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Define a pharmaceutical drug?

A pharmaceutical drug also referred to as medicine, can be defined as any chemical substance
used in the medical diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease.
What is formulation?
Formulation is a finished product of drug which contains the main drug as the active ingredient
and in addition to this it contains binders, fillers, antioxidants, preservatives, food colours etc.
What are the different formulations in which drugs are available?
Drugs are available in different formulation (dosage) forms:
Ointments, creams, lotions, nose, ear and eye drops, injections, tablets, capsules, sprays,
aerosols, suspensions, powders, syrups etc.
What are the different routes of drug administration?
1. Oral:

Example: tablets taken with water, or flavored syrups, In this case, the medicine is acted
upon by the stomach enzymes, which activate it so it can bring effect.

In some special cases like nitroglycerine used in angina, the tablet is placed under the
tongue for direct absorption.

2. As an injection:
This is the next common form used, given using a syringe fitted with a fine hollow needle that
pierces the skin and enters the inner tissue to deliver the drug quickly for absorption.
The injection may be given either:
a) Intravenously: into a vein, so that it directly enters the blood stream. It is the fastest mode of
absorption, but is painful and needs to be done carefully.
b) Intramuscularly: into one of the thick muscles like the buttocks, arms or the thighs.
E.g. vaccines, and painkillers. It is also a fast mode of delivery, but it is preserved for those
cases where the drug cannot be given intravenously due to risk of uncontrolled effect/adverse
reaction.
c) Subcutaneously and Intradermally: This is used in cases where a very small amount of
medicine has to be given, and also in cases where a reaction to the medicine is to be observed as
an indication of a disease. Example: Mantoux test for Tuberculosis.

• The drug cimetidine (Tegamet). • Metal hydroxides are better alternatives because of being insoluble. was designed to prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach wall. such as those in the walls of fine blood vessels. these do not increase the pH above neutrality. • A major breakthrough in the treatment of hyperacidity came through the discovery of a chemical. as they will not take a lot of medications orally. Rectal route • Certain fluid medications are administered through the rectum. . even to adults rectally.the lower part of the intestine beginning from the anus upwards. In some cases enemas. histamine which stimulates the secretion of pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach. • Example: Creams. 4. • It may be used in children in some cases.3. sprays or patches. Write a note on Antihistamines (anti-allergic drugs): Drugs used to treat allergy:  Histamine has various functions: • It contracts the smooth muscles in the bronchi and gut and relaxes other muscles. These treatments control only symptoms. This resulted in release of lesser amount of acid. In severe cases. Topical route • This is done by application on the skin. ointments. ulcers are developed in the stomach • Common example of antacids are sodium hydrogen carbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide • Excessive hydrogen carbonate can make the stomach alkaline and trigger the production of even more acid. • In this case the drug is absorbed from the skin into the blood stream or in some cases the local effect is produced on the skin for certain skin conditions. Some common classess of drugs: Write note on Antacids: These drugs are used to treat acidity. and not the cause. • Over production of acid in the stomach causes irritation and pain.

and they don’t lower the body temperature if it is in normal range. brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane). and aspirin.  They interfere with the natural action of histamine by competing with histamine for binding sites of receptor where histamine exerts its effect. Write a note On Analgesics? Analgesics reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness.• Histamine is also responsible for the nasal congestion associated with common cold and allergic response to pollen. such as providing pain relief or decreasing inflammation. These are classified as follows: (i) Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics (ii) Narcotic drugs • The two pain relievers often taken are ibuprofen and Aspirin and paracetamol (non. incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system.9º–40ºC range • The most common examples of these are over (paracetamol). • 102º–104ºF/38. ibuprofen. . Write a note on Antipyretics? • An antipyretic is a drug or herb that lowers fever. The hypothalamus knows what temperature your body should be (usually around 98. mental confusion. • Most antipyretic drugs reduce fevers by acting on chemicals in the body like interleukin. • Fever occurs when the body's internal "thermostat" raises the body temperature above its normal level. act as antihistamines. and in child birth. relieve pain and produce sleep.  Synthetic drugs. which come in a variety of forms. which signal the hypothalamus to increase temperature.narcotic) • Narcotic analgesics: Example: Morphine when administered in medicinal doses. Used for the relief of postoperative pain.6ºF/37ºC) and will send messages to your body to keep it that way. This is helpful because many antipyretics have other functions. • They tend to be effective only when an actual fever is present.  “Why do antihistamines not affect the secretion of acid in stomach?” The reason is that antiallergic and antacid drugs work on different receptors. This thermostat is found in the lower part of the brain called the hypothalamus. or pyrexia. cardiac pain and pains of terminal cancer.

• Some of these nerve endings can sense pain. Additives are used• To Maintain or Improve Safety and Freshness: Preservatives slow product spoilage caused by mould. nervous system. • When cells in the body are injured or damaged. storage and preservation. such as sugar or salt. Direct food additives are those added to a food for a specific purpose in that food. The brain then responds. the nerve endings respond to it by picking up and transmitting the pain and injury messages through the nervous system to the brain. Emulsifiers. like from a burn or a blow to a body. FOOD ADDITIVES Food produced on a large scale that is supplied to supermarkets and other food shops has to be transported and stored before it is consumed. Food additives like ascorbic acid delay the process of deteroration caused by oxidation reaction. they release a chemical called prostaglandin (say: prass-tuh-glan-din). flavours and sweeteners enhance the taste of food. Additives are used so that these foods still have a consistently high quality. Food colours improve appearance. A food additive is any substance added to food that changes its characteristics. direct and indirect. ADDITIVES Any substance/mixture of substances other than the basic component that is added to food as a result of any aspect of processing. It has to stay in good condition over a much longer period of time than home-cooked food.• Pain relievers work with our cells. In some products. They tell the brain everything about the pain. air. • To Improve or Maintain Nutritional Value: Vitamins and minerals (and fiber) are added to many foods to make up for those lacking in a person's diet or lost in processing. bacteria. fortification of dairy products with vit. while other ingredients help maintain the taste and appeal of foods. . Addition of iodine in salt to prevent goitre. Texture and Appearance: Spices. like where it is and how much it hurts. and brain to keep us from feeling the pain. • The special nerve endings that sense pain are very sensitive to this chemical. or to enhance the nutritional quality of a food. D to prevent rickets etc. body's nerve endings. Most direct food additives are listed on ingredient food labels. • Improve Taste. stabilizers and thickeners give foods the texture and consistency. There are two types of food additives. they are so essential that additives are used even in certain organic foods. fungi or yeast. When prostaglandin is released. Eg.

E-numbers E-numbers are a systematic way of identifying different food additives. • E100s are generally colours. This shows that it can be used safely in foods. Saccharin was discovered in 1878 but it was not until the 1950's. that sweeteners came into significant use. some of these components are likely to migrate into foods. • Sugar substitutes are loosely considered any sweetener that you use instead of regular table sugar (sucrose). Before a food additive is given an 'E' number it must first be cleared by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). • E300 to E341 are mainly antioxidants and acid regulators. esp. anti-caking agents. An 'E' number is only given to an additive that has passed all the safety checks. obesity and diabetes. It is made up from two smaller sugar molecules (glucose and fructose) joined together and so it is also known as a disaccharide. • Sugar Substitutes. Sugar substitutes can be divided into four general categories: artificial sweetener. stabilisers. release agents and bulking agents. thickeners. residual plastic monomers and plasticizers. • The plastic monomers of most health concern are vinyl chloride. antistatic agents. Plastic consists of its polymer. and styrene. plasticizers. • Alternative sweeteners can be divided into two main categories: • artificial or intense sweeteners Many times sweeter than sugar and are therefore typically used at very low levels to replace the sweetness normally provided by sugar. when consumers became interested in low calorie foods. The tables are neither complete nor inclusive and may undergo change as additives are reclassified. stabilizers and antioxidants.indirect food additives are those that become part of the food in trace amounts due to package storing or other handling. sugar alcohols. natural sweeteners. etc.Sugars are also known as carbohydrates. • Alternatives to sugar have therefore been developed which provide the sweetness without the energy content. . excessive sugar intake is linked with a number of health problems including tooth decay. Table sugar is a sweettasting carbohydrate called sucrose. • E200 to E282 are mainly preservatives and acids. • E400s include emulsifiers. However. It gives the sensation of sweetness and provides a source of energy. Sugar is an important flavouring substance. and dietary supplements or novel sweeteners such as Stevia.

• • • Artificial sweeteners are also called low-calorie sweeteners. Example Cochineal. So. Nature Identical Colours Obtaining colours from natural sources can be costly and their quality can vary. Natural Red 4. tomatoes.I. chewing gum. is a red colour that is obtained from the bodies of certain scale insects that feed off cactus leaves and their bodies are commercially harvested in Africa. It is roughly 100 times as sweet as cane sugar. This group is predominantly composed of Sugar alcohols or polyols. Sugar alcohols generally aren't used when you prepare food at home. To restore the original colour which may be changed or lost during food processing/ storage. frozen desserts. Carmine can also be identified on food labels as Crimson Lake. mouthwash. Their bodies are dried and crushed to extract the red colouring. found in carrots. roots and seeds of plants. so as to make it more appetizing and more saleable. Natural colours Obtained from natural sources such as grass. Depending on the individual sweetener. This improves their purity and may also cost less. oranges etc . The main chemical classes are: flavonoids. Natural colours are less intense than synthetic colours and so need to be used in higher concentrations.05-10 grammes (1010. Colours Food colours are dyes which are added to food for the following reasons To give food an attractive colour.000mg) per kilogramme of food. toothpaste. leafy vegetables. Examples Aspartame is the most successful and widely used artificial sweetener. usually replacing sugar on an equal basis. or nonnutritive sweeteners. Cochineal. Nature identical colours are exactly the same molecules found in natural sources but they are made synthetically. candy. sugar substitutes. chemists have found ways to make identical colours in the laboratory. Use of aspartame is limited to cold foods and soft drinks because it is unstable at cooking temperature. Spain and Central America. or carminic acid. bulk sweeteners Provide both bulk and sweetness. they are 35% to 100% as sweet as sugar and so have similar bulk to sugar. fruit skins. C. they are found in many processed foods including chocolate. Natural colours are used in concentrations in the range of 0. To ensure colour consistency. 75470 or E120. The polyols can often be used as direct replacements for sugar. found in many flowers. fruits and vegetables indigoid. Rather. Animals can also be a source of food colouring. found in beetroot carotenoids. baked goods and fruit spreads.

(quinoline yellow). The safety of food colourings is a controversial area. such as amaranth (colour for blackcurrant jams). jam.Most natural and nature identical colours can dissolve in oil but do not dissolve in water. instant puddings. Synthetic Colours are colours that do not occur in nature and have been made in a factory. marmalade. The main examples of synthetic colours are: azo dyes. such as. a water-in-oil emulsion has small droplets of water that are dispersed in an oil. It can also be used with Brilliant Blue FCF-E133 to produce various green shades e. custard powder. Nature identical colours vary in usage levels but can be very efficient. The amount of colouring allowed in food is very low. xanthene. or emulsifying agent. in particular. beta-carotene is used at levels of 1 to 30 mg per kilogramme of food. yoghurt as well as pharmaceuticals. itching. This means it is difficult to add them directly to foods. coloured fizzy drinks. keeps the mixture stable and prevents the oil and water from separating into two layers. jelly. Alternatively. sauces. sweets. . for tinned processed peas. blurred vision. quinoline. fruit cordial. indigoid. chewing gum. Synthetic colours are usually water soluble and can be used in foods without any further processing. (indigo carmine). about synthetic colours. Tartrazine is a synthetic yellow azo dye found in fruit squash. cake mixes. ice candies. Tartrazine has also been linked to over-activity in children. Usually the water and oil will not mix and the emulsifier. An oil-in-water emulsion contains small droplets of oil that are dispersed in water. dyes. Concern has been expressed. For example. Synthetic colours are also used because they are more stable than natural colours and so are suited to foods which may be stored before they are consumed. Tartrazine appears to cause the most allergic reactions of all the azo dyes.g. Other reactions include migraine. triarylmethanes. (erythrosine). ice cream. soups. particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance and asthmatics. What are emulsions? There are two types of emulsions. rhinitis and purple skin patches. Typically just 10 .50 milligrammes (mg) in a kilogramme of food. Synthetic colours are much brighter than natural colours and so are needed in only very low concentrations.

As the fat decomposes and reacts with oxygen. Examples Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) E300. Natural products such as talc. chemicals called peroxides are produced. unpleasant smell and poor appearance. Citric acid E330. Other manufactured anti-caking agents include: calcium silicate (E552). Oxidation reactions happen when chemicals in the food are exposed to oxygen in the air. magnesium carbonate is used in table salt to improve its flow during manufacture. However. Food is a valuable source of nutrients for certain microbes. Oxidation of fats and oils leads to rancidity and. Fats react with oxygen and even if a food has a very low fat content it may still need the addition of an antioxidant.Emulsifiers in food Emulsifiers are among the most frequently used types of food additives. Air-tight packaging. the growth . potato starch and microcrystalline cellulose (E460) are also used. or foods containing them. fish. using inert gases like nitrogen. More importantly. In low fat spreads. mayonnaise / salad dressing. They are used to aid in the processing of foods and also to help maintain quality and freshness. in fruits such as apples. Fats and oils. Antioxidants Oxidation of food is a destructive process. it can result in the formation of compounds which discolour the fruit. poultry .snacks (extruded). baked products etc . As they grow on the food. margarine. Antioxidants prevent the formation of peroxides and so slow the process of the food 'going off'. these natural systems break down and oxidation is bound to follow. Anticaking agents are added to allow them to flow and mix evenly during the food production process. In natural conditions. Tocopherols E306. Anti-Caking Agents Processed foods often contain ingredients that are mixed as powders. It is left in the salt so that it flows well when being sprinkled onto food.animal fat. sodium aluminosilicate (E554) and dicalcium phosphate (E341). Antioxidants are added to food to slow the rate of oxidation and. meat. these can still be inefficient and adding antioxidants can be an effective way of extending the shelf life of a product. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) E320 Preservatives The greatest threat to the quality and safety of our food comes from microbial spoilage. These change into the substances characteristic of the smell and soapy flavour of a rancid fat. emulsifiers can help to prevent the growth of moulds which would happen if the oil and fat separated. they can extend the shelf life of the food in which they have been used. They rarely have nutritional value. animal and plant tissues contain their own antioxidants but in foods. kaolin. causing loss of nutritional value and changes in chemical composition. they may cause problems such as bad taste. vacuum packing and refrigeration can all be used to delay the oxidation process. dairy products. example. if used properly. They are commonly used in vegetable oil . Emulsifiers have a big effect on the structure and texture of many foods. are the most likely to have problems with oxidation. Emulsifiers can help to make a food appealing. Some antioxidants react with oxygen itself and so prevent the formation of peroxides.

moulds and yeasts. Food preservatives have to be safe for human consumption. correct pH and a supply of food to grow on. can give good all round protection. Usually. air and moisture. can grow to many millions in just a few hours. There are over 80 substances which have permitted use as preservatives. given suitable conditions of warmth. That means they prevent the growth of fungi. The list below shows some important preservativesSorbic acid Benzoic acid (E210-213) Propionic acid (E280-283) Sulfur dioxide (E220-228) Potassium and sodium nitrate (E249 and E250) . so high concentrations of preservatives in food are not permitted. moist. Food preservatives help to control the spread of bacteria which can cause life threatening illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism.of microbes may lead to dangerous levels of toxins in the food. Microbes will grow quickly when they are in the right conditions. They have little effect on bacteria but using a combination of preservatives. This makes the food unfit to be eaten. a single bacterium. They can stop the food-decay microbes from growing but must not harm the cells of the human body. There are also maximum levels of preservatives allowed. Different microbes are sensitive to different types of preservatives and so a wide range of preservatives are in use today. When this is not possible. However. Most preservatives today are actually fungistatic in their action. preservatives may be added to stop the food from getting spoilt. Preservation tries to alter the conditions to slow or stop the microbe growth. with antibacterial properties. warm. microbes are in small enough numbers so that they do not cause any harm.