visitors to the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville can watch Miami blues being bred during the museum's Florida Butterfly Festival. and year. and several known ones have been discovered in unexpected places (as in the case of this surprise native of the Arctic Ocean). Hke corals. as the Martins' scienof white sharks are quite rich. In "Nice Threads" (page 24) our recounts how some incredibly dexterous investigators managed to unwrap five kinds of spider test the strength of each.cs Cover Shot poised to rocket into space.4 x 10"^''^ second) to the unimaginably Brobdingnagian lower experimental bound on the half-Hfe of the proton (at — least 10^^ years). the social lives strategies are surprisingly sophisticated. Some units are bulbs attached to the central trunk of the organism. made up of repeating units." earthly spacecraft. 6 — NATURAL HISTORY — on our cover as well as in the Martins' article ("Sociable page 42). Killers. during shark season each year to learn what they could about these thrilling creatures. The case for awe in contemplating the universe has never been more forcefully made. this month by the M. and the eflorts of many lepidopterists (successful. and son's pet break for Neil deGrasse Tyson from his "Universe" column makes room silk Muflet's Heart" (page 80). so far) to snatch the little beauty from the precipice of favorite in this issue. working in concert to propel the colony through the water. Adam Summers to a visit to the Museum of Los Angeles County. — probably not is at least. The time Kne that accompanies his article. notwithstanding the beach-horror flick Jt7i('5. her fear and loathing of her fond respect. presents exhibit A in support of Jaflfe's wider perspective. shark bites in people are the result of the animal's curiosity (the shark's teeth and gums are remarkably sensitive and agile). no one should doubt the fish's ferocity: enough unfortunate swimmers already have the scars to prove that white sharks make poor playmates in the water. havior. tific not of its appetite for observations and their hunting Two of my make human flesh. if you bring this fragile sight ton body pictured here — Erin Espelie October 2006 So what can the Martins say about what curious minds everywhere want to know: do white sharks prey on people? The answer. . Either one would make Spider Pavilion tales a about their favorite animal in these Natural History at the open from now through November resident biomechanist complement timely 5. But the Martins' observations have convinced them that many. To be sure. Jaret C. perhaps most." page 26). clear. Kevin A.I. the vast range of durations relevant to the universe as a whole from the infmitesimaHy Lilliputian "Planck time" (5. the gelati- The through the deep of a white shark (aka great white) launching its onefroiTi the water in the words of R. October 14 and 15. If disturbed. Siphonophores seem put together in a more "machinehke" way than most other creatures: they are colonies. One look at the be- ocean. — — — — drift net to snag prey.T physicist Robert L. And. In its long form. As a result. not often.UP FRONT THE NATURAL MOMENT -< See preceding two Looking p(ii. and stinging tentacles. day. spread across pages 16 and for a guest appearance 17. —Peter Brown . reproductive organs.Jafre urges a "Copernican" view of rime." page 16). several new siphonophore species have been safely ferried to sea level. Back in the laboratory Raskoff photographed the fiery hfe-form inside a walk-in remotely operated robot and rejSrigerator.

to the gift. the American Museum. is a for the Office of Planned Giving. Lenore and her husband Joseph. number one ranked family destination * *ZagatSurvey U.Charitable Gift Annuities Recently they decided to each give a generous planned charitable gift annuity. American Museum Development Department of Natural History 79th Street and Central Park West New York NY 10024-5192 Natural History ^ . Family Travel in Guide a professional graphic artist to replicas of tiny leaves to place on trees for the rainforest within the exhibit. With its Call: have E-mail: treasures within Write: photographer and traveled the world and love discovering For more information: writer.S. who this they receive an annual percentage based on their age at the time of the gift. Museum over and over again. the Margaret Mead lectures and computer databases. a the exhibition for the Hall of Biodiversity at gift little did she Museum know that she would be applying her decades of experience as making thousands of of Natural History. Origami. As volunteers at the Museum they have been involved in Mammalogy. the American Museum (212)769-5119 plannedgiving@amnh. make New also receive a tax deduction and the gratitude of the Museum for helping this the York They City.

which is is Myles Gordon American Mnseiini ofh'attiral History D. Endless Forms Most Beautiful :Tlie New Science of Eva Devo (W. All rights resen'ed.. 313-268-3996 S. —Robert Purdy & Associates. Norton. Hutor)\ P.00 a year.amral History Magazine.S. Los Angeles-. In addition to his long-term studies on the ecology of Nepenthes pitcher plants in Southeast Asia. Canada Publications Mail No. NY 10024. CONTRIBUTORS Having spent his youth tagging along after his father.rican Musi-uni of Natural History. book on the development and evoludon of animal forms. R. Maryland. Rice. Marschall. Natural History Magazine. 50) an invesdgator with the is tute in CARROLL ("Broken Howard Hughes Medical InstiChevy Canada. Inc. Florida.coni.10827. Never far from the ocean. and permits him to dissect sharks in their kitchen. Printed in the U. Box 5000. or WTite to us He is PO. Knight. His ardcle in this issue was adapted from his latest book on evolution. New York. is director of ReefQuest Centre Mementowski. Chief Execntive Judy Buller General Manager Office Cecile Washington General Manager Charles Rodin To contact Publishing Advisor us regaixiing youi' subscription." the Assistmit Art Director Graciela Flores Editor-at-Largc Judy A. such Monterey Peninsula College as jellyfish Wowk CaMornia. please write to us at Natural History." page 4) feels most at home around and under the water. in aHlliation with tho Ann. Harlan. Harrison Adi'ertisiiig Director Maria Volpe Promotion Director Advertising Sales Representatives Drtiiw—Barron Media University. He is the author of Field Guide to the Great WItite Shark (ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Krystin N. is also an underwater and topside photographer and videographer. E-mail: nhinaggnatutal historyinag. site www. Periodicals postage paid part of & New York. Raskoff teaches marine biology and environmental sciences at Steven R. 2003) and is at work on a book about shark behavior for Cambridge University Press. or to change your address. Much of his research. 416-363-1388 Atlanta and Miami— mckki and Co. "The Origins of Form. If ywi svould new at at additional Copyright based in Victoria. lends a hand when he teaches field courses in shark biology and coral reef ecology.ada and all and other countries: S40. Edgar L. for Shark Ititcriis Conlriimting Editors Robert Anderson. Harris President. his current re- history photographer. including the work that became the basis for his doctorate from the University of California. a research associate in For advertising information call 646-356-6508 the zoology department of the University of British Columbia. and an adjunct professor at the Oceanographic Center of Nova Southeastern Dania changes to 5000. Adam Summers.. Charles Liu.Ve(iim/ your subscription or to enter subscription. Robert H. that is featured in this issue.A. txcopt for coiiibintd July/ August and December/January. IA 51593-0257." That includes the spectacular siphonophore. to order a new subscription. provides him Peter Brown Mary Beth specialty. P. Edyta Zielinska ble Killers. lA 51593-0257. Harlan. Vittorio Maestro. soft-bodied animals with. Norton. a salmon biologist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada. HISTORY October 2006 in his doctorate in Scodand. Avis Lang. Harris E. has been done in conjunction with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Raskoff Institute. O.W. an oceanographer. Laurence A. Anne. Subscriptions: S30. Neil deOrasse Tyson ("Socia- Chmues page 42) are a husband-and-wife team of marine biologists based in Vancouver." page 56). iBr Can. in Vancouver. Black Excattirc Editoy Geoffrey 's Eitiior-iii-Chicf Aberlin W Paratore Sonia Publisher Niitioiial Advertising Rachel Swartwout Manager Advertising Services Manager Meredith Miller Prodnciiou Manager Michael Shectman Fnlfillnient Manager Research (www. An Board of Editors exotic photographic models anywhere. 400.V. please visit our and plants hold a special fascination for JONATHAN MORAN ("Life and Death in a Pitcher.elasmo-research.ict us regarding WTitten consent of . Natural History Magazine.iles. is solely tesponsible for edito- rial content and publishing practices. search interests include the ecology of hummingbirds in North and Central America. Joe Rao.xstcr: Send addn. Aidan. he puts as it. 2006 by N.O. She assists Aidan in his field research. British at Natural History interactions of animals from the University of Aberdeen. edits his writings. Columbia. ecology Harlan. who specializes in the behavioral ecology of sharks and rays. 770-664-4567 Soulli America — Netcorp Media. 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valleys. largely ignores it the squamate paleontologi- For example. dolosaurs." does not claim that snakes includes mosasaurs and a the all perfectly the fossil the Pythonomorpha. Florida Out on and verdant salt flats. In the article this impres- group of extinct marine lizards is relegated to one sive which sentence. who developed Playboy. Given based on the (adriosaurs. Oklahoma is debatable. as I trial and arboreal squamate group. out the contributions of Kinsey s elder colleague originated within autarcho- Merritt glossan lizards. were not asked we to review rme) environments is supported by the similarity between the snake eye structure and that of cUmate change com- alters those munities irrevocably. lava flows. if fossils. yet such ex- marine group knov^^n the pachyophiids. is highly readable. snakes appear molecular analysis of snake among herpetologists all modern snakes are that they de- phiids as well a terrestrial — snake ancestor that wiU prove perhaps correct. leagues and On contributions have not been forgotten. ei- est relative their searcher." ecology. among other things. ac- snakes were aquatic. The theory never discovery. also sorts rine (aquatic) hypothesis more or aquatic lizards after attention Kinsey received within less long Del Tredici High Life Cornucopia Kevin Krajick ["Living the correctly pointed out an long-necked. the cal record. provided by origins would suggest —and that thus the pachyo- — As exobiologists try to learn how and where Hfe might exist elsewhere in the universe. Michael A. Caldwell marine habitats. the group's clos- 10 Lizards of the Sea. Among all Lyndon Fernald to book that bears both High error in our article: the autarchoglossan squamates." Credit should also be extended to Hefner. On morphological grounds. illustrates unique diver- reaches of the closely related to an extinct as 9/06] of species that await sity descended from mosasaurs. long-bodied. perhaps not. Mares. Alberta idea that snakes arose in Catherine Johnson-Roehr Hugh unexplored. vol- Edmonton. Stnrtevant Sarasota. Indiana Jennifer A. Searle & Co. editor of and to Frank B. Most the highly diverse marine fossil data. proposed that snakes evolved scended from Life.. 9/03]. islands They "From a Limb Fins to Limbs" [7/06-8/06] reminds something I me of have long con- . islands that have Canada aquatic (and probably October 2006 Bloomin^ton. Clack's article independently of mosasaurs.000 miles of that Michael W. saurs. NATURAL HISTORY Institute canoes. is names. Vitt and Eric R. As for the consensus highest sex re- as a it is treme environments harbor ecosystems that are inim- parts that A recent The work for his devoid of Ufe. but unfortunately.LETTERS Pianka's article on the evolution of lizards ["The Scaly Laurie J. pontosaurs. the first modern medical oral contraceptive. the high Andes include more than 4. as well as data squamates (nor would we on jaw be qualified to do We sensing systems. cheinical The Other Kinsey Peter Del Tredici ["The Other Kinsey Report." 7/06-8/06] ecological Snakes from the Sea? Laurie J. Enovid. squamates. aquatic vertebrates. in mistakenly asserted having evolved from mosa- The literature acmally snakes belong to a states that group that includes with our conclusion that extinct. Colton of G. snakes (and mosasaurs) he wrote it. and in any case sheds no light on where snakes arose the fascinating history of within squamates. It posits that they arose a large group of which snakes. a primarily terres- basis. Vitt and Eric R. are consistent it is cording to one theory. Frank M.D. and outside the evolutionary group to which [see mosasaurs belong. remain to us Just as desert salt pans are home to remarkable my ecosystems. doHchosaurs). but Michael A. mosasaurs (from five to ruled fifty-five feet long) the seas for 30 million years traits among modem squamate reptiles. the until and are known from more than thirty genera. on additional information those creatures. especially the like alien seem most realms. PlANKA reply: Our recent article focused on the evolutionary history of Ones. Mares that evidence University of Oklahoma Norman. "the first refer readers to "Terrible impelled speciation. lizards in particular. they did so col- have found "Desert Dreams. lakes. The in the sky. for Michael that. Andes seem good Indiana University own from mosasaurs. much of our planet. and overall so). merit special attention from biologists as global structure. Fossils will provide the ultimate snake Kinsey 's book Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America was not pubHshed test." 7/06-8/06] solves the mystery of why Alfred C." by Peter Del Tredici writes that the two Kinsey books "have been credited with launching the sexual revolution of the 1960s." by Richard ElUs (9/03). acteosaurs. itable. per- The ultimate test wiU come from evidence haps not. Perhaps all modern snakes descended from a terrestrial ancestor. University of Alberta ma- Kinsey isolated peaks. W Caldwell has ma- record Uneage of aquatic lizards including mosasaurs. arose in the snakes originated in know to that his other scientific Ttje Iguania.

Pennsylvania eralization in print paucity of missing Unks. from microorganisms all be edited for length READ INTHEBEATOFAHEARTAND FIND OUT! simplistic. well as lakes. animals tetrapods arose? Ms. if one were to generaHze from the transition of fishes to fourlegged land animals. fossil When conditions change. river channels. in which the outlines by case. — words. what seems to change first are the Mesozoic terres- was struck by the map of the Late Devonian it Thus the would-be trial tetrapod is less evolved. Forrest letters seems there and may and clarity. Biology/Ecology University of or by fax and 646-356-6511. Natural History welcomes correspondence from readers. for instance. as tropical climate? it is hard to of any transi- come from sediments resenting fairly near-shore And fmd fossils in the early to mid-Paleozoic era have some prising that should not be sur- Most of the and sur- beyond the clump of continents in that warm and sub- it era. and What vive better than others. rep- basins. It is it is also less well adapted for land Hving. well world. the fitness of transitional thusian-Darwinian sense) vertebrates in the reaUy master deep-sea con- than the forms from which In reading Jennifer Clack's forms must be evaluated ditions until late in the (and into which) and the Environment and and Science and explains the complexities of the natural world. to letters HOW MUCH LSD CAN AN ELEPHANT TAKE? WHY DO LIZARDS LIVE CLOSER TOGETHER THAN BIRDS? WHY AREN'T TREES SPHERICAL? AND HOW MANY HEARTBEATS ARE THERE IN ONE LIFETIME? time. it's a breath of fresh air. All Bogan. what hving conditions. form A transitional is less fit (in the Mal- much going on Jennifer Clack replies: The reason Hans Berliner sidered a basic truth of evolution. Paracelsus the World of Renaissance Magic "In the Beat of a Heart explores and the inner workings of the human body to global biodiversity and the nature of ecosystems. Whitfield Gibbons. vertebrates that have been found once some initial barrier has been overcome. compared with fiaUy more individuals sur- vive the long and narrow new path to the Hence question "less is." -J. /« the Beat of a Heart achieves the rare trick of entertaining and illuminating at the same In our gene-fixated times.95 • 280 pages Perspectives on Natural Historg rT^^Hls^irrs-Ta Joseph Henry Press Ji 888-624-7651 • • an imprint of The Notional Academies Press www. Clack writes of estuaries. it in other Forrest explains the Letters should be sent via nhmag@natural lurked conditions quite rapidly. lineages can adapt than ten million years" when almost miraculous some My about the equator. Ray-finned Pittsburgh.jhpress. Maryland e-mail their radiation into di- To answer Bogan Neavitt. It is that its case I .wasn't that Carnegie Mellon University may not have deep oceans. Professor of Ecology. adapted for water living of our present continents than the aquatic forms and countries clustered evolving from. appear to exploit their verse niches leads to a great tional it to should include a daytime telephone number. author of TVie Devil's Doctor. witty but never flippant. Whitfield takes you on a strange and wonderful October • trip into the scientific frontier of nature. historymag. "Balanced yet provocative. but have never seen Berliner among seen his genis that did not fishes." -Phillip Ba]]. form environments. Hans in print. the oceans play during the adapted descendants. clear without being and far.but never over-reaching. role did form. In fact. and author of Keeping AH the Pieces: $27. new deal of speciation.

Drosie and Family.000 years ago. the region greatly assisted by a Dasp/etosaurus. are in between link and amount of available food. say. because the more prone to severe food shortages. To detect prey against a probably ambush-predators. may even have had the The overlap was determined largely by whether snout or large. hunter- But Daniel C. (American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1 31 :1 —Stephan Reebs 20-6. for later use in today's constant plenty goes in times times of famine. Does that history. What Keen Eyes You Had was among genotype among — he assumed —the hunter-gatherer is rex thrifty should be more prevalent Americans. How computer scientist at gon in in pologist at the University of study adds the University of Ore- In particular. contend that Neel's cycles generalization was too broad. and by 5. Stevens. thrifty People who express the genotype are presumably predis- posed to accumulate reserves of fat of plenty. Vegas. which are Early viticulturists selected sweet grapes in a and they The do- mestic cultivars found their way south. much wider I long as 8.! SAMPLINGS Feast or Famine The prevalence of obesity and Type 2 betes certain populations in dia- often attrib- is uted to a "thrifty" genotype. Atl<inson | the Caspian. When Richard Onyango. . 1994 (detail) common groups such as Australian Aborigines. lifestyle between and frequency or duration lifestyle of food shortages. and lifestyle and Watson compared twenty-eight hunter- anthropologist at Indiana University-Purdue answer to the scary? Kent A. a medical anthro- My. and diabetes. selected for by frequent famines throughout those populations' prehistory. ed the regions' overlap the side. conferring excellent for large. or genotypes. thrifty But the seem to have been equally likely among foraging and farming economies. among 12 Nevada Watson. In —so the theory — people with that once-useful geno- type are prone to such metabolic problems as obesity in Neel the late American geneticist James first he also argued that the articulated the theory in 1962. positions of objects view. a physical how he meas- ured the extent of each species' binocular large T. Na- tive V. From there the practice spread west. the 1950s. cated for winemaking Tyrannosaurus. For each dinosaur reconstruc- Stevens mapped pursuit. a of seven dinosaur species to discover vision farmers. most detailed 3-D has ever experienced. perhaps as a overlap. which and possessed Velociraptor. at Las They detected no societies. With an extensive database on and food nutrition availability in preindustrial societies. depth perception and variety of colors.000 years ago large-scale vine- \ yards and wineries were well-established in Sumer and Egypt. gatherer societies with sixty-six agriculturalist Eugene analyzed reconstructed heads well they could see. making it perfectly hunting. gatherers than some Now a new frightening detail question. sharpest. which is based on archae- ological evidence. widely separated eyes. was first domesti- ke modern crocodiles. Benyshek in plex background. and James Every schoolkid knows that Tyrannosaurus really scary. and they may indeed favor University Indianapolis. 2006) Before Appellation Controlee The wild Eurasian grape. either the prey or the other optical feats. of bin- ocular overlap. Vitis sylvestris.800 years ago. Troodon. the anthropologists Depth perception and motion detection. reaching the Iberian Peninsula by 2. the region visible to and each eye. Nanotyrannus. amount com- overlap. Hence both genera were eyes overlap. imply that cultivars all grapevine around the Mediterranean today are descendants of those wild Transcaucasian ancestors? . between the Black Sea and enables the brain to relative vinifera In judge the tion. and whether the its Thanks to that October 2006 "Very scary!" {Journal of Vertebrate Pa/eontology 26:321-30. 2006) — Nick W. then calculat- bumps blocked the view. enabling both a stealthy learned to propagate the approach and rapid plant vegetatlvely. and Polynesians. Benyshek. which was compiled — how much the images from the right left lar dinosaurs' own heads had to move. Feast-or-famine cycles were probably common throughout human prehistory. equipped for active And the answer to the question on every schoolkid's mind? Stevens's analysis shows that Allosaurus and Carcharodon- tosaurus had only a narrow binocU' NATURAL HISTORY rex view of the world any animal the eyes faced forward or to its T. along with Transcaucasia.

2006) Go West. Young Primate known primate 55-million-year-old geological deposits rang- is particularly worrisome to farmers any number of crops that rely on ing across Asia. increasing farmers' reliance pollinators which plants' or their pollina- nor whether one decline honey bees feel and puma) ocelot. the Earth a 100. or big-brained species are simply occur But whatever the reason. spread to Europe. the atmosphere. predators avoid hunting big-brained prey climate change. notably that trapped dates.W. Biesmeijer and William more meal than bigger-brained ones.1098/ —N. against a single ancestral more than 70 better at outwitting their pursuers.— Jungle Smarts Buzzing Off There's less buzz these days. Strikingly. They discovered of various carbon isotopes cent of Portuguese and Spanish cultivars are related to local wild-grape populations a hint that the wild grape may have sip a rich red from Andalusia. were fossils laid down. In M.1 94X. With their genus re- that period air now The Teilhardina. and The entire journey took less Teilhardina (artist's conception) than 25.000 years. tions of pollinating bees and hoverflies that ry. Ultimately. there were fewer species of bees ter af- 1980 than there were before. Kunin can't tell came first.K. Their per- the is same: predation may be a factor Like today's global warming. however. . 31 3:351-4. too. 2006) before. and Probably not. Bigger brains confer greater learn- ing ability and behavioral using one's head keep it. are habitat loss. Shultz and The species whose brains are small relative body size.X. the evolutionary outcome dis- Martinez-Zapater discov- that whether cidence: environmental changes caused by the warming probably enabled them to '•'- can't say behavior plays a large role began Madrid. the loss of bee who grow trast.000-year period of global A new study warm- now shows that the timing may have been no coin- of the primates' rise ^. precisely than ever strictly arboreal. become both evolutionary biologists at the by Ja- of biologists led to likely Susanne Shultz and Robin recent decades. in Africa Europe may also soon more than 60 percent species (golden cat. University of Liverpool in England. catch. in Survival in the jungle takes the fields of Europe A new study confirms what luck. plant geneticists at the National Center in monkeys. With Dunbar ing for bigger brains. big- Asia. were underrepre- the predators' diets. Because was the investi- Thierry Smith.2006. For the in two countries. {Molecular Ecology.R. made the England in and compiled nearly team observa- The species extinct is the winged pollinators. so have plant species that depend on them to cobus C. the studied records of change tions. pesticide use. and pathogens. tional team of collabora- how did they sub- sequently disperse? Shortly before those ear- primate ing. fellow wine connoisseurs with next time animal easy or continents. did primates originate.A. rsbl. fossils forests across tors found that prey species such as sented earliest in five and South America. a paleontologist at the Roya Teilhardina Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences gators think evergreen forest must have Brussels.200 cultivars and wild plants from caused by massive around the Mediterra- releases altered the ratios nean. grape population. doi:10. long posed a riddle to paleontologists: where ly the help of an interna- in That almost simultaneous appearance has and Jose Miguel Martinez-Zapater. well enable so one to {Biology Letters. were overrepresented in the predators' diets compared with their numbers in the local environment. doi making an predator to eyed tree-dweller of the Now there's you in difficult for a mined that brate the dating of geologic formations a ripe fact to impress your in select- the investigators deter- been domesticated more than once. the U. > '^ I perse fast enough to account for their rap- ered molecular evidence id emergence on three the ancient warming was team analyzed the DNA of more than 1. such as species. leopard. Eucera nigrescens bee forages on clover. originated greenhouse gases. on wild investigators think wild —S. both of Biotechnology in and North America.0519.2006. decreasing the fraction of carbon-13.. The investiga- to their in around the world may be declin- ing. Either way. the is other The biologists are also uncertain about the cause. (Science causing the the sting: domes- trouble. 2006) 1 1 1/j. A more than dumb recent study of predators and their many observers have suspected: that the number of bee species in the United King- prey shows that relatively small-brained dom and the tor's markedly in species are Netherlands has declined reproduce. say Rosa Arroyo-Garci'a prey species with relatively large brains. Dunbar. A team the University of Leeds discoveries.l 365- —SM. By conantelopes. Spain. Those of us outside were made since the tic late nineteenth centu- of the sites sur- veyed.03049. jaguar. may flexibility. I. over a land bridge relative dip in carbon-13 enabled then linking the two continents via Greenland. Those in new possibly other early leases of carbon-bearing worldwide. {PNAS 1 03:1 1 223-7) October 2006 — Oara Curtin NATURAL HISTORY 13 . primates. covered a wide swath of the north. Smith and during help paleontologists cali- that the his team theorize warm temperatures enabled the primates to cross the Atlantic at high latitudes. Europe. Rock layers a small. the likely culprits the United States are in And the pollinators. Biesmeijer and decline tors'. studied plant popula- a million a preda- the diets of chimpanzees and five cat Kunin of E. 1 0. primate in and two colleagues to date early fossils more in and then continued on to North America.

" they discovered. for trees: E. a major cause of global form of urushiol shot CO2 In nearly three times as fast plants. Graham Mitchell. DNA. as they are trig- gers the rashes. but only PVC made of rigid tubing —which. wood growing more vines can channel warm- becomes more abundant. Her own break came —when she was studying fos- that had been cracked. form when minerals replace fossils Uphill Battle Rise too quickly from a prone position. CO2 scratching? colleagues report that the in mention the part I [PNAS — S. the And the up by some 33 percent. Maria Most 54 percent increase in atmospheric tinued burning of fossil fuels. in Amphibian bone marrow. and A a model of the circulatory sys- and head out of PVC pipes. such as bone. To test that theory. and you the twinkling signs of your heart's struggle to send blood up to your suddenly ele- vated brain. As a result. six last five College Dublin in Ireland. That column of blood or mineralizing. Octofae. so traces of it. such as hemoglobin or even 14 2004 investigators expected by midcentury from the con- E. siphon mechanism could indeed assist the "heart. 2006 kf^f . Rarer still is it are soft tis- Its job is to push blood up the carotid ar- sue preserved organically. be trees outright by 103:9086-9. after all. in their extra ener- shading or choking them. might see stars. grew as the plants normally do. there is only one other example of organically preserved soft tissue: above. is plantation Already ivy. (Geology 34:641-4. rubber tub- pump. a positive feedback loop that is proliferates urushiol. Sulfur-rich mud fossil record. McNamara and Patrick gists at University J. Instead. in all increase.000 cases of dermatitis annual- are just the reported cases. Soft tissue decays sils when vines are on the in many parts of the and they even Oh. discovered ders from a sulfurous lake preserved that quisitely layers of tissue are may still in its in 10- and salaman- million-year-old fossils of frogs Spain. (Journa/ of Experimerital Biology 209:2515-24. that's just plain badder poison the irksome vine years of the study the poison ivy a in the carotid arteries of people. for support. into a pine plantation at The idea was to simulate the Mohan. the extra energy they gain world. Some physiologists have suggested that the giraffe's heart may get some help from a siphon effect created by the blood travelling back down the neck veins: perhaps its weight helps pull the blood behind it up the arteries to the head. so ex- is red and yellow visible. In fact. and did Durham. without decaying tery to a brain towering six feet way the amphibian bone marrow was. paleobiolo- and four colleagues made the discovery. their sulfur molecules and chemically fixed the marrow much the same way formaldehyde would. seeped fit even smaller in their skin pos- and through minute bone to degrade the marrow. of the giraffe's carotid artery the locus of some a is the base is of the high- est blood pressures in the world: twice the pressure Tyrannosaurus rex femur. revealing the marrow in inside. and a biologist at kill about more itching and hard tissue.— SAMPLINGS A As Rash of Consequences there weren't enough ominous con- if sequences of global warming. but couldn't pores McNamara 's team lake bottom. 2006) —S. 2006) — Edyta Zielinska NATURAL HISTORY heavy load. Orr. and three colleagues built a life-size tem of the giraffe's neck ing. here's bitty little consequence nasty: bigger. (The carotid artery is naturally rigid high blood pressure inside. of responsible for more ly in the United States alone — and those relatively little of in study /Ancient frog: well preserved for its 10 ivy bad news From 1996 pumped CO2 Lucky Break A trace of persists life Duke prehistoric fossils.R. but vines such as poison ivy invest shows that as atmospheric carbon dioxing) its Extra than 350. so fairly is why is common in the organically preserved soft tissue so extremely rare? Most paleon- tologists probably never bother to look for McNamara quite literally says. the still-stretchy ered last blood vessels that were discov- year inside a 70-million-year-old After the dead amphibians settled on the muddy consumed muscle. they often interfere with tree until University Carolina.2006) Jacqueline Duke. poison and makes a more toxic the boosts photosynthesis A new ide (CO2. when pipe.) So does all it's the work of moving the just made of rubber — siphoning was like a real vein. bacteria in Instead. North in too rapidly to mineralize. most of yield biologically important molecules.R. because of the the good old heart that giraffe's blood along. tulates. Many more such finds may the offing. So pity the heart of the giraffe rare In the fossil record. an animal physiologist at the University of Wyoming in Laramie. all the "veins" and "arteries" were When the "veins" were is collapsible impossible. The marrow growrth. years rr\ilHon substance that toxicity gy into making even more photosynthetic greenery. Admission to the Spicier Pavilion is not included witli regular Adults $3. . Los Angeles.nhm. 213-763-DINO www.00 I Cliildren Museum 5-12 $ CA 90007 at feeding time! For more information about the Spider Pavilion. 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I.Duration of shortest laser pulse PERSPECTIVES As Time Goes By Comparing the human experience of time with the fundamental tempos of nature yields a startling on our place By Robert L. great ranges of mountains have risen up and worn away. A duU. Yet from ordinary: 10°= 1 its my stone is the oldest known rock gneiss has persist- of since the rock crystal- lized more than 4 when the universe was only two-thirds grained. The Acasta far progenitor. largely undisturbed. fine- -Electron beam a standard one paints o ta a: 10"'' millimeter line 10^ North America New in England. backHt by the winter sun. flecked with tiny crystals of black mica and hornblende. on the windowsiU behind my desk. gray-and-white rock. It rests now. gave me a small chunk of gneiss from Canada's Northwest Territories. on Earth. billion years ago.T. the Acas- its present age.6 Single human heartbeat -Average bonobo copulation (13 seconds) Length of time before sexes can be distinguished anatomically a 16 NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 in human embryo Duration of the Second World War billic . the Hves of all our ancestors have flashed by. it looks like a stone she might have picked up ahnost anywhere 10" is ed. outlook in the universe Jaffe Switching time of fastest transistor Life - Time typical Crack in span of a lambda for a particle home computer to execute a single instruction glass propagates -o about one few years ago a geologist friend at M. i TV Formation. at the core . Meanwhile. The ripples in the gneiss on my windowsUl have changed little in the billions of years since they formed.) Age of Earth: 4. second A year (Earth Time to saute chicken breasts (20 minutes) completes one orbit around the Sun. new .

Those are the natural rhythms of the world. One plain stone. after which Sun Duration of the collapses. In spite buzzing with incessant motion. and all we see Time intervals spanning eighty-six orders of magnitude are plotted on the these two pages: from the Planck time. Where did they come from? Where do are not the natural we fit in? takes a of time. Its tempo is set by its smallest parts: not the molecules of quartz and feldspar vibrating hke miniature tuning forks. breathtak- feeling by any human measure. that is 200 times the number of orbits the Earth has completed around the Sun in the 4. a microworld hes deep within. But if one suspends the attachment to human timescales. 10"'° orbit one another a times before the panicle disintegrates (translucent blue cylinder).6 billion years since the planet was formed (translucent yellow cylinder). are exceedingly regular. Quietly and relatively recently. Between the two ex- ingly fast My fragment of gneiss holds other of its outward calm. far briefer than the grand sweep a highly stable system. to the determined to be at least intervals. so the time it takes a quark to complete one cycle of its motion in a proton defines one tick of the clock of fundamental physics. For comparison. Quarks account for 99. the year. lie our human measures of time — They the second. the billions of years over which the drama of the universe plays out. two extraordinarily disparate landscapes of time: the cosmological. trillion durations are "normalized" to the relevant physical answers have emerged from The has journey of discovery a cre- that ated a second Copernican revolution. the hectic pace at which elementary particles dance to the tune played by the laws of physics. For example. tremes. the faster the as of a mi- — of them are hghtning quick compared to ordinary measures of human time. nature's forces turn out to have their own rhythms. a subatomic particle. second. are made of quarks.-*3 iround us. Observed for the briefest moments. but they rhythms of the world. yet the lambda is of cosmology. the part. particularly in the past half century. the day. Just as the period of the Earth's orbit around the Sun defines the year.00000000000000 00000001 (10^-2) second. which lasts 5. down to discern the The Copernican shift phenomena. In a more "Copernican" view of time. and their motions.-Planck time: shortest-possible time interval Arr-^ 10 10. small. not the electrons whirling in orbits about the nuclear cores of atoms. one can match the cinematographic frame speed of the mind's eye to nature's own rhythms. which ap- proach the speed of light. 10^2 orbits of Earth around Sun 18 r- Age of the universe Half-life of the proton (lower bound) Age -Span of time hominids have walked the earth in of rock Acasta Formation o ^ ? o Age ^fchirt^**^' of the Earth Expected life span of Sun. are the times of our lives. within the nuclei. forming Age planetary nebula of Dinosaurs . Whatever evanescent particles and subde phenomena may await discovery. secrets as well. Five centuries ago. there is no doubt that we. is extremely The quarks that make it up brief. the way physical scientists think about time has undergone a similar revolution. Rather. built into them just integrally as the clock speed croprocessor has been built into computer at a The smaller tempo but all the factory. highly stable W^ conventional units the lifetime of the lambda. which has been experimentally seconds.4x10^'' second and spiral timeline is on often considered half-life of the proton.9 percent of the mass in the universe. protons are exceedingly a millionth of a no more than millionth of a miUimeter (10~'^ meter) across. in the shortest-possible interval. Once around a proton Occasionally I take the rock in trying in vain to capture for that vast expanse my hand. speeding up to capture the finest detail or slowing broadest plan. Their or- visible bits inside Quark completes one orbit within a lambda particle. some quark about 0. When time is measured in human-centered 3x phenomena may be misclassified as fleeting. but far longer than the helter-skelter pace of fundamental processes. not even the protons and neutrons churning my bit of the Acasta gneiss beats time to the rhythm of quarks. Those ceaseless motions of quarks mark the heartbeat of the universe. the first Coperni- can revolution dislodged humankind from our privileged position at the center of the universe. and the fundamental.

" directly proportional to the vibrating by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg provided the crucial link. or "quanta. the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus rudely plucked us out of the cen- mass. That constant. is far grander than it was before Copernicus. Expressing not allow things to forebears in the Renaissance lost their as relating utterly as special place in the universe. the duration of phenomena seemed Take celestial mechanics. more and philosophers did not realize that nature might associate a clock tists ality is lost their special M=28x V. when even a expressed in everyday modest energy equates to on an astonishingly short One quantum ofgreen Hght. at the same time. and even for constant of proportional- X rays. but that the radiation comes in packets. which seems so fleeting by vals: in human in days. hub of the tronomers who followed Copernicus moved our small planet out toward the abbreviated h. instead persists lan- guorously. minute. teeming Uke our own. in years. In this case our forebears in the Renaissance We read our fortunes and conjunctions. the Moon. at states that the are proportional: the In this case the constant of proportion- period of planetary orbits from the outset. By to vary according to the circumstances. do the twentieth century we lost our Inbearings in time as frequency of the light wave. in their eclipses speed with ber of kilograms per cubic foot. and in time as utterly as we and they express of the same substance. a particular force. Newton- mechanics was replaced by the strange and counterintuitive world of quantum mechanics. For inillennia our ancestors believed the universe was made for us. but that translates in- of Newton is inadequate for de- scribing the world of atoms. oscillations timescales intrinsic to the laws of timescale. if lost our bearings of the quanta in vibrations per second. ty. His study of radiant heat and light led him to conclude that. Experimental for instance. periphery of placing the Sun. Although our skies are no longer inhabited by just the hkes of Orion the hunter and the Great Bear.— in perspective can be startling: the mi- measured time in human-size inter- croworld. But there are First. the apparent circling of the measures. like to about one oscillation every 2x1 second. and leave behind corpses of unimaginable density. late in the Renaissance. then die. Planets far from the Sun take longer to orbit than 28. where it is going. The laws of quantum mechanics. The same ity appHes for heat radiation. The German theoretical physicist Max Planck made the first key discovery in 1900. Human measures of time may have seemed arbitrary. — The solar system. and stars about of the seasons. though less personal. the re^vards of surrendering our place at the center of the universe. is as Planck's constant. physics themselves. the cycles My Copernican analogy is dehberate: what Copernicus did for the human sense of place. but they also were as good as any other. is the constant of proportionalithe density of water. it is univer- sal. early in the twentieth centu- ter. A little human perspective: the "blink of an eye" takes about 50 Hon times It 0~^ tril- longer. the energy of the quanta the relation mathematically ter in is as is simple the mass of a quantity of wa- kilograms to the volume of the same quantity in cubic feet. The more perfectly one tries to pinpoint the posi- . often in great explosions. the heavens are fuU of wonder for all to see. Then. The Sun. energy. in direct proportion. Then. Because Planck's constant is so physicists discovered that the is 6. They found the universe to be full of galaxies. Instead. 6x 10"^'* joule-second In Newton's law for calculating the compensations. not the Earth. which seems to define the eternal. Sun us. those two forms scales of radiation vibrate. it roughly ally no more exceptional than the others. Moreover. for hght. Today we can no longer claim a special place in the universe. The more volume. and V (the Greek letter km) is the frequency two place in the universe. From our the beginnings of civilization people have 18 But the period of the depends only on its size the with the more and. The cosmos. Galaxies whirl and coUide. It is come perfectly to know exactly impossible to where a particle is and. scien- ceaseless change. the two quantities then Planck's equation In the twentieth century M the mass in kilograms. the ener- the higher the fi-equency of vibration. ours stars force of gravity there is no constant that fixes the revolutionary upheavals in physics led to the discovery that there are ics better to know the truth than to be deceived. Planck's equation is one of the twin pillars of modern physics. Standing with Einstein's better-known E=mc~. uncertain- ty principle articulated rest. Heisenberg realized. Mand Kvary Thus. the volve around us. then roughly related properties Before the twentieth century. as Planck discovered. has only about 4x10"^^ mechan- joule of energy. ry. instead roils with seconds. volume NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 Moreover. If Fis the clear. the ones close in. usuknown and so the fiiU statement of the proportion is E=hxv. Stars form. the the same token. the longer the period. orbit E is num- gy of the radiation quanta in joules. larger the orbit. units. and the stars appeared to re- in cubic feet. through which ian time entered physical law. modern science has done for our sense of time. the beat of our hearts. wasn't until twenty-seven years af- ter Planck's original discovery about of his law for other forms of energy and matter and thus for nature's fundamental timelight that the implications —became The ordinary water waves. as- a huge galaxy. the drama of modern astronomy.

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Although 100 times stronger than electromagnetism. the realm of electromagnetism begins to give way to make human October 2006 inter- first With more more powerful from the constraint of viewing time in human terms. Still nothing moves. the nucleus accounts for nearly all the mass of the atom. the more precisely confined its position in space. the strong force is sequestered within atomic nuIt acts powerfully over distances than 10"'^ meter. And Planck's equation determines the clock speed of zero-point motion: the smaller the sys- tem. few clicks resolve the pattern of flecks and ripples in the gneiss into jewel-like crystals. one can take a "Copernican journey" to find the tempos that rule the microworld. cHcks. Five more pow- often in magnification are needed to reach past the haze of electrons and resolve the seething mass of protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus. with hazy clouds of electrons orbiting atomic nuclei deep particles Weak functioned chemical binding and for the elementary processes of biology. less between nuclear particles. They are the forces responsible for Drives B all A Electrically chemical charged 10-2 Long and biological processes V (which include Causes some Short orbit 10-^2 kinds of (10-''^ radioactivity meter) electrons) Holds Earth ^ in around Sun. Not first until the patterns begin to resolve into at the scale of individual atoms. few more atoms fill the screen. more momenthe more energy. All those clocks tick at frantic rates that 20 such the ones that hold electrons in atoms or quarks in protons. do the faint. Accelera- of Manhattan have "microscopes" that ever simpler. but betray no hints of time. the as rules: the magnetism and quantum mechanics dictate both the period and size of the orbit All particles still negatively charged electrons are held in leptons Gravity covered and individual clicks within. nanometers (10~^ meter). The strong force holds protons and neutrons together in tances rapidly the nuclei of atoms. Electromagnetic as vibrate ceaselessly back and of about 10"^^ sec- ond. forces. the strong force. because E=lixv. Throughout that range. Electromagnetism Quarks and timescales. each force a natural NATURAL HISTORY such seem as seconds. the strong force. Here another fundameners tal force. on the microscale is constantly in a kind of perpetual. just as you might repeatedly click the " + " button while you read a document on a computer. typical of the dis- clei. firom rock Quarks. more fun- tors nearly the size as could look for damental processes. Only about 10"^'^ meter across. Your journey. and. gluons "6*'" less of detectable. the first hints of molecular substructure. and the weak force. At a range of lO"^-' meter it is all but gone. and also prothe energy that makes Ufe pos- Earth. electron takes Here at last is of nature's fundamental clocks. This time. magnify the rock over and over again. and therefore may have during the short time it orbit in a simple atom. keeps stars in orbit around electrons' orbits. Quarks In acts (as far as can determine) are of matter that carry physicists indivisible bits "charges" somewhat like the electric . fires that vides sible all on It fuels the nuclear make stars shine. the higher its energy. twentieth-century physicists pushed deep into the microworld with ever more powerful instruments. Imagine delving once more into my fragment of Acasta gneiss. but it becomes imperceptible as distances grow larger. came clock speed. a quantum buzz known zero-point motion. Each Freed uncertainty principle requires that everything vals oc- cupies that position. Just a few clicks a few steps will take you through the realms of the three fundamental forces that govern the microworld: electromagnetism. rest- movement. and probe ever shorter When the physicists dis- new fundamental forces. self-sustaining vibrations FOUR FUNDAMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE FORCE ACTS ON RELATIVE MAJOR ROLE zero-point motion RANGE STRENGTH The atoms Holds nucleus and hadrons together Short . come into focus. and patterns of striations within the crystals. it vwth by positively charged nucleus. electromagnetic forces meter) hold sway. Electro- galaxy tion of a particle. emerges.regular. 10-3' Long tum. Guided by quantum mechanics. lasting no more than a few minutes. and years eternally long. will whisk you through hard-won discoveries that took a century to make. the faster the pulse of its zero-point motion. forth with periods Strong The become — has its The own — characteristic rhythm. the pitch of quantum buzz characteristic of the of the system. days. its rawest form the strong force between quarks and confines them within protons and neutrons.1 (10"''^ to single atom. "listen" to ever faster tempos. More cUcks. size An roughly IQ-'^ second to complete an the the their electrical attraction to the the beat of the electromagnetic force.

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or ily. and examine the lambda from the perspectogether. Before the lambda decays. the word "stable" has taken on new sig- nificance. the role of quarks in the structure of the uni- verse. ably short to us. because gravity is too weak to affect atoms or nuclei.I. Jaffe M. but The escape. distances Robert L. the Sun will expire and take humanity. one onethousandth the size of the proton. Color charge sically as "colors. beats the natural rhythm of the strong on das Hve. the quarks within it orbit one another about IQ-"^ second divided by IQ-^^ second per orbit. lasts about 10~— second. In the 4 billion years since this rock has formed. nations. His research has focused Tlie- on the properties of quarks. That interval. It is time to ask: What does the world of quarks look like on its own terms? particles discov- known by ered in the early 1950s. Human beings are only aware of it because it reaches out across great distances and builds up when huge quantities of matter are gathered together. dme to put aside the prejIt is udice of a human perspective that sees the microworld as evanescent and NATURAL HISTORY has enabled the universe to persist so long? If it were ruled by the tempos of of the strong force that holds Though complete weak 22 tive cleus disintegrates. about Honth of a second (IQ-^'-* second). even though it thousand times more rapid than the tempo of chromodynamics. Human- most enduring institutions churches. So the name curate charges for the strong force is the "chromodynamic. it is easy to overlook. Taking a fun- would ex- pect the universe to have blinked into M. lives so ity's long in its own terms. usually the October 2006 its one But is that really so short a time? Not if you take the Copernican leap. Photography. At this that distance another force — the force as the elec- —^becomes strong as tromagnetic force. I What periodic zero-point motion of the quarks that results sets the tempo of the strong force: a single vibration." source of the strong force. tempo as too fast. high-energy physi- usually ignore the fact that the cists Consider one of the its damental. one and out of existence in some tiny firaction of a second. the lambda is made of three quarks.— charge of the electron. rather than a lambda decays at all. The beats are dizzying: roughly 10-1^ 10-22. second IQ-^*^ tive to the It is imperceptible to a long. Because range is the weak its effec- limited to distances of one one-thousandth the size of the proton. and weak forces dictate the structure of the microworld.I. In recent years he has been working on the quantum hiking. what? But "dizr)dng" compared to time to take another leap of imagination. vived only thousands of yearly cycles of heat and frost. is average. or what is left of it. futilely. long time it us. as I In "only" another 5 not- ed earlier. far less stable. the expire and take humanity. force. structure of the vacuum. Quark come known whim- in three varieties. the ii/ay they bind together to form particles and sucli as protons and neutrons. to regular. Because it plays such an important role in the dynamics of stars and galaxies. When a nubit it Lamb- ten-bil- decays and the lambda flies apart. T. other journey. and writing'occupy what is left ofhis time. weak The weak force is a tive force at work. "stable. universities Hved —have most hundreds of human HfeOur most ancient ruins have sur- at times. and call just like our solar system. What sets the immense scale of cosmological time? And what of gravity. T. escape the human temporal perspective. But that's a journey for another day. the quarks in it have orbited 10^^ times now that's — what my I call stable! hand. ." force. Hefting the stone in find myself asking. Greek the lambda (A) because is a pair of tracks forming an upside-down letter V. From time to time one of the orbiting quarks in a lambda gets too close to one of the others and within range of the weak force. "only" another 5 biUion years or so. rela- tempo of chromodynamics. has not figured in our search for the tempos of the microworld. Like the more familiar proton. and it is often an agent of decay. force only rarely affects the motions of quarks —and it is never the agent that binds matter together. respectively. along. T he next stop on Copernican journey. Only inside protons and neutrons. does the true tempo of the chromodynamic force come into focus. could gravity hold the key to understanding the scale of cosmological time? The question suggests an- this one across cosmic and exceedingly long times. a typical life span for a subatomic particle that decays because of the weak interaction. takes a quark about 10a single orbit — second to within the lambda. Uke the fungus of the physics world: it does not build up very complex structures. along. Nothing in our everyday experience times. at a distance of 10"'^ meter. Each has its own natural rhythm. is rarely heard in the universe. which plays such a central role in cosmology? Gravity." it capital letter signature telltale — After journey deep into this my fragment of the Acasta gneiss. facuhy is a professor of physics at has also served as chair of the and director of the Center for oretical Physics. or one trillion (10 ) on average. or what - is left Sun will of it. strong. way electric charge is is the much the the source of the more ac- electromagnetic force. quarks struggle mightcolor. So the beat of the weak force. which seems inconceiv- hillion years or so. comes into view at about 10~'^ meter. ^jjj 10-25 second. the Earth has circled the Sun about 5 bil- That is roughly 1 /200th the comparable number for the lambda. When it does. In lion times. Confined to such minuscule spaces. is a The electromagnetic. Even the Since its solar system the fundamental forces. that most familiar of forces. where lie is formation. and the last where any ne"w phenomena appear. the straying quark on spective human per- time.

Jaret Daniels and Charlie Covell y{ Workshops on will feature: addition on the grounds of the Florida Museum! Santa Fe Teaching Zoo and more The Florida Museum of Natural History is home to the award- winning Butterfly Rainforest exhibit which features hundreds of free butterflies from around the world.fioridal RCGKTCRTODfly! imeti\^^''^''' Headquartered at the Florida Museum. Is now the world's largest research facility for butterflies and moths and houses over 4. the Biodiversity. gardening y{ Nature Walks & Art. Gainesville-Hawthorne State gardening and many more y{ Photography Contest butterfly photography.Don't miss this beautiful new Morningside Nature Center. ii|-i5 i FLORIDA inGainetville.Do you have wings't Common Buckeye Buiierfly Phvtc hyAUitt Chm-Lce \ iG»?. y^ naturalists ^ and butterfly specimen preparation y{ Field Trips to Paynes Prairie. Activities for the Whole Family & Florida Wildflower Butterfly Garden dedication. McGuire Center for Lepldoptera The and Florida flying Museum's newest wing. the second largest collection in the world. Trail.2 million specimens.c^< Oct.' J\s' . a . the festival \{ Lectures by world-renowned featuring Gary Ross. butterfly-related items for sale Thomas Emmel.

they gathered the silk Recently. two biomechanists even more five kinds all the silvet garden spider (Argiope argen- that fiinctions as a artificial proof vests). 24 of tion to dragline. Finally. egg-sac. managed holding the silk polymers as nylon and Kevlar (the fiber of bulletrivals side. is plotted on the graph at the far right of opposite page: the upper end of each curve represents the breaking strength of the material. are gooey. i R (major ainpuuate> ^^'^3 I Sil The . aiid toughness. silk from the same of spider. silk is and bumps. The Threads IsTice investigators tested the five silks by stretching short sections of the individual fibers on a new kind of testing frame. ecofriendly environment. fibers. dragline as such in stiffness and to get tata) [see illustrations at right]. high-pefformance orb o. fibrous silk for their experiments from.insight into a' manufacturing stiffness. temporary ultimately replaced with stronger and more protects the spider's developing offspring: prey-wrapping be the toughest silk of all spiral laid raveled spider-egg sacs to strength. called from modified limbs.000 at last . Blackledge. but also to the planet. no one had been able to test temporary. fay (2) forms a silks: spiral scaffold for egg-sac shown to silk (3) the silk (1) web and is they col- and forms th? more permanent. * " . takes a device strength. " or relation between and tensile force applied. Many species. but the other five \ panoply oy properties cpuld give October 2006 . and Cheryl Y. stretches far .BIOMECHANICS does the morbid work of netting insect prey. Silk fibers are strong. including the silk weavers. used for wrapping and restraining synthesized in a spider's belly.) process and. serves the spiders as rappel Knes dropping in Spiderman) or web. The "stiffness. fibrous Todd A. but Orb weaver draw on a wide_ spiders can that span a huge range of stretchiness By Adam Summers ~ selection and of exceptional sensitivity and accuracy. spiral interior of the an orb weaver spider (clockwise from near r/ghtj. an prey. . that enables the orb weavers to per- Hayashi. until now. stretch I NATURAL HISTORY testing frame can whopping seven of silk. web temporary is get a grooved fiber that protects the developing are also worth imitating five of those —perhaps boon not only spiderhngs from thumps to spin would be silken wares all a to the building-minded. twenty years workers have been trying to reproduce the showiest brous (for of the silk. a^pfbf ingredients that new measure forces might be making ada)pted for the new. Fourth was the silk from the acini- form gland. —binds prey: and capture silk (5). spinnerets. (Both dragline and capture silk frorn a number of different or prey-wrapping by Laura Hartman Maestro Illustrations wispy that testing them they're also so of silks species All — — of spider about count extrude\ species 40. Akron armamentarium a behavioral ecologi^t at the University of and in Ohio. how scafFold. on their abdomens. stretchy capture sUk that edible. which captures prey. River- For tricks. After all. Drag/ine -^^the differ in stuff that breaking strength and elasticity forms the radial spokes of the web. spider silks with such a Five kinds of silk spur. produce a different kinds Two silks are together create an kinds of spiders had been measured for valuable. at least to eat their old Looking at even It's an arachnid: spiders webs to get extra protein.^ fi- the so-called dragline silks. like radial trusses for a In laboratory testing. the sticky silk (4) silk silk elastic —recently that more than any other silk. the biomethanists confiscated and unof "capture" silk that the four other fibrous silks Learning In addi- together until a showed so. though. Third. solely out of lected the sticky biodegradable ingredients. strength. an evolutionary biologist at^ form weight-defying rope the University of California.- down.

lighter-weight bulletproof faBrics^ould be in the offing. do nearly as flexibility well in strength ing weight) befdi:e the material fails. before weight superlative. Irvine. and dragline reigns as the strongest silk.-Witn recent advances in understanding the biocheinical content of and the genetics of the proteins it up. of ecology. can bear before Dragline sUk^ for instance. I proitjise. both stiffer than dragline. stiffness much the sense. there is real promise that artificial spider silk can be made. strength of dragline silk thread of comparable diameter.and evolutionary biology at the University of California. In ^h toughness. Personally. toughness. if a spider thing. . strength it. Adam Summers an (asumnners@ua. The sdcky was thought to be the is a kind of combination of stiffness and strength. Presumably the its Hfe demands tougher material than do the a sin impacts that dragline must sustain.weight of the dried ink in the period at the end of this fiagelliform) October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 25 .c The standout. tougher. silk it of the capture spiral is still the champion. loadsTand egg-sac at least for all small silk stretches to prey-wrapping silk can be imitated. apture . "strength" sprength: is same how much measure of how much a sample stretches or deforms (as a percentage of its length) when a^fbrce is applied. the breaking is about that steels. both capture dragline silk trump Kpvlar. though. To a materials scientist. I'd fight silk that inake crime.p'rofessor of bioengineering and is . Understanding the material properties of the various kinds of spider silk might help fine-tune and vary the basic manufacturing process for nonsupern\an-made fibers. T\oughness sometimes mearis resting much as breaks. intimate. It can absorb twice the energy of any other silk before it breaks. is that Kevlar prey-wrap- killer. assistant. the third measure. I'd hke little nozzles that shoot the various kinds of silk from my wrists. I wouldn't just swing around. silk ping [see big surprise silk is a real graphs below]. nearly twice as a strand dragline. stretches of most a about as much as would a spider silk fell on tion. The other three fibrous sUks are stiffer th^iMifagUne. but temporary silk and prey-wrapping silk. If When they tested the slider's fuU toolkit for the first timeT" Blackledge and Hayashi confirmed tk^ amazing properties of dragUne /'and silk. long-term contact with an and insect struggling for sill. is it By nylon technical more than 50 percent of its is breaking length. too. a measure of'how much energy can be absorbed (b^ stretching and bearcapture In casual conversa- its breaks. But they also discovsome of the highest-per- capture ered that formance sUks had been overlooked.

to was common. of course. Then on August 24. The butterfly was aU but eliminated from the Florida mainland and the western barrier islands by the late 1980s. The Miami blue (Cyclargiis endemic thomasi bethunebakeri). coupled with hu- man land-use practices that fragment habitats and disrupt natural biological processes. It was at sands of years. By 1 breeding has led to the reintroduction of the species in 26 Everglades and Biscayne national parks. a massive storm can blow away an entire species forever. Originally described firom specimens collected near its namesake the butterfly once ranged along coastal parts of southern mainland Florida. Lepidopter- naturalists pockets or discontinuous small that finally served as a Key Lar- go. Biscaynsf Dry Tortugas— rocklands. in pine ATLANTIC OCEAN scrub. its future seem- hang on for dear Hfe. on several barrier islands off the home hammocks in coastal where tropical hardwoods grew in dense. Daniels and Stephanie J. NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 Now amid beachside aU those habitats the storm's devastation. could lead to their extinction. For rare organisms already at risk. even a single hurricane can a devastating impact on wildhfe. just as they have acted as a major force in the evolution of ami blue to vanish. all living in Bahia Honda State Park. ^1 Miami . Storms have shaped the city. Florida. and south from the Florida Keys to the Dry Tortugas [see map on this page]. leagues and I at my col- the University of Flori- da in Gainesville and others have tak- . But now. and Honda State Park. 524 of limestone and beach in the is bracing for one of nature's most destructive forces: a hurricane. Perhaps blue. such as the Miami blue. Bahia acres crackle as the Honda wind State Park. about forty miles east of Key West. little size of a butterflies. Hunkered down under veg- lower Florida Keys. where the insect was once abundant. from the scene. Hurricane Andrew slammed into south Florida with sustained winds of about 145 miles per hour. the known populations of Miami blues were isolated and scarce. who The wake- love the gradual loss of habitat was causing the Mi- aUke began to fear that the once-plentiful butter- preserves. small Miami blue each barely the laboratory help a Florida butterfly escape extinction? crowded Usually loving tourists. Fifty years ago. sky. it was also losing ground. thumbnail. Seven years passed without a sighting. with sunthe sandy beaches of the Florida Keys darkening afternoon are vacant in the Palm fronds picks up. ei- zation. 1999. virtually unnoticed. In the next twenty-four hours they wiU fight a critical battle for survival. a historic stronghold for the but- have become endangered. In the Keys. 1992. In the aftermath of ingly secure. even terfly. when the last few reports of sightings trickled in from Sanibel Island and sites near the city of Homestead. the story was entire- have ly different. Finally. one that if lost. broad-leaved forests. Sancliez subtropical ecosystems throughout the Caribbean. popular tourist destination along the Overseas Highway. Florida. etation.NATURALISTS AT LARGE Blues' Revival Can —and a change in diet assistance By Jaret — a C. landscape of the peninsula for thou- southwestern Gulf coast. a small colony was fly discovered in Bahia a it was a hurricane up call for those Miaini blue. By the early 1990s. along the sunlit mar- gins of those forests. In the years that followed. is no stranger to hurricanes. failed to register a single verified sighting of a ther severely firagmented or lost ists of urbanismall fraction of entirely as a result Only a the original coastal vegetation remains. on November 29. primarily as remnant Miami and amateur had died out. A successful program of captive Historic range of the in orange. Key West^ Honda Bahia State Park ^ National Park Key Largo^ Homestead endangered Miami blue is shaded 999 the butterfly population was reduced to about fifty individuals.

With that success. Both traits posed would have to if we were going to manage and habitat. FWC temporarily granted the petitioners' request. and it is scarce throughout the lower Keys. Precisely because it was once efforts shifted to research so common.) of these insects effectively. many details of its biology and ecology remained poorly understood. harming. The first priority was to make an in-depth biological study of the Miami blue and the causes of its decline. Listing the insect as gered meant there would be endan- stiff fines its addition to Flori- clear restore the population species. We began with surveys. stage. But balloon vine does not occur within the park. But we also estimated that at any one time the park typically supported fewer than a hundred public. and cotton swabs injected with artificial nectar feed the hungry mothers. preUminary at Bahia Honda State though the surveys were extensive. The remaining Miami-blue caterpillars fed instead on gray nicker bean (Caesalpinia October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 27 . when FWC unanimously approved the species-management plan for the colony. may encourage others in similar to details straits. a program to save nent just before the fourth anniversary en part in a concerted effort to find. inflated pods caterpillars chewed through to get at the "main course. Those disappointing results focused our attention back on the single locale on Bahia Honda Key now more important than ever. Mature caterpillar (above left) feeds in the wild while being tended by its ant companions. and lat- Park. males lasted barely two. breed. Although even disturbing what had become one of the nation's rarest invertebrates. and reintroduce the Miami blue is Miami now on blues to its way The being a quahfied success. conservation and recovery. butterfly's larval. Female butterflies typi- cally lived less than five days. In that from an atypical source the general Concerned amateur naturalists way we confirmed the existence of more than a dozen distinct breeding colonies. and frag- mismanagement of the existing habitat. There we made detailed observations and studied the population by gently netting. hurdles we North American Butterfly As- Miami blue and sociation petitioned the Florida Fish da's list of endangered firom the andWUdHfe Conservation Commission (FWC) to list the Miami blue as an endangered species on an emergency ba- The sis. resting position. Fortunately for the butterfly. neither professional biol- ogists nor amateur lepidopterists had ever extensively examined the butterfly. on its a petitioners based their request laundry hst of potential threats to continued survival: the loss mentation of habitat. or populations. and the unethical collecting of specimens. hoping to uncover any other extant Miami-blue Our most intriguing preliminary finding.for illegally collecting." the developing seeds inside. releasing. and as a result. Preliminary estimates of adult longevity were even more worrisome. no new sites were identified. (The the effort has had its share of false starts and dark moments. Moreover. whose distinctive. Sprigs of nicker bean provide substrate for the eggs. EarHer pop- ulations had dined exclusively on balloon vine (Cardiospermum corindmn). An array of spots are visible on her left hind wing. while monitoring the known colony the south Florida ecosystem. though. Yet — er recapturing individual estimates logged fewer than fifty indi- and prompted a swift immediate conservation action technique mark-recap- viduals remaining butterflies (a call for known — as ture). along with the penned marking (number 1 12) sexes were remarkably sedentary: individuals seldom wandered more than thirty feet from their birthplace in the of the naturalist. particularly through a failure to conduct regular controlled fires that maintain it. Female Miami blue (above right) shows off the underside of two of her wings in their upright. 2003. numbering. both Paper cups (opposite page) at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville each house an egg-laying Miami-blue female. temporary protection became permaof the discovery of the Bahia Honda on November 19. may have been choice of food during the its or caterpfllar. a hopeful result. individuals. the dramatic rediscovery Following of the butterfly colony.

such as the them exposed and seemingly half of the image.and carbohydraterich droplets. at several of the release sites we monitored." hundreds of hungry caterpillars busily devoured the cut nicker bean we amounts of sugar.500 Miami blues into the wild. one host plant to an- Shifting from ing them We began by hand-feed- several times a day. state human deposit a dozen or more eggs a day on such tender leaves. fines butterfly) has couple of days of the wild to attract the vul- Male Miami blue (lower life in one perhaps a in the upper nerable to a range of potentially fatal threats.But in the blues' case." adaptation presumably provided the larvae with ically refresh a competitive advantage: they could feed on most plants that butterflies. uncommon among we needed some kind of artifi- cial nectar. we saw signs that the butterflies had subsequently them of nicker bean in a mesh-covered paper cup. thereby increasing egg production and direct- for the butterfly early in 2003. eral species many of collected in the Like the larvae of ant. substantially tinued to lay eggs in- — — for more than forty days! stead of entering the protected con- of a balloon. After we on devised their a own that schedule and without our touching ward off most herbivores. we scouted a variety of relatively inaccessible places in south Florida and ranked them nucleus of just a hundred eggs Starter wUd. And the Gatorade had other animals find unpalatable. The following year proved equally (Continued on page 75) . we planned to release both adult butterflies and fuUy grown caterpillars. By using this cyanide-generating metabolic pathways that enabled it to tolerate those nasty chemicals. Accommodating the short-lived was somewhat more outdoor difficult. Our hope was to get our females to live longer than their flight cages.bondtic). the other forms of arti- we tried. in large ing intruders. The Miaini blue had evolved highly specific them: In each paper cup we placed a cotton swab soaked in Fierce Melon—flavored Gatorade. The hand. That leaves attention of a female. their food of choice. Some of them survived and con- its original niche. carefully. which the ants feverishly consume. and observed As soon as a female us. Balloon vine. To maximize our chances of establishing colonies. the Miami blue completely altered its lifestyle. So in the unexpected benefit of outper- switching plant families (from Sapin- forming daceae to Caesalpiniaceae). But the chaotic weather of south Florida has posed a formidable challenge. sucking nectar with her proboscis. all nectar enhancing the females' longevity. To keep our fragile beasts thorny. without disturbing the "artificial flower. As soon as our laboratory program was breeding plenty of butterflies. other species in the Lycaenidae family. In the wild. an alarm. the but- ficial terfly has apparently abandoned Moreover. the larvae receive a helping captive colony in our laboratories. the ants protect their herbivorous adults companions from roaming predators and parasitoids by patrolling the surrounding plant and aggressively attack- We maintained them naturally. pesticides.vine pod. to feed them. Now. for us and stressful for seemed extreme. In 2004 much of the state was in the midst of a prolonged drought. With a ly NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 2. StiU. the svwtch way for them error. the developing larvae feed on the terminal growth of nicker bean. The first reintroductions began in the spring of 2004 and continued throughout the year. Miami blues secrete small that followed. controlled conditions of the laborato- a chemical signal that nearby ants to rally at the first calls sign of Once the prehminary was behind as their makeshift homes. That reproduced. individual females trouble. tation much other is not weedy like a invasive. ultimately ushering more than er. rambling shrub a doors without access to living flow- sometitnes encroaches on other vege- ers. field research we were ready to plan the recovery. agreed to launch a breeding program nated are might have been the happy ending to a simple story. we brought and federal agencies effort. As part of a coordi- her back into the ry and placed her alongside a fresh leaf counterparts do in the wild. In return for the plentiful placed in rows of paper cups that served food. sites Our choices were in Everglades and established a Biscayne national parks. 28 alive in- native to the Florida coasts that improving our conservation efforts. The larvae can also emit mated. produces toxic much trial and compounds But the process proved both labor-intensive in- sects. and the wilted landscape was less than ideal for the blues' survival. The we could periodthe"nectar"with an insulin syringe. under artificial Florida "sun. because they Happily. including inclement weath- and predators. we first as potential release our captive -bred for butterflies. They are regularly tended by sev- population grew rapidly in the months remote and protected from direct impact.


Explore the rugged jeep and visit the in the afternoon. then hit the slopes in Flagstaff before dinner. . then cap your day with a poolside massage or elegant dinner under the stars. of towering saguaros canyons just short drives autumn. to see gold Stroll through the Mixed Conifer Habitat quaking aspen and reddish orange currant bush. ing ancient cliff morning desert by dwellings or art galleries of Jerome Boat on the Colorado River or hike breathtak- backwoods. which boasts a beautiful display of Virginia creeper in brilliant reds. and the gold- cent auburn hues of the en tones of the willows. forests. stop by the Museum of Northern Arizona. and inspiring abundance. lovers of the Great Outdoors can personalize their Arizona experience. infused with stunning color. variety.I<sp ecial Advertising Secti 2^} ARIZONA RIZONA sweeping and IS A LAND OF DRAMATIC RANGE. This fall. Start your day on a Scottsdale golf course or bird-watch in Sierra Vista. whose mission is to inspire a sense of love and responsibility for the the beauty and diversity of the Colorado Plateau through collecting. While in Flagstaff. visit the Arboretum at Flagstaff to see the magnifisumac and bigtooth maple. and don't miss Herb Garden. the state of deserts and awe-inspiring from bustling city life. is Come With a dazzling range of choices.

com. Grab More to life. Clockwise from left: The Arboretum at Flagstaff in the fall. interpreting. North of Sedona. . and preserving the region's natural and cultural heritage. Arizona With is . is year. chasm along Highway waiting here for you. On your journey be sure to stop and inspect ancient Anasazi petroglyphs. Anasazi petroglyphs Immerse yourself in a day full of adventure and a night discover and definitely more than you expect. For worth your a free long visit Arizona much available at the| ° a vibrant variety of experiences. For your free travel packet.^C^Special Advertising Sectional studying. . galleries and fine art. at the upper margin of the Sonoran Desert."" any time of the travel packet. With its elevation of 4. Sedona has a varied population of birds and so more. geology. color.and choices. Whether you hike of colors this fall. sycamore. call 1-877-636-2783 toll-free or visit arizonaguide. Havasu Falls.500 feet. a breathtaking or bike. you'll see a rainbow from the rusts and golds of oak. Museum's four main disciplines: anthropology. and aspen trees to the pinks of sugar maples. a picturesque city area of red rock monoliths. Additional information Distria Ranger Station. call 1-877-636-2783 toll-free or visit arizonaguide. and changing exhibits in three additional galleries. all full of fun. The Museum has permanent exhibits in five Exhibits relate to the biology. you'll find surrounded by a unique geological Oak Creek Canyon. cultures. along with change of seasons and rich its distinct riparian areas.

ride to the views at One 8. Guided. 520-318-8726). largest collection of optical telescopes It boasts the world's and two radio telescopes. reserved-seat bus tours for the gener- Tucson and is world renownedlo. including the history of optical telescopes from the time of Galileo to today. is Kitt known as it's the Peak National Observatory.S.<. clear night skies: stargazers can count on 350 nights of viewing a year al public are conducted Mondays. Arizona.550 feet elevation along the of the country's way (tel. features displays and exhibits on astronomy and astrophysics. constellations. located just 35 miles from Tucson.§. visit the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory near Amado. scenic drive from Tucson. Wednesdays. Graham International Observatory is home to several renowned ' f'jff:' j4r f- *1v^ \ . newest observatory complexes.ecial Advertising Secti 7n^^ TUCSON Kitt WITH Peak National Observatot7 SOME OF THE CLEAREST SKIES and many not surprising that southern Arizona Astronomy Capital IN THE U. .m. Mt. with spectacular '1^^^aat>^'— -^^^i^ - -^ '" telescopes. For an unforgettable experience. and Fridays from mid- March through November from 9:30 to about 3:00 p. of the world's of the World. and state-of-the-art telescopes that open the mysteries of the universe. only a ninety-minute. reserve a nighttime tour (tel.%^ work- ing research center and observatory at the mountain top. most respected observatories. Continuing south from Kitt Peak.. The Whipple base of at the Mount Hopkins. is perched high above the Sonoran Desert.. 520-670-5707). which introduces visitors to star charts.

Between bird-watching and stargazing. Captivating sights are everywhere. is a birders' paradise. or watch the stars all night long at the Astronomer's Inn (520-586-7906). near Sonoita. spectacular sunsets. Enjoy open country stargazing the Empire-Cienega at Resource Conservation Area. of the Desert. TUc&oni Metropolitan Tucson Convention & Visitors Bureau . More at Madera Canyon. even the colors are different here. The sunshine brightensj/our spirit as a clear fresh breeze coolsjour soul.|c^Special Advertising SectionS^ (tel. which are It's plentiful — viewable located along the migratory path between Canada and Mexico. And — — including the rare gray hawk have been spotted in the 275 species groves of cottonwoods and willows at Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Preserve. Southern Arizona also species — especially throughout the year. riparian woodland. guaranteeing some world-class birding. Why. a bed-and-breakfast near Benson with an observatory and planetarium. take time out to visit the wealth of Spanish colonial missions and churches and surround yourself with Old West history. Tucson is the authentic desert paradise. and cienegas ("marshes") attract a host of species to Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. the site of a historic cattle ranch near Sonoita. 928-428-2739).org. The Heart & Soul lou'll he amazedfrom the momentjou get here. Lush desert plants and wildlife. Start planning now — call 1-888-2-Tucson or go to visitTucson. with a wide variety of hummingbirds. awe-inspiring mountains. Don't leave Southern Arizona without spending several nights observing the skies on including the world's most powerful your own. an outstanding than 200 birds have been recorded cross-section of Southwestern bird habitats from desert grassland to mountain forest. fascinating Southwestern architecture. Miles of grassland.

The the cradle of French civilization in North America. Many of Quebec's ancestral families originated from the area in which from the end of September to mid-October of C6te-de-Beaupre. From the summit. of the St. a from near and afar. and mountains meet. This of the best bird-watching spots in located in National Wildlife Area. an arts and crafts fair. more information. but the spring and You may species — Atlantic fall.|C^Special Advertising SectionS^ QUEBEC CITY Snow geese Follow the Geese: It's Migration at Cap Tourmente N 2008. be great fun with family and Come friends. rain or shine. is and opportunities Quebec promises to to shop for local arts and crafts. Enjoy the autum- is nal glory along footpaths and scenic spots dotting the never-ending source of inspiration for Beaupre coast is artists coastal landscape. Don't miss October's Geese cultural activities. a from Quebec City to Be sure not to miss out on the many fun activities in this area. take a gondola ride to the top of Mont-Sainte- to experience the breathtaking landscape below. at the heart of the on the north shore great coastal marshes. golf. Lawrence River. of year. a also observe these magnificent birds at the Cap Tourmente Flyway and one protected natural area where is — along with 305 other Quebec. bursting with spectacular shades of red and gold. Much has happened since Samuel de Champlain founded this beauti- Time Around QuebecXify i North ful city. related to the migration. museum Charlevoix. — — including a 180-foot-high suspension bridge. The best way to see walk along Cap Tourmente's 20 kilometer (twelve-mile) netwhich connects to 200 (120 miles) more kilometers of hiking leading you past waterfalls one taller than Niagara Falls and the birds work it's more than a million greater snow geese spectacle unique to Quebec City. call 418-827-4591. known for its skiing but also offers horseback riding. which tours. . plains. QUEBEC WILL CELEBRATE ITS 400TH ANNIVERSARY. stunning panorama unfolds itself in all directions. also part of the migration path for is to of trails trails. For Whatever the time Anne Snow which features family and and shows and entertainment Festival (Festival de I'oie des neiges). marking the beginning of the French presence America.

and most towns and villages have out- door or indoor swimming pools filled hot springs (temperatures average at with water from natural 84 degrees). take a snowmobile 60 miles south time golf underneath the midnight sun. Devotees of the great outdoors might ski in Akureyri. Energetic Reykjavik's great nightlife hot restaurants are pure Visit Inot to learn more about Iceland and Icelandic products. Come and icelandnatur ally. Look for seabirds in the Westmann Islands. its neighboring commu- has a population of around 180. fields: Iceland is paradise. explore a lava field friendly. For birdwatching. Iceland's capital. com get a taste for yourself. GEYSERS. to Earth. home to the world's largest puffin population. register online to win an exciting adventure trip. with nities. Reykjavik.l<sFecial Advertising Secti 2^^ ICELAND WATERFALLS. and active volcanoes and From these protected environs comes some of the freshest lamb and water known fish. VOLCANOES. head to Latrabjarg in the West Fjords. breeding ducks at Lake the great skua colony Myvatn on the sands in in the north. breathtaking waterfalls geysers. Also. lcelandNaturally. sure-footed Icelandic horse. GLACIERS. located Circle. or play a Spend part of your autumn a naturalist's on a round of night- Swimming popular is throughout the country.000 and offers an inter- esting mix Best of all. . bliss. where you'll also find the largest razorbill colony in the world. ICGlSnCl. the largest known bird cliff in the world. Iceland's second largest city. and geothermal ancient lava pools. in the land of fire and ice. of the Arctic safari to a glacier. South Iceland and — the largest in the world. of cosmopolitan culture you'll and local village roots. never be more than a 15-minute cab ride from the great outdoors. A pristine wonderland abundant with natural virgin glacial lagoons.

hike. maritime traditions. taste and spires" MARYLAND bil<e. ^—^ y^*^*^^ 2" '" ^^ Heart of Chesapeake Country. Chesapeake Bay and Nanticoke River.Ic^Special Advertising Sectionp3| MARYLAND famed Eastern Shore or Whether on its Maryland the ideal state to experience autumn outdoors is in the Capital Region.. Bike or drive along Wildlife Drive. walking tours in Quaint communities and meandering along Dorchester's pristine waterwaj/s. fish. Dorchester County is surrounded by the Choptank River.. geese. Dotted with fishing villages restaurants. attracts flocks of wintering waterfowl including thousands of ducks (twenty different kinds have been documented here). Chesapeake *" Country/ FREDERICK COUNTY. y / the Underground Railroad story. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. or hike along just off the drive. enjoy. Seek our natural beauty. legends of . learn.^ ! . north of Florida. This fall. wetlands and coves makes this a natural place to explore the great outdoors. dine. which offers plenty of lookouts. Canal. west of the iovatcm Yours to explore. Acres of marshes. classi| . South and trails.. and tundra swans as they head south on the Atlantic Flyway. DORCHESTER COUNTY WITH 20 MILES OF LAND-TO-LAND BOUNDARY. golf. County offers a and waterfront glimpse into the waterman's way of pack your binoculars. Dorchester life. including the largest concentrations of breeding bald eagles on the East Coast.frederickcourism. through pines and hardwoods. watermen. bicycles or kayaks and head to Dorchester to experience some of the best bird-watching on the Eastern Shore.. from the "clustered of Historic Downtown Frederick to great sites county-wide like the MonocacyAqueducton theC&O ma^ . authentic skipjack cruises and exQiiisite Bay cuisine. founded in 1933.. Sliop. Free info 1-800-800-9699 ™|^ orwww..

Brook. A Maryland fishing license and trout stamp are required. skating. and — with its life nature lovers. and rainbow trout stream. home to ducks. camping. museums & more. its first catch and return in the stream. and munic- parks offer a wide variety of recreational and nature programs environments ranging from urban ences are to be enjoyed in every season. art and specialty shops. fish. geese.— ^C^Special Advertising SectionS^ refuge are Hoopers and Taylors Island where you can spot migrating songbirds and hawks the especially prevalent in that are Adjoining fall. Striped bass. kingfish- herons. alewife.kentcounty. shad. These estuarine habi- tats also offer nearly ideal spawning and nurs- ery conditions for many including fish species. rolling farmlands . FREDERICK COUNTY HISTORIC KENT COUNTY. perch. an unspoiled island with habitats characteristic of the as a fly fishing only stream. fly fishermen. activities such as swimming. antique For a Free birders. Visitor Paclcet. ON MARYLAND'S Eastern Shore. is Long popular with towns and broken only immense variety of plant and animal city parks to wilderness reserves. the state became trout spawn brown. 90 national. then later galleries. travel to Frederick County to revel in the area's parks and recreational amenities. known and the locally as rock- perhaps the most prized fish found in these surrounding waters. Big Hunting Creek was first in Maryland to be designated Chesapeake Bay. of cyclists. please contact: www. boating. you'll find 25. and ospreys. Excellent oppor- tunities are available in this relatively untouched area to drive or paddle in search of bald eagles. EVERY YEAR THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE is full stretches of low. blue fish. state. blue crab. Wonderful outdoor experi- of waterfront by the tidewater tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. rails KENT COUNTY marsh for nature enthusiasts and assorted waterfowl. Explore the reeds and rushes of ers. in county. Kent is a haven for fishing and boating enthusiasts.000 acres of and wetlands in Fishing tidal Bay Wildlife Management Area.««. horseback riding. forests to . scenic rivers. from pine meadows to tidal wetlands. Don't miss Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge. oysters. the tidal 410-778-0416 Kent County Office of Tourism Development Chesapeake region. Highlighted by the Catoctin the county's ipal Mountains and the Potomac River. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge.

on FALL Maryland's Eastem Shore. a meanders through small roads in Worcester's unspoiled countryside. Metapeake Park. and is the only short distance from the Assateague National Seashore. tion for spotting wildlife trails . You'll run across more than a charming bed-and-breakfasts along the and don't forget to stop for a meal of our crab cakes. along cypress swamps. Whether you want to try your hand at crabbing. have been sighted. after the then-ruler of Ireland. WORCESTER COUNTY IS A PERFECT TIME FOR NATURE buffs to experience Worcester County. species.m.m. merlins. when the County's 18 historic sites open their doors to visitors. With its few trail. and flocks of tree swallows. Assateague is home to Almost 300 species such migratory species as peregrine falcons. and fairways perfectly suited for a to the superb golfing experience. Maryland's only sea- bite at a county has the side flat waterside restaurant. greens.discoverqueenannes. The wanders through canopied trail Chesapeake Bay. i fun on the water. beckon the weary traveler to stroll and marshland. FORMED was named IN 1706 WHEN MARYLAND Great Britain and Today the county is the gateway to the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. L-/pend the day or just a few hours touring the open farmlands and small historic towns on September 2. Golfers will enjoy sweeping views of the Chester River at the Queenstown Harbor Golf Course. Take in the pastoral landscapes from the Cross Island and Kent Island South Trails while pedaling throughout our scenic Chesapeake Bay countryside. This 36-hole championship course boasts immaculately manicured bentgrass tees. Grab a The county's parks and through woods ablaze with one-mile wood-chipped fall trail.— Ic^Special Advertising SectionS| QtmnAnn f*ll\ I \ w T\- 1 QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY Coimty ::(^cdAAAdaM to tk& QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY.2 p. boating. fields. rest that cyclists treasure. provides an ideal loca- and plant woods and proceeds down hard not to find an opportunity to have it's fall. and November 4 from 10 a. fish- was a royal colony.7787 or log on www. a nestled deep in a pine forest. leads cyclists through a and farmlands Pocomoke River and forests.. you'll see clusters of northern gannets as they pass just offshore. yourself at a charming BScB. where park patrons can observe breathtaking sunsets. In the Free Travel Planner call 888. October 7. ing. or water-skiing.400. bike trail that land and wide shoulders The scenic Viewtrail 100. famous variety of environments including primeval forest and barrier island it's not surprising that Worcester also has the best birding in Maryland.

visitors can build a wooden skiff. Patagonia's wilderness. Voyoge to the world's events. is at any rime. service and extraordinary the hidden gems famed conquistadors. Michaels. GovTmrocnr not nsponsible ©2006 far t\-pogtapbcal NQ Ccrporaotin. for reservations.^ [^Special Advertising SectionVf TdWu Explore historic ^^JtW Easton. per person. Its flagship. Airfere is may apadt^ concroUol not combinahlc with otha offes.<C'' i^Li NORTH OF Visit www. southernmost town. "Fare shown for i in U. for a guide and calendar of events. You may even venture to the magnificent Iguazu the 2007 schedule at Falls. See http://www. one of « -i America 's top one hundred small towns ^ jC>. Shop for the perfect lapis Experience the majesty of Tierro Del Fuego. of shoreline. including spectacular Wherever you transatlantic crossings that revive the golden age of luxury cruising. www/. ranging from Italy and the Riviera to an Adriatic and Aegean adventure. from sdea U. you're likely to find the destination with Orient Lines. YOU'LL > Tjgjw. See glacier-studded fjords. ^^A Discover 300 SKf^' wi^vll''*^' ^ '. Chesapeake Bay in the country. service chaigcs and fcB air addinoniL Orient mors bisd on double on selca aitia? only. lazuli. our award-winning 'THE WORLD IS YOURS TO DISCOVER" is oil of this exotic country that attracted With its superb CruiseTours give you the added bonus of hotel stoys and city sightseeing before or after your cruise. call 1-800-333-7300.tourtalbot.S.orientlines." cruises. Orient Lines guarantees a journey of luxury and learning in the four corners of the world.*.org for a Talbot County Office of Tourism Harrison With Day program (every Saturday and Sunday from 10:00 to 4:00).S. .tourtalbot. the ' Strait 27-day the museum's Apprentice your own arrangements own boat with the to build MD 21601 schedule of great fall CruiseTours from \p L^Ly y pp your museum's boat- builders. subj«n [0 (Jiai^ without noricc and may be viithdrami tans."c'-r~~-^ Bay Maritime Museum W^ history. Michaels. with over ^^^M^f% Orient Lines offers you the wonders of South America. In winter. You'll view the majestic ' THE DESTINATION CRUISE SPECIALISTS Chilean visit the fjords.htm for of Orient Lines' exciting sailings orientlmK. on a\'ailablc a\^ilabilii)-. villages visitors in St. dtits and dcpamirc tans Lino or omJssioni Ships Rejjsny. applicable additional 10 CruistTour apply. Tilghman Island and passionate cities of Buenos Aires. Easton. Orient Lines explores the cultural and natural splendor of South America and Antarctica on dazzling CruiseTours and diversity Orient LINES Cruise Expeditions. with ten exhibit buildings. traditional boats 8. All offcs art based choose to go. dollars for CniiseTour St. Discover for yourself ORIENT LINES the philosophy of Orient Lines.. for brochures.— and ^j. or you can make Cain-888-BAY-STAYforyourfree 1 1 S. Ld.. see your travel agent. occuponci-. minimum aicgoi)' iniddc statowim. Marco Polo.Bahamas. all and shore excursions. Plus. Don't miss the art communities. travels to a series of European ports in October. Join us known and discover why Orient Lines is as "The Destination Cruise Specialists. liiit. and the largest collec- Chesapeake Bay and the waterfront tion of of St. the Destination Cruise Specialists. and Montevideo. from Rio to Santiago. a 1879 Hooper dA years of maritime 6oo miles Chesapeake find Talbot County. and Santiago.

com Toll free 1-800-464-8281 tial is its forehead. away in the mountains to lush jun- mangroves on the coasts. The national bird. . The lake is sprinkled with traditional Maya villages with markets you can pick up Maya where weavings and other indigenous items. search of the elusive horned With a distinctive. is found in . FOR MORE INFORMATtON CONTACT YOUR TRAVEL AGENT www. hours three to Lake west of Atitlan. ranging from cloud forests tucked LAND.vi5itguatemala. whose waters reflect three of the country's 33 volcanoes. Take A GLANCE AT AN EXOTIC Ihoose from ten ecosystems. coral-colored horn emerging from guan Thousands of years old Maya metropolises. determined birders can begin the climb to the top of Toliman vol- cano in guan.•Ic^Special Advertising SectionS|> m 3 ALA k^ivirr.'v y t:. There are 700 species of Igles to birds in the Land Head about Guatemala City of the Quetzal. Everything you sigh for is in Guatemala. the pink-headed warbler and the azure-rumped tanager. the in danger of extinction. In minutes you can travel from fog-covered forest to desert. Thousands of miles of jungle and forests filled with adventure and mystery.m" lown for its Maya sf heritage and quickly varying topography^ colonial cities^ making it Guatemala // also is a biologically rich country with the perfect place to take a Great Outdoors adventure. the quetzal. From here. It's par- to trees rather than the ground. mountainous forests. legendary colonial cities and the warmth of people waiting for you. Far easier to see at the foot of the volcanoes are two other natives.

. . of Los Angeles County. Photo from the Scavnr Canter for Western History Research.THE CALENDAR OF EVENTS FOR THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUMbF LOS ANGELES COUNTY October 2006 I './^ A still suited from GonWa of Large (19'54). Natural History Museum Jane Jewell Barrows. . starring the George Barrows and Anne Bancroft. Couiie-sy ' .AVi r Masters f Disguise ^> '^^iSr^lMs •'^ A^ffP ''*-t.

.. Peg-Leg Pete and his scurvy Xfyi Ctirse of . Naturalist for a members ($275) MM • and higher will be invited to join us on dclBBlTz^.^ r^^^^:. ^.j&«g-X«g:)Me dog$ are searching for their lost treasure. 2006 piratejhemed adventure at the third annual Haunted Museum.500) areinvit^^^roiHl'additional.Jmo tn^ loot or wafK t()e . ' kngeles Counly .. Rumor has it. *sss. Upgrade todayand join us on this pirate advehtuilBf^flmg 213-763-3512. Fellows ($1.quests. :p(cmR! A ghost ship has been spotted at the Natural History Museum with a ghastly o^lfgg!^ apparition at the helm.

Pisano President and Director wur missio. The Museum was at the forefront of civic progress then. when the city's cultural we remarkable and is included in the National also preserve our connection to a formative landscape was beginning to take shape. The building's patterned red brick exterior featured arched windows. discovery and responsibility in our natural and cultural worlds. including the Grand Foyer and four diorama halls. and today. doors on November 6. and substantial additions were completed between 1924 and 1930. and Art" was unveiled in the center of the rotunda. a rotunda surrounded by scaghola columns. Science. and remains. To Aqueduct the day County Museum saw the debut of Exposition Park's commemorate of History. Its focal and an point was. writers at the time noted that the Museum signified the birth of Los Angeles as a cultural center. fitted walls. The civic State Exposition Building and the completion of William Mulholland's Los Angeles before. we continue to play a pivotal role in its enrichment. terracotta ornamentation.. with our mission to inspire wonder. 1913. arcaded formal entrance. Because of the auspicious timing of the Museum's opening and the beauty of its Beaux Arts-inspired design. It was the first public statue funded by Los Angeles County. Its 1913 Building . discovery iui our natural and cultural worlo . Seven months after the Museum's opening. Originally a freestanding structure.A LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT Polishing a Civic ^% iV^^I J ewe Dear Friend. Jane G. By time in Los Angeles' history. This fall we prepare for the restoration and seismic strengthening of our 1913 Building. Julia Bracken Wendt's bronze sculpture "The Spirit of History.or "Rotunda" Register of Historic Places. the Los Angeles and Art was the first museum in the city to open its celebration that took place also the groundbreaking for the Armory. Science. and topped by a painted glass dome. a fountain of water shot into the air from the center of what is now the rose garden. > responsibility inspire wonder. Our Museum began with Tar The Pits. Sincerely. marble a strong history collection and a growing trove of fossils excavated at the La Brea holdings quickly outgrew the original building's three wings. as it is also known - is still preserving this civic jewel.

#po and Goo
-Fomjly Overnight Adventure


October 27


7 pm through Saturday, October 28

Surrounded by mammoths, mastodons, and saber-toothed

Page Museum

sleeping bag, air mattress, and flashlight.

La BreaTarPits

by an







your costume and bring your

Snack and breakfast provided. Ages 5 and up accompanied

Reservotions required, col/ f2I3j 763-ED4U.

Members $40; Nonmembers $45.



Masters or Di sguise
he natural world




with things that look like

of actor and disguise impresario Lon



Chaney is
Phantom of

the back page,
in his

other things, and

example, kelpfish like seaweed fronds,

and shrimpfish

like the spines

of a

sea urchin.

Opera (1925)

sometimes, things



that look like


costume, holding a



of normally unrelated organisms that


^- '^

at all.




has a penchant for

now belongs

to the

animals use
guise for

J" ;









There are



katydids in our



worship, entertain,



I 5

they live

to teach,


especially this

time of year, to

Since October

with illusion,





look at


how a few of

our specimens incorporate the
science, of disguise.



collection includes the rare

from the Mexican






in the early

20th century. Our History Department
offers a


share a color pattern for defensive




and D are
worm. At least

nudibranchs; E


a flat

and D have very toxic chemical
defenses, and it's likely that A and

dioramas also show

E mimic the toxic species so predators
confuse them and don't attack.


you thought two Wonder Womans
the same Halloween party was a
curious phenomenon.


animals blending into their backgrounds. The North American


Hall's artic fox, for example,

one of several species that alternates
between a white winter coat and a

Department boasts costume elements
from all over the world. Its mask

Guerrero, probably



The Museum's Anthropology


"mimicry complex,"

B, C,

resemble the
branches and leaves



purposes. The animal in figure

though of

are different.


shell-bearing sea slug; B, C,

course our goals

we use



kit that

glimpse inside another world of

brown summer coat to blend
snow and dirt, respectively.

But perhaps the most diverse theater of


the world's oceans. Carrier

crabs devote hind legs to toting


or carved out sponges on

their backs. Decorator crabs

- the entertainment industry.
The Museum's early Hollywood
collection is one of the world's most
significant, with artifacts such as George
Barrows' self-made gorilla suit (seen on
the Naturalist cover), which appeared in
several films and television shows.

Velcro-like hairs that allow

Other highlights include the belongings



in with

attach shells



their exoskeletons,




of seaweed to

maldng them

indistinguishable from the ocean floor.

shown with

(The decorator above


and without

and sea




Many don't use


Whatever a disguise's motivation from survival to a littie trick-or-treat
candy - there has always been power


appearing as something "other."


Stonefish look like rocks, for

Kristin Friedrich



things to



at the


Super Spiders
Saturday, October 14,




Through November






our fabulous Spider Pavilion and leam

about awesome arachnids! We'U watch


take over our south lawn habitat.


and hear spider

Events are available

amazing Orb Weavers spin their webs,
and then stick around to see what

stories! All


FREE with paid Museum admission.


your arachnophobia as you watch



spiders eat their lunch, create a creeping

After the butterflies have gone, spiders




on a first-come, first-served

reservations are required. For

information about the Critter Club, please
contact the Discovery Center at (21J) 'j6y}2}0.

feeding time! Adults $3;

Students and Seniors $2; Children (yi2)

Tickets are sold in half-hour time slots

throughout the day. Members receive

admission and the first available

















9:30 am





Manager of Malacology,


by the Brotman Foundation of California

Support for Cntter Club


provided by

Gary Saltz Foundation and

Transamerica. Support for family and



provided by

Dinosoles (


how the land


changed, and admire the reintroduced
native species of coastal sage scrub

chaparral plants



once thrived here.

former Collection

Museum Research Associate.

rich fossQ site

years ago. Learn about

with Ijndsey

Manager of Invertebrate Paleontology and




Groves, Collection

Age garden that was
planted to resemble what Hancock Park
might have looked like 10,000 to 40,000


Search for marine

toothed cat and ancient ground sloth in





and LouEUa
footsteps of the great saber-



Saturday, October 21,

Walk in the


I^IHp R^J|

i^:^\S^^fl BS^?3r'


Open year round












Support for family programs


AL'' r



under your

a great place to get



nails right along with

Museum scientists.

Bring a bag for your

best finds. Participants provide their
transportation. Grades 2

accompanied by an


General Admission $39.




Members $2q;

your costume and bring your sleeping bag. highlights of the He will show us the Museum's mollusk naked giant squid . Boccherini. morning surrounded by in the of 10 participants per group. 7:30 Cold Weather Quest NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM [Jj accompanied by an adult. October 27 at 7 pm through Saturday. Safaris are FREE with Patron Family membership ($16^ per year).org. but what do do? Help us find winter habitats for 2006 by pianist Steven Schneider and marauded by An artists reception will follow. visit $20. including sea shells. and flashlight. Music La Brea Tar Pits uww. Naturahst level members and Tourmaline Dreams OFF SITE FIELD TRIP Sunday. October 28 at 9 am Q Tour the Tar Pits at night. To upgrade or join. For more information about the Critter Club. Reserve your space early by calling (213 j y6y}426. Sunday. NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM The Museum has been Schumann. Boo and Goo Family Overnight Adventure PAGE MUSEUM Friday. Angel Valdes. .. first-served basis. HART MUSEUM Please call (21}) 76]-}^]^ for more information or on the pirates and we need your help making things shipshape again.nhm.:^/e^'f». we'U go behind the scenes with Curator of Malacology Dr. we'll take a through the guided scavenger hunt galleries on a moUusk-themed adventure. y^. please contact the Discovery Center at (21}) y6y}220.--y/ jaij.which collections. October invitation yGy^pG or to learn more. and other famous classical composers. Advanced reservations required. Critter fiin! Ml Museum admission. Snack and breakfast provided. Reserve your space early by guests. Reservations required.9:30 pm visit surrounded Bunt Mansion WILLIAMS.nhm. November 19. Child to adult ratio is 6:1. Call {21}) calling (661) 2^4-4^84. Members Saturday. 11. 2007 Ever wonder what goes on in the Museum at night.T:4 Cozy up with us inside WiUiam S. Wear $40.coming soon! m Group Overnight CrAUENfiERX Adventures SAI-AKi [Jj Vn FOR PATRON FAMILY MEMBERS! Squids Will Be Squids MUSEUM [Jj NATURAL HISTORY PAGE MUSEUM Through May. Nonmembers $4^ Birds fly turtles [museum November south for the winter. Members friends. and mine with Dr Anthony Kampf Curator of Mineralogy. call (21^) to this exciting event. Upgi'ade your membership to and receive an Fellows are invited to bring additional the Fellows level under $10. 'j6y}426 or visit nhm. air mattress. and even is the biggest a moUusk and the world's largest invertebrate! Following our tour. October 21. moUusks. club critter Uj cellist www. Nonmembers $2y. call (213 j y6}-ED4U. Hart's living room for a special performance Jerome Kessler Enjoy the music of Bach.^ Come 2006 Saturday. Minimum our animal in Enjoy fun and educational by mammoths and mastodons. Children 12 and fossils. 2006 . Ages 5 and up 2006 pm . 2006 Explore a San Diego County tourmaline higher ($275 annually) are invited to join us on this swashbuckling adventure. Shostakovich. NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM at either spend the night the Natural History Museum or 11 am: Kids and Family tour the Page Museum at the 12 pm: Adidts only tour and find out! activities with your group and wake up On this special n Saturday. October 21. programs are Qub is hands- FREE with paid Events are available on a first-come.

Yom Kippur use Free Tuesday 13 Football Game * (TBA) * 14 BO Critter Club Columbus Day Museum opens al use 10 am) 20 Football Goo B Family Overnight (5 * * pm) Si Scavenger's Safari HI Music in the Q Boo and Game 2 Mansion Boo and Goo Family Overnight Adventure 28 Adventure H Haunted 29 30 Museum Halloween >JS Spider ^^ o 5 Pavilion doses Free Tuesday time everyday Mornings :00 1 atNHM am* :30 2:00 BS 900 T^^History IVliiseum Discovery Center Discovery Center Gallery Adventure Tour Dueling Dinosaurs of Los Angeles County Live Animal Presentations Discovery Center Learning Adventures Dueling Dinosaurs pm Hancock Park and pm Gallery Adventure Tour *7hese activities Pit I Page Museum 5801 Wiishire Los Angeles. CA 90036 www. Los Angeles. Page Museum 91 Tour take place on Saturdays Q CA 90007 213-763-DINO 21 3-763-3569 (nV hsorlng impaired] Discovery Center Story Time with Crafts :00 1 Dinosaur Hall pm 2:15 Exposition Blvd.nhm. NewhallCA 91321 www. Cleaning Demonstration Animal Presentation Discovery Center Afternoons jS^atural Live Story Time with Crafts pm 3:00 pm Museum Fossil Tarantula Feeding 2:00 Page location activity pm* 12:00 noon* 1 ' * « WILLUMS. . Page Museum La BreaTar Pits and Sundays 323.934.pAGE only 24151 San Fernando MUSEUM 661-2544584 Rd.hartmuseum.

ing buttongrass plains.000 miles Unlike mainland Australia. swept clean washed by more than 100 inches you'll find coastal heaths. IN THE SOUTHERN LOCATED Ocean. AiTsIt -species that are dry eucalyptus forests.-%Dove Lake and Cradle Mountain ^nimmWs isolation and ancient landscape make it a bird watcher witU2^dBmic species and nearly 200 other species of AustralianMSUtK^out Tasmania and its 300 islands. but over 2. the landscape is mountainous. and dense Gondwana rainforests of ancient including Antarctic relics Beech and endemic softwood OUTBACK WUn ^'^ AUSTRALIA'S NORTHERN TERRITORY Y TASMANIA -mt- w . . All but two of tively ' * the Amazon. side. rainbow pittas and ground parrots^ « See birdlife in abundance when you wander through World Heritage listed wilderness areas like Kakadu National Park and the Tasmanian Wilderness. rain. and broad sweepof coastline. hideaway. — all Australian Natural Adventures Phone. On the western by the winds of the Roaring Forties and side of the island. snow-covered peaks.naturetravelspeciallsts. Go with a group or create are of wet- to ' lands. and Mauritius where the ^ special to you! mosaic of habitats isolation. TASMANIA AND THE NORTHERN TERRITORY home hooded parrots and honeyeaters. This diverse landscape offers . black currawongs and brolgas. Because of its Tasmania is one of the few places in the world — along with ^ entire island is 'Efi^i^^r * Tasmania's endemic species are rela- widespread and while spring (September to December) the best time to see is birds. always most Tasmanian endemics can be seen year round. - * identified as an Endemic Bird Area. Tasmania has a small landmass. the Galapagos. with rugged untouched valleys. the L_s your own y"' drier eastern white sandy beaches the and in a which birds can live. sheltered lagoons. 1 877 437 6491 www.|c^Special Advertising SectionS^ TASMANIA ^I^^^MRP~IIII^T^'^ ^v. On much the warmer. itineran drift into coastal heath.

An ominous blush stains the water and the oily. Just six miAites have passed since the seal pup was inno- research vessel drifts ofFSeal Island. Sneaky turns his attention to Couz. southeast of Cape Town. squawking avian obscenities at one another. silhouet- what seems an impossibly long back into the sea. splashing thunderous spray beneath a gathering mob of seabirds. Is he friend or foe? Of higher or lower rank? For half a minute. South Africa. and other sharks. a female sweeps in and usurps the remains of Sneaky's abandoned jpesl. cializing A lone Cape fur seal pup porpoises through the gendy rolling swells toward the island. its By Aldan Martin and Anne Martin R. As we record their interactions. whose thick blub- ber rnakes for a calorie-rich meal. Bay. shark. Each year white sharks returri to seal hotspots. the Utde seal teeth. %r . while guUs and other seabirds compete vigorously for its entrails. an action that maximizes the cutting efficiency of his saw-edged teeth. South Africa.^t^^^ "^^1 OCTOBER 2006 Sociable Killers New studies of the white shark (a k a great white) show that social Ufe and hunting strategies are surprisingly complex. to prey on seal such as Seal Island pups in nearby False just learning to fish at sea. fish. Our For white sharks (also known as great whites). Then cakn returns to the sea. Now cendy making mortally wounded and lying on its side at the surface. It hangs. particularly the young. warily sizing each other up as white sharks do when they meet. seal arid sea lion. the seal head and weakly wags its left foreflipper. emergesjrom the depths off c the port town of Gansbaai. Suddenly. orange Hght of breaking dawn. an eleven-and-a-half-foot male we call Sneaky. Sneaky hunches his back and lowers his pectoral fins in response to the threat posed by the larger shark \set illustration of "hunch display" on page 44]. whereupon he and Couz veer apart. ferocious predatory and intense socializing is a shark biOTDgist's dream. pery smell of the its '^^tchingi-'^fffPFi despite the white shark's reputation as the an- imal kingdom's nostrils. snails. cop- assaults raises its The The wounded seal prickles seal carcass floats to the surface our way to shore. or great white. the shark surface by an astonishing clears the six feet. Sneaky and Couz swim side by side. We and our crew of five student volunteers watch ted in the chill air for time before it falls breathlessly as the drama unfolds. circles back unhurriedly and seizes the hapless pup again. twenty past seven on t's I a winter morning. Sneaky returns to his meal. But its preferred repast is squid. AH of a sudden. In fact. of white shark launches from the water like a clamped between its Framed against purple clouds washed with the a ton Polaris missile. and another white shark rises from below male — we a thirteen. sotrumps dining.foot call Couz. shaking his head violently from side to side. vyhite shark. The white shark's eclectic diet includes crabs. He carries it underwater.

twenty-two miles south home to some 64. . around the By early May the pups are joining their oldon er siblings fishing trips into False yond. (Both be- haviors can be observed elsewhere. surprisingly lit^ basics of its foraging behavior: feeding cycle. That's ing up when —from Bay and beshowto hunt the the white sharks start parts unknown — young-of-the-year pups. a rocky. but far frequently than at Seal Island. That enables as white sharks to exploit cold. In the popular imagination. and other seabirds.000 plus thousands of cormorants. Since have returned each southern win- continue studying the remarkable be- havior of the white shark. As for habitat.) less lows and Lawrence's invitation. teractions migration routes and favorite hunting grounds. oddly skittish creatures. aside from the Nowhere more waters around Seal Island and several other places. antisocial brutes. Seal Island in then we ter to we At Fal- visited 2000 to see for ourselves. seals give end of De- birth here in the spring. and sensitive electroreceptors that give it access to envi- ronmental cues beyond human experience. Carcharodon carcharias largest is of the quintessential predator. research demonstrates that white that social is Our we Cape and foraging behavior on vivid display than at Seal Island.500 pounds. And even about its social behavior. quite a different opinion. and gut maintain a temperature degrees much as twenty-five Fahrenheit warmer than the water. whose social in- and doc- attacks. white sharks five-acre islet in False Bay. gulls. prey-rich waters. The island the creatures are solitary. of Cape Town. the largest scent- detecting organs of any shark. Its and foraging behavior arc more complex and sophisticated than anyone had imagined. discovered the when 1995. is penguins.500 predatory have arrived known at least since less is — at sharks are intelligent. South African naturalists based in Simon's False Bay. Its brain. it The reaches a length of more than twenty feet and a weight of 4. but it also exacts a price: they must eat a great URAL HISTbUY 43 . But after observing the at Seal Island for eight seasons. Chris Fallows and Rob Lawrence. its is its knovviTaD^j^he hunting tacti^ preferences in prey. all predatory sharks. curious. remain largely unknown. fur seals. the white shark prefers cool and temperate seas worldwide. Mother fur cember. The white shark possesses acute color vision. swimining muscles.X iiberpredator. site's Town on attractions in they observed the sharks' vig- orous seasonal predatory activity and their remarkable aerial hunting style. umenting more than 2. Most people the movie Jaws —assume stupid.

by side. perhaps to size 44 and lowers and show off its establish dominance. enabhng it to gorge weigh the gy or numbers. squid. however. its dirt when means to catch right. Ac- basic strategies: they seek to maximize either ener- but so more moderately. but marine Many of them favorite meal. distinct social behaviors. The twenty it. predators employ one of two pound. Energy maximizers selectively eat only high-calorie prey. a white shark can store as much as 10 percent of its body mass in a lobe of its stomach. they sink their teeth into the mals' thick layer of blubber. mammals may be are big. A. thereby keeping per-meal search costs low. perhaps to compare size and other establish rank. as and handhng fat carcass) How model known it By for the opportunity arises (such as a of searching for cording to the theory. but many help the sharks establish is the energy payoff per meal. The first opposite directions. Splash Fight white shark arches White shark in foreground its its back pectoral fins for Two sharks splash each other with their tails. kill. According to Kdimley's theory. Although those prey may be low-cal. compared with sea mammals. which are notably less fatty. often from a the most or biggest splashes wins. Davis. a perhaps to identify one another or to detercircle. fleeing or attacking. though. mine rank. NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 in response parently to contest the ownership of a kill. in Two white sharks swim toward one another. regardless of its energy content. Usually. or to determine determine which ownership of a disputed identifying each other. Of all marine mammals. Way Give Two white sharks glide slowly past each Two white sharks swim slowly. Their search costs are high. Peter KHmley a marine biologist at the University of California. by contrast. i . That neatly explains why they often feed on seals and sea Uons but rarely on penguins and sea otters. before missive rank. a rare behavior. or simply nance Two or three white sharks follow one another flinches in sion of "chicken. As we mentioned earlier. newly weaned seals and sea hons may offer the best energy bargain for white social rank and avoid physical conflict. a fifteen-foot white shark that consumes sixty-five pounds of whale blubber can go a month and a half without feeding again. A single shark may also splash another to establish kill. It seems likely that white sharks follow both strategies. so they reject low-fat foods. dominance or contest a onds. several feet apart. Based on optimal foraging theory. significance oi the behaviors remains unknown. and the other accepts a sub- dominant shark." other sharks. In fact. apart. side The submissive shark and swims away. depending on is profitable in a given circumstance. and thus sometimes energetically more attractive. ap- The shark that makes stretches out perpendicular to several seconds another shark for a few sec- to a threat. white sharks eat encounters calorie content of food against the ener- getic cost calories as protein. white sharks are energy maximizers. they may also be easier to find and catch. Pound and hve off its hoard for extended periods. has own powerful animals in their predators with the pay and turdes. eat which the more Numbers max- whatever kind of prey is most abundant. snails. them more than twice as many but hit caloric mam- when whale when does a white shark decide what to eat? fers a it A optimal foraging theory of- mathematical explanation of how predators High Society White sharks engage eight are largely in at least shown below. several feet They may be comparing is sizes to to swerve cedes domi- —a white-shark ver- dominant. has proposed an intriguing theory about the feeding behavior of the white shark. one estimate. white sharks eat many other kinds of prey. imizers.

After that the sharks cease hunting actively. Cape fur seals leave for their foraging expeditions from far and wide. White sharks that or the Farallon Islands making those islands the come marine equivalent of truck stops. Then. often after failing to capture a decoy. white sharks at Seal Island enjoy a 55 percent predatory success rate. tect a stalking making them less Ukely to de- white shark. they weigh in at about sixty pounds. waves fur sea/s surf the at Sea/ /s/and. turns a Uttle slower. both wildlife Point Reyes Bird has attacks take place during —draws white tide. from being the indiscriminate killers the movies have portrayed. white sharks drop by Seal Island for between a few hours and a few \veeks. then attacks in a rush from keen sense for subtle indi- below. at Seal Island. Such cues may be at work when a white shark picks a young. sharks seals. Furthermore. The incoming seal pups have fewer compatriots with which to share predator-spotting duties than they do in the larger outgoing groups. Many investigators think superficially similar animals? predators that rely schools of fish or pods of — — firom foraging at sea. most white-shark J »u the San Francisco. young-of-theyear seals close to the Launch Pad. Hmited diving and fighting skills. The shark thus maximizes its visual advantage over its prey. and a naivete about the dangers lurking below. the silhouette of a seal against the water's surface much easier to see from below than is is the dark back of the shark against the watery gloom from above. do When they detect a white shark. They from indiscriminate. such as Aerial shown that at the Far- aUons. for instance. and Neptune Islands ott South T- Ob- servatory in California^ the Farallon Islands off Cape c- with biologists then at the at certain off- shore islands — along Peter Pyle and Scot D. hght penetrates farther down into the water. ' he white shark rehes on t:when hunting stealth and ambush prey from the seals. and seals competition forces many low-ranking juve- own right. they're fuU and tired sea dolphins. male or female particularly target lone. when the An indi- vidual that lags behind. Each winter. to feast on firom a small rocky outcrop young-of-the-year Cape fur seals usually leave together. other carefully for signs of alarm. Seals maintain nearly for white sharks ' constant viqilance ^ • and watch each the water. Swimming quickly in small groups to or from the Launch Pad minimizes their time in that high-risk zone. Furthermore. though The location and timing of predatory attacks are al- some of them return to the hunt near sunset. or ventures just a bit farther from the group Gaping but they scatter while at and return alone or in small groups of two or three. there gaping is and strong claws. Repetitive nicknamed the Launch Pad. As the sun rises higher in the sky. It stalks its obscurity of the depths. and they remain in the relative safety of the open sea for extended pe- White shark holds its head above the its jaws. AustraUa visit either Seal Island back year after year. and by late morning their success rate falls to about 40 percent. so far heavy competition for space where northern ele- phant selves the can haul themonto the rocks. They also exhibit a remarkable range of antipredator tactics. near where the mammals enter and exit high Seal Island. vigilantly seals often scanning underwater with October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 45 . incoming. The numbers confirm it: at dawn. repeatedly Islands. white sharks are quite Far selective in targeting their prey. Coordinated groups of between five and fifteen on single- species prey groups. powerful predators in their surface. The behavior may be a socially provocative non- way to vent frustration. At high tide on the Farallon are big. Most attacks at Seal Island take place within light is low. a thick Klimley of blubber.sharks. But on what basis does a shark select one individual from a group ot No one knows for sure. have developed a cate vukierabihcy. vidual differences that indi- two hours of sunrise. vulnerable Cape fur seal out of the larger population seal at Seal Island. But Cape fur seals are hardly helpless victims. Their seasonal layer presence — Anderson. a headstand. a good meal by anyone's standards. Similarly. They have nile seals into the water. White sharks attack almost any seal at Seal Isbut they land -juvenile or adult. and take defensive advantage of their large canine teeth riods. may catch the predator's eye.

that the social behavior of these sharks plex. AJone. half of are just but which are new to science. unrecombat is extremely rare. feature black on the undersurface and white patchBoth markings are all but concealed when the sharks swim normally. But if those markings help white sharks signal to one another. At Seal Island. Another form ofnonviolent. Indeed. Instead. which can in- clude rights to a lower-ranking shark's formidable predator. Whether clan members are related is unknown. are related to establishing social rank [see many illustrations Rank appears to be based mainly on size. Cape fur seals never give up without a fight. the power of the attack often and prey out of the water hurtles both predator . tension-diffusing be- After the morning flush of predatory activity at Seal Island. They also watch one an- other closely for signs of alarm. a One has to admire their pluck against such established rank. and they resolve or avert conflicts through ritual and display. by observing both from the surface and with underwater cameras. During the twenty is astonishingly past five years. Cape fur seals occasionally white shark. squatter's rights es The average shark on 47 percent of its at Seal Island catch- attempts. White ings that sharks have a may number of markThe serve a social purpose. a shark investigator then affiliated with the Cousteau Society in Hampton. a Cape fur seal bites and claws its attacker. out of the water in the other's presence and crash to the surface. near Seal Island. Strong. may direct may leap or it kill. Spectacular aerial attacks on seals are more common in False Bay than anywhere else. In 46 on the white patch that covers the base of the lower lobe of on preceding two pages]. in in threes. and predatory strate- imply intelligence. combat is a risky prospect. swirUng around know be predator To avoid its it pairs. We beginning to understand their significance. If or incapacitate now superior agility The longer an an attack- a seal in the favors the seal. a shark attack. White sharks can cer- gies es its seal probably most aptly compared tail ing demonstrates the importance of social interac- tainly learn. fails to catch bait (typically a tuna head) or a rubber seal way — to vent frustration the equivalent of a person punching a wall. Why such a focus on rank? The main reason is to avoid combat. Older white however. we have distinct social behaviors in com- cataloged white sharks at havior often takes place after a shark repeatedly decoy: the shark holds its head above the surface while rhythmically opening and closing its jaws. White sharks rush their quarry from directly below. is a the trade-ofli" between camouflage and social signal- strained structure of a clan And one shark follows another. and competition among them for hunting sites and prey is intense. splashes at another by thrashing shark its tail. Once rank established. two white sharks often swim side by side. But since white sharks are such powerful. the less hkely it will end in the shark's favor. We have discovered. white sharks arrive and depart year after year in stable "clans" of two to six individuals. of diSerent clans meet. possibly to compare their relative sizes. pectoral fms. about eleven feet long. though and sex also play a role. safely ing shark does not initial strike. suggested the behavior might be a socially nonprovocative Even lichen grasped between a white shark's a Cape fur seal bites and claws it attacker. but trailing edge. kill its lethal jaws. And if so. or avoiding a meet- And rank has its perks. established residents over newer arrivals. the white sharks at Seal Island reduce competition by spacing themselves while hunting. Complex social behaviors sharks. as was the case with Sneaky and Couz. if they meet. Large sharks dominate over smaller ones. When members lish social and each clan has an alpha leader. As many as twenty-eight white sharks gather at Seal Island each day during the winter sealhunting season. or even foUow as if to let the a would- cover has been blown. Virginia. white sharks turn to socializing. attack continues. heavily armed predators. sharks. Even when grasped between a white shark's teeth. seals may leap in a zigzag pattern or even ride the pressure wave along a shark's away from flank. the subordi- is nate shark acts submissively toward the dominant —giving way shark ing altogether. In 1996 Wesley R. they may also physical they get along peacefully enough. teeth.their rear flippers in the air. wolf pack: each member has NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 the social a clearly more among white may be important when visible to their prey. for instance. For example. the shark's two-pronged make the sharks tions to that of a fact. and females over males. they may also parade past each other in opposite directions or fol- low each other One in a circle. they estab- rank nonviolently through any of a fasci- nating variety of interactions. hunt farther from the Launch Pad and enjoy much higher success rates than youngsters Female white shark. flashed during certain social interactions. but are tips Seal Island. attacks a seal decoy off Simon's Town.

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Clearly. their movement patterns. rine ecosystem. She almost always claims her mark. bull rays. they notice the smallest change in their environment. there's a flourishing and lucrative black market in white- shark jaws. however. unscarred sharks are the animals can uniformly timid in their in- sands of miles a year. Khmley 48 of a person interrupted by the victim's brave companions. Deaths do cized. too. and the resulting wounds are relatively minor compared with the wounds inflicted on prey. even though such trade is illegal under international law. As September approaches. the shark's investigation we Rasta (for her extremely mellow disposition to- ward people and not to eat them but to a white shark actually we are not suggests that. high- levels of fishing. Our view is diflierent: we believe that white sharks probably bite people Next May we. ly scarred individuals are al- In recent studies. Young seat that survived a white-shark attack makes its way on Seal Island. trial-and-error learning. and we cannot predict what the white sharks of Seal Island will have in store for us. to sharks are so skittish that they flinch — — Such long-distance swimming may take white through the territorial waters sharks of several nations. stronger. sharks are also consistent in such traits as their angle and direction of approach to an object of interest. In addition. and cages. South Africa. people are simply too muscular to constitute a worthwhile meal. Such and gums. electronic when they make tags attached to individual white sharks and monitored by satellites have shown that ways fearless of our "tactile explorations" vessel. though much-publi- on people. and fins. Western Australia. which and more sensitive than slow lane makes their teeth a life in the are remarkably dexterous the white shark extremely much vulnerable to even moderate their skin. The attacks on people are slow and deliberate. are also learning that white sharks are highly curious creatures that systematically escalate their explo- White between sharks take nine and sixteen years to reach from the visual to the maturity. In fact. and hunt them to reduce their populations near swimming and surfing beaches. and of their habitat their role in the their social lives is ma- critical to the species' survival. NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 strategies from energy maxiiTuzation to numbers maximization. she can precisely anticipate a seal's ly is Fortuusual- For all the fear white sharks inspire. Intriguingly. bear no resemblance to shark attacks on prey. In addition to hunting style and degree of timidity. vestigations. Yet a better understanding needs. . Soon most ing season of them will depart. People kill them for sport and trophies. over the years we have observed remarkable consistency in the personalities of individual sharks. which but there are very few veri- Ex- mouth. remaining abroad until their reThe Cape fur seal pups that have turn next May.420 miles in just nine months. mak- ing the sharks hard to protect (not to mention hard to study). they do so from a greater distance. When such sharks resume their investigations. Some white dividual and veer away when discussion of white sharks must acknowltheir occasional. and back a round trip of 12. wiser catch. on and smaller consumed on their menu. By swim thou- contrast. will return. most white sharks give call up if a seal escapes. they nip and birth to just rations nibble to investigate with two to ten pups every two or three years. Certain white sharks at Seal Island that predatory ly own tactics all their employ catch their seals near- 80 percent of the time. and females give tactile. "attacks" occur from blood loss. bvit a large female and movements. D fied cases in a person. the white sharks' huntat Seal Island draws to a close. The vast majority of them. bigger. lines. Typically. and seems to have honed her hunting skills to a sharp edge through boats) is a relentless pursuer. it is ironic that people probably pose the single greatest threat to white sharks. they seasonally switch feeding marine mammals. Any edge One inswam from Mossel Bay. About 85 percent of the victims survive. But fieldwork always has its surprises. For example. We satisfy their curiosity. nately. In effect. compared with blubbery sharks. —and The handful of white thus much harder to sharks that remain in False Bay year-round probably fishes such feeding shift to as yellowtail tuna. survived this long have become experienced in the They are deadly dance between predator and prey.

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when Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer received a sent arrived — him was impossible a coelacanth. was busy trying to put together a dinosaur skeleton she had excavated. the new species was named Latimeria chalunmae. and other familiar creatures lying out in the heat of the sun. It was five feet long and a pale mauve-blue with iridescent markings. and T that make up the genetic code. But it was a coelacanth. Paleontologists thought the had been extinct for more than 65 milhon years.B. They and many other lifeforms also carry gene fragments that offer similar windows tures that — into the past represented here by the base pairs A. she surveyed a stinking pUe of sharks. Carroll magnificent early Christmas pre- er. Traces of lifestyles still By Sean B. 50 NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 brain kept teUing one morning in December 1938. a local trawl- fish might have some nay-Latimer. the fish for first her collection. Courtenay-Latimer thought differently. She managed to persuade a taxi driver to put the 127-pound hulk into his car and haul it back to the museum. Siruth. Its director promptly dismissed her prize as nothing more than a rock cod. discovery. she seldom got such calls. Courte- full-time curator of the East London Natural History Museum. a himdred miles away. sponges.. but they can be "excavated" from living genomes and studied for — clues to the evolutionary past. She was about to return to the museum when it caught her eye: "the most beautiful fish I had ever seen." The fish was also unlike any other she had ever seen. When Smith studied Courtenay-Latimer's description and sketch of the fish. on the eastern South Africa. .. was message: the Nerine.Broken Pieces of Yesterday s Life abandoned millions of years ago are decipherable in 'fossil genes" retained in modern DNA. Those gene fragments dubbed "fossil genes " no longer code for proteins. a — that this fish member of a group of fishes with paired fms thought to be closely related to the first four-legged vertebrates. Boarding the trawler. Ultimately. he was unsettled by a possibility that his coast of Coetacanths have lived in the oceans for hundreds of millions of years and provide a vi/indow into the lives of other crea- became extinct long ago. . C. a chemistry lecturer and amateur ichthyologist at Rhodes University. She recruited a second opinion fromJ. in honor of And in the decades since the many more coelacanths have been Courtenay-Latimer.L. It had four limblike fins and a strange puppydog tail. so she put her work aside and went down to the dock. Still. G.

DNA are they can provide hnks to former. as a rule. For that. Yet today. Fossil genes are dif- ing link to an ancient tribe of fishes that the oceans 360 niilHon years ago. the genes can "relax". and so coding genes. a swam ferent. In Hving creatures. Be- cripple or even coding gene. are has cause They show the effects of wear and tear as they much the same way ordinary fossils do in sedimentary rock. they ered a valuable Excavating yesterday's decaying non- . break apart and erode away over time. served random mutations can quickly disable a he coelacanth holds a special place in natural history. geneticists have begun to recognize that they. Instead. including the coelacanth. ways of Hfe — that date back millions of The fossilized sequences are embedded in a genome made up of thousands of ordinary. random mutations no longer affect the or- — ganism positively or negatively. natural selection tends to weed out mutations in them. Yet precisely be- no longer used. The animal is the only hv- Such lUuniinating most fortunate scientists get to experience the kind of excitement Courtenay-Latimer and Smith must have felt. too. genes that contribute to the organism's survival. because of some past change in Lifestyle of the organism that carried them. making functional proteins: genes were initially but geneticists are now dismissed as recognizing extraordinary records of genetic history thus. coding years. No longer are they subject to the dis- cipHne of natural selection. now vanished ways of hfe.— dredged up from their deep-sea habitats. but no longer. as they come face to face with an altogether different kind of Hving fossil. When coding DNA sequences had at one time been func- geneticists realized that certain knew that they had discovnew window on the past. been dubbed it a "living fossU. The reason fossil genes are not conserved is that. the genes no longer matter to survival. The very existence of fossil genes proclaims one of the cardinal rules of genetic evolution: use it cause such fragments of or lose it." finds are so rare that only the living a golden moment. including second species discovered near Indonesia in 1998. tional genes. that once. there are sequences of DNA blueprints for as "fossil genes. are rigorously conserved." Fossil "junk" them and as DNA.

"violet" opsin detects the corresponding color. The violet opsin gene in dolphins and whales has also become nonfunctional. Another gene. In people. which in people is a chemical derivative of vitamin A. though it is stUl identifiable from its fragments. by night it cruises slowly over the ocean floor to feed. has become a fossil. off the Comoros Islands in the Indian Ocean near Mozambique. The change from a C to a T may seem small. great apes. The loss of a gene raises several general questions: How and why is a gene so useful to some species lost in others? Why is a good gene ever allowed to decay? Are fossil genes a rare kind of mistake that deletions that will erode they erase it occurs only in weird animals such as coelacanths? The answer to the last question is. could explain The why and whales that their violet opsins are fossiUzed? best explanation comes from considering Dolphins and whales belong to the only order of mammals that is fully aquatic and lacks the potential for any form of color vision. gives further insight into gene loss. Because most vertebrates have at least one kind of green or red opsin. squirrels. and so it. the green-red opsin gene was lost. of ancestral species. in the ultraviolet range. it. Hu- in mans. In fact. In particular. One leading theory about the deficiencies of color vision in nonprimate mammals is that because the earhest mammals were nocturnal. birds. and yellow. natural se- and evolution. the letters TGA are a "stop" code. Deletions and changes throughout the sequence of bases that make up the gene code for violet opsin. as I noted earlier. Ecologically. 300 feet deep or more. code for the violet opsin gene are recognizable in its genome. Certainly not. and reptiles have four or opsins — sion. — — have only cats. only dim. genes. The coelacanth also lives deep in the oceans where. however. Other land mam- it '' a the coelacanth the once-functional gene fossil canth in gene into violet opsin other disruptions. and the like two opsins and hmited color vision. dim Light. Is there anything common to animals as dis- similar as coelacanths. have he coelacanth carries own its extinct which offer good examples of why and how genes become fossilized. from violet through blue. and because it is became a it wUl not functional. Curiously. both a visual pigment which enable them to see in people and coelacanths possess called rhodopsin. as well as October 2006 many keys have three opsins. only fragments of the enables various other species to see For example. the coelacanth has TGA. untU eventually from the coelacanth's DNA forever. Sometime during coelacanth evolution. But full color vision is by no means a unique advance of Old World primates. and so one can examine how more recent . the violet opsin was lost because it became their ecology. dogs. the three groups of animals apparently have no use for color vision their survival no longer depends on it. Happily. but in this case it is a whopper. continue to accumulate additional mutations and it further. many fishes. and. Yet even during the day. is still around today. and Old World mon- more other species have the three bases CGA in DNA letters TGA. The pigments are made up of proteins called opsins and a small molecule called a chromophore. when the cell machinery for mak- 52 a functional canth. the coelacanth no genes for opsins sensitive to hght at ei- has ther medium (green) or long (red) wavelengths. made what was clearly.DNA from living. dolphins. In the coela- severely disrupted the at nonfunctional sequence: in which provide full color vision across the spectrum. he capacity for color vision has evolved many ways among many animals. Undersea explorers seeking its to observe the coela- native habitat discovered that it retreats by day into underwater caves. blue Ught penetrates to those depths. and so biologists and geneti- have taken a special interest in the coelacanth's cists visual system. and the general idea that gene fossilization is linked to shifts in hfestyle. just as its green-red opsin gene was erased. fabulous color vi- compared with most other vertebrates. which codes for an opsin that is sensitive to light at short wavelengths (violet). — — dispensable to their evolutionary ancestors. one kind of evidence for testing that theory. and on to red. too. the ancestors of the coelacanth must also have had at least one "green-red" opsm gene. With all of the other wavelengths filtered out. All species that can detect visible hght produce pigments in their retinas. consequently. and in waters around South Africa. where the mouse and The one time. ignoring the rest ! gene. ing the opsin protein comes to the NATURAL HISTORY And mals it simply stops. full color vision was largely dispensable. only dim blue Ught can reach. green. working genomes gives biologists insights into the Uves lection. stop code. nonprimate mammals have fewer opsin genes and relatively poor color vision. A nocturnal lifestyle has evolved repeatedly and independently in mammals. of the sequence of bases in the gene for making the violet opsin. though. In the language of DNA.

identify mates and offspring. to detect the light received its species. the whale. and the ancestor became blind to a fossil opsin violet. the so-called olfactory receptor genes are mammal genomes. close of the species do have Those facts demonstrate that relatives functional violet opsins. Its decay. — — markedly different species evolved. among it And sure accumulated mu- gene has nonfunctional. the animal's evolutionary history carries gene leads to Thus tioning. including the deletion of five base pairs (middle row). red. the opsin gene for violet vision accumulated mutations. Mice October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 53 . all highly selective. Nevertheless. however. intensity. The mole skin. they found. no longer monkey. and detect danger. Biologists it of fur. with The ov/l monkey. Furthermore. In gene the largest family of genes in a fossil. other kinds circadian clock and regulate intact opsin genes: the green-red opsin that at and so the blind who examined the bhnd mole rat found two gene —overwhelming support the fundamental prediction that relaxed selection daily biorhythms. its for instance. Because base pairs are "read" in groups of three. the lost pairs disrupted the gene's code. the owl — in the mon- and the blind mole rat the fossilization of the violet opsin gene is correlated with habitat. to quite different branches of the evolutionary tree. the park with a dog is usually enough One walk in to persuade anyone that the dog's "view" of the world is shaped by its acute sense of smell. Furthermore. violet opsin tations that render is that the shift to the nocturnal lifestyle led to relaxed selection on in all the species I have mentioned — coelacanth. Hence despite the mole rat's atrophied vi- sion. or sequence of DNA base pairs. A dog's nose can find food. ly is for of opsins are intact and functhat the decay of genes numerous mutations that disrupt the code for making the violet opsin protein. the time of day. selection continues to control mutations in the two opsin genes. in other words. Yet a the violet opsin gene. matters to the survival of the owl What about animals that go underground? The bhnd mole rat has the most degenerated eyes of any independent. the second encodes dopsin. Moreover. the relatives of the owl monkey dayhght have an intact violet observations are pretty all by opsin gene. Possessing the gene the record suggests that rodents fossil evolved from an aboveground ancestor that could see. The mutations that disable the gene in the various species are not the same. the ries various times in which demonstrates the eyes help tuned. is encodes a toward the first through the subcua dim-light rho- taneous eye. Those two that are active good evidence Thus lifestyles. turnal species enough. unrelated mutations have repeatedly mammal. in is on those nd what about people? What might we have lost along the evolutionary way? Well. the animal maintain its a layer can detect light fossilized the violet opsin fact. As an ancestor of dolphins began to evolve an aquatic lifestyle. Then in 1991. sensitivity to violet light no longer mattered for its survival. the molecular biologists Linda B. car- is vital to animal behavior and survival. modern dolphins still carry the disrupted DNA sequence gene for violet vision in their genome (bottom row).Intact gene sequence \ ^^ ^ Loss of base pairs B gene sequence Fossilized BB gene Fossilization of the opsin years ago the PB liB cow and for v/o/et-sensitiVe vision the dolphin shared a common is Bl depicted n g EB9 in the diagram. the only noc- the higher primates. or shifted. buried under the and covered by retinas mole rat's rat can tell its Still. apparently biological clock. which to maintain the animal's violet opsin gene. Buck and Richard Axel discovered a fami- of genes that encoded odorant receptors. the dolphin. working at Columbia University. eyes are small. and the species themselves belong key. consider the sense of smell. But for a long time it was a mystery how animals detect and discriminate odors. which enabled it to see the color violet (part of the gene is shown in the top row). Millions of ancestor that carried an intact gene.

In inice.400 of them in a 8 percent of ol- But in Old World monkeys. are About half of silized. lemurs. and his fellow geneticists at the stitute for among Color perception varies greatly Germany. which genes. and Old World monkeys. animals and often correlates with environment. sensors respond to input colors across the range visible to humans.000 discovered the basis for the of olfaction: Each sensory neuron in one of the olfactory system generally produces just the many olfactory receptor proteins. Planck In- Leipzig. Buck and Axel also specificity genome of 20. in people. The extraordinary proportion of fossilized olfactory receptor genes suggests longer rely on our gree our ancestors once did. surveyed the olfactory New World monkeys. and compared them with the olfactory genes of the mouse. we no sense of smell to the de- Two questions Why have we abandoned the use of such a large fraction of our odor receptors? And when did the loss take place? Clues to the answers emerge from studying the fraction of fossilized odor receptors in other primates lad. Yoav Gi- the University of Chicago. In nonthe chimpanzee. whereas the mouse has more than 180 in good working order. the proportion reaches 33 percent. People and other Old World primates have trichromatic vision: the color bar above the photograph at top left shows roughly what they see bar to red at the Max Evolutionary Anthropology in on In short. the go- vision. —reduced laxed selection their reliance on the on smell. and detect danger with visual cues it. identify mates. which have fUl color colors. No question: our repertoire of olfactory re- ceptor genes has gone to pot. It matic vision in primates —which enables them to find food. eyes of the blind mole their left). underground. monochromats. which rat are is is the investigators noted that two a speculative reconstruction of violet-to-red (above mal can distinguish external above all as the domestic cat see in which range of input lives photographs show how fur.— r compared great detail. have about 1. Finally. now at and mammals. Re- olfactory receptor genes in . The them are fos- contrast be- tween people and other mammals is most striking of receptors encoded by the so-called Vh genes. Yet the for a class human genome includes nearly 200 fossilized VI genes. been studied some 50 percent of the genes were fossilized. the proportion receptor genes ani- rises to human apes such as the bars monochromatic rilla. lemurs. but the The gray tones efficiently their in of fossiUzed olfactory 29 percent. and the orangutan. airborne chemical is perceived as a How The human 54 NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 a given scent depends the combinarion of receptors that detect olfactory genes have also have fuU color vision. and the nocturnal. and mouse they to those of the nothing to brag about. the fraction of fossil olfactory receptor genes is in all species with full seems that the evolution of trichro- significantly higher in color vision. and Ne'w World monkeys almost all of which lack full color vision genes of apes. People have only four functional VI r genes. right. Almost other land The color bar above the cat the colors it sees for the same Both the blind mole rat owl monkey (above right). are light intensity. The covered with skin and 1 factory receptor genes are fossilized. spring to mind. for input colors from violet at the left of the mammals such colors.

people carry around the genetic vestiges of an ol- has about 4. By percent of the genes are fossilized in the closely related bacterium responsible for tuberculosis (above right. The of genetic archaeology and paleon- tology will keep hauling up unexpected things fi-om functions will not return. ferent groups of animals genes accumulate multiple defects. lepgenome carries about 1 .trichromatic species has allowed the genes' codes to on decay. is beingpublishcd this month Inc. rae about 1. It is also the known est-growing bacterium of all slow- bacterial it takes about two weeks to divide. that build metabolic pathways. The example demonstrates that a large fraction of aU The patterns of gain and loss are exactly what one it the genes in an organism's when pensable The genome can become dis- bfestyle shifts. or would expect if natural selection acts only in the present. the recurrence of gene fossUization in entirely dif- of genes has important consequences for the evolution of an organism's descendants. Since the host-ceO genes do so much of tors did. Many of the genes in false of the leprosy bacterium are thought to have would otherwise have to carry out on its fossilized because the organism relies more on its host than its ancesown. think that gists that ever existed are now extinct. without planning for the future. their inactivation when cannot readily be reversed. the of the bacterium Mypathogen that causes Gene sequencing has shown that the M. M. higher. lost even genes will not be available to new circumstances. The downside is very slowly. What explains two bacteria? the answer comes down to the vast disparity between the Once again. selection same events new is relaxed is striking evidence that. fossil genes than that of any other leprae is closely related to sponsible for tuberculosis is a fossilization of "design" or intent species. leprae's abled it specialized to rely on its Leprosy-causing bacteria (shown above lot of fossil genes contrast. leprae genes. the one we have today. The one-way loss may be an important factor in the success This article was adapted from Sean Carroll's forthcoming book.) species: M. M. leprae has fossilized in the course of its or lost some 2. which can divide every twenty minutes. Because decaying an absolute rule imposed by the fact that surveillance by natural selection acts the depths of the past. Conversely. lifestyle: leprae's is very different firom that of its cousin. of a is stripped-down version of its former self. the work. Compar- ing the genomes of the two species shows that M.600 flinctional genes and leprosy. only mode of Hving has enmany functions —about 40 percent of about 1 /eft in false color) all lug around a the genes they carry. only in the present. the fraction genes much is of intact olfactory Keep in mind that biolomore than 99 percent of all species or extinction of species. the species repulmonary tuberculosis. tuberculosis. those genes have decayed on a massive scale. October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 55 . despite decades of effort. Both micrographs are magnified 6. it has never been grown on own its in the laboratory. The leprosy bacterium can Uve only within cells of its host. in fact. he process of gene n organism flinctional that has lost great swaths DNA is cohacterium leprae. Such a history of trial and error is hardly evidence of design. not the way an engineer or a designer would. Similarly. But M. DNA and the Ultimate Foren- which WW Norton & Company. broken genes that are vestiges of its ancestry. "Use fliture. providing answers about which directions life D has taken.100 genes fossil — a far greater proportion of known species. So the tions is generally a one-way loss of gene fiinc- —once gone. The Making of the adapt to the sic of genes by Fittest: Record of Evolution. in animals that rely heavily their sense of smell. (Compare that with the E.000 genes evolution. As a refactory system that was once much more acute than sult. street the it or lose it" is Furthermore. the that if circumstances change. M. carrying around more than a thousand useless. The and loss powerful argument against the idea in the origin leprosy bacterium.000X. also host for color). coli in the human gut. its fossilization sets of genes even larger groups of individual genes. natural selection has relaxed its control on maintaining many M. for instance. on a particular trait. flinctional genes and only about six fossil genes. and why.000 intact. Natural selection cannot preserve what is not being and it cannot plan for the used. the will repeat themselves in disciplines DNA.

which ] Insect-trapping pitcher of Nepenthes bicalcarata. he wrote. but the water contained in the pitchers (about half a pint in each) was fuU of insects and other- wise uninviting. yet independent win's theory. Carnivorous plants often grow in impoverished ^^^HHteii^Bt'fPP^'^^^^^^^^l^^ ^^^^^^O terrain. about six inches from base to top. in what had: as "We we were is peninsular Malaysia. in vain. en- trap their prey in sticky "flypaper" Others. the "primed" by pumping water out. an Old World pitchthe benefit of passing hikers. it very quenched our all Alfred Russel Wal- four years later would formulate his own theory of evolution by natural selection. "Snap!" by [see Adam Summers. si- Charles Dar- the pitchers that slaked his Mount Ophir were not there for They were the insect traps of a remarkable carnivore. have traps that spring shut. On tasting it. bicalcarata and feed at nectar glands in the two fanglike thorns overhanging each pitcher's opening. suck their victims from the water with bladder-shaped traps are "fired" vacuum traps. looked about for exceedingly it thirsty.drown tactic for capturing Prey's-eye view from inside an N. and we from these natural jugs. almost multaneous with.and. er plant of the genus Nepenthes. thirst The parched Welshman was lace. and when prey inadvertendy brush trigger hairs. roughly 600 plant species capture ani- mals for food. By one means or another. |Hn^^B '^HHPH' V^^^H thirst that Of course.Life and Death in a Pitcher Carnivorous plants that seem to employ a simple dunk. rafflesiana pitcher in prey turn out to have more up Borneo their leaves. palatable. The bladderworts. pitchers 56 NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 are predominantly aquatic. who we found however. though. such as the Venus flytrap on their leaves. . and digesting prey augments the nu- trients the roots obtain from the soil. By Jonathan Moran ^P2^K In the ist on summer of 1854 stopped for a rest young Welsh a natural- expedition to southeast Asia a collecting slopes of Mount on the rocky now The Welshman and his guides had been assured that water would be available nearby. Yet none was to be Ophir." September 2006] and butterworts. though rather warm. day on of. Some. Ants of the species Camponotus schmitzi (not shown) nest only inside the enlarged tendrils that support N." At we turned last to the pitcher-plants. Capturing and kilhng animals is a role-reversal that might seem unusual for members of the plant kingdom. such ural as sundews [see "Tlie NatMoment. awaits a meal in Borneo.June 2005 and the waterwheel plant.

But in recent years investigators have learned that the plants in the genus display a wide range of feeding strategies. the upper portion of the inner wall is covered with to the inner wall ly a fatal mistake. by their fragrance. and lure the visitors into ever more dangerous territory. than terrestrial ones. is usualmost Nepenthes species. of which more than twenty occur there alone. As the plant continues growing. has confirmed that their diets ex- tend beyond the animal kingdom material. the aerial form. however. my own research. Their traps are elongate. from which capture their prey in deep there is usually no escape. all members of the genus Nepenthes. The Nepenthaceae of Old World are unrelated. from Madagascar in the west to northern Australia and New Caledonia in the east [see range map at top of next page]. Their pitchers are jug-shaped. Aficionados of the genus once assumed that all Nepenthes were passive generalists that rely only — — on nectar to capture the most basic enticement any hapless insect that stumbles into a pitcher. with two conspicuous. at least in one species. In October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 57 . with an opening typically shaded by an overhanging lid. tubular leaves from the soil. The largest such glands. its uppermost leaves bear a second kind of pitcher. More than eighty species are known. The plant's prey and they do not have wings. But the center of their diversity is the island of Borneo. In color. but they also engage in a range of nonfatal relationships with them. symbiotic and otherwise. they feed at nectar glands on the outside of the pitcher. all are familiar members of the with New family Sar- raceniaceae. too. they vary from pale green to bright red to almost black. some of which are exquisitely fme-tuned for trapping specific prey. The pitchers are about four inches long. of the pitcher. a seedling gener- number of pitchers that rest on the ground. That. parallel. Those terrestrial traps are generally urn-shaped. or mouth of the pitcher. — usually small invertebrates by the color of the pitchers and. Aerial pitchers tend to be more elongated Vine of the pitcher plant N. are concentrated around the peristome. Nepenthes species have a broader repertoire than most to include plant carnivorous plants: not only do they consume ani- mals. it has now become clear that not all their prey are animals.— Pitcher plants take a more minimalist approach: they pitfall traps. from the tendril to the pitcher mouth. Many North Americans World pitcher plants. that rise directly the and a couple cade or of new species are discovered every de- They grow throughout so. And when they do deal with animals. Depending on the Neare attracted may or may not proThe unwitting visitor that loses its grip may become prey if it faOs into the pitcher. The reasons for all now coming that diversity are to light. the Asian tropics. For example. Or the visitor may venture over the peristome and on- penthes species. in which I measure the ratios of nitrogen isotopes in the tissues of various Nepenthes species. home to thirty-one species of Nepenthes. leafy "wings" running the full length of the pitcher. Once the unsuspecting animals arrive. landing in a pool of Hquid secreted by the plant. First. Furthermore. Nepenthes pitcher plants all develop the ates a same according to basic pattern. Each pitcher forms at the end of a tendril that grows from the tip of a leaf The traps of the various species of Nepenthes exhibit a striking diversity. gracilis grows on a Cicada tree (Ploiarium alternifolium) in Brunei. the peristome vide firm footing. They vary from an inch to a foot in height and range in Uquid capacity from a teaspoon to more than a pint. Nepenthes are chmbers that need adjacent plants for support.

ofiering their prey the most basic enticement: sugary nectar. also frequent victims. which cause the prey their affinity for nectar makes easy targets. the most common prey. several years studying it is its also spent I biology. fragrance. level. iddnfesian archipelago the relatively simple to the outright bizarre. lowland scrub from Thailand across the In- New Caledonia donesian archipelago to the island of Sulawesi. N. N and its coloration makes a strong con- trast to adjacent parts of the pitcher. ^'''^^- rafflesiana give ofFa sweet fragrance many insects. So Incomes as no surprise that the structural diversity it Brunei *r>Moijnt Kinabalu NewGuinea Equalnr of Nepenthes pitchers matched by is of a diversity They range from strategies for capturing nutrients. f V V. Its pitchers are at least traviolet wavelengths. pale green. slide into the liquid making terlogged. features a color patattract pollinating the same has leafy "wings " running up exterior. .^ gracilis traps and only two to are narrow. captures ants but few pollinators. accordingly. trial" pitchers that N. " to bite through and small wasps the pitcher wall. ble. to iPKr^/^'i t^. all terrestrial pitchers do. Beetles. An becomes waor even crawUng impossi- the prey quickly — t to below. rafflesiana. giant variety of tern &'. raf- with enough power to do so before they drown. the visual and the olfactory. li|v from "terres- grow at ground and fragrance that insects. reflects green and blue. A terrestrial pitcher from > plant. The liquid about as acidic as Pepsi and full of enthat break are pitchers in coastal of N. Both kinds gent evolution: Hke flowers. Once in the liquid. Australia sunny. flight The only chance of escape observer watching ants forage down proteins — slowly digests the Nitrogen-rich compounds that digestion re- i^ LlJ^1^ ^^m^mi^ mm^ls^^y-^ twice the size of those form from Brunei pro- a rare gracilis (in fact. rafflesiana is much broader than that of gracilis. and. because attractive to ^C 'i^m^- gracilis flesiana.leases from the prey absorbed by glands carcass are in the pitcher wall. • differ aerial pitcher of a rare. them microscopic waxy scales. its It lacks the aerial pitchers' distinctive pattern and fragrance. They work by four inches long. far ft left.. Operating Sulawesi at the simple end of the spectrum are species such as N. Ants are Range of Nepenthes pitcher plants is depicted in orange. pitchers lure insects via color. duces pitchers a foot in length). and absorbs ul- number of insects N It which a large are visually sensi- In addition. PACIFIC OCEAN the natural world form follows function. the aerial pitchers of tive. patterned in colors from yellow to scarlet "' itl at Borneo could hardly fail to notice another Nepenthes species growing there. which is common in open. N. prey.-' and grow from Nepenthes' "Aerial" pitchers that upper leaves usually An NATURAL HISTORY pho- of lures. but few species have mouthparts zymes » is flies. The peristome of N. rafflesiana is a phisticated carnivore than my its smaller relative. N. >* gracilis. as October 2006 left. and they are boldly tographs on this page]. .. are compeUing examples of conver- Ri^ 'mm {see much more so- personal favorite.-' 58 N.

comparing the nitrogen-isotope of By ratios in the leaves N albomarginata with the ratios in the leaves of the ant-eating pitcher plant N. grow Most lowland Nepenthes small number tend species live in sunny habitats. pitcher and feed the many plant. or nonradioactive. immediately under the peristome [see lower photograph on this page]. to The — the attractant is the distinctive band of termites normally feed N. explained how the plant attracts the termites and traps them. the flesiana trap beetles. Because Hospitalitermes termites are vegetarians. third species occasionally gracilis and N. rafflcsiana to catch a broader spectrum of prey than A its neighbor. Both isotopes are fixed firom the atmosphere by soil micro- organisms. with their differing collections of attractants. which incorporate the nitrogen in their tissues. at James Cook University in Queensland. iso- nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15. Both the pitchers trap ants. Dennis J. Nectar glands on the peristome make little or no nectar. albomarginata. and Marlis A. rajah is the largest of all Nepenthes The species grows only on two mountains pitchers. instead. gracilis. Clarke. two stable. Planteating animals subsequently accumulate the nitrogen in their bodies. and I noted that N. along with two oth- er colleagues. The cream-colored band just below and Termites of the genus Hospitalitermes outside the pitcher's rim attracts the termites by mimicldng the lichen they eat. and the terres- The two forms of pitcher. as exists as known as stable-nitrogen-isotope analysis. enable N. alhomarginata may be grows alongside N. At- by chemical cues. an ecologist now Terrestrial pitcher of N. and I. The most to common October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 59 . where they are digested.nectar. aerial of N. June 2006]. but the pendently [see two structures evolved quite inde- "Origins of Floral Diversity. swarm on a pitcher of N. but a beneath the forest canopy." by Amy Litt. albomarginata and Hospitalitermes termites via a process known Nitrogen topes. Merbach. alhomarginata preys predominantly on termites of the genus Hospitalitermes. indeed get we confirmed much of its ni- trogen from termites. whose diet includes animal matter. perhaps foraging termites feed on this on Uchens. a husband-and-wife team of botanists at the University of Frankfurt in Germany. Large numbers of them inevitably tumble into the pitchers. albomarginata have cream-colored band of hairy-looking tissue on their outside surface. In the late 1980s. N. that N. They have aerial a no need tissue. N. Each time the nitrogen is consumed by another organism fiirther up the food chain. Clarke. and moths. As one might expect. Marlis Merbach. the lowlands of Bor- the most specialized insect predator in the family Nepenthaceae. inevitably. the band. rafflesiana in neo. the ratio of nitrogen-15 to nitrogen-14 that collects in the tissues increases. Both the and terrestrial pitchers of N. trial aerial pitchers many pollinating insects. A decade later. then absorbed through the roots of plants. termites tumble into the open. which hirsute band. Australia. albomarginata does rafflesiana. later confirmed the association between N. Charles M. in Borneo. raf- including bees. the nitrogen in their tissues is a good deal less rich in nitrogen-15 than the nitrogen in the tissues of ants. albomarginata mimics with its tracted to the pitchers.

and the terrestrial pitchers often form conspicuous mats several feet wide on the forThailand to Their structure is odd. The nectar glands are small and unproductive. ampullaria deploys ers to intercept that rain reaches the forest floor. as well as a higher overall nitrogen concentration in their sues. had lower nitrogentio 15 levels than did the plants from open areas. waxy layer on the inner wall of each pitcher is abcrucial part of the trap. ampullaria grows primarily in tropical heath them. an ecosystem. small squirrel- on invertebrates and sweet Several observers have seen tree shrews scur- rying on and around the pitchers of N. tis- Thus. Another Nepenthes with strange dietary habits lowii. What's going on here? N. ampullaria pitchers.a forest species is N. one would think sent. N. and the slippery. Such observations are purely circumstantial evidence. eight to ten inches high. ampullaria has evolved to fill its nutritional needs. A structure that developed to obtain nutrients from animal prey has now evolved further to get the nutrients from vegetable matter. he often discovered a large amount of another bountifril source of nitrogen: feces. ftin- nel-shaped mouth. and the hke. a biologist I.) highlighting worth It is how forest- dwelling N. lowii. each with a flaring. ampullaria not only traps. we compared the ra- of nitrogen-15 to nitrogen-14 in leaves of plants growing in forests with that of plants from open areas. the forest plants. per- haps drawn there by the plant's sugary offering. at the University of Victoria in British Columbia. — — above and — excised leaves. them with What is clear is stable- that the . It bears distinctive pitchers. ampullaria. material. (The Nepenthes growing in open ar- eas get all their nitrogen from whatever managed insects they to trap. however. spread in a mat about and other debris that fall unique among Nepenthes in deriving some of its nitrogen from plant to catch leaves and a large lid that secretes copious quantities gape open from the canopy. The pitcher lid is vestigial and bends away est floor. Many nutrients. flowers. but also consumes vegetable matter. In overall effect. susits mats of pitchof material even before it pected that N. as toilets? The likely suspects are tree shrews. too. and plants scavenge nitrogen as soon as it becomes available. the mat of pitchers looks like a crowd of gaping mouths waiting for food from above. To confirm our suspicions. which ranges from New Guinea [see photograph below]. Clarke noticed that the pitch- from the pitcher mouth. acidic. a is N highland species that inhabits several mountains in Borneo. so called and poor in because their soUs are sandy. a narrow waist. the limited nutrients are seldom left idle. Sure enough. of a crystalline. Inside forests. The species appears to be a foot wide over the forest floor. Hawkins. In such heath-forest trees grow thick root mats just beneath from the slow but steady rain of organic material from the 60 NATURAL HISTORY soil surface to capture the nutrients October 2006 What most like animal uses pitcher plants animals that feed fruits. Clarke along with Barbara J. N. sugary substance. Even the casual observer would not fail to notice that the species is unusual. It almost never grows aerial pitchers. but Clarke and I hope to solidify nitrogen-isotope analyses. ers rarely trap insects. which enjoyed plenty of manna from above.

a sheltered spot under the
overhanging peristome, they
dismember the carcass and con-


various species of Nepenthes have

diverse appetites:

meat, one



primarily vegetari-

at least

to prefer


most prefer

sume it, dropping small pieces
back into the fluid as they eat.

one other seems

nitrogen predigested.

Clarke hypothesizes that the re-


moval of overly large prey mat-

might think that the inNepenthes pitch-

ter prevents bacterial overload,

which evolved primarily to
trap and kill animal prey, would
be a hostile environment in
which to Hve. In fact, nothing
could be fiirther from the truth:
many animal species rely on Ne-

putrefaction of the pitcher con-

penthes pitchers for at least part of

the ants actively hunting live

and despite the
punishing acidity and enzymes,
some of them live there and
nowhere else.

mosquito larvae






and consequent

pitcher function





enough occurrence. But C.
more than merely

schmitzi does

scavenge. Clarke has observed

their Hfecycles,


Crab spider (Misumenops nepenthicola) lives
only in Nepenthes pitchers and makes its

Thirty-three species of inver-

and the living by intercepting
larvae of hoverflies, midges, and
mosquitoes, have been discovered inside the pitchers of N. hicalcarata, a Borneo endemic. Even more
remarkably, N. hicalcarata appears to have a symbiotic relationship with an ant, Camponotus schmitzi.
The tendrils connecting the base of its pitchers to
the leaf are swoUen and hoUow [see lower photograph
on page 55]. The ants hve inside them. Furthermore, the plant provides the ants with sustenance.
Beneath the Hd of each pitcher are two inch-long,
fanglike thorns that project over the mouth.
Botanists once speculated that those thorns might
prevent animals such as primates from stealing prey
tebrates, including mites

in the pitcher

then hauling out and contheir catch.



ants are not the
only danger the pitcherdwelling mosquito larvae must
The crab spider Misumenops nepenthicola, which


only in Nepenthes pitchers,

the plants' prey.



and devours prey


a kleptoparasite:

that the pitcher at-

tracts [see photograph at top of this page]

silken safety Hnes, the spider takes


Dangling from



on the

inner wall of the pitcher, waits for prey to enter, and

from the pitchers. The thorns are now known to
house giant nectar glands, at which C. schmitzi
worker ants feed.


does N.

and board



get in return for the

One might

provides to the ants?

that the ants protect the plant, perhaps



by aggressively

repeUing plant-eating animals. That's just what hap-

pens in the well-known association between certain
species of acacia trees and ants of the genus
Pseudomyrmex. But C. schmitzi ants are not


aU ag-

And a moment's thought suggests that a sym-

biotic partner that discouraged visits to the pitcher,

would be bad for business.
hicalcarata and its ant partners in their native habitat, and his observations of
the ants' remarkable behavior gives the most probable account of their contributions. Unlike most
at least

by other

Frog/ets of the genus Philautus prepare to hatch from their
eggs in the fluid of an N. bicalcarata pitcher. Whether they
can escape from the pitcher once they hatch is not l(nov/n.


Clarke has studied N.

other ants, C. schmitzi can swim.
ly enter the pitcher fluid for


onds, and haul large prey, such



ants regularas thirty sec-

cockroaches, out

of the fluid and up the pitcher wall.



then seizes




feeds at the nectar glands. If dis-

turbed, the spider drops into the pitcher's fluid and

remains there until the threat has passed.



I have watched M. nepenthicola seize and
mosquito larvae in N. rafflesiana pitchers.


Occasionally, larger animals


On several oc-

so enter the fluid for another reason.






of Ne/;fn?/)C5 pitchers. Once, while examining a large

October 2006



N. mfflesiana pitcher,



startled to discover a hairy

brown mass suspended above the fluid. It turned out
to be two small bats roosting there for the day. I have

encountered tree frogs of the genus



of N.

ceding page].

One of the most intriguing associations

between N.



terrestrial crabs

of the

genus Geosesarma. Several observers, myself included, have seen the crabs foraging in

and around the






the skin of their hands and feet,

records of rats

or rather their eggs, containing tadpoles or froglets,
floating in pitcher fluid [see lower photogmpit on pre-









in the foot-deep pitchers

on Borneo's Mount Kjnabalu.
seasonally dry areas, Nepenthes pitchers

of water for large

are the only perennial source

mammals. I missed witnessing Wallace's encounter,


have seen wild pigs tear apart N.


quench their thirst. Various species of
primate sip from pitchers in a manner decidedly more civilized than the pigs'. In fact, the Malay
term for the genus, periok kera, translates to "monpitchers to

key cup."

But what of Nepenthes'
mammals? Given

associations with the
their unusual appear-




perhaps not surprising that Nepenthes

have spawned their share of folklore. In Brunei, for




for several years, local

people maintain that the fluid from
tive properties.






as little




tested the idea.

practical uses include



hot ashes.






locale. Typically a pitcher

washed out and
left in

you understand

ing the pitchers




human head, has hair-restoraOnce strictly in a spirit of scien-

applied to the



with rice, then steamed or
done, the rice is eaten, and

the pitcher discarded.

probably fortunate that Nepenthes species
grow in the lowland rainforests now being
cleared for timber throughout their range. Never-




conversion of deforested spaces to agricommercial use may have serious implications for the long-term prospects of some lowland species. In contrast, highland Nepenthes
typically grow in locales that are protected from extheless, the

cultural or

ploitation or are so hard to access that timber extraction

is still

A more

considered impractical.


threat, particularly to certain

highland species, stems



harvest by

scrupulous collectors. Since the 1970s,


Of course,





ing the Victorian


be learned.

always a danger that a visiting

prey to a pitcher. Lizards, perhaps

sometimes drowned and dido biologists know that? The Hzards
leave behind two pairs of miniature translucent
in search of a drink, are




October 2006





by mail

order, the

as a collector's

item in

also highly prized

The demand

has fueled a

and beautiful species, such as N. rajah,
which are often smuggled from their home countries, in violation of international law.
Happily, though, many species of Nepenthes continue to thrive in the wild. Should you decide to
follow in Wallace's footsteps and ascend Mount
Ophir (or Gunung Ledang, as it is now known), you
will still fmd Nepenthes there. Just don't forget your
trade in rare

the crabs are feeding

detritus or wetting their gills remains to


the West and in Japan.

plant with an unusual nitrogen source.

plants' pitchers.

became widely

genus has had

beneath the lid of an N. lowii pitcher secrete a
sugary substance that attracts tree shrews. Some of the
shrews' feces drop into the pitchers, perhaps feeding the


when Ne-

water bottle.


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as was Queen Mother Elizabeth. Part of the challenge. the plants are impressive. Brown's opment of gardening. the writes with world looks above. Frank Kingdon Ward. so that. such obsessions were only for the private rhododendron gardens of the wealthy. Notable for dense. Tales of the Rose Tree: Ravishing Rhododendrotts and Around the World by Jane Brown David R. Even nongardeners know them members of the genus include the gaudy azaleas and the waxy. Members of the genus Rhododendron inhabit territories forming pools of incandescent lava. but in mainLong before globalization became everybody's rhododendrons were estab- business. travels to where he saw roofed by grey To Jane Brown. 00 Tiieir Travels a noted botanical collector. their tiful flowers. . $30. showy plants that readily adapt to cultivation and hybridization. Another forty-three species from the Himalayan foothiDs took root in Engsurvive in Readers of this magazine scarcely need to be persuaded of the power of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. skies. best through rhododendron-colored curtains hangfrom every rock. Marschall hsh soil in the mid-1800s.C.00 ered along the Schuylkill River not far from my The plants did well in stretch —and of Appalachian Trail. they are hardy. a founder of the British Rhododendron Association. Still other rhodo- dendrons came from remote regions of Tibet. In his book Riddle of the gardens October 2006 rhododendrons not only in the devel- stream cultural history. thick greenery and boun- as diverse as land. who florid enthusiasm. even into the mid. have thought deeply about why Darwinism has been so successful. "Carmelita" Brown's rhododendrocentrism is understandable. But few. and her brother-in-law the Duke of Windsor. Godine. with brilhant color if you catch the plants in bloom. the passage is a dark tunnel decorated with bright bouquets of white. . One of my favorite parts of the Appalachian Trail takes me along a stream so crowded are splotched 64 a valley with the white snowand everywhere the rocks swamped under a tidal wave of tense colours which gleam and glow in leagues of breaking light. was to produce plants that felt at Rhododendrons in bloom. sinogrande for the tame potting sheds ofJ. "Pimpernel" whose fiery fields home land. I dare say. was a typical rhododendrophile. Borneo. Lionel de Rothschild. of course. In 1736 a botanizing Pennsylvania farmer named John in soil far But the from their home- real aficionados also strove for new tints. While dodging an urban uprising in China he bagged the seeds of R. thanks to the derring-do of George Forrest. many Enghsh their descendants still Windsor and other places. King George VI. lishing to England some of the American rhododendrons. first NATURAL HISTORY stories give a central place. her husband. — In the wild. growing in vast. dark thickets that nished metal. on a sunny day in late May. whatever the month. a garden would display a full spectrum of blooms. gath- Bartram sent with rhododendrons that. purer hues. whose bronzed leaves glimmer faintly like sea-tar- glasses. $35. collected by Joseph Hooker during a year of travels in India and Sikkim.1900s. Switzerand the Himalayas. "Yellow Peril" heaving up against the floor of the cliff in choppy sulphur seas breaking from a long low surf of pink lacteum. Williams of Cornwall. And a quick dash through Jane Brown's chatty book will make you feel like royalty. With such gardeners exotic foreigners as cultivars. recalled his China in the early 1900s. tailored to the aesthetic designs of the landscapes Before the advent of commercial garden centers. But you don't have to be royalty to enjoy those lovely blooms today. a late Victorian who hunted flora with the panache of Indiana Jones. Hampshire. England Tsangpo Gorges. Japan. Pundits labelled them "stockbroker" flowers. . beachheads of diversity in the gardens of Europe. large-leafed bushes that shade front porches and jostle for space in the corners of backyards. Exbury Gardens.BOOKSHELF By Laurence A. One of those . and blossoms that appeared on various dates. Danvinism and Its Discontents by Michael Ruse Cambridge University Press. anyway. new create worked to variations through hy- bridization.

— New from & Hudson Thames few is Michael Ruse. as October 2006 is it NATURAL HISTORY 65 Wherever books are sold "^^ Thames & Hudson thamesandhudsonusa. of insupports slow. though the creationist critique of Darwin is by far the most visible one in the media. chemistry. Spencer's idea that the struggle for existence in the natural world queens of Egypt colorful winism. for instance. a "young earth" creationist and author of Evolu- traits —and how it What do the fossils say evolution? What insights does about molecular biology contribute? How do strands of evidence weave together into such a convergence of conclusions the disciplines (biology. the tion. claims CHRONICLE OF THE QUEENS ^ OF EGYPT fROM bARLY DYNA5IIC IIMES TO THE DEATH OF CLEOPATRA our planet? place in the who seems to seriously believe that a preponderance of the evidence demands a universe less tion: The Fossils Say No!. Ruse turns his wit examining just what Darwinism Mostly. Evolustream intellectuals. is both less and more than either its vehement critics is or its ardent proponents suppose. who has written eloquently for decades about the foundations of the Ufe sciences. lutionary biology. just a |o/rr T. Ruse argues. Prof. Ruse points out how mis- taken Spencer was about evolution and indeed. though. a professor ofphilosophy at Florida State University. His latest book ties that work together. among half. have expected more of it than it can deliver. from The London Sketch Book). Clayton "A very readable historical account as well as a handy reference. to Ruse's most compelling writing addresses the claims of main- some of whom. is often equated with though nothing about the process of natural selection guarantees thmgs must get better with time. But social Darwinism still man for modwho argue against serves as a straw ern antievolutionists what they regard as the inherent moral corrosiveness of Darwinian theory. to name few) about the history of life on ogy. as It the arch- by Peter A. virtually no one reads Spencer nowadays. Darwin (caricature ationists) claims." Robber barons cited tify their success: it to jus- the obscene concen- CHRONICLE OF THE PHARAOHS THE REIGN-BY-REIGN RECORD OF THE AND DYNASTIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT RULERS of wealth they acquired were of doing what comes nat- trations just the fruits Mein Kampf perverted those urally.000 years old. politics. / $24.95 paper Darwinist (and arch-atheist) Richard Dawkins (in rare agreement with cre- Nor a manifesta- Faustin Betbeder. giving an overview of the issues Darwin raised and the criticisms leveled against century and a him in the past In making his spirited defense of evo- vote much — basically. geol- and astronomy. / $34. progress. ideas a still further into the "fanatasy" of master race. Clayton society.95 Peter A. that speciation arises from the herited Ruse does not de- space to creationism or its pubHc school curriculum. in name of Darwinism. Among the greatest of the progressive Darwinians was the Victorian enthusiast Herbert Spencer. whose voluminous and widely read writings identhat evolution tified both nature and by Joyce Tyldesley The newest title in this popular series and the first book to recount the full history of the A selection of Discovery Channel & History book clubs 224 pages driving force in as a is mirrored in econom- and morality spawned the of thought known as "social Dar- ics. Gish. The main concession Ruse makes about engaging the creationists is to discuss. the work of Duane T.Mr:k:. 1874 tion of God's plan for the universe. than . not a form of atheism. and debunk. Perhaps his reason is that. Darwinism. strain / 273 illus. it is also the least substantial." — Science Neivs A selection of Discovery Channel & Quality Paperback book clubs 224 pages / 350 illus. natural selection those claims.

*United HealthCare Insurance Company pays a fee to AARP and its affiliate for use of the AARP trademark and other services. Amounts paid are used for the general purposes of AARP and its members. Plans by United FlealthCare Insurance Company. Is it possible to imagine Zog the caveman with a tin ear. Policy Form Number GRP 79171 GPS-1 (G36000-5). PA. The medical literature has documented cases of stroke patients who could speak and write. AARP Health Care Options is the name of AARP's health insurance and service program. to who would ask it to tell us about God. and more lab tests needed to qualify Get the added protection you need Kit. call us toll-free: to feel more secure.* can help you bridge a coverage gap until you get a primary plan or Medicare. mammoth? Did he never hum pound a drum. then. insured by United HealthCare Insurance Company. Steven Mithen. ext. What it neglected was the central role of music in the psychosocial makeup of our species. pro- studies. ends by answering nothing. or join in a comniunal dance? "Without music. "the prehistoric past is Evidence of primitive conby its very nature. Ruse has a warning: "Be^vare of anythose thing that answers everything. To explore the pre- Chardin had historic mind-set. These plans may not be available in your state/area. In his 1996 book. Call for complete information. the inability to its more or circuitry for comprehend or produce music. '^'Tmt For a Free Information It offers: • Fixed cash benefits for covered hospital stays. Faced with difficulties of such just too quiet to daunting scope. why parents sing lullabies. Language. The AARP Medical Advantage Insurance Plan. a tune. fessor Tlie Origins of Music. independently of amusia. is fragmentary. and Body by Steven Mithen Harvard University Among the Press. a tasty Mind. doctor's • Competitively priced plans • No health exams or visits. But according to the first chapter of Mithen's latest work. this supplemental plan." is reconstruct plausible one can do scenarios from bones. and eligibility requirements. or the meaning of Ufe. costs. The rhythm and modulation of a mother's voice holds her baby's at- tention before the child can distinguish the meanings of individual words. The Pre- speech. $25. for instance." Mithen writes. suggest the brain of archaeology at the University of Reading in England. is somehow wired Need origins of Neurological for music.the theologian Pierre Teilhard de anything down. but could no longer sing or play an instrument. including benefits. If you have limited or no coverage. Rather. pottery. are insured AS6I3 66 www. and other surviving ar- The Singing Neanderthab: Mind. 95 most dicey academic inquiries are the ones that deal with the origin of ness. It is human hard enough to conscious- know what goes on in the heads of our contem- who speak and write in a language we share." off. circumstantial. he argued that both the origins of thought and the origins history of the of human language are natural out- comes of evolution. without speculating about ancestors who spoke in languages long lost and who never wrote poraries. 2CN. gleaning from each an Health care J^4J^ Options' f be believed. Developmental psychologists have estabhshed that even babies respond to music. and open to a wide range of interpretation. Fort Washington. Lesions and strokes can lead to tifacts. The Singing Neanderthals. And so we're sciousness. not feeling the rhythm in the chipping of a stone Did Zog never feel the urge to move his feet when he wasn't stalking axe? on a journey instructive perspective on the human music-making. remains un- less daunted. AARP Medical Advantage Plans provide supplemental health insurance benefits and are not Medicare supplement or major medical plans. a strong sci- it is theory that provides important entific But insights irito the natural world. the best it.aarpheaIthcare. It is not the insurer. limitations. Company health coverage? AARP now for an affordable solution. exclusions. and why adults naturally adopt a high-pitched singsong delivery when That's perhaps INSURED BY United Healthcare Insurance Call across the (7/06) NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 . 1-866-387-7552. certainly not true It usually And that is of Darwinism. society. Call today. that story was incomplete.

vho seek the iravei .K. 55(lcft). and body"? Or is it just academic song and dance? Laurence A. p. Ek'Balam. he explains. 70-71. 26(bottom) and p. 14(bottom) ©Peter Blackwell/naturepl. (bottom) Marlis & Dennis Merbach. PICTURE CREDITS Cover: ©Chris African Art Collccnon 80: ©Maximilian Weinzierl/Alamy. and Mexico's is filled exotic and fauna.. thus enhancing their success in the hunt and giving them an evolutionary advantage over other families with ability. p. p. p." is W. pp.. Simon Pollard.. musical.— mm. left) Bildarchiv Preussischer Kukurbcsitz/Art Resource. of speech may even Zogs" were The the third contestcvits to be sent heme.TIME. T. When Zog's family beat out the rhythm of a dance. the. best in educational travel worldwide.^^^^^^^^^e Yucatan Peninsula which pro- duces widely used simulation software for education in astronomy. the truly for .. their music-making may have helped them work together. gether Calling on primate studies." In other words. pp. the earliest language was Holistic (not expressed so cedes the message. A409-A>ri-918 or visit our web site at ij. On an educational journey withl — airtight case as But does make an it mind. London. HighlignS^^^^^^^ the strands of this argument. p. and so forth). p. (right) Science Source. point. p. 61 (bottom). Garden Picture Library. pp. 14 (top): Museo Nacional de Sciencias Naturalcs. p. on riouDie occupancy. 56. pre- nym coined by Mithen: "Hmmmmm. "May have" and "might have" are the most common qualifiers in Mithens book. it seems. much Thus. music likens first. lf)-17. 26(top). (bottom left) Courtesy of the National Academy of Science.. pp.-. characterized by an acro- pressed as sic.iOii. /nulti-ZHodal (ex- words as by overall feeling). ©2005 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy. Madrid. 45. pp 27-28. 12(top) ©Contemporary Limited/CORBIS. ..149* border the of • in Yucatan Peninsula. 44. RaskofF. 20. Mithen the reader individual does: music From an guage. and by the time he has woven to- but also the cohesiveness of the group. nia. COME & WAKE UP IN YUCATAN . 59(top): C. 12 meals south adventure Seek • Chichen with ancient flora Itza from $1. (bottom. 61(top).. 53: Natural History staff.n-.'w. 48. p. Music could have served as an early form of communication.e. then lan- evolutionary stand- would not only help en- group music-making to groom- ing. Jarct C. maps by Joe LcMonnier. Ltd. look may be intoning Hmmmtnm • Kabah • Celestun davs. Chan.smithsonianjourneystraveladventures. 47. less musical Perhaps they also musically mimicked the motions and behaviors of the animals they hunted. pp. melody. p. right) ©1998-2004 dinosaur. Advanced 13(top): Copyright Nico Vcrcecken. 67: Dolly Setton. including the extraoidinary "Pyramid of the Iviagician"and "Temple of Masks. Laura Hartman Maestro.L. This fascinating region ruins. 60. p. Daniels. Story. based Call for ail . an activity that evokes feelings of contentment and belonging. 58(top). illustrations by Emily Danstra. 4-5: Kevin A..(top left) ©Ariadne Van Zandbergen/FLPA. 42-43: SeaPics. and Kabah.j:ned with And thrill of flexibility oui local expert speakers between ciiffarence simply understanding your destination Kal! 1-800-528-S''47 and mention promotion code. and mimetic (imitative). Explore the ruins of Chichen Uxmal. Our custom-crafted tours are created adveniurous author of The Sahm Smithsonian Journeys Travel Adventures offers the a clever Professor of Physics at Gettysburg College in Pennsybadirector iVlayans the subtitle suggests for "the origins of music. 57. Black Hills Institute of Geologic Research. Clive Boursnell. p. . land only.--. p. p. pp. Supernova about the history and architecture of Ifpu'll learn mu- Mithen's book is thoughtful and cer- and Uxmal with the author. (top right) Minden Pictures.. from your gateway. all in counterpoint as a . Tlie Singing they speak to children.wv. (bottom right) Terry Whittaker/FLPA. p. Taken the natural history of at tainly entertaining. pp. p. NY.. (bottom. humanity might have developed much as the havior of others). 62: Jonathan Moran. and experience the unique culture of modern Yucatan. and ie-j ind economic?! "really make seeing and '. 58(bottom). of Project CLEA. rhythm. colonial cities. musicality help in learning language: the melody. (bottom) courtesy Neal Larson. 5f)-52: Illustration by Christos Magganas. . Itza. 65: Wellcome &: Moniquc Fallows/SeaPics. 54. language. Jim Unger/United Media. pp.. (manipulative (aimed at affecting the bein sure the well-being of the individual. ©Chris & Moniquc Fallows. Mithen speculates.

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San Diego State's Education Center on Computational Science and 1 waterproof! lagTue. provided what are have begun to model new has views of the problem. to determine the new pattern makes temblors stress more or less hkely on adjacent faults. Seismologists begin by measuring where the Earth's how earth- stresses in the upper whether part of the crust. In the past year.sdsu. Far to the to explain its causes and ef- The fects. google." or stuck in rocks are Hkely to place by friction. and raced outward in opposite directions: northwest 202 miles to Cape Mendocino. The simulation took four days to compute. which killed at least To San Francisco earthquake and to remind the pubHc ot future netresources. which extends directly un- including wood. At the Southern Cahfornia Earthquake Data Center's site (vi/vw/. The Puente HOls Fault.S.html) shows Chck on works.carle ton.scec. and you'll learn about the when Fort Tejon event. ceramic ^-'^^nijr* & more! Incredibly strong L.html) has some remarkable movies showing the faults. to download them quickly you'll need high-speed Internet access. looks particularly & 00% to see where the danger Ues. the U.— nature. The resulting earthquake was the most destructive in Engineering (w/ww. and select "Animation of a 7. as if to mark the hundredth anniversary of the disaster. stretch. click to get a feel for —depicted swarms of as vector arrows indicating where the You can Fault that was " the San 857 1 An- dreas Fault slipped along a 220-mile Los AnRiver was reportedly "flung out of its bed. the large red dot at the up- per left.S. propagate over time along fault Hues in several active regions. history. as of this writing. the Earth has continued to wreak havoc: most notably. In the past couple of decades.7 Quake on the San /Vndreas Fault" to see the prolonged ground shaking that is hkely in the L. on the section devoted to the tour. basin if the San Andreas ruptures near Palm Springs. after the calamity. The site posted by the USGS Earthquake and Volcano Deformation and Stress Triggering Group (quake. Geological Survey has assembled an impressive collection of material on the Internet (earth recall the quake. with a devastating quake in western Iran and several major quakes in Indonesia following the disastrous temblor of October 8.ethz. click Stress By Robert Anderson on the crust is waves of all and amphtudes m tensive of geology list why kinds propagate soft sediments.html). seismic higher at The ex- sites at and." to find a Chck on last map ofpast events. Go to the World "Historic Earthquakes in Southern Map Project (world-stress-map. quakes change the 2005. then check out the ani- how quakes Cahfornia. which uses Google Earth software (available at earth. stone. The University of Southern California (veloci- Toughest Glue On|» Los ty. southeast 93 miles to San Program (w/ww/. The Angelenos like me should be concerned by the complex network of faults beneath us.edcenter." Cracks in the ground appeared near San Bernadino and in the San Gabriel Valley. how their modeling and "Stress Triggering Earthquake Probabilities" to get a brief explanation. look at the maps generated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment The break began under the Pacific let go. box. wr. geologists mations page showing index. 1906.html includes fer many that of- animations of fault motions. which I mentioned earlier. Juan Bautista. New Gorilla Tape sticks to things ordinary tapes simply can't October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 69 L .html) has that illustrate Tile Toil video chps why Rayleigh waves (which move the ground up and down) are so destructive fault. Extra Stick. has video and animations worth viewing. leading to refined assessments of hazards. seis- fault will finally release its stress. Extra Thick.usc. Start with the "Virtual Tour" of that tumultuous 1906 event. which look Uke Planet der downtown * ends hundreds brightly colored rib- of materials bons dissecting the crust. the geles — Robert Anderson writer living in is a freelance science Los ssc/3d/ssc3dproject. org/index. a section of the San Andreas the stress data site.000 people. two rrdles west of San Francisco. suddenly gave also Ocean.html) also has simulations of that infamous quake as it A rippled outward from the century mologists still cannot pinpoint when literally a pent-up Computing power. in Pakistan. after you've entered the "WSM poster" on the Early on the morning of April 18. and it left the thriving city of San Francisco a smoldering ruin.sdsc.A.

When you write stories about planetary systems with multiple stars. three-body problem. after which the two remaining objects usu- along roughly the same line of ally settle into a stable orbit. or one of the out of the system. but remain too Every 2049 years the planet's soHtary moon. as of the objects become objects moment most in cases. Raghavan and Generally. increasingly chaotic with the two with list a total as of July included 131 systems. Their the past (or future). As the eighteenth-century mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange and of scientific research articles are usually drier and more enigmatic than Martian dust. in a three-body prob- his collaborators conducted a detailed search for stellar companions among almost all known exo- planetary systems reported 2005. July 13. you don't have to worry about the physics. though. some three-body configurations do give mutual gravitational forces." in NATURAL HISTORY rise "The Five Points of them even if the chances of finding one are slight. In orbits to look for lem. picture system with two or more that in a planet stars — is. A typ- . unleashing cosmic destruction on our solar system? HappOy. Building on the work of several interacting solely through where the three orbiting light. all actly Or maybe you've others have pointed out. Atlanta examine a long-standing question: tems — with How many exoplanetary sys- those outside our solar system at least one confirmed planet have more than one The ly to scientists. Moreover. In "Two Suns. Tatooine. 2003 collaborators at Georgia State University in The planet's inhabhaving never known night. unseen in the perennial dayechpses the sixth sun after the October 2006 of the objects three flies With in a mind." by Neil deGrasse Tyson. Here's the heart of the issue. the laws of planetary and namics place on what One planet and to stable orbits [see Lagrange. bodies is far closer bodies orbit as a fairly stable. burning their civilization to the ground in a desperate effort to bring back the light. essentially binary." Deepak Raghavan and his Jim Unger. go other five have fact. were he watches two suns setting in the dusky sible. no equation can teU you ex(or will be) at every read a short sto- you can count on us astronomers famous puzzles in the history of science. April if one of the three from the other two. in companion of the host. even if two stars appear close to each ry titled "Nightfall. though. a other in the sky. the gravity of the distant body becomes too weak to have much effect. present a vivid example of the so-called stars. they may merely far apart to lie sight. the chances of finding a planet in a multi- survive in multiple-star systems? ple-star system seein Liu sUm to none. collide. set. Out there in the real universe. be gravita- tionaUy bound. The astronomers' goal was to determine whether each near the host star that star appears to be of an exoplanet passage of time.— a OUT THERE pair My Three How many planets By Charles slave of giants buffeting a puny. too. of 155 exoplanets. the and are unstable. either planet tucked into a six-star system. And because such systems are mathematically pos- which the science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov envisions a humanlike civilization on a — other astronomers in the past decade. system. 70 itants. star? is of interest not mere- it's long caught the fan- question mad. Remember the cy of nonscientists. Suns What hope is there that the planet can avoid annihilation? Either one swallows star it or the gravity of the two stars shngshots it out of the system altogether. Herman. so the two 2002]. a new star joined our own. At first blush. their two scene in Star Wars in which Luke Sky- sky? dy- stellar strict constraints can and cannot happen. one of the most walker looks across the vast desert landscape of his home planet. After all. Eventually. the paper is not about us. Titles But paper — "Two Suns a recent in the Astrophyskal Joiinml in the Sky" bucks the trend with the blunt force of a summer movie Has title. hapless with their far more powerful grav- itational fields.

tion. they would hardly notice the gravity of the secondary douThen. whether the two people them carrying are holding hands? key Hes measuring the apThe parent motions of the in stars across sky. If two of the people are orbits holding hands as ond will not only look close together but move will also they walk. they measured the distance from our planet to each star in each stellar pair: independent evidence that the stars could be close together. Of the 131 exoplanetary systems they studied. Yet given the stringent lim- on orbital stability in multibody systems. They some kind of light are — all car- flickering candles. to an astronomer.or would occasionally wander — If that — triple-star systerns. for any given pair of nearby lights. a star is moving at a breakneck pace if it takes less than a millennium to travel one degree of arc about the width of your fingernail when you hold your hand at host star.'Irles Liu Is a professor of astrophysics at the cur in the same general three-body City University of New York and an associate configuration: the exoplanet closely with the American Museum October 2006 of Natural Histoiy. All the stars are some of them at always moving. All the binary stars con- firmed by Raghavan and his team oc- Ch. Imagine that the people holding lights are walking around at slightly differing speeds while you take a series of special attention near the constella- four planets. but planets are star. That brings to mind another of science fiction's fanciful ideas. well. modify the stadium analogy a little. includes at least to systems previously identified as such systems. lions arm's length. might be part of a binary-star system. of the exoplanets' host bors. triggered exoplanetary systems are an indica- chance that such "fiction" could be fact might be a tiny bit less farfetched than we all once thought. to many thousands of light-years. halogen searchlights. as carefully pre- pared photographic sky surveys. they look to the unaided eye as if they're standing stock-still. and everything in between — as they move around the stadium. NATURAL HISTORY 71 . have gravitationally slung deadly stones toward our plan- —cosmic et missiles that caused eco- mass extinctions. So Raghavan's study presents puzzle: survived for so lions. on the field as rying the same speed and in the same direction. Raghavan and his colleagues star. speeds of millions of an hour. But they're so many trilof miles from Earth that. it is and For centuries astronomers have that most stars in rule. you might think that long-Hved itations planets near multiple stars should be a rarity. even bilin multiple-star systems? It's own Sun long been imagined that our found that between thirty and thirtysix of them about one in four are far as let's given visible tion Cancer. Now. from our vantage point.ical astronomical image is with filled Even if all ot them lie within our own Milky Way. is a solitary star so the exception. So as a while the sec- ble stars. not the it isn't. all orbiting within about half a billion miles of a primary The second 200 times that distance The miles away! tainly a configuration home to at — 100 biUion cer- is multiple-body one. Raghavan's Imagine a baseball stadium on a dark night packed with tans. and altered the course of life? If the binary configurations of logical destruction. It's just too far away. the crab. known our galaxy are part of Our Sun. stars. faint companion so far away that astronomers haven't yet rec- what ognized double. the exoplanetary system 55 Cancri. with a small. their distance from Earth can range from a few light-years stars. anyone knows. well at one of the star orbits it for it is. flinging them toward the Sun as well as toward Earth. Could such a star. In fact. to verify that both stars in a pair were approximately the same distance from Earth. From the two-dimensional "star field" in your photo. how can you tell. system orbits star in the if the any inhabitants. over the eons. both the planet and the primary star at a much greater distance. a how could so many planets have of years many millions. sounds Uke a high fraction of multistat systems. wherefaint as a typical blue or red supergiant can emit more than a million times the photographs. their lights together team took advantage of and stars their apparent stellar neigh- The team looked that followed the in the stands. for neighbors same path and they paid rrules — made decades apart. the Here's a clue. Sun's energy. move many rrdles away from the stadium and take a photograph of it. For example. Following the same logic. can Stars widely in brightness: also vary a dwarf star can emit less than a milUonth the energy of our Sun. that secretive In its distant secondary star close enough to disrupt the orbits of distant comets and other small solar system objects. orbit.

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but set fifty minutes after sun- by month's end. Daniels endangered Schaus swallowtail closes of Saturn. The shortage of nectar and host resources raised concerns that the butterfly population would not soon or ever — — Yet despite the seemingly continu- months following the made a steady comeback in In the sisted. try to Moon is so bright at the beginning of percent ——87 the occultation is Uluminated be difficult. ous misfortunes. in the constellation Canis Minor. Daniels and Stephanie and degrees west of the bluish. Late Moon about ten degrees to the plan- sistant directorfor research at the at Moon is the one spot the exceedingly thin crescent is The edge of the rings continues tilting slowly toward our line of sight. should set their clocks back one hour. P. is hidden deep in the Sun's glow throughout the month. only similar- thirty degrees ly "star" guess a husband-and-wije team. In just a few months.M. the stars within have collaborated on research ever since. met while working^ on the recovery of the federally hued Procyon. at 1:14 A.M. The Moon further wanes to last quarter on the 13th at 8:26 p. Because the hour and threethe Sun at the start of Jupiter sets about an quarters after October. On this date the "clock hour" from 1 until 2 A. If you that evening. Uke Mercury and Venus. the small island absorbed glancing blows from four major tropical cyclones. Sunday of the month. month far side that the Jaret constellation Leo. Regulus. it of the Sun. it remains south of the celestial equator.m. on the 27th. there flourish in south Florida. the night of the 9th and into the its morning hours of the 10th. October 2006 NATURAL HISTORY 75 . reaches superior conjunction.7 degrees by month's end. Field reintroductions numerous is good reason for hope Miami blue will again soon utes after sunset during the the of October. you'll probably need optical aid and a ton of luck. J. Although productive rains returned. first half though. leafless twigs.M. Miami-blue conservation efforts. By the end of the month. shines little Ringed brighter than the Planet. on the er Nature. em all times are east- daylight time. quarter satellite on the 29th at wax4:25 on the 29th. 2 A.7 degrees toward us at the start of the month and 12. of Jupiter. but binoculars help a lot. herdsman. in the constellation Libra. officially repeats. the scales. Although est it attains great- its elongation. twenty-five degrees from the Sun. in the constellation Libra. Of all also in Leo. or passes in front of. 2006. and so lies low in the sky for observers in the Northern Hemisphere. the of the 24th is the servers can see it do locate Jupiter too My evening last time most ob- this month. a telescope shows the rings' southern side tilted 13. the Miami blue per- just with an orange hue. and to new Moon on the Our somewhat lo^ver in the sky. the is now some thirty generations has produced more than 20. Even more alarming was the damage to Bahia Honda State Park. H and albeit to the left Shining at magnitude +0.NATURALISTS AT LARGE THE SKY OCTOBER IN By Joe Rao (Comifiiicd from page 28) month Mercury begins the unkind. He heads the Sanchez endangered-species researcher at the is an McGuire Center Visitors to the Florida Museum of Natural History can observe the Miami-blue breeding program firsthand during the inaugural Florida Butterfly Festival. storms. You might also spot dim Mercury. eastern standard time. on October 17th. in waning gibbous phase. six planet returns low at dusk for good telescopic view- Sanchez. To see it. All the earlier reintroduction sites were ravaged. Venus is out of sight in October. People in most of Canada and the U. The salt spray and storm surges from the storms severely damaged some 90 percent of the habitat occupied by Miami blues. about four degrees below and RM. the da Museum sity McGuire Cen- of Natural History at the Univer- of Florida in Gainesville. boosting the butterfly's chances for a fuU recovery. early in the month.000 and individuals. and creeps 2. because the bright edge of the front of them Moon first. Saturn ing. it shining. Binoculars can also trackjupiter as it puUs away from the star Zubenelgenubi. it the park. They butterfly.S.. the on- reigns over the ly bright planet well placed for vie'w- passes in should be easi- an assistant professor of entomology and as- et's left. on is fuD Because this on the 6th fuU autumnal equinox. The as a bright evening by early to mid-December. ing. realistically. and today one reason its local revival for optimism. in the constellation Bootes. the Pleiades star cluster. The old. closest to the also Mars. Mercury is so low and faint that few viewers north of the equator can see it at aU. With the ongoing support from countless organizations and a little help from Moth- At midmonth it rises soon after is a good distance above the eastern horizon at dawn. The Red Planet is in conjunction with the Sun on the 23rd. the lion.M. On the morning of the 16th Saturn lies below and slightly to the right of a fat crescent Moon. Unfortunately. transforming robust green plants into brown. It to see them may may be particularly hard disappear. the Moon occults. first-magnitude star The Moon the solar system's largest planet C.5. is is that. ofits disk ^viewing the stars es to first Lepidoptera and Biodiversity at the Flori- it is early 22nd terfor 11:13 known as the Harvest Moon. It er to catch them as they pop out from behind the dark edge. magnitude -0. an unprecedented hurricane season unfortunately accompanied them. Saturn October skies. the dog.1.5 degrees eastward in the additional research projects continue. Daylight saving time ends last Unless othenvise noted. Look for the planet low in the west-southwest about thirty min- cap- tive-breeding program continues to thrive: at fully recover. October 15.

org and environmental conditions. FLORIDA Balboa Park 1 788 El Gainesville Prado Florida 619-232-3821 www. Exposition Park paleontologists. 480-644-2230 Unique designs and from fifteen pueblos reflect the heritage on tours through the museum's NATURAL HISTORY landscape paintings complete with such startling features as includes Gertie. includes an impressive.calacademy. what science and animatronic dinosaurs tell the story of jagged peaks." More than 200 early to detailed walk-through diorama of a Mesozoic-era mid-20th-century pieces environment. Photographer Adriel with their environment. other ancestral cultures. video presen- over time? This tion explains new exhibi- tations. the 1914 now on display in "Dino& Robotic"at the San Diego Natural History Museum marked with participate in Passport program run by the Association free then re-cre- saurs: Reel Institutions you may receive scientists.sdnhm. 4. ITS REWARDS ® of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC). Los Angeles Natural History Museum OF Los Angeles County Through November 5: Casas Grandes. study how the brain and adapts changes in response to bi- RAYMOND BURR Original poster for the 1956 film has por- response to advances in sci- knowledge. (J) When we we envi- sion massive mountains and Phoenix San Diego San Diego Natural History Museum Through Arizona Science Center Ongoing: "Wired for Thought: The Developing Brain. 2007: "Dinosaurs: & Robotic. including substance use and abuse. deserts. promotional 76 San Francisco California Academy of which include physiology and behavior. modern and lifelike dinosaur models created in consultation with 2001 Colorado Boulevard 800-925-2250 www. and other seem so foreign posters for the original King features that Kong.astc. and many other lo- banded garden and golden Sciences Through February 2007: "Dinosaurs: Ancient silk colors Gallery interpreters lead visitors 53 North Macdonald Street research. entific the for more information. first featured October 2006 rainforests. Heisey captured these images cations. In 1999 a museum team drilled a well nearly half a mile deep to extract a core sample of rocks and sedi- ments representing the re- gion's geologic think of the Rockies. 900 Exposition Boulevard Presenting an up-to-date 213-763-DINO look www. Visitors can perform activities based on scientific experiments that past ninety years. and 2024 Orange Tree Lane Denver Denver Museum of Nature and Science Ongoing: 909-307-2669 "Ancient Denvers.EXPLORING SCIENCE AND NATURE iors of the exhibition's in- Around the Country ARIZONA Mesa Mesa Southwest Museum ological Through October 29: "From 600 East Washington Street Above: Images of a Storied 602-716-2000 Land.mesasouthwestmuseum." Rare movie research Reel the brain grows and changes memorabilia.nhm. Chaco views of the Aztec aerial Canyon. cartoon that giant mUlipedes. (J) desert Southwest in this exhi- CALIFORNIA bition of sixty large-scale Ruins National Monument. member of a participating museum admission at If or science more than 250 other institutions around the world. interacting the range of history and why dinosaurs became extinct. dinosaurs." Imagine you are an www. explaining habitats and behav- Anasazi." what at scientists cur- new exhibition builds Redlands this San Bernardino County Museum Through November 5: "Pottery from the Pueb- on cutting-edge los. MEMBERSHIP HAS the artists. eagle soaring above the photographs that include habitants. www.azscience." See spiders pology collection explore to spinning webs. tled dinosaurs. in which the ape bat- to today's Denver. and craftsmanship in the pueblo 875 Howard Street feeding on their prey in the cultures of the southwestern 415-321-8000 from an only public spider-viewing U. See www.S." www.sbcountymuseum. center of its kind in the U." www. Godzilla. palm trees.dmns. but this land was once dramatically different. (S) Museum of Natural History Through . (J) COLORADO of the Hohokam.S. ultralight airplane. What does current tell us about how January 1. Local working with mu- has discovered about the how Hollywood brain in early childhood. seas. The show ® you're a center. teen trayed dinosaurs during the seum and adulthood. and explores from the museum's anthro- the newest research related "Spider Pavilion. often in ated several "ancient Denver" rently think about dinosaur (J) New Discoveries. revealing the imprints that ancient and have left modern on the cultures land.

org October 2006 NAT VR. too far away. coins." the nearly complete safe skeleton of a dinosaur em- bryo from a newly discovered Dinosaur eggs and species. GEORGIA wood Atlanta the story of Egypt at the Coffinette that held Fernbank Museum of Natural History Through height of its imperial power. co-emperor Roman Empire with Marcus Aurelius. ILLINOIS KENTUCKY Through January objects that give visitors a now on the "Imperial Rome" (J) Louisville Science Center The show's "Education Alley" of the www. 161-169." See the ativity bowling ball-size egg of a Try out differently shaped Titanosaur. A board.— January 7." More than 450 artifacts portray how emperors the afterUfe. display in 312-922-9410 glimpse of an ancient time. play checkers on a twenty-foot-square much more. 2007: "Imperial cluding the pervasive role of Rome. 2007: "Tutankh- of the Pharaohs.700 years ago." An and get pointers about how you can acquire such new between natural treasures as spectac- nose plugged. or buzz around the Wright brothers' beating heart. and much more. jewelry. "Candy Louisville exhibition at Atlanta's Fernbank Museum of Science and 404-929-6300 "Swap psycholog)'.louisvillescience. ular pinecones. glass.ufl. and meet "Baby figure out Louie. and (J) Road ® king's more features from the tomb and other jects. skills. wind tunnel. tion. also describes the 1922 dis- sarcophagi. mineral samples. Find Museum opened facility features more than 20.mus. and Chicago The Field Museum Through embryos and hatchlings and separate area for toddlers January paintings of dinosaur family features activities that focus amun and the Golden Age life —help tific new scienhow explain discoveries about on gross and skills. ceramics." Twice the size of the 1977 Tut exhibi- dinosaurs reproduced and tion. A. us (J) a single tooth. sit in more exotic. or too dangerous to see. this show raised their young. discover facts about 630-859-3434 an animal's history from scitech.D. revealing new information and death. square some gallery lets Put on special goggles. in a front of the large computer- graphics screen. touch authentic wings dinosaur bones. nests from China and Ar- gentina — models of as well as "bed of a how fly around and its moons. 4801 East Fowler Avenue than 130 artifacts University of Florida 813-987-6100 boy Cultural Plaza royal burial SW 34th Street and Hull 352-846-2000 www. and Science Central Ongoing: Industry (MOST) Ongoing: "Kids in Charge!" This recently their biology.sciencecentral. bronze section includes some of mummified internal cies. ble statues. and watch a lie nails. motor fine balance.flmnh. of natural-history objects available for spection Aurora range hands-on is in- trading! own items. the facial reactions your friends bite into super- out which culture considers silkworm pupae to be deUca- Ongoing: "Virtual or somewhere Reality.mosi. chemistry. Wayne 767 Clifton Road NE SciTech Hands Tampa Museum plore the science of sweets INDIANA Fort of Natural History 2007: 1. and other items in the show tell during the 18th dynasty. Discover the difference taste and flavor by eating a jelly bean with your 800-591-2203 www.fernbank. and marurns. jewels. 1400 South Lake Shore Drive life Bust of Lucius Verus. ancient fossils. look inside an ant.M HISTORY 77 ." Ex- (J) activities for children. and includes CT scans mummified body. King Tut's January 3." to crack a Jupiter first with a mathematical 1 airplane. dig for dino- down on saur eggs." www. The show features architectural models. whether from the backyard cultural history — in this in- teractive exhibition. Watch when sour pieces of candy. coordina- of his about his hands-on now on view in the "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs" exhibition at The Field Museum in Chicago organs. Gold oband gilded- sites. 8 West Benton Street code. the Past: 2007: "Hatching The Great Di- teractive exhibits designed to encourage children's cre- and science nosaur Egg Hunt. and commoners lived in the Roman Empire more than 1. in- religion and its emphasis on The exhibition 1950 North Clinton Street covery of Tut's undisturbed 260-424-2400 tomb. in- A wide —and Bring in your On you explore things that might otherwise feet physiology. unusual 727 West Main Street innovative be too small.000 of colorful.

health. new museum in NEW MEXICO New York exhibition traces the course Albuquerque New Mexico Museum of Natural History and American Museum of Natural History Through of a river from its the mountains down Science Ongoing: "Jurassic Snakes: Alive!" Super Giants. elodeon television 433 West Murray Avenue 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway 212-769-5100 919-220-5429 www. ground. Find out forest. including sils." press create 8. stations where listen to recorded squamate NW visitors can 505-841-2800 (f) www. Visitors can watch a vertical drill candy (J) the heart of New York's surfaces of Mars Adirondack Park region. animals made possible by studying Gila mondiabetes research Central Park how different live and much more ster fertility and stream ecosys- www. at camp on the surface of IVlars. 1 1 West Jones Street 877-4NATSCI www. Step into a regula- and toss major try your hand (and tion batting cage a pitch to a virtual leaguer.slsc. and discover what athletes know about biology." At this 800-456-SLSC www. and a Sauropha- —ranging from fifteen-foot and a There are several interactive ing dinosaur of the time. feet) at climbing a rock wall. engineering. explore the inner PENNSYLVANIA NORTH CAROLINA The Academy of Natural Durham Museum Sciences October 7-8: Philadelphia of Life and "Shell Show.buffalomuseum spectacular www. cations. NEW YORK Buffalo Buffalo Museum of Science Ongoing: "Whem Ankh: The Cycle of Life in Ancient Egypt. ganax. The exhibition also features a wide range of squamate fossOs and casts. fighting each other: a Seis- tree limbs. behind- the-scenes tours of the museum's renowned malacological collection." focuses on A new gaUery the Jurassic. part of the "SPACE" exhibition. in how simOar it own lives today. as well as information on current research and breakthroughs in god NATURAL HISTORY October 2006 scientific such as river otters and brook trout species.amnh. automatons wash dirty cookie-baking uten- new holiday-themed at ing October Journey to Our Future.acnatsci. workings of a rattlesnake. exercise bicycles propel reindeer. 2007: "Lizards with More than squamates (rep- sixty living tiles & scales) are on dis- turing a dramatic display play in re-created habitats. Meet the the Egyptian visitors source in Burmese python.— MISSOURI Saint Louis Saint Louis Science Center Ongoing: "SportsWorks.wildcenter. opening October 7 Museum of Natural Sciences in Raleigh the North Carolina 1020 Humboldt Parkway Tupper Lake The Wild Center. 45 Museum Drive appH- rare West 79th Street "SPACE: 7: A and the and future space ofscience. mummies of Nes-hor and Nes-min." Learn about daily Ufe as it was Uved on the banks of the lower Nile River and more. mosaurus. OF Natural Sciences Open- past." Dive into the Science Through January 2007: "Holiday Springs and Sprockets. such as advances in (J) series. live plants. the to the Moon. one of the longest ponds land animals that ever lived four-inch tropical lizard to a (100 feet). largest annual shell show in the Northeast. and free shells and for the kids an opportunity to meet an- — other ocean denizen: SpongeBob SquarePants from the animated Nick- and whimsy. the largest meat-eat- 1801 Mountain Road 78 Simulated base in exhibition that combines equal parts art. "ride" a re-creation of the first manned spacecraft to land on the Moon. and Test your training. fea- January 7. with two huge dinosaurs complete with rock ledges.nmnaturalhistory.200 years ago. and (f) was then and. featuring thousand of seashells from all over the world. portant ways. or walk through a model of marshlands. is to our im- yet.ncmls." Touch actual rocks from the 518-359-7800 this venom. Along the way. who were priests of 215-299-1000 (J) www. Natural History Museum of the Adirondacks Ongoing: 5050 Oakland Avenue 716-896-5200 "Living River Trail. . the International Space Sta- experience gravitational force on vertical life a bicycle-powered loop high above the much more." mind and your body in one of the largest sports and science exhibitions in the world. Raleigh North Carolina Museum tion in this exhibition about can discover bog.naturalsciences.

org illustrate several characteristics. scattering trails of around the world marigolds for guiding collection of by providing opportunities site.S. open- 4400 Forbes Avenue to recreate his 412-622-3131 charting the Gulf Stream www. one of thousands on display and for sale October 2006 ® NATURAL HISTORY 79 . test the zap of an electric tion Touch the River region. www.fwmuseum. Museum 1 investigate several of the that intrigued TEXAS Fort Worth ing October Museum of WASHINGTON explain the science behind Seattle the excavation.S." Trace the in this firearms from the 17th cen- tury to World War II. with its its widely spaced teeth. a dig from and create a digital picsummarizes their ture that 414-278-2702 of Natural Sciences burkemuseum www.hmns. and Cretaceous ryphal texts. Ezekiel. images capture people Arms but they also preparing centuries-old development of firearms named. Aramaic." OF Science and History One Hermann Ongoing: "Lone Star 713-639-4629 Dinosaurs. University of Washington 17th Avenue NE 45th NE and Street and a series of Colt semi- automatic pistols from the early 1900s.S. Lufengosaurus. unusual cui'ved headcrest. with community gatherings. this exhibi- one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of the 20th cen- celebrate the 300th anniversary of his and three facsimiles. light similarities their high- between Dead in Southern Mexico. life in Triassic. Day of the and interpretation of the scrolls. teeth of the eel. Collection. method of wide-ranging achievements. the scrolls also of Natural Science include sectarian and apoc- Jurassic. 2007: Natural Science Opening October 13: "Benjamin Scrolls. objects include a Ferguson rifle from the Revolutionary War (one of the first rapid- Confederate nial altar) created firing rifles). including two that are not yet those from North America. Visitors can climb Dead Qumran near Sea. or discover BrazOian folklore's —help life Encante world beneath settlement of includ- birth.pacsci. and Greek. The show will include four artifacts that have never been dis- periods.mpm. the oldest known Biblical manuscripts. and much more. artist Isaac firearms from the Civil Bengaler)sii cone-snail shell." This manent new per- Martinsville Virginia map extract fossOs rock.y«*^ 206-543-5590 800 West Wells Street October 7-8 during the annual"5hell Show"at Philadelphia's Academy www. along with other Top portion of lightning rod designed by Benjamin Franklin. 2007: "Amazon 250 tion explores the biodiver- Pacific Science artifacts "Discovering the Dead Sea More than from the — scien- artifacts from the ancient sity and native people of tist-statesman's the Amazon ing his original printing the equipment and personal copy of the Huge exhibition documents some of the traditions with which people honor the dead in WISCONSIN the rural areas of Mexico's Milwaukee Public Museum skeleton casts from —many making — China first trip to the U. and describes what scientists are learning from unique recipes. Natural History Opening October 28: "Chinasaurs: The tion of Souls: Great Dinosaurs of China. Large-format spirits offering chocolate at by Seattle Hernandez and cmnh other scientific questions overview of dinosaur him at a time when science as we know it today was known as "natural China during the Fort Worth Museum philosophy.carnegiemu5eums." Featuring ten Voyage: Vicious Fishes and Franklin: In Search of a original scrolls Other Riches.500 historic their fossils." This exhibi- Better World. . Exo- 276-666-8600 dus." 200 Second Avenue North 206-443-2001 (J) Milwaukee Ongoing: "Nunnemacher dinosaurs from Asia and Oaxaca found in Rule — and the War as well as a variety of hands-on exhibits that VIRGINIA them to experience fieldwork and subsequent laboratory and imaging procesfor Visitors can 3 at the www.vmnh. conserva- Burke Museum Through December 31: "A Celebra- tion.£^terf*." Pittsburgh Carnegie Museum of Natural History Through January 7. the exhibition presents a fascinating fj) state. Circle Drive exhibition puts visi- tors in paleontologists' shoes ses.— Houston Houston Museum of Center Through January 7. Writ- of the exhibition examining his the aboard a 25-foot ship model river." This colorful photographic www. to home.washington. The exhibition will be anchored by a Day of the Dead ofrendu (ceremo- spe- cies 1501 Montgomery Street 817-255-9300 www. From Mmiolophosaurus. Constitu- tion explores world's largest piranha. U. The show tures five new dinosaur also fea- Houston ten mostly on parchment in Hebrew. played in public before 1001 Douglas Avenue fragments of Genesis. part tury.

viewed flick a fighter habit of lurk- dispassionately. fire.) a "amiable. ing. about them.ENDPAPER Winning Miss Muffet s Heart By Rebecca Rupp Then there's the cricket thing. though. Little Miss Muffet. (Crickets bring it on themselves with Once itself by lurking. Drop one and it — son's pet. is not a keeps it where burrowing it amuses and eating Spider aficionados refer "handsome" and to the redknee as it's a a spider the size of a hockey puck with an aggressive near-sighted little glint in flings noyed. a cricket dropped into the tarantula's cage lasts about as long as a steak dropped into a pack in a plastic enclosure of whoUy inadequate security. which not only has red knees. townspeople." but to the average arach- nophobe. To be fensive to. with astonishing sincerity to a cringing not so the hapless cricket. She who has a cell biologist books and air. If scrapes barbed hairs off its and its the position of dinner daily. there's a restful dignity to paralyze which grow on you. tarantulas are dissolved nutrients. observed close ing. especially NATURAL HISTORY some might on if. a trait common to all things powerful and large. a and eartli. Around here. and policemen. An adroit flip off the table with a spatula Rebecca Rupp breaks hke an egg a sad fact that. has ever dropped dead from a tarantula bite. late-night firight. in vermiculite.The barbed. embedded urticat- in the provoker's cause an allergic reaction. but also reddish In truth. My who eldest son. In real tarantulas are surpris- life. sinister as Tarantulas. skin. chomping down with fangs said to be strong enough to bite through to eight annoyed. anxiety attacks egged on by awful ancestral memories from the early age of mammals. They're peaceful. sang opera or communicated via Morse code Normal people don't and asynchronous who about crickets commemora- tive little cairn in the garden. you've seen the 1955 horror the spit of a cobra or the charge hairs. three and a spider . ingly!2. led to fantasies on my ii'iitten fifteen some diaboHcal part. is Four Elements iiatiiral lives sons. though it seems to me not unlikely that succumb from pure 80 pump it proceeds fuU of digestive juices. in fact. are shy creatures. the bite injects a potency that it venom of such puny poses thing larger than a little rat. The et here. viewed without the blinders of prejudice. crawling nightmare: around. The feeble venom is enough spider then feeds by slurping abdomen is knee pounces with hghtning speed. visitor. owns He tarantula. identified. is a safe cricket. tailcoat of timber wolves. looks much contemplaby and large. The spider senses the cricket's whereabouts with specialized leg hairs that detect motion. up the hard not to side with the crick- Tarantula!. Uke crickets. I've slowly or—-jiminy Cricket in Piiwcchio— a No would ever know. history of water. followed by a I dramatic apology and a have happy child- would do is national magazines. of napalm. sheep. who wore up their idiotic hopping. say.mainteshun extraneous entertainment and small talk. a is a spider with substance. if reaUy an- and raa. October 2006 which positively glamorous. it human fingernail. eriiiont with her six fish. hood memories of them: bedtime stories thought. tive. before being downed by jet full the thorax. I the trick. two ill I cats. with which anyone anywhere should be proud to share a tuffet. in ankles and a jaunty red ring around the queen. was uttering a primal scream. retiring homebodies. may those behaviors are de- relatively mild compared buU. No risk to any- person. fleeing with a shriek from her arachnid-infested tuffet. in the early days of my acquaintance with my is The aforementioned nance creatures that of a small skyscraper attacks horses. — ing — Queen Victoria —though unlike undemand- low. many Her most articles for recent (Profile Books. husband. Beside tarantulas. at it bites. live crickets. crickets begin to seem fidgety and annoying. Tarantulas. of a ing them fair. It's and the redknee. like the ag- tarantula's TV. All those scrabbly little legs set off red alerts in the primitive parts of our brains. scientists. and had such a formidable command of ethics. book 2005). to my knowledge. a spider. A a spider the size young CUnt Eastwood with tarantula. I like spiders. you. mal person." I found myself saying recently. eyes. a stiU cricket nor- Mexican redknee a come little one Since then. desirHke Virginia Woolf of rooms ous of their own. the ordinarily sluggish red- and "They're quite attractive really.

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