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LI NI U

Cun gio trnh dc liu l sch gio khoa dng cho hc sinh Dc trung hc.
c vit ngn gn vi s lng cy thuc hn ch, da theo chng trnh o
to Dc s trung hc ca B Y t ban hnh thng 12/ 2003 v chng trnh chi
tit nm 2007 ca trng. Ni dung ca cun Dc liu hc gm hai phn
chnh:
Tp 1. PHN K THUT CHUNG V DC LIU
+. i cng v dc liu .
+. K thut thu hi, phi sy, ch bin bo qun dc liu.
+. Thnh phn, tc dng ca cc nhm thuc hot cht thng c trong dc
liu.
+. K thut kim tra cht lng dc liu.
Tp 2. PHN CC CY THUC, V THUC:
Cc cy thuc, cc v thuc v cc con vt lm thuc c sp xp theo tc dng,
cng dng, trong danh mc thuc thit yu Y hc c truyn, ang c dng
tr liu cc bnh chng thng gp cng ng.
Ni dung cho mi cy thuc, v thuc gm:
+. Tn cy thuc, tn v thuc hoc tn con vt lm thuc.
+. M t thc vt, con vt hoc ngun gc v thuc.
+. B phn dng.
+. Thu hi, ch bin, bo qun.
+. Thnh phn ho hc.
+. Tc dng, cng dng, cch dng.
+. Mt s ch phm thuc v cao oen hon tn.
Mn Dc liu hc s cung cp cho hc sinh nhng kin thc v: Ngun gc,
thnh phn hot cht chnh, kim nghim s b, cch thu hi, ch bin, bo qun,
tc dng, cng dng cch dng ca cc cy thuc, v thuc quy nh trong
chng trnh. Mc tiu ch yu l xc nh c s tht gi, cht lng tt hay
xu v hng dn s dng cc cy thuc, v thuc hp l, an ton.
Trong qu trnh hc tp hc tp hc sinh cn tham kho thm nhng sch vit v
cy thuc nh:
- Nhng cy thuc v v thuc Vit Nam. GS.TS. Tt Li.
- Dc liu Vit Nam. B Y t.
- Dc in Vit Nam (Phn cc dc liu v ng dc). B Y t.
- T in cy thuc. TS. V Vn Chi.
- Ti nguyn cy thuc Vit Nam. Vin Dc liu.
L mt trong nhng mn hc chuyn mn, mn dc liu c lin quan ti cc
mn hc khc nh: Thc vt, vit v c tn thuc, ho hc hu c, ho phn
tch, kim nghim thuc, ho dc dc l, V vy hc sinh cn lin h kin
thc ca cc mn hc k trn trong qu trnh hc mn ny.
Trong qu trnh bin son cun Gio trnh Dc liu ny chng ti nhn
c s gip v gp tn tnh ca qu thy c trong b mn dc liu
Khoa dc HYD thnh ph H Ch Minh v cc qu v ng nghip gn xa.
Chng ti xin c trn trng cm n.
Cc tc gi

Mc lc
LI NI U ................................................................................................... 1
Mc lc .............................................................................................................. 2
BI 1: I CNG V DC LIU............................................................ 3
1. NH NGHA MN HC ........................................................................ 3
2. S LC LCH S PHT TRIN CA DC LIU ........................ 3
3. V TR V VAI TR CA DC LIU................................................ 8
Bi 2: K THUT THU HI, CH BIN, PHI SY, BO QUN DC
LIU ................................................................................................................ 12
1. THU HI DC LIU .......................................................................... 12
2. CH BIN S B DC LIU ........................................................... 14
3. N NH DC LIU .......................................................................... 16
4. LM KH DC LIU ........................................................................ 16
5. BO QUN DC LIU ...................................................................... 18
Bi 3: THNH PHN V TC DNG CA MT S NHM HOT
CHT C TRONG DC LIU.................................................................. 22
1. MUI V C.......................................................................................... 22
2. DC LIU CHA ACID HU C .................................................... 22
3. DC LIU CHA GLUCID ............................................................... 24
4. DC LIU CHA GLYCOSID .......................................................... 30
5. DC LIU CHA SAPONIN ............................................................. 32
6. DC LIU CHA ANTHRAGLYCOSID ......................................... 35
7. DC LIU CHA FLAVONOID ....................................................... 38
8. DC LIU CHA COUMARIN ........................................................ 39
9. DC LIU CHA TANIN .................................................................. 41
10. DC LIU CHA ALKALOID ....................................................... 43
11. DC LIU CHA TINH DU ......................................................... 49
12. NHA .................................................................................................... 52
13. CHT BO ............................................................................................ 53
14. KHNG SINH THC VT ................................................................. 56
Bi 4: K THUT KIM TRA CHT LNG DC LIU ................... 61
1. I CNG V KIM TRA CHT LNG DC LIU ............. 61
2. K THUT KIM TRA CHT LNG DC LIU ...................... 62
3. MT S V D MINH HA ................................................................. 70
PHN P N CU HI LNG GI ...................................................... 83
TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................... 85

BI 1: I

CNG V DC LIU

MC TIU N TP
1. Trnh by c nh ngha mn hc.
2. K c s lc lch s pht trin ca dc liu hc trn th gii v
ca nc ta.
3. Trnh by c mt s u im v xu hng hin nay trong vic s
dng thuc c ngun gc t dc liu v v tr vai tr ca dc liu trong ngnh
Y t v trong nn kinh t nc ta.
4. K c nhng ni dung chnh trong vic k tha v pht huy vn Y
Dc hc c truyn trong chm sc v bo v sc khe nhn dn nc ta.

NI DUNG

1. NH NGHA MN HC
Dc liu hc l mn khoa hc nghin cu v cc nguyn liu lm thuc c
ngun gc t nhin t thc vt v ng vt, trong ch yu l cc cy thuc, v
thuc1

2. S LC LCH S PHT TRIN CA DC LIU


Lch s mn dc liu hc gn lin vi lch s pht trin loi ngi. T
thi tin s, trong qu trnh sinh sng, bn cnh vic tm kim thc n, con ngi
cng tm hiu, ghi nhn nhng tc dng, cng dng cha bnh ca cy c v
nhng cy c nh: cy c lm du au, lm lnh cha nhng vt thng, cha
c cc bnh chng thng thng v nhng tc dng bt liTheo thi gian,
cc kinh nghim dn dn c kim chng, sng lc, b dung. Tch ly v c
kt thnh h thng l lun lu truyn cho cc i sau

Ch thch: Dc liu c th l ton b hay ch dng mt vi b phn ca cy hay con vt. Dc liu
cng bao gm nhng sn phm do cy c hay con vt tit ra nh: gm, nha, sp, x hnghay ly ra
c t cy c hoc ng vt nh tinh du, du mDc liu hc cn cp n cc cy c c dng
lm gia v, lm hng liu m phm, cc cy c, nm c v.v

S PHT TRIN CA DC LIU HC PHNG TY


Vo khong 5000 nm trc cng nguyn (TCN) ngi Ai Cp c i
(Babilonians) bit s dng nhiu cy thuc v thuc.
Dc liu cn ch nhiu n nhng hot cht chit xut v tinh khit
ha c t dc liu nh: berberin, rotundin, rutin, digitalin, reserpin vv
Nhng thy thuc Hy Lp c ni ting c lch s tn vinh nh:
- Hippocrate (460 377 TCN) t s ca ngnh y dc th gii. ng
ph bin kinh nghim s dng hn 200 cy thuc v thuc v nhiu cng trnh v
gii phu, sinh l c gi tr.
- Aristoteles (384 322 TCN) v Theophrast (370 287 TCN) l nhng
nh khoa hc t nhin ni ting. Nhng cng trnh ca 2 ng t nn mng
cho nhng nh khoa hc t nhin v sau nghin cu v ng vt v thc vt.
- Dioscorides (40 90 TCN), ng vit tp sch Dc liu hc (De
Materia medica) m t trn 600 loi cy c tc dng cha bnh, trong c
nhiu cy vn ang cn c s dng trong Y hc hin i ngy nay.
- Galen (129 199 SCN), ng m t phng php bo ch thuc c
ngun gc ng vt v thc vt. Galen cho rng cha bnh, khng ch bit thuc
m cn phi quan tm n bnh cnh, tui, tnh trng sc khe ca ngi bnh
v thi im dng thuc. Ngy nay ngnh Dc tn ng l bc tin bi ca
ngnh.
Trong rt nhiu th k, vic s dng cy thuc phng Ty ch yu l
da trn kinh nghim ca Dioscorides, Galen v.v c ghi chp v lu
truyn li.
n th k 15 (Thi phc hng), Paracelsus (1490 1541) nhn thy rng
cc tc dng cha bnh ca cy thuc ch do mt phn tinh ty no ca n m
thi, quan nim y l c s cho vic nghin cu cc hot cht ca cy thuc
sau ny.
- Dale vit cun Pharmacologia vo nm 1700, nh du ngnh Dc
tch khi ngnh Y.
- Linnaeus (1707 -1778) a ra h thng phn loi v danh php ng v
thc vt.
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- Cui th k 18 Scheele chit xut c cc axit hu c v nhng cht


khc t cy c. M u cho vic nghin cu thnh phn ha hc ca cy thuc
v Friederich Serturner l ngi u tin chit xut c Morphin t nha thuc
phin.
- Nm 1942 ln u tng hp c Diethyl ether l mt cht gy m, t
ngnh Ha dc c tch dn ra khi ngnh dc liu.
- Nm 1857 Schleiden phn bit c cc loi r Sarsaparilla khc nhau
bng cch quan st v so snh s khc nhau v cu to cc t bo ni b ca
chng di knh hin vi m ng cho vic kim nghim dc liu bng k
thut knh hin vi.
- Nm 1929 Alexander Fleming chit xau61t c Penicilin mt cht
khng sinh t nm Penicillium notatum t ngnh vi sinh hc c hnh thnh.
Nhng tin b ca khoa hc na cui th k 20, lm cho dc liu
hc pht trin mnh m c bit l nhng khm ph v thnh phn ha hc v
nhng tc dng ca cy thuc, v thuc.
S PHT TRIN CA DC LIU HC PHNG NG
Y hc Trung Hoa c lch s pht trin lu i, trn c s l lun ca trit
hc v tn gio, tn ti v pht trin bn vng n tn ngy nay. Trong qu trnh
pht trin Y hc Trung Hoa cn chu nh hng ca s giao thoa vn ha v y
hc vi cc nc lng ging nh: Triu Tin, Vit Nam, Ty Tng v.v v cc
nc ln khc nh: n , Ai Cp, Rp v Y hc phng Ty. Ngi Trung
Hoa tip thu nhng kinh nghim cha bnh v nhng dc liu ngy nay
tr thnh mt b phn ca Y hc Trung Hoa.
- Thi hong (2637 TCN), Ni Kinh l cun sch tp hp cc phng
php cha bnh theo y l ng phng.
- L Thi Trn (1518 1593) bin son Bn tho cng mc vo nm 1596
ph bin 12.000 bi thuc v phng thuc trong c 1892 v thuc (1094
dc liu, 444 ng vt v 354 khong vt), y l cun sch c gi tr khoa hc
v thc s b ch.
Y hc n cng sm pht trin, khong 4000 100 nm TCN trong
Kinh V (Ayurveda) cc kin thc v y hc s dng cy thuc c cp
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n. n s dng nhiu dc liu nh: Ba gc, ti, tiu, gng, thu du,
m, u khu, ph t, ngu hong, rn lc v.v
S PHT TRIN CA DC HC C TRUYN VIT NAM
Nn Y Dc hc nc ta cng c lch s pht trin lu i.
- Vo khong 4000 nm TCN, Thn Nng2 dy cho dn s dng cc
loi ng cc, rau qu lm thc phm v bit phn bit, ghi nhn mt s cy c c
tc dng cha bnh.
- Vo thi Hng Bng (2879 257 TCN) t tin ta bit nhum rng,
nhai tru bo v rng v lm cho da d hng ho, ung ch vi gip tiu ha
d dng, dng gng, hnh, ti lm gia v v phng v cha bnh. Cui th
k th III TCN, Vit Nam Giao Ch, nhiu v thuc c ghi nhn nh:
Gng, ring, qu, trm hng, hng bi, cnh kin trng, mt ong, sng t gic,
cau, s qun t, d, sn dy, long nhn, vi
- T 179 TCN n 938 SCN thi k Bc thuc, ngi Trung Hoa ly
nhiu cy thuc ca Vit Nam v trng nh: d, vi, nhn, s qun t, nhc
u khu v thu cc cng vt l dc liu nh: trm hng, cnh kin trng, sng
t gic v.v trong thi k ny Y hc c truyn Vit Nam chu nhiu nh
hng ca y hc c truyn Trung Hoa, nhng nhng kin thc ca y hc c
truyn Vit Nam cng xm nhp vo nn y hc c truyn Trung Hoa.
T 938 1884 Nh nc phong kin Vit Nam c c lp tri qua cc
triu i: Ng, inh, L, L, Trn, H, Ty Sn, Nguyn.
Cc danh y c nhng ng gp to ln cho nn y dc hc c truyn nc
ta nh:
Minh Khng thin s cha khi bnh in cung, mnh mc y lng,
ming la ht cho vua L Thn Tng (1136), bng cch tm nc cy b hn.
Chu Vn An bin son cun Y hc yu gii tp ch di bin (1391),
tng kt trn 700 phng thuc cha bnh.
Tu Tnh cha khi bnh hu sn cho hong hu Tng Vng Phi nh
Minh v c phong l i y thin s ri b gi li v quy y Trung Quc
2
Ch thch: Thn nng l T tin ca vua Hng. Thn Nng sinh ra Minh, Minh sinh ra Kinh
Dng Vng, Kinh Dng Vng sinh ra Lc Long Qun, Lc Long Qun sinh ra vua Hng.

khng r nm no. Tu Tnh li 2 tc phm c gi tr l: Hng Ngha gic


t y th v Nam Dc thn hiu. T tng ch o ca Tu Tnh v ng
hng Y hc c truyn nc ta l Nam dc tr Nam nhn. ng l ngi m
ng xy dng nn Y dc hc c truyn Vit Nam.
Hi Thng Ln ng (1720 1791), tn tht l L Hu Trc qu Hng
Yn, vi b Hi Thng y tng tm lnh 28 tp, 66 quyn. ng li mt
pho kinh nghim qu bu, c rt qua nhiu th h thy thuc c truyn nc ta
v Trung Hoa lu truyn cho hu th. ng pht huy ch trng Nam dc tr
nam nhn ca Tu Tnh, su tm c nhiu v thuc mi v ph bin cho
nhn dn s dng. Hi Thng Ln ng c coi l mt i y tn ca Vit
Nam.
- Thi k Php thuc (1885 1945), ngi Php t chc y t theo phng
Ty, hn ch ng y. Tuy th thi k ny cng li mt s tp sch c gi tr
nh:
Ch.Crevost v A.Ptlot Danh mc cc sn phm ng Dng cc
dc phm (Catalogue des produits de IIndochine Produist me1dicinuaux)
Ptlot Nhng cy thuc ca Campuchia, Lo v Vit Nam (Les Plantes
me1dicinales du Cambodge, du Laos et du VietNam).
- T nm 1945 cho n nay, sau khi ginh c chnh quyn ng v nh
nc ta rt ch trng n vic kt hp y hc c truyn vi y hc hin i. T
tng ch o ca ng v Nh nc v ng li kt hp y hc c truyn vi y
hc hin i th hin trong th gi cn b y t ngy 27/02/1955 Bc vit: Y hc
phi da trn nguyn tc khoa hc, dn tc, i chng. ng cha ta ngy trc c
nhiu kinh nghim qu bu v cch cha bnh bng thuc Ta, thuc Bc. m
rng phm vi hc cc c, cc ch cng nn ch trng nghin cu v phi hp
thuc ng v thuc Ty. T ti nay nhiu ch th ngh quyt ca ng v
Nh nc ch o ng li kt hp y hc c truyn vi y hc hin i, xy
dng nn y hc Vit Nam.
iu 49 chng III, hin php nc CHXHCNVN c ghi: Pht trin v hon
thin h thng bo v sc kha nhn dn trn c s kt hp y hc, dc hc hin
i vi y hc c truyn.
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Nhiu t chc dc liu v y dc hc c truyn dc thnh lp nh: Vin Dc


liu Vit Nam. Vin y hc c truyn Vit Nam. Hi Dc liu Vit Nam. Hi
ng y Vit Nam.
Nhiu ti liu v cy thuc c bin son nh:
-

Dc liu Vit Nam. B Y t

Dc in Vit Nam. B Y t

Nhng cy thuc v v thuc Vit Nam. GS.TS Tt Li,

Cy C Vit Nam GS.Phm Hong H

T in cy thuc. TS. V Vn Chi

Ti nguyn cy thuc Vit Nam. Vin Dc liu.

kt hp y hc c truyn vi y hc hin i, ngnh dc liu nc ta ang tp


trung vo 5 lnh vc sau:
1. To ngun nguyn liu lm thuc

2. Chit xut cc hot cht t dc

3. Kim nghim tiu chun ha dc liu

liu

5. Hin i ha cc dng bo ch thuc y hc c 4. Nghin cu cc hot cht mi


truyn.

3. V TR V VAI TR CA DC LIU
Thuc s dng trong phng v ca bnh c hai ngun gc: Thuc c
ngun gc t nhin (Dc liu) v thuc tng hp (Ha hc). Xu hng chung
ca th gii hin nay l tr v s dng cc sn phm c ngun gc t nhin, v
nhn thy rng cc thuc c ngun gc t nhin an ton hn thuc tng hp. Hn
na c mt vi loi ung th, mt s bnh mn tnh c th cha khi bng thuc Y
hc c truyn, nhng ti nay cha c thuc tng hp c tr.
Theo thng k ca T chc Y T Th Gii c ti 20.000 loi dc tho
c s dng. 80% dn s th gii da vo ngun thuc c gc dc liu. Trn
25% thuc s dng trn lm sng c ngun gc thc vt. Doanh thu t ngun gc
dn xut t cc nc pht trin ang ngy cng tng. Th trng thuc c ngun
gc thc vt trn th gii hin nay khong 30 t USD. Nhiu bit dc ng
dc ca chu c tiu th mnh chu u.
8

Nc ta c h ng, thc vt rt phong ph v a dng t ni cao n


ng bng v b bin, c nc c tnh c khong 12.000 loi trong c
khong 4.000 loi cy ang c s dng lm thuc. Nhiu dc liu l mt
hng xut khu c gi tr nh: Qu, hi, sa nhn, hoa ch, da cn
Nh nc ta xp cy thuc vo loi cy c u tin bo tn v pht
trin. ng thi c chin lc pht trin YHCT t 2005 2010. Phn u ti
nm 2010 thuc sn xut trong nc p ng khong 60% nhu cu ca Bnh
vin, trong c 30% s thuc c sn xut trong nc l thuc c ngun gc
t dc liu v thuc YHCT. m bo c nhng nhu cu nh nc
u tin xy dng cc vng nui trng v ch bin dc liu nhm m bo
nguyn liu cho sn xut thuc v tng cng xut khu dc liu. Nh vy
dc liu c mt vai tr quan trng trong ngnh Y t v trong nn kinh t nc
ta.

CU HI LNG GI .
Chn mt cu tr li ng nht:
1. Dc liu l mn hc nghin cu :
a. Ngun nguyn liu dng lm thuc
b. Ngun gc sinh hc
c. Ngun gc thc vt
d. Tt c u ng
2. Danh y khng thuc nn Y hc Vit Nam
a. T o Hnh
b. L Thi Trn
c. L Hu Trc
d. Tu Tnh
3. Ngi xut ra tng dng thuc Nam tr cho ngi Vit Nam
a. Chu Vn An
b. T o Hnh
c. Tu Tnh
d. Hi Thng Ln ng
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4. Ngi a ra h thng phn loi danh php ng vt v thc vt


a. Galen
b. Dioscorides
c. Dale
d. Linnaeus
5. Dioscorides mt nh dc liu hc vit tp sch
a. De Maleria Medica
b. L ngi Hy Lp
c. M t trn 600 loi cy c tc dng cha bnh
d. a, c l ng
6. Ngi c nh hng ln ti y dc hc phng ty thi phc hng l :
a. Paracelcus
b. Celcus
c. Galen
d. Serturner
7. Ngi sng lp tht s ra ngh thuc Vit Nam :
a. Chu Vn An
b. Nguyn B Tnh
c. Hi Thng Ln ng
d. Hyppocrate
8. tng chit hot cht t cy thuc cha bnh xut pht t :
a. Y hc La M c i
b. Paracelcus
c. Serturner
d. Y hc hin i phng ty
9. Quan tm n trng thi ngi bnh, tui, v thi gian dng thuc ... cha
bnh ch khng phi ch bit n thuc l quan nim ca :
a. Galen
b. Dale
c. Linnaeus
d. Theophrast .

10

10. Trnh by v tr v vai tr ca dc liu trong ngnh y t v nn kinh t nc


ta .

11

Bi 2: K

THUT THU HI, CH BIN, PHI SY, BO


QUN DC LIU

MC TIU HC TP
1. Trnh by c nhng nguyn tc chung ca k thut thu hi, phi sy,
bo qun v ch bin s b dc liu.
2. Lit k c nguyn nhn nh hng n cht lng dc liu v cc
bin php khc phc bo qun tt dc liu.
3. Thc hin ng cc k thut trong cng tc thu hi, phi sy, ch bin,
bo qun m bo dc liu c cht lng tt trc khi a vo s dng lm
thuc.
NI DUNG CHNH

1. THU HI DC LIU
T l hot cht cha trong dc liu ph thuc vo thi k pht trin ca cy
thuc, v vy vic thu hi phi ng thi v (ng ma), ngha l ng thi im
m b phn dng lm thuc cha nhiu hot cht nht.
V d: Cy bc h, thu hi lc cy bt u ra hoa, khi y hm lng tinh du v
t l methol trong tinh du cao nht. Nu thu hi lc cy cha ra hoa hm lng
tinh du gim, lc hoa tn hm lng tinh du v methol u gim mnh.
4 nguyn tc chung ca k thut thu hi:
+ Thu hi ng dc liu, ng b phn dng, ng thi v.
+ Nhng b phn trn mt t nn hi vo lc kh ro, khi tri kh sng.
Khi nhng b phn si mt t (r, thn r, r c) c th phi ti nc trc
khi thu hoch lm cho t mm, d o hn v sau cn phi ra sch trc khi
ch bin.
+ Thao tc thu hi phi kho lo, nh nhng, khng lm gip nt cc b phn cn
thu hi v cc cy cn li trong vn.

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+ Trong qu trnh thu hi cn phi loi b cc phn h thi, vng a khng


dng c, trnh ln cc tp cht l nh: t ct, c di, tn cng ch
bin v sau.
R, C, THN R (Radix, tuber, rhizoma)
R, r c, thn r nm di mt thu hi lc cy b tn li, s c nhiu hot cht
hn. Ty loi cy m c th thu hi vo cui ma thu sang ng hay cui ma
ng. Khi o phi cn thn, khng lm t, gy, xy st v cn phi loi b
phn c r ni cao trn mt t (Ngh, gng, sinh a, ng quy, tam tht)
THN G (Lignum)
Thn g thu hi vo ma thu hoc ng, khi cy rng l, lc thn cy cha
nhiu hot cht, g chc v c lu. Bc v b hay ch nh ngay sau khi thu
hi lm cho dc liu nhanh kh (T mc)

C CY (Herba)
Cy thu hi khi cy bt u ra hoa, ct ly phn thn v cnh mang l v hoa, b
phn thn cnh khng cn l v gc r (Ru mo, ch mu, ngi cu)

V CY (Cortex)
Thu hi cy vo cui ma ng hay u ma xun khi nha cy hot ng
mnh v s c nhiu hot cht nht. Bc v cy thn cnh, r bnh t v v ca
thn cnh, r gi c nhiu bn, t hot cht (Qu, hong b, tang bch b)

L CY (Folium)
L cy thu hi khi cy sp hay bt u ra hoa l thi k cy quang tng hp mnh
nht, khi l pht trin y v cha nhiu hot cht nht, hi sm hn
cht lng gim v c th gy hi cho cy, i vi cy sng 2 nm thng hi
vo nm th hai s c nhiu l v l c nhiu hot cht hn (Dng a
hong).

13

bo v cy nn hi l bng tay, c th dng dao, ko ct cnh nh


ri bt l.

Khi hi l cy c nh: C c dc, trc o,cn phi eo gng

tay bo v.
L hi c phi ng vo st c mt tha, trnh p mnh lm l gip nt,
hp hi, thm en.

BP CY (Apex)
Hi bp cy vo ma xun khi cy ny nhiu chi v l non ca chi cha n
bung ra(bp sim, bp i)

HOA (Flos)
Thu hi hoa khi hoa sp n hoc bt u n, nu hoa n v th phn
cnh hoa s d rng lm gim cht lng (Kim ngn hoa, he hoa, cc hoa).
Hi hoa bng tay, nh nhng. Khi thu hi thng khng hi cung, tr khi
c quy nh c th.
Xp hoa thnh lp tha, khng xp qu nhiu hoa, khng ln t, trnh
phi nng, trnh xo trn mnh v trnh vn chuyn nhiu.

QU (Fructus)
Qu mng: Qa mng thu hi khi qu bt uchn hoc sp chn lc dch qu
t nhy hn. Hi qu lc tri mt, trnh hi lc nng gt qu s chng hng; trnh
cc qu mng chn p vo nhau lm qu b thm, d thi. Qu sch, khng
nn ra nc, nu qu khng sch cn ra nc th phi ra nhanh, sau khi ra
phi thm kh, ring, dng ngay, khng nn lu v v qu b thm nc,
mt bng v d b thi. ng qu mng cn c cng, lt cho m, ch
mt.
Qu kh: Qu kh thu hi trc khi qu kh hn (sung y t,)

2. CH BIN S B DC LIU

14

CHN LA
Chn la nhm loi b cc tp cht (rm rc, t ct, dc liu khc, cc b phn
khc ca cy ln vo), dc liu vn nt, dc liu nhim mc mt m bo
dc liu t tiu chun qui nh.

LM SCH
2.2.1. RA: Cc b phn nh r, r c, thn r nm di mt t sau khi thu hi
cn phi ra sch, th phi ra nhanh khng nn ngm dc liu qu lu. Hoa,
bp, cnh nh ch cn lc la, sng sy, hoc ra nhanh, v sau khi ra s phi
phi lu hn lm gim cht lng v tn thi gian.
2.2.2. SNG SY: Sng sy kt hp vi lc la loi b tp cht ln vo dc
liu.
2.2.3. CO, GT HAY BC V NGOI: Co b v ngoi (sn dy), gt sch
v (c mi), bc b v (thin mn).

BM, BO, THI


Bm thnh tng khc hay on ngn (ch mu, lc tin), bo thi thnh phin
(ng quy) lm cho tin li khi ch bin v s dng.

NGM, TM
Dng nc thng, nc vo go c ngm nhm lm gim c tnh ca dc
liu trc khi ch bin (m tin, hong mn) hoc ngm lm cho mm d thi
mng khi ch bin (x can). Tm gim, ru (ru gng, ru sa nhn), nc
ng tin thay i tnh v tc dng ca v thuc (hng ph, thc a, cam
tho)

Cc dc liu rn, cng cn c trong vi gi hay vi ngy cho mm, d


bo thi mng, cng c khi cho dc liu ln men trc khi ch bin (sinh a,
v qu).
15

CHNG,
Chng, cho chn (thin mn, ngh) hoc nhng vo nc si dit men
(long nhn) trc khi phi sy kh.

NG GI
ng gi bo v dc liu khi b h hng trong qu trnh bo qun v vn
chuyn. Bao gi dc liu cn dng cc loi bao b c kch thc, khi lng,
hnh dng thch hp. Trn bao b phi c nhn tin cho vic kim tra, theo di
v s dng.

3. N NH DC LIU
Dc liu c ngun gc tho mc thng cha rt nhiu enzym (men) nh cc
enzym thy phn, enzym oxy ha, enzum trng hp haSau khi thu hi c
m thch hp cc enzym s hot ng mnh nhit 25-500C, c th lm h
hng cc hot cht. V vy trong mt s trng hp, ngi ta phi tin hnh
nh dc liu bng cch ph hy enzym, c th p dng 3 cch sau:
+ Dng cn si: Thc cht l chit xut dc liu bng cn cao ang si. Sn
phm thu c l mt sung dch cn hoc cao cn (nu thu hi li cn).
+ Dng nhit m: Dng hi cn hay hi nc xng dc liu (long nhn)
+ Dng nhit kh: Sy nhit cao trong mt thi gian ngn.
Tuy nhin, khng phi lc no cng cn phi dit enzym m c nhng trng
hp phi to iu kin cho enzym hot ng lm tng hm lng cc hot cht
mong mun (v qu, sinh a, dng a hong).

4. LM KH DC LIU
+ Lm kh dc liu l a m ca dc liu v mc an ton bo qun
c lu, khng b nm mc, vi khun v cc tc hi ca men (enzym) c sn
trong cy( m an ton ca ht l 8 10%, ca hoa, l, v cy l 10 12%,
r v dc liu c ng l 12 15%).
16

+ Lm kh dc liu l mt loi l mt quy trnh k thut quan trng, khng ch


nh hng ti hnh dng bn ngoi, m cn c ti phm cht, thnh phn ha
hc, tc dng cha bnh ca dc liu kh cng. Nhit lm kh phi thch
hp vi tng b phn dc liu nh: dc liu cha tinh du (bc h, kinh
gii) 30 400C, dc liu mng mnh (hoa, l) 40 500C, dc liu
cng chc (thn, cnh, c, r) c th ti 60 = 700C. S thng thong tt lm
cho hi nc thot ra nhanh hn gip dc liu mau kh v cht lng tt.
C hai phng php lm kh chnh l phi v sy:
PHI
Phi lm kh dc liu trong iu kin t nhin. C th phi dc liu di nh
nng mt tri hay trong bng rm (m can). Phi n gin, d thc hin, t tn
kmnhng ph thuc vo thi tit, d nhim bi bm, rui nhng, mt s
hot cht c th b bin i bi tia t ngoi nu phi di nh sng mt tri
4.1.1. PHI NNG
Phn ln cc dc liu c th phi di nh nng mt tri, nht l cc dc liu
cha nhiu nc nh: thn, r, c, ht, v cy phi nhanh kh cn chia nh
dc liu. V d: c, qu nh th nguyn, c, qu to phi b i, b t ra
phi.
Khi phi phi tri mng dc liu trn sn phi, trn cc tm lip hoc trn gin.
Thng xuyn xi o cho nhanh kh v cn ch c bin php che y thch
hp trnh bi bn, cn trng, rui nhng.

4.1.2. PHI TRONG BNG RM


Phi trong bng rm bo v mu sc, hng thm. Thng p dng i vi
cc dc liu cha tinh du (bc h, qu), dc liu d bin mu, mt mi nh
cc loi hoa (cc hoa, kim ngn hoa).

SY
Sy l phng php lm kh dc liu bng nhit lng nhn to. Khc vi phi,
sy c thc hin trong cc l sy, bung sy kn nhng c l thng hi. Sy

17

tuy tn km nhng khng b ng v thi tit, hp v sinh, gip dc liu nhanh


kh hn v cc hot cht trong dc liu t b nh hng
C nhiu kiu l sy, bung sy t qui m th cng n cng nghip vi nhit
sy c th iu chnh c.
Dc liu cn c chia nh n kch thc thch hp, tri mng trn cc khay
v phi thng xuyn xi o trong khi sy.
iu chnh nhit sy thch hp i vi tng loi dc liu, theo nguyn tc
nhit c nng ln dn dn t thp ln cao.
+ Giai on u sy 40 500C.
+ Giai on gia sy 50 600C.
+ Giai on cui sy 60 700C.
C th sy thng hoc sy di p sut gim trong cc t sy chn khng,
nhng phng php sy di p sut gim ch c p dng i vi cc thuc
hoc dc liu qu him m nhit sy cao c th lm h hng hot cht.
Cng c th lm kh dc liu bng phng php sy ng kh (sy lnh), bng
cch lm lnh nhanh dc liu nhit rt thp (-800C) nc cha trong
dc liu kt tinh thnh cc tinh th nh v sau cc tinh th nc s thng
hoa trong chn khng. Phng php ny gip cc hot cht trong dc liu c
bo v gn nh nguyn vn, khng b bin i.

5. BO QUN DC LIU
Trong qu trnh tn tr dng lu, dc liu phi chu nh hng ca nhiu yu
t nh: m, nhit , nm mc, cn trngThc hnh bo qun tt (GSP)
nhm gi cho hnh thc v phm cht ca dc liu khng b gim st trong qu
trnh tn tr.
M
m khng kh l nguyn nhn chnh lm gim cht lng dc liu, nc ta
c m trung bnh l 85% l iu kin thun li cho nm mc, cn trng
ph hoi. m thch hp cho bo qun dc liu l 60 65%. khc phc
m cao, kho phi kh ro, mt, thong gich ng h thp m. Kim tra
k m an ton ca dc liu, trc khi nhp vo kho v nh k trong khi lu
18

tr ti kho nu dc liu qu m phi x l ngay. Nu dc liu d ht m th


phi ng trong bao b kn, c th dng cc cht ht m (vi sng, than ci,
silicagel) chng m mc.
Cc dc liu cha nhiu tinh bt (Bch ch, hoi sn, lin nhc, bch trut)
c thy phn an ton thp cn phi xng sinh nh k trnh nm mc, mi
mt.

NHIT
Nhit cao lm bay hi tinh du, lm cht bo d b i kht, cht ng b ln
men, nhit kt hp vi m cao lm cho cc hot cht trong dc liu d b
thy phn v to iu kin cho nm mc, su b pht trin nhanh. Nhit thch
hp bo qun dc liu l 250C. khc phc nhit cao cn phi xy dng
kho cha dc liu phi ch ng khng ch c nhit khi tri qu nng v
d dng tin hnh o kho theo nh k.

NM MC
Nhit kt hp vi m lm nm mc pht sinh trn dc liu. Dc liu b
nm mc pht sinh trn dc liu. Dc liu b nm mc s sinh ra acid hu c
v cc c t lm h hng dc liu. Cn phi thng xuyn kim tra, o kho,
phi sy nh k, nu pht hin c nm mc phi tch ring, x l ngay nh: chi
mc, lau bng khn thm nc hoc thm cn, ra, phi sy li, ri tia
gammav c k hoch s dng sm, nu nhim nng th phi loi b.

CN TRNG
Cc loi su b, mi mt, chutlun rnh rp, cn ph lm gim phm cht v
khi lng dc liu. Cn phi thng xuyn kim tra, nu pht hin c su b,
mi mt phi x l ngay (phi sy li, xng cloropicrin, phun thuc chng
mi).

BAO B NG GI

19

Bao b ng gi phi m bo cc yu cu k thut ca ngnh, bao b phi sch,


kh v chc chn. Nu lng dc liu t th ng bao, ni cao ro trn cc
gi k, nu nhiu phi c kho ring, c liu cn c ng gi cn thn, xp
trn k, xa tng v cch xa trn kho.

CU HI LNG GI :
1. Yu t no sau y nh hng mnh nht ti DL trong thi gian bo qun :
a. Nhit
b. nh sng
c. m
d. Su b, nm mc
2. Yu t no sau y nh hng mnh nht ti cht lng DL thu hi ti mt
vng nht nh :
a. iu kin sinh thi ca cy
b. Thi gian thu hi
c. c tnh di truyn ca cy
d. Phng php ch bin
3 . m an ton bo qun dc liu
a.

50 60 %

b.

60 -65 %

c.

60 70 %

d.

70 -75 %

4. Nhit thch hp bo qun dc liu :


a. 20

b. 25

c. 30

d. 35

5. m an ton ca ht
a. 6- 10 %
b. 6 -8 %
c. 8- 10 %
20

d.

8 -12 %

6. Nhit lm kh thch hp i vi dc liu cha tinh du l


a. 25- 30 0 C
0

b. 30- 40
c

40- 50

d. 50- 60 0 C
7 . Ngi chit xut mt khng sinh t nm l ai?
a. Alexander Fleming
b. Schleiden
c. Galen
d. Dale

8. Trnh by nguyn tc chung ca k thut thu hi


9. Bin php x l khi pht hin dc liu c nm mc ?
10 . So snh u nhc im ca phng php phi v sy ?

21

Bi 3: THNH

PHN V TC DNG CA MT S NHM

HOT CHT C TRONG DC LIU


MC TIU HC TP:
1. K c khi nim, tnh cht chung, trng thi tn ti trong thin nhin, tc
dng v cng dng cha bnh ca mt s nhm hot cht thng gp trong dc
liu.
2. Chit xut, nh tnh xc minh c mt s nhm hot cht chnh c trong
dc liu.
3. Nhn bit v phn bit c mt s loi tinh bt, bt dc liu, tinh du, du
m v nha.
NI DUNG CHNH:
Mt s nhm hp cht thin nhin (hot cht) Quyt nh tc dng, cng
dng cha bnh, thng c trong dc liu l: Mui v c, Acid hu c, glucid,
cht bo, glycosid tim, anthraglycosid, saponin, tanin, flavonoid, coumarin,
alkaloid, tinh du, khng sinh thc vt
1. MUI V C
Mui ca cc nguyn t a lng (c hm lng cao) thng tn ti di dng
ha tan trong dch t bo trong cy nh: Mui kali, natri, magne Mui tham
gia vo qu trnh iu ha p sut thm thu trong t bo thc vt v trong c th
ng vt. Mui kali c tc dng li tiu v lm tng tc dng ca cc glycosid tr
tim.
Cc cht vi lng l nhng nguyn t c hm lng t 10-5 - 10-3 % hay siu vi
lng c hm lng nh hn 10-6 % c trong cy nh: ng, km, cobalt, selen,
st, iod, phosphor v.v Nhng cht ny thng tham gia vo thnh phn ca cc
enzym iu khin cc qu trnh trao i cht trong t bo. Cc nguyn t nh
selen, km, ng l nhng cht b sung quan trng tng cng kh nng
chng oxy ha ca c th.
Cc kim loi nng nh: ch, thy ngn, cadimi v.v cng tn ti trong cy vi
mt lng rt nh. Nhng kim loi ny c th tch ly trong c th ngi v gy
ra nhng tc dng c hi khi c s dng lu di.
2. DC LIU CHA ACID HU C
22

KHI NIM CHUNG V ACID HU C


Acid hu c l nhng hp cht c nhm carboxyl, c cng thc chung l: RCOOH. Trong thin nhin acid hu c c th tn ti di 3 dng: Dng t do,
dng mui v dng ester.
- Dng t do c v chua nh: Acid citric c trong qu ca cc loi thuc chi
Citrus (chanh, cam, qut, bi), acid tartric c trong qu nho, acid ascorbic c
trong qu kim anh, sn tra
- Dng mui vi cc cht kim s lm gim hay khng cn v chua na nh: kali
tartrat, natri citrat, calci ascorbat
- Dng ester lm cho qu chn c mi thm nh: Acetat amyl trong tinh du
chui, butyrat ethyl trong tinh du da
Ngoi cc acid hu c n gin nh: acid citric, acid tartric, acid oxalic v.v
Trong cy cn tm thy cc acid hu c c bit khc nh: acid aconitic trong
cy u (Aconitum fortunei Hemls), acid cinamic trong cy qu (Cinamomum
sp.), acid maldelic trong hnh nhn ng (Amygdalus communis), acid
protocatechic v acid gallic l nhng thnh phn cu to nn tanin. Cc acid c
nhm amin ng ch nh: Cucurbitin trong ht cy b ng (Cucurbita pepo L.),
acid quisqualic trong ht cy s qun t (Quisqualis indica L.) v.v

Acid citric

Acid Protocatechic

23

Acid maldelic

Acid gallic

Acid aconitic

Cucurbitin

Acid quisqualis

NH TNH ACID HU C TRONG DC LIU


Mui xc nh acid hu c t do trong dc liu ta c th c dch p dc liu
ti, hoc dch chit dc liu vi nc ct trung tnh tc dng vi
hydrocarbonat kim s thy si bt do to kh CO2
R-COOH + NaHCO3

CO2 + H2O + R COONa

TC DNG CNG DNG CA DC LIU CHA ACID HU C


- Cc acid hu c nh acid acetic, acid citric, acid tartric v.v c dng trong
thc phm.
- Dc liu c acid hu c nh: Chanh, cam, m, me, sn tra c tc dng li
tiu, nhun trng, kch thch tiu ha.
- Acid benzoic c trong cnh kin trng (Styrax benzoin Dryand.) v mui natri
benzoat c tc dng st khun v long m.
- Acid cafeic, chlorogenic c trong nhiu dc liu c tc dng li mt.
- Cucurbitin c trong ht b ng v acid quisqualic c trong s qun t dng
cha giun sn.
3. DC LIU CHA GLUCID
Glucid (carbohydrat) l mt nhm cc hp cht hu c bao gm:
- Cc ng n (monosaccharid) nh: Glucose, fructose, galactose.v.v
- Cc ng kp (Oligosaccharid) khi b thy phn cho t 2 6 phn t ng
n nh: Saccharose, lactose, maltose v.v
- Cc dn cht v cc sn phm ngng t ca cc cht ng (Polysaccharid)
nh: tinh bt, cellulose, gm, cht nhy, pectin

24

- Cc cht ng v tinh bt c to thnh trong qu trnh quang tng hp xy


ra trong cy xanh.
NHNG GLUCID THNG GP TRONG DC LIU
3.1. MONOSACCHARIT (NG N)
ng n nh: glucose, fructose c trong mt hoa v cc loi qu chn.
3.2. OLIGOSACCHARIT (NG KP)
Oligosaccharit nh: ng ma (saccharose) c trong c ci ng, ma, tht nt
v cc loi tri cy. ng mch nha (maltose) l sn phm thy phn tinh bt
bng enzym amylase trong mm ng cc, thu c khi lm mch nha. ng
sa (lactose) c nhiu trong sa ng vt.
3.3. POLYSACCHARID
- Homopolysaccharid: Homopolysacharid l cc polysaccharid n gin hnh
thnh do s ngng t ca duy nht mt loi monosaccharid. Homopolysaccharid
quan trng c s dng nhiu l tinh bt v cellulose.
- Heteropolysaccharid: Heteropolysaccharid l nhng polysaccharid phc tp
hnh thnh do s ngng t ca khng t hn hai loi monosaccharid.
Heteropolysaccharid thng c s dng l: gm, cht nhy, pectin, thch v
alginat.
TINH BT
KHI NIM CHUNG V TINH BT
- Tinh bt l glucid d tr tn ti di dng ht c kch thc v hnh dng khc
nhau cha trong cc c quan d tr ca cy c nh: qu, ht, r, c (Bng 1).
Di tc ng ca enzym c sn trong cy tinh bt s b thy phn thnh cc
ng n ha tan trong dch t bo v chuyn n cc c quan s dng cho
qu trnh h hp.

25

Bng 1. Hnh dng v kch thc ht tinh bt


Nhm

Loi tinh bt

c tnh

Hnh dng
Tinh bt go

Tinh bt go

Nh (2-12m) ht n hnh
a gic c nhiu cnh.

Hnh

( Amylum

Thng gp ht kp c khi

Oryzae)

kt thnh m rt nhiu

gic

ht..
T l mt chm nh, vn
tng trng khng r
Tinh bt bp

Ht tinh bt hnh a gic,

( Amylum

him khi trn, kch thc

Mayris)

Tinh bt bp

4-25m.
T hnh chm, hnh sao hay
phn nhnh, vn khng r.

Hnh

Tinh bt

chm

sn dy

cu

(Auerariae)

Hnh chm cu hay hnh

Tinh bt Sn dy

chung nh (2-10m)
T l 1 im

Puerariae)

Hnh

Tinh bt d

da

(Amylum Coicis)

26

Tinh bt d
T phn nhnh hnh sao.
Ht trung bnh

Tinh bt khoai

Knh thc trung bnh 50

ty

m, c ht ln n 80

Tinh bt khoai ty

100 m. Thnh thong c


(Amylum Solami)

ht kp 2 hoc 3. t l mt
im u hp, vn r.

Tinh bt u xanh
Tinh bt u
xanh

Kch thc 50m


T di phn nhnh hnh
xng c

(Amylum
Phaseoli)

Ht

Tinh bt hoi sn

trng
Tinh bt

Ht tinh bt hnh trng c


khi hnh chung, di 20

hoi sn

80 m, trn 20m.

(Amylum

T di khng phn nhnh

Dioscoreae)

nhiu ht khng thy t.

TNH CHT
- Tinh bt khng tan trong nc lnh nhng trng n (h ha) khi un nng vi
nc.
- Tinh bt d b thy phn bi acid hoc enzym, vi acid s thy phn xy ra
hon ton cho glucose.
C6 H12O6 (C6H10O5)n + nH2O

H+ (1+n) (C H O )
6 12 6

Vi enzym s thy phn xy ra khng hon ton cho cc sn phm khc nhau ty
thuc vo ngun gc ca tinh bt v loi enzym.
Amylase
Tinh bt

27

Maltose + Dextrin + Glucose.

Khi b thy phn nht ca dung dch h tinh bt gim dn v cc cht ng


c phng thch.
NH TNH XC NH TINH BT TRONG DC LIU.
nhit thng v trong nc, vi dung dch iod 1% (TT), phn t tinh bt s
hp ph iod cho mu xanh tm.
- Khi thy phn tinh bt (bng enzym hay acid), phn t tinh bt b ct ngn dn
lm cho mu xanh ca tinh bt vi thuc th iod chuyn dn sang tm ri nu
hng v cui cng c th mt mu hon ton.
- C th nh trc tip dung dch iod 1% (TT) ln vi phu thc vt xc nh
dc liu c tinh bt.
- Trong t nhin, tinh bt tn ti di dng ht nm trong t bo thc vt. Tinh
bt ca cc loi thc vt khc nhau phn bit c nh s khc nhau v hnh
dng v kch thc khi quan st chng di knh hin vi.
- Ht tinh bt c th c hnh a gic, hnh chm cu, hnh da, hnh thu knh
cu to bi nhiu lp ng tm xung quanh mt im gi l rn ht. Nh n
c th kim tra c thun nht ca tinh bt v pht hin s nhm ln, pha
trn hay gi mo (Bng 1).
CNG DNG CA TINH BT
- Tinh bt c dng lm lng thc, ch to ru etylic v bt ngt
- Trong ngnh Dc tinh bt c dng lm t dc cho thuc vin nn, lm
nguyn liu sn xut ng glucose, cn etylic
DC LIU C NHIU TINH BT
1. Sn dy (Pueraria thomsonoo Gagnep.), h u (Fabaceae)
2. d (Coix lachryma-jobi L.), h La (Poaceae)
3. Hoi sn (Diosorea persimilis Prain et Burkill.), h C mi (Dioscoreaceae).
4. Hong tinh (Polygonatum sp.), h Tc tin (Convallariaceae).
CELLULOSE

28

- Thnh phn chnh ca mng t bo thc vt l cellulose, si bng vi cha


khong 97 - 98%, si cy h Gai (Urticaceae) c t 75 - 90%, thn cy h Ci
(Cyperaceae), h La (Poacea) c khong 30 - 40%.
- Cellulose l mt Homopolysaccharid ging nh tinh bt nhng cc phn t
glucose trong cellulose kt hp vi nhau to thnh nhng b si bn chc.
- Cellulose khng tan trong nc v dung mi hu c nhng tan c trong dung
dch km chloride m c v dung dch Schweizer {Cu(NH3)4} (OH)2
(hydroxyd ng trong amoniac).
CC DN CHT CA CELLULOSE V CNG DNG
- Cellulose vi tinh th, Methylcellulose (MC), Natri carboxyl metylcellulose
(NaCMC) l nhng sn phm thy phn v bn tng hp ca cellulose. Chng c
kh nng to gel bn vng vi nc v trng n mnh trong nc to thnh
dung dch keo c dng lm t dc bo ch nh tng, hn dch, t dc dnh,
t dc r trong vin nn, Acetophatalat cellulose khng tan trong mi trng
acid c dng bao phim vin tan trong rut.
GM, CHT NHY, PECTIN.
KHI NIM CHUNG V GM, CHT NHY, PECTIN
-

Gm,

cht

nhy

pectin

nhng

polysaccharid

phc

tp

(Heteropolysaccharid) c ngun gc t thc vt, c to ra do qu trnh bin


i mng t bo.
- Gm l cht nha do cy tit ra v c li khi gp nhng iu kin khng thun
li nh: Cy b tn thng, b su mt, b nng hn
- Cht nhy l cht d tr c kh nng ht nc mnh gi vai tr vn chuyn
nc trong cy.
- Pectin l thnh phn cu to ca mng t bo ca cy v mt s loi to.
- Gm, cht nhy, pectin c kh nng trng n khi gp nc, v vy c th nh
tnh v s b nh lng bng cch xc nh ch s n ca dc liu.
CNG DNG

29

- Gm c dng lm cht nh ha to nh dch thuc, lm t dc dnh trong


bo ch nh: gm arabic, gm adragant.
- Cht nhy c dng lm thuc nhun trng, cha to bn, lm mi trng cy
vi sinh nh: Rau cu cn gi l thch Agar-Agar, thin mn, mch mn
- Pectin lm thuc cm mu ng rut, iu tr tiu chy, lm cht nh ha
trong bo ch nh: ci bi (v qu gia ca qu bi).
- Gm, cht nhy cn c dng h vi trong cng nghip vi si.
DC LIU CHA CHT NHY, PECTIN
1. M (Plantago major L.), h M (Plantaginaceae)
2. Thin mn (Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.), h Thin mn
(Asparagaceae).
3. Mch mn (Ophiopogon japonicus Ker.), h Mch mn (Haemodoraceae)
4. Sm b chnh (Hibiscus sagittifolius (Kur.) Merr.), h Bng (Malvaceae).
5. Rau cu (Glacilaria sp.), h Thch hoa thi (Galidiaceae).
6. Ci bi (Pericarpium Citri grandi), l v qu gia ca cy bi (Citrus
grandis (L.) Osbeck.), h Cam (Rutaceae).
4. DC LIU CHA GLYCOSID
KHI NIM C BN V GLYCOSID
Glycosid (heterosid) l nhng hp cht hu c c cu trc phc tp to thnh do
s ngng t gia mt phn khng phi l ng R, gi l aglycon hay genin, vi
mt phn gm mt hay nhiu ng gi l ose.
Ngng t
R X H + HO ng

R X ng
Thy phn

X = Oxy c gi l O Glycosid, tng t X = Cacbon c C Glycosid


X = Nitro c N Glycosid v X = Sulfur c S Glycosid

30

V d: Aloinosid c trong cy l hi (Aloe vera L.), h L hi (Asphodelaceae)


va l mt O - Glycosid, va l mt C - Glycosid.

Aloinosid

- Phn aglycon (genin) c

cu trc ha hc rt khc

nhau, phn ny quyt nh tnh cht tc dng, cng dng ca mi glycosid.


- Da vo cu trc ca aglycon phn bit nhng nhm glycosid khc nhau:
Glycosid tr tim, saponosid (saponin), anthraglycosid, flavonoid, taninoid
(tanin)
- Phn ng (ose) c th l monosaccharid hay oligosaccharid, cng c khi c
1, 2 hay nhiu chui ng gn vo nhng v tr khc nhau ca aglycon, phn
ng lm tng tan trong nc ca glycosid.
GLYCOSID TR TIM
KHI NIM CHUNG V GLYCOSID TR TIM
- Glycosid tr tim l nhng glycosid c phn aglycon c cu trc steroid, c tc
dng c hiu ln tim. liu iu tr c tc dng cng tim, chm nhp, iu ho
nhp tim. Liu cao gy nn, chy nc bt, tiu chy, yu c, lon nhp tim v c
th lm ngng tim. Glycosid tim c xp trong danh mc thuc c bng A.
- Cu to ha hc chung ca glycosid tr tim gm 2 phn: aglycon v ng.
- Phn aglycon gm c: Khung hydrocarbon c cu trc steroid c 17 carbon,
gn vi mt vng lacton 5 hay 6 cnh vo v tr C17 ca khung.
- Phn ng: ngoi cc ng hexose v pentose thng gp trong cc glycosid
nh glucose, rhamnose v.v cn thy cc ng 2,6 - desoxy hexose c trng
ca glycosid tr tim nh: Oleandrose, digitoxose
- V d: Oleandrin c trong l cy trc o (Nerium oleander L.), h Trc o
(Apocynaceae).
Oleandrin

31

TNH CHT
- Glycosid tim tan c trong cn, nc nng, t tan trong dung mi hu c km
phn cc, tnh tan ca dng aglycon th ngc li vi tnh tan ca dng glycosid.
- Glycosid d b thy phn bi acid hoc enzym, vi acid th s thy phn xy ra
hon ton cho sn phm cui cng l aglycon. Tc nhn l enzym c sn trong
cy c kh nng ct bt cc phn t ng cui mch cho cc glycosid th cp.
- Tnh cht ca cc glycosid tim th hin qua cc phn ng ha hc ca khung
steroid, ca vng lacton v ca ng 2,6 desoxy (xem phn thc hnh nh
tnh glycosid tim).
MT S DC LIU CHA GLYCOSID TR TIM.
1. Trc o (Nerium oleander L.), h Trc o (Apocynaceae).
2. Sng d hoa vng (Strophanthus divaricatus Hook. Et Arn.), h Trc o
(Apocynaceae).
3. Thng thin (Thevetia neriifolia Juss.), h Trc o (Apocynaceae).
4. Cy ay qu di (Corchorus olitorius L.). h ay (Tiliaceae).
5. DC LIU CHA SAPONIN
KHI NIM CHUNG V SAPONIN
Saponin (Saponosid) l mt nhm glycosid c nhng tnh cht chung nh:
- To bt bn khi lc vi nc,
- Lm v hng cu khi tip xc trc tip cc nng rt long
- c i vi c
- V ng nhn, i khi gy kch ng nim mc, lm ht hi, mt.
Da theo cu trc ha hc ca phn aglycon chia saponin thnh 2 loi: Saponin
steroid c 17 carbon v saponin triterpenoid c 30 carbon.

32

Ginsenosid

Asiaticosid

V d:
- Ginsenosid l mt nhm saponin triterpenoid thuc nhm 4 vng c trong nhn
sm (Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.), v cc cy thuc h Ng gia b (Araliaceae).
- Asiaticosid l mt saponin triterpenoid thuc nhm 5 vng c trong cy rau m
(Celltela asiatica L.), h Hoa tn (Apiaceae).
CHIT XUT, NH TNH XC NH SAPONIN TRONG DC LIU
CHIT XUT
- Saponin d tan trong ethanol, methanol, butanol, nc v cc hn hp cn
nc, kh tan hoc khng tan trong cc dung mi hu c km phn cc.
- Dng aglycon th ngc li, tan tt trong cc dung mi hu c, khng tan trong
nc.
- Da vo tnh tan chit xut, tinh ch saponin.
- Trong nh tnh saponin, ngi ta thng chit saponin bng cn (EtOH,
MeOH) vi cc cn khc nhau, c dch chit n m c ri kt ta saponin
bng dung mi km phn cc nh ether, aceton v.v cng c th tinh ch
saponin bng cch phn b gia nc v n-Butanol. Vi cc th nghim tnh to
bt, tnh ph huyt th ch cn s dng dch chit nc m khng cn phi tinh
ch.
NH TNH
- nh tnh xc nh saponin trong dc liu, ngi ta thng dng th
nghim tnh to bt, tnh ph huyt, tnh c i vi c.
- Ch s bt (CSB), ch s ph huyt (CSPH) hay c dng nh gi saponin
trong dc liu. (Xem phn thc hnh).

33

+ Ch s bt: l pha long cn thit ca 1g dc liu to c mt lp bt


cao 1cm sau khi ngng lc 15 pht, tin hnh trong iu kin quy nh.
+ Ch s ph huyt: L s mililit dung dch m cn thit ha tan cc saponin
c trong 1g dc liu gy ra s ph huyt u tin v hon ton i vi mt loi
mu chn, tin hnh trong iu kin quy nh.
- Cc phn ng ha hc cng c s dng nhng mc c hiu thp so vi
cc nhm hp cht khc.
- Phn ng Liebermann Burchard ln mu vi tt c cc dn cht c nhn
steroid trong c saponin steroid.
TC DNG, CNG DNG.
- Long m, cha ho: Vin ch, thin mn, ct cnh, cam tho.
- Li tiu: Ru mo, ru m, mch mn, thin mn.
- B dng: Nhn sm, tam tht, ng gia b, inh lng.
- Khng vim: Cam tho, ngu tt, c xc.
- Khng khun, khng nm, c ch hot ng ca virus: Cam tho, rau m, l c
chua, mm khoai ty.
MT S DC LIU CHA SAPONIN
1. B kt (Fructus gleditschiae) l qu gi ca cy b kt (Gleditschia fera
(Lour.) Merr.), h u (Fabaceae).
2. Cam tho (Rhizoma et Radix Glycyrrhizae) l thn r v r ca cy cam tho
(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) hay (G. uralensis Fisch.), h u (Fabaceae).
3. Ng gia b (Cortex Schefflerae octophyllae) l v thn ca cy ng gia b
chn chim (Schefflerae octophylla (Lour.) Harms.), h Ng gia b
(Araliaceae)
4. Ngu tt nam (Radix Achyranthis asperae) l r ca cy c xc (ngu tt
nam) (Achyranthes aspera L.), h Rau dn (Amaranthaceae).
5. Nhn sm (Radix Ginseng) l r c ca cy nhn sm (Panax ginseng C.A.
Meyer.), h ng gia b (Araliaceae)
34

6. Tam tht (Radix notoginseng) l r c ca cy tam tht Panax notoginseng


(Burk) F, H. Chen.), h Ng gia b (Araliaceae).

6. DC LIU CHA ANTHRAGLYCOSID


KHI NIM CHUNG V ANTHRAGLYCOSID
Anthraglycosid (anthraranoid) l nhng glycosid c phn aglycon l dn cht ca
9,10 anthracendion (antraquinon).
Ty theo cng dng, anthraquinon c chia thnh 2 nhm: nhm phm nhum
v nhm nhun ty:
- Nhm phm nhum l nhng dn cht c 2 nhm OH k cn nhau, thng c
mu cam n ta. Thng gp trong cc cy thuc h C ph (Rubiaceae).
V d: alizarin (1,2-dihydroxy antraquinon), purpurin v acid rubrierythrinic, c
trong r cy thin tho (Rubia cordifolia L. h Rubiaceae).
- Nhm nhun ty thng c 2 nhm OH v tr 1 v 8 v v tr 3 thng l
cc nhm th -CH3, -CH2OH, -CHO, -COOH. Chng thng c mu vng nht
n vng.

R
1,8 - dihydroxyanthraquinon
R = -CH3 (Chrysophanol)
9,10-anthracendion

R = -CH2OH (Aloe emodin)

(anthraquinon)

R = -COOH (Rhein)

V d: chrysophanol, aloe emodin v rhein, c tm thy trong thn r cy i


hong (Rhizoma Rhei), ht tho quyt minh (Semen Cassiae torae)
Trong cy Anthraglycosid c th tn ti dng kh (anthron hay anthranol) hay
dng oxy ha (anthraquinon). Dng kh c tc dng x mnh nhng gy au
bng v vy mt s dc liu cha anthraglycosid khng nn dng ti hay mi
35

thu hi, m phi mt nm sau mi dng dng kh chuyn thnh dng oxy
ha.

+2H

+2H

-2H

-2H

Anthraquinon

Anthron

Anthranol

TNH CHT, NH TNH ANTHARAGLYCOSID TRONG DC LIU


- Cc dn cht ca antraquinon u c mu t vng, vng cam n .
- D thng hoa nhit cao, ngng t li nhit lnh.
- Dng glycosid d tan trong nc, dng t do tan trong cc dung mi hu c
nh: ether, chloroform
- Cho phn ng vi kim (NaOH, KOH, NH4OH) to cc mui phenolat c
mu tan trong nc (phn ng Borntrager).
nh tnh
- nh tnh anthraglycosid, ngi ta da vo phn ng Borntrager vi nguyn
tc l cc hp cht anthraglycosid cho phn ng vi kim to cc mui phenolat
c mu tan trong nc.
NaOH
MU TH

Mu
Long

- Phn ng Borntrager c th thc hin trong ng nghim, ngay trn m thc vt,
trn bn mng soi bt dc liu hay sau khi lm phn ng vi thng hoa.
- Anthraquinon (dng aglycon) d dng thng hoa nn cn c nh tnh bng
th nghim vi thng hoa (xem phn thc hnh).
TC DNG CNG DNG
Nhm nhun ty:

36

Cc anthraglycosid thuc nhm nhun ty c tc dng trn rut gi sau khi b


thy phn bi Beta-glucosidase ca h vi khun rut v b kh thnh dng
anthron hay anthanol l dng c tc dng lm tng nhu ng rut gy kch thch
tiu ha, nhun trng hay ty x ty theo liu s dng.
Ngoi ra anthraglycosid cn c tc dng khng nm v dng da. Mt s khc
cn c tc dng thng mt, li tiu, chng khi u.
Ch :
- Thuc anthraquinon c tc dng chm sau 8 12 gi dng thuc. Thuc lm
tng co tht c trn t cung, bng quang, thn trng khi dng cho ph n c thai,
ngi b vim bng quang v t cung.
- Thuc c bi tit qua sa, thn trng vi nhng b m cho con b, bi tit
qua nc tiu lm nc tiu c mu hng.
Nhm phm nhum:
Anthraquinon thuc nhm phm nhum thng c dng nhum vi si,
lm cht mu trong thc phm, dc phm v m phm, mt s khc c tc dng
h huyt p, khng nm, chng khi u.
MT S DC LIU CHA ANTHRAGLYCOSID
1. Mung tru (Folium Cassiae alatae), l l ca cy mung tru (Cassia alata L.),
h u (Fabaceae).
2. Tho quyt minh (Semen Cassiae torae), l ht ca cy tho quyt minh (Cassia
tora L.), h u (Fabaceae).
3. i hong (Rhizoma Rhei), l thn r ca cy i hong (Rheum palmatum L.),
h Rau rm (Polygonaceae)
4. Nhu (Radix Morindae citrifoliae), l r ca cy nhu (Morinda citrifolia L.), h
C ph (Rubiaceae).
5. L hi (Resin Aloe verae), l nha ly t dch l c c li ca cy l hi (Aloe
vera L.), h L hi (Asphodelaceae).
6. Phan t dip (Folium Sennae), l l phi hay sy kh ca cy phan t dip
(Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), h u (Fabaceae).
37

7. Ba kch (Radix Morindae), l r phi hay sy kh ca cy ba kch (Morinda


officinalis How.), h C ph (Rubiaceae).
8. H th (Radix Polygoni multiflori), l r c phi hay sy kh ca cy h
th (Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.), h rau rm (Polygonaceae).

7. DC LIU CHA FLAVONOID


KHI NIM CHUNG V FLAVONOID
- Flavonoid l nhng glycosid c mu, (Anthocyanidin c mu xanh, hay
tm, cc dn cht flavon, flavonol c mu vng nht, vng, vng m hay
khng mu) thng gp phn lm cho hoa, l, qu ca cc loi thc vt c cc
mu sc sc s khc nhau.
- V ha hc Flavonoid l nhng glycosid c phn aglycon l nhng dn cht ca
diphenypropan (C6 C3 C6), gm 2 vng benzen A v B ni vi nhau qua mt
mch 3 carbon. Thng c cc nhm OH cc v tr 3, 5, 7, 4- v 5 ca nhn
thm. Mch 3 carbon thng to mt d vng oxy 6 hay 5 cnh (vng C).
B
A

B
A

Rutin

TNH CHT, NH TNH


Tnh cht v nh tnh flavonoid ch yu da vo cc phn ng ca d vng C v
ca cc nhm OH phenol.
Phn ng Cyanidin (Phn ng ca vng C):
Di tc dng ca cc tc nhn kh (Mg/HCl , Zn/HCl , NaBH4 v.v)
vng C ca flavonoid s b kh lm cho dung dch chuyn thnh mu TC
DNG, CNG DNG

38

- Flavonoid c hot tnh vitamin P c tc dng lm bn vng v gim tnh thm


ca thnh mch mu.
- Flavonoid c dng phi hp trong iu tr cc chng cao huyt p, bnh chy
mu chn rng. c dng iu tr cc bnh suy yu thnh mch, d chy
mu nh bnh tr, chy mu cam v cc chng sung huyt.
- Flavonoid c tc dng chng oxy ha, dp tt cc gc t do c xem nh l
nguyn nhn ca nhiu bnh chng khc nhau.
- Mt s Flavonoid c tc dng khng khun, c bit l t cu khun, dng cha
ho, vim ph qun, thng hn, t, l.
- Mt s Flavonoid cn c tc dng khng vim, chng d ng.
MT S DC LIU CHA FLAVONOID
1. Hoa he (Sophora japonica L.), h u (Fabaceae)
2. Kim ngn (Lonicera japonica Thunb.), h Cm chy (Caprifoliaceae).
3. C mc (Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Eclipta prostrata L.), h Cc (Asteraceae).
4. Si t (Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.), h Cc (Asteraceae)
5. Cy nc nc (Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurtz.), h Chm t (Bignoniaceae).
6. Artichaut (Cynara scolymus L.), h Cc (Astaraceae).
7. ch mu (Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet), h Hoa mi (Lamiaceae).
8. T mc (Caesalpinia sappan L.), h u (Fabaceae).

8. DC LIU CHA COUMARIN


KHI NIM CHUNG V COUMARIN
Coumarin l cc hp cht t nhin dn cht ca phenyl propanoid (C6-C3) vi
khung c bn l benzo- -pyron, c mt s tnh cht sau:

benzo- -pyron
39

- Dng aglycon, d kt tinh, khng mu, c mi, thm, d thng hoa.


- Dng glycosid c th tan trong nc, dng aglycon thng d tan trong dung
mi hu c km phn cc.
- Coumarin d b m vng lacton bi kim to thnh mui tan trong nc v s
ng vng tr li khi acid ha.
OHH+

Coumarin

Mui

- Sau khi m vng lacton bng dung dch kim, cc coumarin n gin s to
thnh mui coumarinat ca acid coumarinic.
NH TNH
NH TNH COUMARIN BNG PHN NG HA HC.
Phn ng vi dung dch FeCl3
Cc cht dn coumarin c OH phenol t do s cho mu xanh vi thuc th
FeCl3.
Phn ng ng m vng lacton
Da vo tan khc nhau khi m v ng vng lacton trong mi trng kim v
acid s b nh tnh coumarin.
Phn ng vi thuc th diazo.
Da vo phn ng gp i vi mui diazo cho mu bn vng t vng ti cam,
cam ty thuc vo cc dn cht khc nhau ca coumarin.
S tng hunh quang trong mi trng kim di tc dng ca tia t ngoi.
Trong mi trng kim tia t ngoi c kh nng chuyn mui coumarinat t
dng cis thnh dng trans lm hunh quang ca coumarin sng mnh hn.

cis
40

trans

Th nghim vi thng hoa


Da vo kh nng d thng hoa ca coumarin c th tin hnh th nghim vi
thng hoa coumarin bm trn lam knh, ri soi knh hin vi s thy nhiu tinh
th hnh kim khng mu. Khi soi vi 1 git dung dch I2 + Kl s thy tinh th
Iodocoumarin mu nu sm hoc tm.
TC DNG, CNG DNG
1. Lm gin n v chng co tht ng mch vnh (r tin h, ht c rt)
2. Chng ng mu (tc dng ca cc dn cht dicoumarol) nh: calophylloid
trong cy m u.
3. Lm bn v bo v thnh mch (hot tnh ca vitamin P) nh: Bergapten c
trong bch ch, x sng
4. Khng vim, khng khun, khng HIV nh: calophyllolid, callolid,
inophyllolid trong cy m u.
MT S DC LIU CHA COUMARIN
1. Ba dt (Folium Eupatorii), l l ca cy ba dt (Eupatorium triplinerve
Vahl.), h Cc (Asteraceae).
2. Bch ch (Radix Angelicae dahuricae), l r c ca cy bch hcir (Angelica
dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm) Benth. Et Hook. f.), hoc (Angelica dahurica
(Fisch ex Hoofm) Benth. et Hook. f.var.formosana (Boiss) Shan et Yuan.),
h Hoa tn (Apiaceae).
3. Tin h (Radix Peucedani), l r ca cy tin h (Peucedanum prearuptorum
Dunn.), hoc P. decursivum (Miq) Maxim.), h Hoa tn (Apiaceae).
4. Si t (Herba Wedeliae) l cc b phn trn mt t ca cy si t
(Wedelia calendulaceae Less.), h Cc (Asteraceae).
5. M u (Calophyllum inophyllm L.), h Mng ct (Clusiaceae).

9. DC LIU CHA TANIN


41

KHI NIM CHUNG V TANIN


Tanin (taninoid) l nhng hp cht polyphenol, c ngun gc thc vt, c v cht
v c tnh thuc da.

\
- Tanin d tan trong kim long, tan trong hn hp cn nc, tan trong cn cao
, glycerin, propylenglycol, aceton v ethyl acetat, khng tan trong dung mi
hu c km phn cc.
- To ta vi dung dch nc ca protein.
- To phc mu vi dung dch st III clorid (dd FeCl3)1%.
Trn y l nhng tnh cht quan trng ng dng nh tnh tanin trong dc
liu.
Da vo cu trc ha hc ngi ta xp tanin vo 2 nhm chnh:
- Tanin thy phn c (tanin pyrogallic)
- Tanin khng thy phn c (tanin ngng t, tanin pyrocatechic).
TC DNG, CNG DNG CA TANIN
1. Tanin lm kt ta protein c tc dng lm sn se da v nim mc, c dng
iu tr: tiu chy, cha vim rut mn tnh. Cha bng, cha cc vt thng
nh, cc tn thng l lot trn da.
2. Tanin to ta vi mui ca kim loi nng, vi cc alkaloid c dng cha
ng c kim loi nng, ng c do cc alkaloid c khi cht c cn nm trong
h tiu ha, trc khi dng th thut ra v sc rut.
Ch : Khi dng liu cao ng ung tanin gy xt rut v to bn, nn trnh
dng cho tr em. khc phc nhc im ny ngi ta dng dng kt hp ca
tanin vi gelatin, albumin, casein
MT S DC LIU CHA TANIN
1. Ng bi t (Galla Chinensis)
42

2. Mng ct (Garcinia mangostana L.), h Ba (Clusiaceae).


3. i (Psidium gujava L.), h Sim (Myrtaceae)
4. Tr (Camellia sinensis O. Ktze.), h tr (Theaceae)
5. Sim (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Wight.), h Sim (Myrtaceae).

10. DC LIU CHA ALKALOID


KHI NIM CHUNG V ALKALOID
Alkaloid l nhng hp cht hu c, c cha nit, a s c N trong nhn d vng,
c phn ng kim, thng gp trong thc vt, thng c dc lc tnh mnh v
cho nhng phn ng ha hc vi mt s thuc th gi l thuc th chung ca
alkaloid

Arecolin

Ephedrin

V d: Arecolin c trng ht ca cy cau (Areca catechu L.)


Ephedrin c trong cy ma hong (Ephedra sinica Stapf).
TNH CHT V NH TNH
TNH CHT VT L:
- Th cht:
Cc alkaloid c oxy trong cng thc phn t (C, H, O, N) thng c th cht rn
nhit thng nh: Berberin (C20H18NO4), quinin (C20H24N2O2), reserpin
(C33H40O9N2).
Nhng alkaloid khng c oxy (C, H, N) thng th lng nh: Nicotin
(C10H14N2), spartein (C15H26N2).
43

Tuy nhin cng c mt vi cht c oxy nhng vn th lng nh: arecolin


(C8H13NO2) khng c oxy th rn nh: conessin (C22H40N2)..
- Mu sc, mi v: Hu ht cc alkaloid khng mu, c v cay nh: capsaisin,
piperin.
- tan: Ni chung cc alkaloid base thng khng tan trong nc, d tan trong
cn v trong cc dung mi hu c t phn cc nh: ether, cloroform, benzen
Ngc li cc mui ca alcaloid d tan trong nc, khng tan trong cc dung mi
hu c.
TNH CHT HA HC:
Alkaloid l nhng cht hu c c cha nit, c tnh kim yu, tan trong cc dung
mi hu c, khng tan trong nc. vi acid long d dng to mui
alkaloid d tan trong nc.
H+
Alkaloid Base

Mui Alkaloid
OH

Mui alkaloid d dng b cc cht kim v c mnh hn (NH4OH, NaOH,


Na2CO3, NaHCO3) y ra khi mui cho li alkaloid base ban u.
CHIT XUT V NH TNH
CHIT XUT ALKALOID
Trong cy alcaloid tn ti di dng mui ha tan hay dng kt hp vi tannin
khng tan. V vy c th chit alcaloid ra khi nguyn liu thc vt bng nhiu
cch nhng c 2 cch chnh l:
1. Chit alkaloid khi dc liu di dng alkaloid base bng dung mi hu c.
2. Chit alkaloid ra khi dc liu di dng mui bng dung mi phn cc
(nc, cn, hn hp cn nc c acid ha).
Mt vi alkaloid c nhng tnh cht c bit, ngi ta c th chit xut bng cc
phng php khc nh:

44

- Phng php ct ko li cun theo hi nc: (chit xut nicotin t nguyn liu
l cy thuc l).
- Phng php thng hoa: (chit xut cafein t nguyn liu l cy tr).
Da vo tnh tan khc nhau ca dng base v dng mui alkaloid trong cc dung
mi, ngi ta c th loi phn no cc tp cht ra khi dch chit trc khi nh
tnh, nh lng hay phn lp cc alkaloid tinh khit.
Cc quy trnh chit di y c s dng trong chit xut alkaloid t nguyn
liu thc vt dng cho cc phn ng nh tnh alkaloid v c th ng dng
chit xut alkaloid ton phn lm nguyn liu bo ch thuc.
NH TNH ALKALOID
- Alkaloid cho phn ng vi cc thuc th chung (thuc th to ta) to thnh
cc mui kh tan (dng kt tinh hay v nh hnh).
- Cc thuc th thng dng l Valse-Mayer (K2HgI4), Dragendorff (KBiI4),
Bouchardat (KI, I2), Bertrand (acid silicotungstic), acid picric v acid tanic. (Xem
phn thc hnh).
- Mt s alkaloid hay nhm alkaloid c th cho mu sc c trng vi mt s
thuc th c gi l thuc th c hiu ca alkaloid (thuc th to mu) ng
dng nh tnh pht hin alkaloid trong dc liu. Cc thuc th thng dng
l acid H2SO4 m c, acid HNO3 m c (Xem phn thc hnh)

45

S 1: CHIT XUT ALKALOID BASE BNG DUNG MI HU C

Bt dc liu (5g)
Kim ha bng NH4OH m c ( va m)
Chit bng 20ml 30ml CHCl3

un hi lu / BM 10 phc, lc hoc chit


Dch chit CHCl3
H2SO4 2% (5ml x 2 ln)
Dch chit nc acid

nh tnh bng thuc th chung


nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu

NH4OH m c  pH 10
Chit bng CHCl3 ( 10ml x 2 -3 ln)
Dch chit CHCl3

nh tnh bng phng php sc k

Bc hi ti cn kh
Cn alkalold

nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu

S 2: CHIT XUT ALKALOID DNG MUI BNG DUNG MI


NC ACID
Bt dc liu (5g)
20ml dung dch H2SO4 2%
un BM 15 pht lc (2 ln x 20ml)
Dch chit nc acid
NH4OH m c  pH = 10
CHCl3 10ml x 2 ln
nh tnh bng sc k
Dch chit CHCl3
nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu
H2SO42% (5ml x 2 ln )
Dch chit nc acid

46

nh tnh bng thuc th chung


nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu

S 3: CHIT XUT ALKALOID DNG MUI BNG DUNG MI


CN ACID.
Bt dc liu (5g)
20ml - 30 ml cn c 5% acid (sulfuric, acetic, hyrocloric)
un hi lu / BM 10 pht, lc
Dch chit cn
Trung ho acid n pH 5-6
Bay hi cn trn bp cch thu n cn
Ho tan cn trong nc nng (10ml x 2 ln), lc
Dch chit nc acid

nh tnh bng thuc th chung


nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu

NH4OH m c  pH 10
Chit bng 10 ml CHCl3
Dch chit CHCl3

nh tnh bng phng php sc k


nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu

Chit vi dd H2SO4 2% (5ml x 2 ln )


Dch chit nc acid

nh tnh bng thuc th chung


nh tnh bng thuc th c hiu

TC DNG, CNG DNG


Tc dng, cng dng ca cc alkaloid rt a dng, ty theo tng loi alkaloid.
1. Tc dng ln h thn kinh.
- Kch thch thn kinh trung ng: Strychnin, cafein
- c ch thn kinh trung ng: Morphin, codein.
- Kch thch thn kinh giao cm: Ephedrin.
- Lit giao cm: Yohimbin
- Kch thch ph giao cm: Pilocarpin
- Lit ph giao cm: Atropin
- Gy t: Cocain
47

2. Tc dng h huyt p: Reserpin, serpentin.


3. Tc dng chng ung th: Taxol, vinblastin, vincristin.
4. Tc dng dit k sinh trng, dit khun: Quinin, berberin, arecolin, emetin.
MT S DC LIU CHA ALKALOID
1. Bnh vi (Tuber Stephaniae), l gc thn phnh thnh c ca mt s loi Bnh
vi (Stephania sp.), h Tit d (Menispermaceae).
2. L sen (Folium Nelumbinis), l l bnh t phi kh ca cy Sen (Nelumbo
nucifera Gaertn.), h Sen (Nelumbonaceae).
3. Tm Sen (Embryo Nelumbinis) l cy mm ly t ht cy Sen (Nelumbo
nucifera Gaertn.), h Sen (Nelumbonaceae).
4. Bch b (Radix Stemonae tuberosae), l r c ca cy Bch b (Stemona
tuberosa Lour.), h Bch b (Stemonaceae).
5. Mc hoa trng (Cortex Holarrhenae), l v thn ca cy Mc hoa trng
(Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall), h Trc o (Apocynaceae).
6. Coca (Folium Coca), l l cy Coca (Erythroxylon coca Lam.), h Coca
(Erythoxylaceae).
7. Thuc l (Folium Nicotianae), l l ca cy thuc l (Nicotiana tabacum L.),
h C (Solanaceae).
8. Da cn (Folium Catharanthi), l l ca cy Da cn [Catharanthus roseus (L)
Don,], h Trc o (Apocynaceae).
9. Vng nem (Folium Erythrinae), l l ca cy Vng nem (Erythrina variegata
L.) h u (Fabaceae).
10. Canh ki na (Cinchona sp.), h C ph (Rubiaceae).
11. Thuc phin (Papaver somniferum L.), h Thuc phin (Paraveraceae).
12. Ba gc (Rauvolfia sp.), h Trc o (Apocynaceae)
13. C c dc (Datura metel L.), h C (Solanaceae).
14. Hong ng (Fibraurea tincotoria Lour.), h tit d (Menispermaceae).
15. Hong B (Phellodendron sp.), h Cam (Rutaceae).
48

16. Vng ng (Coscinium fenestratum (Gaetn) Colebr.),

h Tit d

(Menispermceae).
17. M tin (Strichnos nux vomica L.), h M tin ( Loganiaceae).
11. DC LIU CHA TINH DU
KHI NIM CHUNG V TINH DU
Tinh du l hn hp ca cc hp cht hu c c c tnh chung l d bay hi,
thng c mi thm, c ngun gc ch yu t thc vt v c th chit xut c
bng phng php chng ct li cun theo hi nc.
Bn cht ha hc ca tinh du thng rt phc tp, c th chia thnh 4 nhm
chnh: cc dn cht ca monoterpen, ca sesquiterpen, ca hydrocarbon thm v
ca cc hp cht c cha nit, lu hunh.
V d:
Cc monoterpen (C5H8)2 nh:
- Limonen c trong tinh du cc cy thuc chi Citrus, h Cam (Rutaceae):
chanh, cam, qut.
- Alpha-Terpineol c trong tinh du trm (Oleum Cajuputi).
- Menthol c trong tinh du bc h (Oleum Menthae)
- 1,8-Cineol c trong tinh du khuynh dip (Oleum Eucalypti) v tinh du trm
(Oleum Cajuputi).
- Alpha-Pinen c trong tinh du thng (Oleum Terebenthinea)
- Camphor c trong tinh du long no (Oleum Cinnamomi camphorae).

Limonen

49

1,8 - cinoel

- Terpinoel

- Pinen

Menthol

Camphor

Cc sesquiterpen (C5H8)3 nh:


- Zingiberen c trong tinh du gng (Oleum Zingiberis).
- Curcumen c trong tinh du ngh (Oleum Curcumae longae).

Zingiberen

Curcumen

Cc hydrocarbon thm:
- Eugenol c trong tinh du hng nhu trng (Oleum Occimi gratissimi), tinh du
inh hng (Oleum Eugeniae caryophyllatae)
- Anethol c trong tinh du hi (Oleum Anisi stellati).
- Aldehyd cinamic c trong tinh du qu (Oleum Cinnamomi).

Eugenol
Anethol

Aldehyd cinamic

Cc hp cht c cha nit, lu hunh nh: Alliin c trong tinh du ti (Oleum


Allii sativi).

Alliin
TNH CHT
- a s cc tinh du khng c mu hay mu vng nht, dng lng nhit
thng, t trng < 1, mt vi tinh du c mu c bit, t trng > 1 nh tinh du
hng nhu, tinh du inh hng.
50

- Khi b oxy ha, mu ca tinh du sm li v ha nha lm thay i cc tnh cht


l ha ca tinh du.
- Tinh du tan trong cc dung mi km phn cc (ether du ha, n-hexan,
benzen, ether, cloroform), t tan hn trong cc dung mi phn cc (aceton,
cn), gn nh khng tan trong nc.
- Tinh du thng c mt hay mt vi thnh phn c hm lng tri hn hn cc
thnh phn cn li, c gi l thnh phn c trng ca tinh du.
V d menthol 60% trong tinh du bc h, camphor 35% trong tinh du long
no, cineol 60% trong tinh du khuynh dip, aldehydcinamic 85% trong
tinh du qu
CHIT XUT V NH LNG TINH DU TRONG DC LIU
Chit xut:
C th chit xut tinh du ra khi dc liu bng cc phng php:
1. Phng php chng ct li cun theo hi nc thng c p dng trong sn
xut tinh du nh: Tinh du trm, tinh du bc h, tinh du gng
2. Phng php p, vt c s dng trong sn xut tinh du v cam, v chanh
3. Phng php chit xut bng dung mi c p dng trong chit xut cc loi
tinh du qu him nh: tinh du trm hng, tinh du hoa hng
nh tnh:
- nh tnh thnh phn c trng ca tinh du: Da vo tnh cht l ha hc c
trng ca mt cht, mt nhm cht xc nh s c mt ca cht (nhm cht)
trong tinh du, gin tip xc nhn tinh du l ng.
nh lng:
- nh lng tinh du trong dc liu: Chit tinh du ra khi dc liu bng
phng php ct li cun theo hi nc. T lng tinh du thu c trn mt
lng dc liu xc nh tnh ra hm lng phn trm theo khi lng/khi
lng (kl /kl) hay th tch/khi lng (tt/kl) tinh du c trong dc liu
- nh lng thnh phn c trng ca tinh du: C th nh lng cc thnh
phn c trng ca tinh du nh gi cht lng ca tinh du.
51

TC DNG, CNG DNG:


Trong i sng tinh du v cc dc liu cha tinh du c dng lm hng
liu, m phm, thc phm
Mt s c dng lm thuc vi cc tc dng v cng dng chnh sau y:
1. Kch thch tiu ha, li mt, thng mt: Sa nhn, tho qu, qu, hi
2. Khng khun, dit khun: Bc h, trm, bch n, hng chanh c dng
cha cm st, cha ho v cc bnh trn ng h hp
3. Dit k sinh trng: Artemisinin, thymol, santonin, tinh du giun
4. Kch thch thn kinh trung ng: anethol trong tinh du hi (Oleum Anisi
stellati).
5. Khng vim, lm lnh vt thng khi s dng ngoi da: alpha-Terpineol c
trong tinh du trm (Oleum Cajuputi).
6. Gii biu thanh nhit cha cm st: Bc h, kinh gii, ta t
MT S DC LIU CHA TINH DU
1. Bc h (Mentha arvensis L.), h Hoa mi (Lamiaceae).
2. Trm (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell.), h Sim (Myrtaceae).
3. Bch n (Eucalyptus camaldulendis Dehnh.), h Sim (Myrtaceae).
4. Qu (Cinnamomum cassia Presl.), h Long no (Lauraceae).
5. Long no (Cinamomum camphora (L.) Presl.) h Long no (Lauraceae).
6. Hng nhu (Ocimum gratissimum L.), h Hoa mi (Lamiaceae).
7. Hi (Illicium verum Hook.f.) h Hi (Illiciaceae).
8. Sa nhn (Amomum xanthioides Wall.ex Bark), h gng (Zingiberaceae).
12. NHA
KHI NIM CHUNG V NHA
- Nha l hn hp cc cht hu c c cu to phc tp, to ra do s oxy ha v
trng hp ha cht terpenic trong cy.

52

- Nha thng l nhng cht rn v nh hnh, trong hay trng c, cng hay c
nhit thng, mm khi un nng, t chy cho nhiu khi v thng c mi
thm.
- Nha khng tan trong nc, tan trong cn, tan c trong cc dung mi hu c
v khng li cun c theo hi nc.
TC DNG, CNG DNG.
1. Long m, st trng ng h hp, c dng cha ho: Nha thng
(Resin Terebenthinea) (Colophan), nha cnh kin trng (Resin Benzoini)
(Benzoinum)...
2. Nhun ty, c dng cha to bn: Nha ca cy bm bm (Resin
Ipomoeae) v cc cy thuc h Bm bm (Convolvulaceae), nha l hi
(Resin Aloe).
3. Khng sinh, khng vim, gy nn: Nha m u (Resin Calophylli
inophylli).
MT S DC LIU CHA NHA
- Bm bm (Ipomea hederacea Jacq.), h Bm bm (Convolvulaceae).
- L Hi (Aloe vera L.), h L hi (Asphodelaceae).
- Cnh kin trng (Styrax sp.), h B (Styracacea).
- M u (Calophyllum inophyllum L.), h Mng ct (Clusiaceae).
13. CHT BO
KHI NIM CHUNG V CHT BO
- Cht bo (hay lipid) l nhng sn phm t nhin c trong ng vt v thc vt
c thnh phn

cu to khc nhau, thng l nhng este ca acid bo vi cc

alcol.

Glycerid hay Acylglycerol

53

- Cc cht bo thng thng c cu to nh ester ca cc acid bo vi glycerin


v c gi l cc glycerid hay cn gi l acylglycorol.
- Du m l danh t chung ch mt nhm hp cht hu c c cu to
acylglycorol. M l cc cht bo thu c t ng vt, cn du l cht bo ca
thc vt.
- Ngoi ra trong du m cn cha cc cht ha tan nh vitamin, tinh du, sterol
v cc cht mu. M ng vt c cha cholesterol cn du thc vt thng c
cha phytosterol.
TNH CHT L HA
TNH CHT L HC.
- Cht bo c t trng nh hn nc.
- Tan trong dung mi hu c t phn cc nh: benzen, cloroform, t tan trong
cn v khng tan trong nc.
- Trong t nhin cht bo thng c vng nht n vng khi dng lng, mu
ny ch yu l do cc cht mu c trong nguyn liu ng vt v thc vt ha tan
trong cht bo trong qu trnh chit xut.
- Khi lu cht bo d b oxy ha lm tng nht, mu b sm li v c mi i
kht.
TNH CHT HA HC
Trong t nhin du m l nhng acylglycorol c cc gc acid bo R1, R2, R3
khc nhau, R2 thng l cc acid bo cha no (c mt hay nhiu ni i) mch
ngn (18 carbon), R1 v R3 l cc acid bo no hay cha no c mch carbon di
hn. Thnh phn ca du c nhiu acid bo cha no v thng chy lng nhit
thng (15oC). M c nhiu acid bo no v thng c th cht c ( 15oC).
CHIT XUT, NH TNH V KIM NGHIM.
Chit xut:
- Phng php chit xut bng dung mi hu c km phn cc: (du, gan c).
- Phng php dng nhit cao (thng, rn m).
54

- Phng php p ( nhit thng hay nhit cao), thng c p dng


trong sn xut du bo t nguyn liu thc vt (du thu du, du m u).
nh tnh
- Cc cht bo c th c mu sc, mi v, th cht khc knhau, c th da vo
nhng c im cm quan ny nhn din, phn bit cc cht bo.
- Thnh phn cu to ca cht bo khc nhau ch yu v hm lng cc acid bo.
Cc phn ng nh tnh thng thng khng phn bit c s khc bit ny, tr
khi cht bo c mt acid bo c tnh cht c bit no , c th nh tnh c
(v d nh acid arachidic trong du lc). V th, trong kim nh cht bo ngi
ta thng khng nh tnh chnh cc thnh phn ca cht bo m nh tnh cc
cht tan c trng c trong cht bo .
V d: vitamin A, D trong du gan c, Beta- Caroten trong du gc.
- Cc ch tiu khc dng kim nh du m gm: tan, nht, t trng
Nhng quan trng nht l cc ch s ca cht bo nh: Ch s acid, ch s ester,
ch s x phng, ch s iod, ch s peroxid, ch s acetyl. Mi loi cht bo c gi
tr ca cc ch s ny trong mt gii hn nht nh, c th da vo m nh
gi cht lng ca chng.
TC DNG V CNG DNG:
- Cht bo l ngun thc n giu nng lng cho con ngi.
- Trong ngnh dc cht bo c dng lm dung mi cho mt s loi thuc
tim, lm t dc hay iu ch cc t dc cho thuc m, thuc n, vin nn
- Cc loi du bo c nhiu ni i c xem l cc vitamin F l nhng cht cn
thit cho c th.
- Cht bo c tc dng bo v da v nim mc, lm mau ln da non cc vt
thng, vt bng.
- Mt s du bo c tc dng tr liu ring bit nh du thu du, du ba u, du
i phong t, du m uv.v.
- Mt s cht bo ha tan cc vitamin thin nhin cn thit cho c th nh
vitamin A, D, E, beta-Caroten (du gan c, du gc)
55

MT S DC LIU CHA CHT BO


1. M u (Calophyllum inophyllum L.), h Mng ct (Guttiferae =
Clusiaceae).
2. Gc (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.), h bu b.
3. Thu du (Ricinus communis L.), h thu du (Euphorbiaceae).
4. Du c (Oleum Jecoris Picis) c chit xut t gan ca nhiu loi c ch
yu l c thu (Gadus morrhua L.), h C (Galidea).

14. KHNG SINH THC VT


- Khng sinh l nhng hp cht hu c, thng c ngun gc sinh vt (vi sinh
vt, thc vt, ng vt) c tc dng tiu dit hay km hm s pht trin ca cc vi
sinh vt khc. Cc khng sinh c tc dng c hiu ln cc loi vi khun khc
nhau mt nng thng l rt nh.
- Khng sinh thc vt l mt tn gi chung ch cc hp cht hu c c trong thc
vt c tc dng khng sinh. Nhng cht ny c th thuc nhiu nhm khc nhau
nh alkaloid, cc hp cht quinon, flavonoid, tinh du,v.v
MT S CHT KHNG SINH C TRONG DC LIU
- Berberin trong vng ng, hong lin, hong b.
- Emetin trong ipeca
- Conessin trong mc hoa trng
- Allicin trong ti
- Plumbagin trong bch hoa x
- Fuglon trng h o
- Lawson trong l mng.
- Wedelolacton trong c mc, si t.
- Solanin trong mm khoai ty
- Tomatin trong l c chua
56

- Nhiu loi tinh du nh: tinh du trm, tinh du hng qu, tinh du hng chanh,
tinh du s.
CU HI LNG GI
I. in vo ch trng:
Cu 1: Mui tham gia vo qu trnh iu ha . trong t bo thc vt v
trong c th ng vt
Cu 2: Acid hu c c th tn ti di 3 dng: .; .;
..
Cu 3: Glycosid l hp cht to thnh do s ngng t gia mt phn l
. vi mt phn gm mt hay nhiu ng.
Cu 4: Saponin to bt bn khi lc vi ..
Cu 5: Anthraglycosid dng kh c tc dng x mnh nhng gy
Cu 6: Phn ng Cyanidin ca Flavonoid cho mu
Cu 7: Coumarin d b m vng lacton bi .
Cu 8: Tanin to ta vi dung dch nc ca
Cu 9: Alcaloid l nhng hp cht hu c c cha .
Cu 10: Tinh du l hn hp ca cc hp cht hu c c c tnh l d .
II. Chn cu ng / Sai:
Cu 11: Mui kali c tc dng li tiu
Cu 12: Mui natri lm tng tc dng ca cc glycosid tr tim.
Cu 13: Dng ester lm cho qu chn c mi thm
Cu 14: Da vo cu trc ca ng phn bit nhng nhm glycosid khc
nhau
Cu 15: Glycosid b thy phn bi acid cho sn phm cui cng l aglycon
Cu 16: Saponin c i vi ngi
Cu 17: Saponin gy ht hi, mt
Cu 18: Dc liu cha Antraglycosid nn dng ti

57

Cu 19: Phn ng vi kim ca Antraglycosid cho mu


Cu 20: Flavonoid khng c tc dng chng oxy ha
Cu 21: Flavonoid c hot tnh vitamin P
Cu 22: Coumarin khng b m vng lacton bi kim
Cu 23: Coumarin ng vng tr li khi acid ha
Cu 24: Tanin khng to phc mu vi dung dch st III clorid
Cu 25: Tanin c tnh thuc da
Cu 26: Alkaloid base tan trong nc
Cu 27: Mui ca alcaloid d tan trong nc
Cu 28: Nhng cht c mi thm u l Tinh du
Cu 29: Menthol c trong tinh du bc h
Cu 30: Tt c tinh du u c t trng < 1

III. Tr li cu hi:
Cu 31: Mui v c thng tn ti di dng g trong cy ?
Cu 32: Acid dng no c v chua ?
Cu 33: Phn no quyt nh tnh cht tc dng, cng dng ca glycosid ?
Cu 34: Saponin chia thnh my loi ?
Cu 35: Anthraglycosid chia thnh nhng nhm no ?
Cu 36: nh tnh flavonoid ch yu da vo phn ng
Cu 37: Calophylloid trong cy m u tc dng g ?
Cu 38: Tanin chia thnh nhng nhm no ?
Cu 39: Chit alcaloid di dng alcaloid base bng dung mi no ?
Cu 40: Tinh du tan trong cc dung mi no ?
IV. Chn cu ng nht:
Cu 41: Nguyn t tng cng kh nng chng oxy ha ca c th:
A. Selen
B. Km
58

C. Iod
D. Cu A & B ng
Cu 42: Acid tartric c trong:
A. Nho
B. Chanh
C. Qu
D. Hnh nhn
Cu 43: Dc liu cha Glycosid tr tim:
A. Bnh vi
B. Tm sen
C. Trc o
D. Bc h
Cu 44: Dc liu cha Saponin:
A. B kt
B. Hoa ho
C. Cam tho
D. Cu A & C ng
Cu 45: Dc liu cha Anthraglycosid:
A. i hong
B. Tam tht
C. Nhn sm
D. C xc
Cu 46: Dc liu cha Flavonoid:
A. Tr
B. Lu
C. C sa
D. C mc
Cu 47: Dc liu cha Coumarin:
A. Bch ch
B. Ngu tt
C. Mng ct
D. Sim
59

Cu 48: Dc liu cha tannin:


A. Da cn
B. Ba gc
C. Vng nem
D. Ng bi t
Cu 49: Dc liu cha alkaloid:
A. M tin
B. Ng gia b
C. Cam tho
D. inh lng
Cu 50: Dc liu cha tinh du:
A. i
B. Trc o
C. Trm
D. Bch b

60

Bi 4: K THUT KIM TRA CHT LNG DC LIU


MC TIU HC TP
 Trnh by c cch ly c mu, lm tiu bn, soi knh hin vi, phn
bit cc thnh phn c trong t bo v m thc vt
 K c cc phng php xc nh tp cht, t l vn nt, m, tro,
nh tnh, nh lng mt s hot cht trong dc liu theo DVN IV
 Xy dng c tnh trung thc, tc phong thn trng, chnh xc trong kim
tra cht lng dc liu.
NI DUNG
1. I CNG V KIM TRA CHT LNG DC LIU
1.1 Kim tra cht lng dc liu nhm:
 Kim tra cht lng dc liu l vic xc nh mt dc liu c t tiu
chun a vo sn xut hay s dng lm thuc hay khng. Cng nh
phn bit s ng sai, s nhm ln, s pha trn gi mo i vi mt
dc liu.
 nh gi ng cht lng dc liu ngi ta da vo tiu chun nh
nc ca mt dc liu c ghi trong DVN IV v cc tiu chun c s
ca cc n v sn xut kinh doanh c c quan kim nghim quc
gia thm nh v cho php ban hnh
 nh gi cht lng da vo tiu chun nh nc v tiu chun c s.
1.2 Tiu chun ca mt dc liu bao gm:
 M t c im bn ngoi
 c im vi phu
 c im soi bt
 T l tp cht, tro, m, t l vn nt.
 nh tnh thnh phn hot cht.
 nh lng hm lng hot cht.
Trong phm vi bi hc ny chng ti ch tp trung gii thiu phn kim nghim
thc vt hc, nh tnh soi bt dc liu bng knh hin vi v mt s phn ng
61

nh tnh thnh phn hot cht c trong dc liu. cc phn cn li hc vin s


c gii thiu k hn trong phn kim nghim dc liu v cc ch phm ng
dc ca mn hc kim nghim dc phm trong chng trnh trung hc.
nh gi cht lng dc liu ngi ta da v tiu chun DVN IV v tiu
chun c s ca cc n v sn xut kinh doanh c c quan kim nghim
quc gia thm nh v cho php ban hnh
2. K THUT KIM TRA CHT LNG DC LIU
2.1.K thut ly mu kim nghim
Mu kim nghim phi i din ngu nhin khch quan cho mt l dc liu.
Mc i din ca mu em th nh hng trc tip n ng, chnh xc
ca vic kim tra. V vy DVN IV quy nh vic ly mu c th nh sau:
2.1.1.Trc khi ly mu
 Kim tra i chiu: tn, ngun gc xut x ca nguyn liu, c im,
hnh dng bao gi ca cc mu
 Kim tra s nguyn vn, sch s mc nhim mc v tp cht l ca
bao b . Cc bao gi khng bnh thng phi xem xt k cng hn. Ghi
chp chi tit kt qu kim tra.
2.1.2. Cc yu cu chung ca vic ly mu
 S bao gi < 5  ly mu tt c cc bao gi
 S bao gi <100  ly mu 5 bao gi
 S bao gi 100-1000  ly mu 5% tng s bao gi
 S bao gi > 1000  ly mu 50 bao gi + 1% s lng bao gi vt hn
1000 bao gi
 Dc liu qu him  ly mu tt c cc bao kin (khng k s lng
bao nhiu bao kin).
 Ly mu cc v tr khc nhau ca mi bao kin (trn, gia, di) v cch
thnh bao kin mt khong thch hp.
 Trn u cc mu ly c t mi bao kin c mt mu bao kin i
din ngu nhin, khch quan cho mt l hng.
 i vi khi lng dc liu ln hn 5kg th dc liu thng: ly mu
t 250-500g, bt dc liu 200g, dc liu qu him t 5-10g tr khi c
ch dn khc.
62

 Khi lng mu khng c t hn 3 ln mu th (i vi lng dc


liu nh hn 5kg), chia lm 3 phn. trong , 1 phn phn tch, 1 phn
kim tra i chiu, 1 phn lu, thi gian lu t nht l mt nm.
 Nhn trn mu theo quy nh ca kim nghim
2.2.M t c im bn ngoi
y l phng php s dng 5 gic quan nhn bit v m t c im bn
ngoi ca dc liu. mu dc liu thng c lm kh v vy cn phi lm
mm tri mng d dng quan st v m t.hnh thi, kch thc, mu sc, c
im bn ngoi b mt vt b hay ct ngang ca dc liu, mi,v.
2.2.1.Lm mm dc liu
C 3 phng php lm mm dc liu kh nh sau:
 Ngm mu vt trong hn hp (nc:glycerin:cn 900 =1:1:1) cho ti khi
dc liu trng n hon ton, c th bo qun mu lu di trong trng
hp ny.
 mu trong bung m ( c bo ha hi nc) t 2-3 ngy. trnh
mc c th thm vo nc mt cht phenol hay formol.
 un si mu trong nc t 2-3 pht, hoc lu hn ty theo d cng chc
ca dc liu.
2.2.2.M t
Nu b phn dng l cnh mang l, hoa qu phi m t theo th t sau:
Thn: trn, vung, c kha dc.
L: mc i, mc cch hay mc vng.l n, l kp, l nguyn, kha rng ca
hay x thy.., hnh dng, kch thc, mu sc, cch sp xp ca gn l, nhng
c im ca phin l, mi v.
Hoa: cch mc ca hoa, mu sc, cu to ca hoa, hoa thc hoa .
Qu: loi qu, cch nh non
Nu b phn dng l r , r c, thn r th m t c im, hnh dng, kch
thc, mu sc bn ngoi v c im mu sc bn trong
2.3.c im vi phu
Dng knh hin vi nhn bit cc c im ca cc m, cc t bo trong cc
tiu bn dc liu hoc cc cht cha trong t bo , trong bt v trong cc ch

63

phm. vic chn mu i din v s chun b cc tiu bn phi ph hp vi


nhng yu cu v nh tnh ca mi loi dc liu.
2.3.1.Tiu bn lt ct ngang hoc dc
Chn mt mu dc liu thch hp, lm mm, dng li lam ct vi phu bng
ng ct vi phu cm tay hay my ct vi phu(microtome), cng c th kp vi
phu trong parafin rn, trong c khoai lang hay c u. ct thnh nhng lt
ct mng khong 10-20 micromet. Lt ct c th soi ngay nu khng c qui nh
ring hoc phi nhum vi phu qua cc bc s l sau y trc khi soi knh
hin vi.
- Ngm lt ct trong dung dch cloraminT 5% (TT) n khi lt ct trng ra th ra
sch cloramin T bng nc ct.
- Ngm lt ct vo thuc th cloral hydrat khong 10 pht ri ra sch bng nc
ct.
- Ngm lt ct bng dung dch acid acetic 10% (TT) trong khong 2 pht ri ra
tht k li bng nc ct.
- Ngm lt ct v dung dch lc iod (TT) hoc xanh metylen (TT) trong khong
1-5 giy, ra nhanh bng ethanol 60% (TT) ri ra li bng nc ct.
- Ngm cc lt ct vo dung dch carmin 40 (TT) ti khi thy mu bt r th ra
li bng nc ct
2.3.2.Tiu bn bt dc liu
Kim tra mn thch hpv ng nht ca bt
Ly mt lng nh bt cho vo mt git dung dch soi (nc, glycerin, acid
acetic, cloral hydrat hay thuc th khc ty thuc mc ch soi) c sn trn
lam knh
Dng kim mi mc dn u cho bt thm t y dung dch soi,
y lam knh cn thn trnh bt kh, di nh lam ri em quan st di knh
hin vi.
2.3.3.Tiu bn b mt
Lm m v lm mm mu (nu cn thit), ct ly mt mu hoc tc ly mt
on biu b, t ln lam knh thm thuc th thch hp ri em soi knh hin vi.
2.4.c im soi bt

64

Mi dc liu u c c im m hc c trng, chng c th hin mt phn


qua c im bt dc liu. nhng c im ny c th c dng phn bit
dc liu ny vi dc liu khc v xy dng tiu chun kim nghim.
Kho st c im bt dc liu bng knh hin vi l tm ra nhng c im vi
hc c trng ca bt dc liu, gip cho vic nh danh, xc nh tinh khit
ca dc liu, phn bit vi cc dc liu d b nhm ln v pht hin s gi
mo nu c.
Bt l thng c mu xanh lc ti nu. Cc cu t thng thy l: biu b mang
kh khng, lng che ch, lng tit, tinh th calci oxalat, cc mch g.
Bt v thn, v r thng c mu vang fnaau, ti nu. Cc cu t thng thy l
mnh bn, mnh m mm, cc loi si (vch dy hay mng, khoang rng hay
hp), tinh th calci oxalat hay calci carbonat (vi cc hnh dng khc nhau), m
cng, m mm cha tinh bt, ng nha mc th gp mt s dc liu
Bt dc liu l cnh hay c cy ngoi cc c im ca l, ca v cn c th
thy cc loi mch g v m g
Bt dc liu l cc loi r, r c, thn r, thn ngm phnh thnh c, cn ch
ti cc c im cu to ca ht tinh bt (hnh dng, kch thc, vn, t)
Bt dc liu l hoa qu, ht c mu sc thay i ty theo dc liu.
Vi hoa cn ch ti cu to v hnh dng ca ht phn, biu b cng cc loi
lng che ch, lng tit ca hoa.
Vi ht cn ch biu b, m cha cht d tr (carbohydrat hay du bo), m
phi
2.4.1.Pht hin mng t bo
Mng t bo ha g: Thm 1-2 git thuc th phloroglucinol , yn mt
lc,thm 1 git acid hydroloric(TT),vng ha g s xut hin mu hoc ta.
Mng t bo ha bn hoc ha cutin: Thm thuc th Sudan III, yn mt lc,
hay lm m nh vng ha bn hoc ha cutin s xut hin mu hay cam.
Mng celulose: thm thuc th km clorid iod, hoc lc u thm dung dch
iod 1% lm m, yn 1 pht ri thm dung dch acid sulfuric (33ml acid
sulfuric m c pha vi nc ct va 50 ml), vng ha bn hoc ha cutin s
xut hin mu xanh lam hay mu xanh tm.
Mng t bo c silic : Khi thm acid sulfuric s khng thy c s thay i g.
65

2.4.2.Pht hin cc thnh phn t bo


 Ht tinh bt: Thm dung dch iod(TT), s xut hin mu xanh lam
hay xanh tm, hoc t mu vt trong dung dch glycerin acid
acetic, quan st di knh hin vi phn cc thy hin tng phn cc
cho ca cc ht tinh bt, hin tng ny mt i nhng ht tinh bt
b ha h.
 Ht aleuron: Protid thng ha tan trong dch t bo, khi ngm vo
hn hp cn-ether, protid s kt ta di dng hatjaleuron. Mun
xc nh ht aleuron cn phi loi du bo bng ether (TT) hay ether
du ha (TT) trc khi th
Thm dung dch iod(TT), ht aleuron c mu nu hay mu vng nu.
Thm dung dch thy ngn(2)nitrat (TT), ht aleuron c mu gch.
 Du bo, tinh du, nha: Thm thuc th Sudan 3,s xut hin mu
da cam hay mu ta.
Tinh du ha tan c trong ethanol 90%(TT) ,du bo khng ha
tan trong ethanol tr du thu du v du bng.
 Tinh th inulin: Thm dung dch l naphthol 10% trong ethanol
(TT), sau thm acid sulfuric(TT) ,cc tinh th inulin s chuyn
sang mu ta v tan nhanh.
 Tinh th calci oxalat: Tinh th oxalat calci c nhiu hnh dng khc
nhau nh: hnh kim(mch mn,r nhu..), hnh ht ct (c c dc,
v canh ki na), hnh khi nhiu mt(cam tho.mung tru), hnh
cu gai(i hong,c c dc)
Tinh th oxalat calci khng ha tan trong acid acetic long (TT), tan
c trong acid hydrocloric long (TT), khng si bt. Ha tan
chm trong acid sulfuric 50% TT), nhng sau khi yn mt lc s
xut hin nhng tinh th calci sulfat c hnh kim ngn v mp.
 Tinh th calci carbonat :Tinh th calci carbonat ha tan trong acid
hydrocloric long(TT), si bt.
 Tinh th silic:Silic khng ha tan trong dung dch acid sulfuric.
2.5. nh lng m, xc nh tro, t l tp cht
66

2.5.1. nh lng m
Tt c cc dc liu, sau khi phi sy kh v trong cc iu kin bo qun
bnh thng vn cn hp th mt lng nc nht nh.T l phn trm ca
lng nc trong dc liu c gi l m hay cn gi l thy phn
ca dc liu. bo qun c lu, trnh mc mt v s bin i hot cht
trong qu trnh bo qun dc liu phi c m khng qu mt gii hn no ,
khong m c gi l m an ton. Vi cc dc liu thng thng
m an ton trong khong 12-13%
m an ton: 12 13%
nh lng m trong dc liu kim tra xem dc liu c t tiu chun v
m hay khng.Cng vic ny cng cn thit trong vic tnh kt qu nh lng
hay hiu sut chit xut hot cht trong dc liu.
C th xc nh m bng 2 phng php:
2 phng php:
 Phng php sy: khng thch hp dc liu cha hot cht d bay hi
L phng php loi nc ra khi dc liu bng cch lm cho nc bay
hi nhng iu kin nhit v p sut nht nh. Thng thng, nc
c tch ra khi dc liu bng cch sy 105oC di p sut thng.
Phng php ny p dng vi a s cc dc liu, nhng khng thch hp
cho cc dc liu cha cc hot cht d bay hi, thng hoa nh:tinh du,
cuamarin, cafeinkhi sy c nc v cc cht bay hi, thng hoa cng mt
i v vy khng xc nh c chnh xc lng nc trong dc liu. Cc
dc liu c hot cht d b phn hy hay d chy dnh nhit cao (cht
ng, gm ,nha, du bo). Trong nhng trng hp ny ta c th sy
nhit thp di p sut gim hoc lm kh trong bnh ht m hoc kt
hp c 2 cch k trn.
 Phng php chng ct vi dung mi: mi dc liu
Phng php chng ct vi dung mi c thc hin trong b dng c nh
lng m, nc c tch ra khi dc liu bng cch chng ct li cun
vi mt dung mi chn lc. Phng php ny c p dng cho mi dc
liu, k c cc dc liu c cc hot cht d bay hi thng hoa.
2.5.2.Xc nh tro
67

Tro l khi lng cc cht v c cn li sau khi t chy hon ton mt dc


liu. Thng gp trong tro l cc nguyn t K,Ca,Na v Si. Cc nguyn t khc
nh Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn thng t gp hn.Trong dc liu cc cht v c c 2
ngun gc:
Ni sinh: L cc cht c trong cc t bo v m thc vt. Nhng cht ny
tham gia vo qu trnh sinh l ca cy hoc l nhng cht cn b ca qu trnh
sinh trng c tch ly li trong cy nh cc mui Cng c nhng cht khc
c tch ly trong mt vi loi cy c bit vi hm lng cao hn nhiu so vi
nhng cy khc, nh cc cy h Poaceae cha nhiu silic.
Ngoi sinh:L cc cht v c (t ,ct, , bi bn)ln vo trong qu trnh
thu hi, phi sy hay bo qun dc liu. Cc tp cht ny lm cho hm lng
Silic ca tro tng cao.
Cc loi tro thng c xc nh trong kim nghim dc liu l:
 Tro ton phn: nung 4500C
Xc nh tro ton phn: Tro ton phn l khi lng cn cn li sau khi nung
mt lng dc liu( tr m) 450 C trong mt chn nung ti khi lng
khng i( chn nung c sy kh ti khi lng khng i trc khi tin
hnh).Cc cht v c cn li trong tro ton phn thng tn ti di dng
carbonat hay oxyd.
tro ton phn c tnh theo cng thc:
X=

a
p

x 100

X: tro ton phn ca dc liu (%)


a: khi lng tro can c (mg)
p: khi lng dc liu em th tr thy phn (mg)

 Tro khng tan trong HCl


Xc nh tro khng tan trong acid hydrocloric(HCl): Tro khng tan trong acid
hydrocloric l lng cn khng tan cn li sau khi ha tan nng tro ton phn
trong acid hydrocloric long.
 Tro sulfat
Tro sulfat ca mt dc liu l lng cn cn li sau khi t chy hon ton
dc liu sau khi cho dc liu tc ng vi acid sulfuric m c.

68

Mi dc liu c tro gii hn trong mt khong nht nh, thng trong


khong t 4-12%.Mt vi trng hp, tro c th cao ti 15-18%. Nu mt
dc liu c tro ton phn bt thng (tng qu cao hay thp so vi qui nh)
phi ngh n gi mo hoc dc liu ln nhiu tp cht. Nu mt dc liu c
tro khng tan trong HCl cao bt thng so vi quy nh c th l do dc liu
ln nhiu t ct.
2.6.nh tnh thnh phn, nh lng hot cht
2.6.1.Xc nh cht chit c trong dc liu
- Cht chit c trong dc liu bi mt dung mi l nhng cht c th ha
tan trong dung mi v c tch ra khi dc liu trong nhng iu kin qui
nh.
-Cht chit c khng nht thit phi l hot cht ca dc liu, thng thng
n gm tt c cc cht( hot cht v nhng cht khc) tan c trong dung mi
s dng.Ty theo dung mi m thnh phn ca cht chit c c th thay i
dn ti thay i kt qu nh lng.
nh lng cc cht chit trong dc liu l xc nh hm lng % cc cht chit
c trong nhng iu kin quy nh, thng c p dng cho nhng dc liu
cha c phng php nh lng ha hc hay sinh hc thch hp
Dung mi dng trong xc nh hm lng cc cht chit c thng l nc,
cn. cc dung mi khc nh ether, chloroform i khi cng c s dng. c hai
phng php chit c s dng l
 Phng php chit nng: cht kh tan trong dung mi nhit thng,
tan tt hn trong dung mi nng hoc trong trng hp dng dung mi
nc hay cn thp , chit nhit thng to nn dung dch nht,
kh lc
 Phng php chit lnh: cht d tan trong dung mi nhit thng, c
dc liu d b trng n to thnh dung dch keo kh khn khi lc nh
tinh bt, cht nhy, pectin
Ty tng trng hp m dc in quy nh phng php chit thch hp
2.6.2.Chit xut, nh tnh, nh lng cc hot cht trong dc liu
Da vo tnh cht ca cc nhm hot cht m dc in quy nh s dng
phng php chit cc phn ng nh tnh v phng php nh lng thch hp
69

3. MT S V D MINH HA
HO (N hoa)
Flos Styphnolobii japonici imaturi
N hoa phi hay sy nh n kh ca cy Ho (Styphnolobium japonicum
(L.) Schott, Syn. Sophora japonica L.), h u (Fabaceae).
M t
N hoa hnh trng c cung nh, ngn, mt u hi nhn, di 3 - 6 mm, rng 1 - 2
mm, mu vng xm. i hoa hnh chung, mu vng xm, di bng 1/2 n 2/3
chiu di ca n hoa, pha trn x thnh 5 rng nng. Hoa cha n di t 4 - 10 mm,
ng knh 2 - 4 mm. Cnh hoa cha n mu vng. Mi thm, v hi ng.
Bt
C nhiu ht phn hnh cu, ng knh 16 m, c 3 l rnh, b mt c np nhn
dng mt li. Lng che ch a bo gm 2 - 4 t bo, t bo pha u di v
thun nhn, t bo chn ngn. Mnh biu b cnh hoa gm nhng t bo hnh
nhiu cnh c nhiu vn nh, xt nhau. Mnh biu b i hoa gm nhng t bo
hnh nhiu cnh c mang l kh (kiu thp t) v lng che ch. Mnh mch xon.
nh tnh
A. Ly 0,5 g bt dc liu, thm 10 ml ethanol (TT). un si trong 3 pht,
ngui, lc. Dch lc (dung dch A) dng lm cc phn ng sau v dch chm sc
k lp mng.
B. Ly 2 ml dung dch A pha long vi 10 ml ethanol 90% (TT) ri chia vo 3
ng nghim:
ng 1: Thm 5 git acid hydrocloric (TT) v t bt magnesi (TT), dung dch
chuyn dn t mu vng nht sang mu hng ri tm .
ng 2: Thm 2 git dung dch natri hydroxyd 20% (TT), xut hin ta vng cam,
ta s tan trong lng d thuc th.
ng 3: Thm 2 git dung dch st (III) clorid 5% (TT), dung dch c mu xanh
ru.
C. Nh 2 - 3 git dung dch A ln t giy lc, kh, soi di n t ngoi (
bc sng 366 nm) s quan st thy hunh quang mu vng nu.
70

D. Phng php sc k lp mng (Ph lc 5.4).


Bn mng: Silica gel GF254
Dung mi khai trin: n- butanol- acid acetic- nc (4: 1: 5).
Dung dch th: Dung dch A
Dung dch chun: Ho tan rutin trong ethanol 90% (TT) c dung dch c
cha 1 mg/ml.
Cch tin hnh: Chm ring bit ln bn mng 20 l mi dung dch trn. Sau khi
trin khai xong, kh bn mng nhit phng. Quan st di nh sng t
ngoi bc sng 366 nm, trn sc k ca dung dch th phi c vt cng
pht quang mu nu v cng gi tr Rf vi vt rutin trn sc k ca dung dch
i chiu. Hin mu bng hi amoniac m c (TT), trn sc k ca dung
dch th phi c vt cng mu vng c cng gi tr Rf vi vt rutin chun (Rf: 0,5
- 0,54) trn sc k ca dung dch i chiu.
m
Khng qu 12 % (Ph lc 12.13).
Tro ton phn
Khng qu 10% (Ph lc 9.8).
Tp cht (Ph lc 12.11)
T l hoa n: Khng qu 10%
T l hoa sm mu: Khng qu 1%
Cc b phn khc ca cy: Khng qu 2% .
nh lng
Dung dch chun: Cn chnh xc khong 0,2 g rutin chun sy kh (trong chn
khng) ti khi lng khng i, cho vo mt bnh nh mc 100 ml. Ho tan
trong 70 ml methanol (TT) bng cch lm m trn cch thu. ngui, thm
methanol (TT) 100 ml, lc k. Ly chnh xc 10 ml dung dch ny cho vo
mt bnh nh mc 100 ml khc. Thm nc ti vch, lc k (mi ml cha 0,2
mg rutin khan).
Xy dng ng cong chun: Ly chnh xc 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; v 6,0 ml
dung dch chun cho vo bnh nh mc 25 ml ring bit, thm nc cho ti 6 ml
mi bnh ri thm 1 ml dung dch natri nitrit 5% (TT), trn k. yn 6 pht,
71

thm 1 ml dung dch nhm nitrat 10% (TT), trn k, li yn 6 pht. Thm 10
ml dung dch natri hydroxyd 10% (TT), thm nc ti vch, trn k v yn
trong 15 pht. o hp th bc sng 500 nm (Ph lc 4.1). V ng cong
chun, ly hp th l trc tung, nng l trc honh.
Dung dch th: Cn chnh xc khong 1 g bt dc liu th sy kh 60oC
trong 6 gi cho vo bnh Soxhlet. Thm 120 ml ether (TT), chit ti khi dch
chit khng mu. ngui v gn b ether. Thm 90 ml methanol (TT) v chit
ti khi dch chit khng cn mu. Chuyn dch chit vo mt bnh nh mc 100
ml, ra bnh chit bng mt lng nh methanol ri cho tip vo bnh nh mc.
Thm methanol cho ti vch v lc k. Ly chnh xc 10 ml dung dch trn cho
vo bnh nh mc 100 ml, thm nc ti vch v trn k. Ly chnh xc 3 ml
cho vo bnh nh mc 25 ml, thm 3 ml nc ri thm 1 ml dung dch natri
nitrit 5% (TT), trn k. yn 6 pht, thm 1 ml dung dch nhm nitrat 10%
(TT), trn k, yn 6 pht. Thm 10 ml dung dch natri hydroxyd 10% (TT),
thm nc ti vch, trn k v yn trong 15 pht. o hp th bc sng
500 nm (Ph lc 4.1). Tnh khi lng rutin (g) ca dung dch th t nng
c c trn ng cong chun v tnh hm lng phn trm rutin trong dc
liu.
Hm lng rutin trong n hoa Ho khng t hn 20%.
Ch bin
Khi tri kh ro (thng vo bui sng), ngt cc chm hoa cha n, tut ly n,
loi b cc b phn khc ca cy, phi nng hoc sy nh cho n kh.
Bo qun
ni kh, trnh mc, mt.
Tnh v, qui kinh
Kh, hi hn .Vo cc kinh can, i trng
Cng nng, ch tr
Lng huyt ch huyt, thanh can t ho. Ch tr: Cc chng chy mu, chy
mu cam, ho ra mu, bng huyt, i tiu tin ra mu, au u, chng mt, mt
, d cu gt.
Cch dng, liu lng
Ngy 6 12 g, dng thuc sc.
72

MUNG TRU
Folium Senna alatae
L cht phi hay sy kh ca cy Mung tru (Senna alata (L.) Roxb. = Cassia
alata L.), h u (Fabaceae).
M t
L kp lng chim, di 30 - 40 cm, gm 8-12 i l cht hnh trng hoc hnh bu
dc trn hai u, l cht di 5 - 13 cm, rng 2,5 - 7 cm, to dn v pha ngn.
Cung ngn hi phnh to gc. Gn l hnh lng chim. Mt trn l mu xanh
m, mt di l mu xanh nht hn, hai mt nhn. Mp l nguyn.
Vi phu
Gn gia ca l c mt trn phng, mt di li. Biu b trn v biu b di c
phn gn l v phn phin l c lng che ch n bo ngn, u nhn, mt di
l mt lng dy hn. Ring phn phin l c u li cutin v l kh c hai mt.
Cc t bo m dy gc xp thnh m nm st biu b phn gn l. Mt cung
libe-g nm gia gn l, hai u cung cun vo pha trong nhng khng gip
nhau. Libe nm thnh tng m nh lin tc, gm nhng t bo nh thnh nhn
nheo, xen k vi cc m libe l m mm libe gm nhng t bo to hn, trn,
vch mng. G tp trung thnh mt m dy nhng t bo c thnh ha g
vng mt trn cung l v to mt vng cung gm nhng b g hnh tam gic
mt di vng cung l. Pha ngai cung libe-g c mt vng m cng bao
quanh thnh mt vng kn hnh tim vng gn l, gm nhng t bo c thnh
dy. Pha trong cung libe-g c m mm c gm nhng t bo thnh mng
hnh a gic. Tinh th calci oxalat hnh lp phng nm trong nhng t bo m
mm ven theo cung m cng .
Phn m mm gm nhng t bo to, thnh mng, vng phin l to nhng
khuyt hnh xoan.
Phn phin l c hai lp m giu, chim b dy ca phin l.
Bt
73

Bt mu xanh, cht xp nh. Soi knh hin vi thy: mnh biu b trn v biu b
di ca l c t bo thnh mng mang lng che ch n bo ngn, u nhn, l
kh kiu song bo v u li cutin. Mnh biu b ca cung l v gn l c mang
lng che ch n bo. Mnh lng n bo b gy, mnh m mm. Si km tinh
th calci oxalat hnh khi lp phng ring l. Mnh mch im, mch mng,
mch xon, mch vch.
nh tnh
A. Ly 1 g bt l, thm 10 ml dung dch acid sulfuric 25% (TT) un si trong 2
pht, ngui, lc vo bnh gn. Cho vo dch lc 5 ml cloroform (TT), lc.
lng, gn ly lp cloroform (TT), thm 2 ml dung dch natri hydroxyd 10% (TT),
lc, lng, lp kim c mu hng hoc .
B. Phng php sc k lp mng (Ph lc 5.4)
Bn mng: Silica gel G
Dung mi khai trin: Cloroform- aceton - benzen (4 : 3 : 3).
Dung dch th: Ly 2 g bt l un cch thy vi 20 ml ethanol 96% (TT) trong
30 pht, ngui, lc, bay hi n cn kh. Cn thm vo 10 ml nc v 1 ml
dung dch acid hydrocloric 10% (TT) un cch thy 30 pht, ngui sau lc
vi 20 ml ether ethylic (TT) 2 ln, dch ether c bay hi m c lm dung
dch th.
Dung dch i chiu: Pha dung dch chrysophanol 0,1% trong ethanol 96% (TT).
Nu khng c cc cht i chiu, dng 2 g bt l Mung tru (mu chun), chit
nh mu th.
Cch tin hnh: Chm ring bit ln bn mng 10 l dung dch th v dung dch
i chiu. Sau khi trin khai, kh bn mng trong khng kh, quan st di
nh sng t ngoi bc sng 365 nm v hi amoniac. Trn sc k ca dung
dch th phi c cc vt c cng mu sc v Rf vi cc vt trn sc k ca
dung dch i chiu.
m
Khng qu 13% (Ph lc 12.13).
Tro ton phn
Khng qu 5% (Ph lc 9.8).
74

Tro khng tan trong dung dch acid


Khng qu 0,7% (Ph lc 9.7).
Tp cht
Khng qu 0,5% (Ph lc 12.11).
nh lng
Ly 0,5 g bt l dc liu cho vo bnh nn 100 ml. Thm 5 ml acid acetic bng
(TT). un hn hp 20 pht vi ng sinh hn ngc trong cch thy si.
ngui, thm vo bnh nn 40 ml ether ethylic (TT) v un hi lu trn cch thy
15 pht. ngui, lc qua bng vo mt bnh gn 250 ml, ra bng bng 10 ml
ether ethylic. Cho bng tr li vo bnh nn, lp li cch chit nh trn 2 ln, mi
ln dng 10 ml ether ethylic (TT) v un hi lu cch thy vi nc sinh hn
ngc c lm lnh bng nc trong 10 pht. ngui, lc qua bng. Trng
bnh nn bng 10 ml ether ethylic (TT), lc qua bng trn. Tp trung cc dch lc
ether ethylic vo bnh gn trn.
Thm cn thn 50 ml dung dch kim amoniac (TT) vo dch chit ether ethylic
ng trong bnh gn, lc trong 5 pht. Sau khi hn hp phn lp hon ton,
gn lp nc mu trong sut vo bnh nh mc 250 ml. Tip tc chit lp
ether 3 ln, mi ln vi 40 ml dung dch kim amoniac (TT). Tp trung cc
dch chit kim vo bnh nh mc v thm dung dch kim amoniac ti vch.
Ht 25 ml dung dch thu c cho vo mt bnh nn v un nng 15 pht trong
cch thy vi ng sinh hn ngc. ngui, o mt quang bc sng 520
nm (ph lc 4.1), so snh vi mu trng l dung dch kim amoniac.
Nng anthranoid trong dung dch cn o c biu th bng 1,8 dihydro
anthraquinon v xc nh bng ng cong chun xy dng theo cobalt clorid
(TT).
c ng cong chun, pha mt dy dung dch cobalt clorid (CoCl2 . 6H2O) c
nng t 0,2-5% v o mt quang cc dung dch ny bc sng 520 nm
(ph lc 4.1). Trn trc tung ghi mt quang o c. Trn trc honh ghi
nng dn cht anthranoid tng ng vi nng cobalt clorid, tnh ra mg
trong 100 ml.
Theo quy c, mt quang ca dung dch cobalt clorid 1% bng mt quang
ca 0,36 mg 1,8 dihydro anthraquinon trong 100 ml dung dch kim amoniac.
75

Hm lng phn trm dn cht anthranoid so vi dc liu tnh theo cng thc:
X% =

250 c
10 a (100 h)

c: Nng dn cht anthranoid bng mg/100 ml tnh theo ng cong chun.


a: Khi lng dc liu (g).
h: m dc liu (%).
Dc liu phi cha t nht 0,2% dn cht anthranoid biu th bng 1,8 dihydro
anthraquinon.
Ghi ch: Dung dch kim amoniac: Ly 5 g natri hydroxyd (TT) thm 2 ml
amoniac m c (TT), thm nc va 100 ml.
Ch bin
Thu hoch vo ma h, hi ly l, phi m can, hoc sy nh hay sao n kh.
Bo qun
ni kh, mt, trnh nh sng.
Tnh v, quy kinh
Tn, n. Vo cc kinh can, i trng
Cng nng, ch tr
Nhun trng, li gan mt, tiu c, tiu vim, st trng, ch nga. Ch tr: To
bn (dng sng), vim gan, da vng (dng thuc sao kh).
Dng ngoi cha hc lo, vim da thn kinh, nga l.
Cch dng, liu lng
Ngy dng 4 - 5 g (nhun trng), dng thuc sc.
Dng ngoi: Lng thch hp, ra sch, gi nt l, ly nc ct bi, mt ngy 2
ln, hoc ly l ti v, ch st vo ch b hc lo.
King k
Ph n c thai khng nn dng.
CAM THO (R)
Radix Glycyrrhizae
R cn v hoc co lp bn, c phi hay sy kh ca ba loi Cam tho
76

Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. hoc Glycyrrhiza glabra L.;
h u (Fabaceae).
M t
on r hnh tr, thng hay hi cong queo, thng di 20-30 cm, ng knh
0,5-2,5 cm. Cam tho cha co lp bn bn ngoi c mu nu cng nhng vt
nhn dc. Cam tho co lp bn c mu vng nht. Kh b gy, vt b mu
vng nht c nhiu x dc. Mt ct ngang c nhiu tia rut t trung tm ta ra,
trng ging nh nan hoa bnh xe. Mi c bit, v ngt hi kh c.
Vi phu
Lp bn dy gm cc t bo hnh ch nht. M mm v c cha nhiu ht tinh
bt. Tia rut c 3-5 hng t bo loe rng thnh hnh phu trong vng libe. Libe
hnh nn cha cc m si thnh dy v tinh th calci oxalat. G gm mch g
to, si g v m mm g t ha g. Trong c ty nh.
Bt
Mu vng nht n mu vng nu. Soi knh hin vi thy cc mnh m mm vi
t bo c thnh mng cha nhiu ht tinh bt. Ht tinh bt ng ring r, hnh
trng hay hnh cu c ng knh 2- 20 m. Si g mu vng, c thnh dy,
thng km theo t bo c tinh th calci oxalat hnh lng tr. Mnh mch im
mu vng, mnh bn mu nu .
nh tnh
A. Nh dung dch amoniac (TT) ln bt dc liu s c mu vng ti, thm acid
sulfuric 80% (TT) s mt mu vng ti.
B. Ly 0,5 g bt Cam tho, thm 50 ml ethanol 70% (TT), un nng trn cch
thy trong 15 pht. Lc nng qua bng, ly dch lc lm cc phn ng sau:
Ly 10 ml dch lc vo mt chn s, c trn cch thy n kh. Thm vo cn 1
ml anhydrid acetic (TT) v 1 ml cloroform (TT), khuy k, lc ly phn dung
dch trong, cho vo mt ng nghim kh. Thm t t theo thnh ng nghim
khong 1 ml acid sulfuric (TT). Gia 2 lp cht lng c vng ngn cch mu nu
, lp dung dch pha trn c mu vng nu sm.
Ly 2 - 3 ml dch lc cho vo mt ng nghim, thm mt t bt magnesi kim loi
v 0,5 ml acid hydrocloric (TT) s xut hin mu sm.
C. Phng php sc k lp mng (Ph lc 5.4).
77

Bn mng: Silica gel G hot ha 105 oC trong 1 gi.


Dung mi khai trin: Cloroform - methanol - n-hexan (7 : 1 : 2).
Dung dch th: Ly khong 0,5 g bt dc liu, thm 20 ml ether ethylic (TT),
un hi lu trn cch thy trong 1 gi, gn b dch ether. Thm vo b 1 ml acid
hydrocloric (TT) v 20 ml cloroform (TT), un hi lu trong 1 gi, ngui, lc
ly dch chit. Bc hi dch chit n cn, thm vo cn 1 ml methanol (TT).
Dung dch i chiu: Ly acid glycyrrhetic, ha tan trong methanol (TT) c
dung dch c nng khong 1 mg/ml. Nu khng c acid glycyrrhetic, dng 0,5
g bt Cam tho (mu chun) chit nh mu th.
Cch tin hnh: Trn mt bn mng chm ring bit 5 l mi dung dch trn. Sau
khi khai trin xong, ly bn mng ra kh ngoi khng kh, phun dung dch
acid sulfuric 10% trong methanol (TT), sy bn mng 105 oC trong 5 pht.
Trn sc k ca dung dch th phi c cc vt cng mu v cng gi tr Rf vi
cc vt trn sc k ca dung dch i chiu.
m
Khng qu 12% (Ph lc 9.6).
Tro ton phn
Khng qu 6% i vi r co v; khng qu 10% i vi r khng co v
(Ph lc 7.6).
Tro khng tan trong acid hydrocloric
Khng qu 2,5% (Ph lc 9.7).
Tp cht
Khng qu 1% (Ph lc 12.11).
nh lng
Cn chnh xc khong 10 g bt dc liu vo mt bnh nn dung tch 250 ml.
Thm 100 ml ethanol 20% (TT), un trn cch thy si trong 30 pht. lng,
gn ly dch chit. Chit tip nh trn 2 ln na, mi ln vi 50 ml ethanol 20%
(TT). Tp trung cc dch chit vo mt bnh nn dung tch 250 ml, thm 30 ml
ethanol (TT), yn qua m. Lc, c dch lc trn cch thy si n khi ht
ethanol, ngui. Thm 50 ml nc ct, 1 ml acid hydrocloric (TT), khuy u.
t hn hp vo trong nc ang tan trong 30 pht, gn b lp nc, thu kt
ta. Ha kt ta vi 10 ml ethanol (TT), lc qua giy, ra giy lc vi ethanol
78

(TT) ti khi nc ra ht mu vng. Tp trung tt c dch ethanol vo mt cc


cn b, bc hi trn cch thy n cn, sy cn trong 3 gi 105 oC. Ly ra,
ngui trong bnh ht m. Cn v tnh kt qu.
Hm lng cn cha acid glycyrrhizic khng c di 6% tnh theo dc liu
kh kit.

Ch bin
Sau khi o ly r, xp thnh ng cho hi ln men lm cho r c mu vng
sm hn, phi hoc sy kh.
Bo ch
Ly r Cam tho, phun nc cho mm, thi phin, phi hoc sy kh.
Chch Cam tho: Ly Cam tho thi phin, em tm mt (c 1 kg Cam tho,
dng 200 g mt, thm 200 g nc un si), ri sao vng thm.
Bo qun
ni kh, mt, trnh su mt.
Tnh v, quy kinh
Cam, bnh. Vo cc kinh tm, ph, t, v v thng 12 kinh.
Cng nng, ch tr
Kin t ch kh, nhun ph ch ho, gii c, ch thng, iu ho tc dng cc
thuc.
Chch Cam tho: B t, ch kh, phc mch. Ch tr: T v h nhc, mt mi
yu sc, ho m ch ho, nh trng ngc, mch kt i (mch dng), lon nhp
tim.
Sinh cam tho: Gii c t ho. Ch tr: au hng, mn nht, thai c.
Cch dng, liu lung
Ngy dng 4 - 12 g, dng thuc sc hoc bt.
King k
Khng dng chung vi cc v i kch, Nguyn hoa, Hi to, Cam toi
Cu hi lng gi:
Cu 1: Kim tra cht lng dc liu nhm mc ch:
79

a. Xem dc liu c t tiu chun a v sn xut hay s dng lm


thuc hay khng
b. Phn bit s ng sai, s nhm ln i vi dc liu.
c. Gi mo i vi mt dc liu.
d. C a, b, c u ng
Cu 2: Hin Nay, ngi ta da vo tiu chun no kim tra cht lng dc
liu
a. Dc in Vit Nam III
b. Dc in Vit Nam IV
c. Tiu chun a phng
d. C a, b, c u ng
Cu 3: Ly mu mt l dc liu gm 500 gi th s bao gi cn ly mu l
a. 50 gi
b. 25 gi
c. 75 gi
d. 100 gi
Cu 4: Ly mu mt l dc liu qu gm 500 gi th s bao gi cn ly mu
l
a. 50 gi
b. 25 gi
c. 100 gi
d. 500 gi
Cu 5: V tr ly mu ca mi bao kin l
a. Trn
b. Trn v di
c. Trn, gia v cui
d. Khng c quy nh
Cu 6: nu lng dc liu nh hn 5kg th s lng mu c ly l:
a. Nh hn 3 ln s lng em th
b. Khng nh hn 3 ln s lng em th
c. Bng 1/3 s lng dc liu
d. Khng nh hn 1/3 s lng dc liu
Cu 7: Nu lng dc liu ln hn 5kg th s lng mu cn ly i vi thuc
thng thng l:
a. 100g-500g
b. 200g-500g
c. 250g-500g
d. 350g-500g
Cu 8: Lng mu ng nht c chia lm my phn
80

a.
b.
c.
d.

2
3
4
5

Cu 9: Thi gian lu mu trong kim nghim dc liu l


a. t nht 1 thng
b. t nht 1 nm
c. Lu n khi dc liu b h
d. C a, b, c u sai
Cu 10: C my phng php lm mm dc liu
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5
Cu 11: Thm 1-2 git thuc th phloroglucinol , yn mt lc,thm 1 git acid
hydroloric(TT),vng ha g s xut hin mu g
a. vng
b.
c. Xanh lam
d. tm
Cu 12: Mng t bo ha bn hoc ha cutin c pht hin bng thuc th no?
a. Sudan III
b. Km clorid iod
c. Iod
d. Acid sulfuric
Cu 13: C my phng php xc nh m
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5
Cu 14: Mi dc liu u c th xc nh m bng phng php no sau y
a. Phng php sy
b. Phng php chng ct vi dung mi
c. Phng php un chy
d. Phng php lm lnh
Cu 15: Biu b mang kh khng, lng che ch, lng tit l nhng cu t thng
thy trong bt no?
a. Bt l
81

b. Bt thn
c. Bt r
d. b, c u ng
Cu 16: pht hin ht tinh bt ngi ta dng thuc th no sau y
a. Dung dch lugol
b. Dung dch h tinh bt
c. Dung dch acid sulfuric
d. Thuc th KMnO4
Cu 17: i vi cc dc liu c cha cht d bay hi nh tinh du th ta nn
dng phng php no xc nh m.
a. Phng php sy
b. Phng php chng ct vi dung mi
c. Phng php chit nng
d. Phng php chit lnh
Cu 18: Cht v c ln vo dc liu trong qu trnh thu hi, ch bin l cht v
c c ngun gc
a. Ni sinh
b. Ngoi sinh
c. Ni sinh v ngoi sinh
d. Cht v c do cy t to ra.
Cu 19: chit xut, nh tnh, nh lng cc hot cht trong dc liu ta da
vo:
a. Thuc th lugol
b. Thuc th a nng
c. Da vo tnh cht ca nhm dc cht
d. c a, b, c u sai
Cu 20: chit cht kh tan trong dung mi nhit thng ta dng phng
php chit no sau y
a. chit nng
b. Chit lnh
c. Chit cn cao
d. Chit cn thp
82

PHN P N CU HI LNG GI
Bi 1:
Cu

10

p n

Cu

10

p n

Bi 2:

Cu 8: Trnh by nguyn tc chung ca k thut thu hi ?


+ Thu hi ng dc liu, ng b phn dng, ng thi v.
+ Nhng b phn trn mt t nn hi vo lc kh ro, khi tri kh sng.
Khi nhng b phn si mt t (r, thn r, r c) c th phi ti nc trc
khi thu hoch lm cho t mm, d o hn v sau cn phi ra sch trc khi
ch bin.
+ Thao tc thu hi phi kho lo, nh nhng, khng lm gip nt cc b phn cn
thu hi v cc cy cn li trong vn.
+ Trong qu trnh thu hi cn phi loi b cc phn h thi, vng a khng
dng c, trnh ln cc tp cht l nh: t ct, c di, tn cng ch
bin v sau.
Cu 9:Bin php x l khi pht hin dc liu c nm mc ?
Khi pht hin c nm mc phi tch ring dc liu, x l ngay bng cch
chi mc, lau bng khn c thm nc hay cn, sy li, ri tia gamma... c k
hoch x l sm, nu nhim nng th loi b
Cu 10 . So snh u nhc im ca phng php phi v sy ?
Uu m
Nhc im
PP Phi iu kin t nhin
Ph thuc thi tit
n gi
d nhim rui , bi
t tn km
Hot cht b nh hng
PP Sy
Nhit lng nhn to
Tn km
Hp v sinh
Khng ph thuc thi tit

83

Bi 3:
Bi 4:
Cu

10

p n

Cu

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

p n

84

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Dc in Vit Nam IV-B y t (2009)
2. Gio trnh dc liu 1, trng trung cp kinh t k thut Phng Nam

85