South Africa and Japan

10 Years of Science and Technology Relations

FOREWORD

I welcome the signing of the Science and Technology Co-operation Agreement between the South African and Japanese Government on 28 August 2003. This agreement places South Africa as the only African country with fully-fledged science and technology co-operation agreement with Japan and has paved a way for further collaboration between the two countries. The establishment of the Science Forum in May 2004, for example, demonstrates the commitment of both countries in identifying and promoting collaboration in specific areas of science and technology. The secondment of Mr Yoshinari Akeno as a Science and Technology Advisor to the Department of Science and Technology in South Africa confirms the commitment of the Japanese Government to strengthen scientific and technological collaboration with South Africa. In order to mirror this appointment and ensure strategic management of the science and technology agreement, the South African Government appointed Mr Vuyani Lingela as a Science and Technology Representative to Japan. Notwithstanding these successful interventions, other areas of mutual benefit in science and technology need to be addressed, including:   Advanced manufacturing applying Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) Rapid Prototyping to benefit industries in both countries. Co-operation in research on new materials. South Africa remains the world’s leading producer of platinum, a metal used by the autocatalyst industry. Japanese companies on the other hand continue to lead in the development of micro fuel cells using platinum electrode catalysts. Co-operation in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to support both countries to meet the emission reduction targets agreed to under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the Millennium Development Goals. Enhancing the exchange of postgraduate students, researchers and teaching positions between universities and research institutions in both countries.

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In collaboration with both the South African and Japanese Government, I will continue working towards increased co-operation in science and technology between the two countries.

Dr B Ngubane Ambassador of South Africa

September 2004

Table of contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................... 5 1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 7 2. South Africa-Japan Partnership Forum ............................................................. 7 2.1 The 1st Partnership Forum ............................................................................... 8 2.2 The 2nd Partnership Forum .............................................................................. 8 2.3 The 3rd Partnership Forum............................................................................... 8 2.4 The 4th Partnership Forum............................................................................... 8 2.5 The 5th Partnership Forum............................................................................... 9 2.6 The 6th Partnership Forum............................................................................. 10 3. Science and Technology Co-operation............................................................ 10 3.1 Inter-governmental collaboration ................................................................... 10 3.1.1 Department of Science and Technology ................................................. 10 3.1.2 Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) .................................... 11 3.2 Inter-institutional collaboration ....................................................................... 12 3.2.1 National Institute for Material Science (NIMS)......................................... 12 3.2.2 South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) ................................... 13 3.2.3 Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (HartRAO) ................. 14 3.2.4 iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) .... 14 3.2.5 South African National Bioinformatics Institute (SANBI).......................... 14 3.2.6 Council for Geoscience........................................................................... 14 3.3 Inter-university collaboration.......................................................................... 14 3.3.1 University of Witwatersrand .................................................................... 14 3.3.2 University of Cape Town......................................................................... 14 3.3.3 University of KwaZulu-Natal.................................................................... 15 3.3.4 University of Pretoria............................................................................... 15 4. Science and Technology Agreement ............................................................... 15 4.1 The role of The Presidency............................................................................ 15

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4.2 Japanese Science and Technology Advisor .................................................. 16 4.3 South African Science and Technology Representative ................................ 17 5. The 1st South Africa-Japan Science Forum ..................................................... 17 5.1 Biotechnology................................................................................................ 18 5.2 Information and communications technology................................................. 19 5.3 Infectious diseases........................................................................................ 20 5.4 New and advanced materials ........................................................................ 21 5.5 Nanotechnology ............................................................................................ 21 5.6 Human capital development .......................................................................... 22 5.6.1 High performance computing .................................................................. 22 5.6.2 Infectious diseases ................................................................................. 22 5.6.3 New and advanced materials, as well as nanotechnology....................... 23 5.6.4 Exchange of scientists and students ....................................................... 23 6. The 1st Joint Committee on Scientific and Technological Co-operation ....... 24 7. Future co-operation in science and technology ............................................. 25 7.1 The 7th Japan-South Africa Partnership Forum.............................................. 25 7.2 The 2005 Aichi World Expo ........................................................................... 25 7.3 The Japan-South Africa S&T Policy Forum ................................................... 25 7.4 Research collaboration.................................................................................. 25 7.5 New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) ..................................... 28 8. Conclusion......................................................................................................... 29

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List of abbreviations and acronyms

ARC : Agricultural Research Council CSIR : Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSTP : Council for Science and Technology Policy DACST : Department of Arts, Culture and Science and Technology DST : Department of Science and Technology FABI : Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute GDP : Gross Domestic Product HartRAO: Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory HPC : High Performance Computing ICT : Information and Communication Technology IT : Information Technology JICA : Japanese International Co-operation Agency JSPS : Japan Society for the Promotion of Science MEXT : Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, science and Technology MINTEK : Council for Mineral Technology MRC : Medical Research Council NACI : National Advisory Council on Innovation NEPAD : New Partnership for Africa’s Development NFRI : National Food Research Institute NIAS : National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences NII : National Institute of Informatics NIID : National Institute of Infectious Diseases NIMS : National Institute of Materials Sciences NIPR : National Institute for Polar Research NISTEP : National Institute of Science and Technology Policy NRF : National Research Foundation NSI : National System of Innovation ODA : Official Development Assistance PlantBio : National Innovation Centre for Plant Biotechnology R&D : Research and Development RCAST : Research Centre for Advanced Science and Technology RIKEN : Institute of Physical and Chemical Research SAAO : South African Astronomical Observatory SAAVI : South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative SADC : Southern African Development Community SINET : Super Science Information Network SPII : Support Programme for Industrial Innovation THRIP : Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme TICAD : Tokyo International Conference on African Development Titech : Tokyo Institute of Technology UCT : University of Cape Town

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Government of South Africa played a significant role in establishing and fostering bilateral relationship with Japan through the four Partnership Forum meetings hosted by South Africa (SA) as well as the two Partnership Forum meetings hosted by Japan since 1999. Bilateral issues discussed in these meetings include international affairs, trade and investment, economic cooperation, S&T, and cultural exchanges. It was during the fifth Partnership Forum meeting in 2002 where the content of the draft S&T agreement was negotiated by government officials from both countries with a view to concluding an agreement on S&T collaboration. The S&T Agreement was finally concluded between SA and Japan during the 6th Partnership Forum meeting on 28 August 2003 in SA. This Agreement constitutes a framework for scientific and technological collaboration between Japanese and South African institutions. Even then a limited number of South African government departments, higher education institutions, as well as public and private R&D institutions established collaboration activities with relevant Japanese S&T institutions since 1997. These activities included: Policy meetings between MEXT and DST, as well as public R&D institutions; ODA programmes between JICA and provincial government departments as well as schools; S&T collaboration activities between Japanese institutions such as NIMS, NIPR, RIKEN with South African institutions such as CSIR, MINTEK, Council for Geoscience, SAAO, HartRAO, iThemba LABS, as well as universities such as University of Witwatersrand, UCT, University of KwaZulu-Natal and University of Pretoria. Following the agreement on S&T, the Japanese Government dispatched a S&T Advisor, Mr Yoshinari Akeno, to SA for a period of two years with effect from 1 March 2004. He has been appointed to advice on concrete cooperation between SA and Japan in the process of implementation of the SAJapan S&T Co-operation Agreement. The South African Government appointment Mr Vuyani Lingela as a S&T Representative to Japan for a period of four years with effect from 1 September 2004. He has been appointed to facilitate collaboration in S&T between SA and Japan. With the S&T agreement in place, S&T co-operative activities between SA and Japan may include:  Meetings of various forms, such as those of experts, to discuss and exchange information on scientific and technological aspects of general or specific subjects and to identify research and development projects and programmes that may be usefully undertaken on a co-operative basis. Exchange of information on activities, policies, practices, and laws and regulations concerning scientific and technological research and development.

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Visits and exchange of scientists, technical personnel, or other exerts on general or specific subjects. Implementation of agreed co-operative projects and programmes Other forms of co-operative activities as may be mutually agreed upon.

The first Science Forum meeting between SA and Japan in May 2004 established priorities for co-operation in S&T between SA and Japan. Priority research areas that were identified include: biotechnology; information and communication technology; advanced and new materials; nanotechnology; infectious diseases; and S&T policy studies. The first Joint Committee meeting between the Government of SA and Government of Japan adopted these research priority areas as a basis for future co-operation in S&T between the two countries. In addition to the areas adopted above, the possibility to include additional areas of co-operation, such as the S&T policy studies and co-operation between funding agencies was considered. In the joint Committee Meeting, it was agreed that a Working Group chaired at the level of Director for Bilateral Co-operation will be established to implement co-operation in the areas above. The Working Group will meet once a year and the dates for meetings would be finalised through correspondence. Other new areas of co-operation will include the 7th SA-Japan Partnership Forum meeting that will take place in Japan on 30 September to 1 October 2004. South African delegation consisting of government representatives will participate in the Partnership Forum meeting. South Africa will also be participating in the 2005 World Expo to be held in Aichi, Japan on 25 March to 25 September 2005. Several South African Government departments and other relevant public and private institutions will exhibit in the Expo. The S&T Policy Forum is proposed to be held as a side event during the Aichi Wold Expo in Japan in April 2005 to create a platform where Japanese and South African Government officials and researchers can openly exchange views and experiences on key S&T issues. The two key outcomes of the Policy Forum will include: Increased understanding by government officials and researchers of the reorganization of the Government of Japan to significantly strengthen its national S&T administrative system; and shared lessons by both the South African and Japanese Government officials and researchers on compilation of indicators for scientific research, technological development and innovation activities to strengthen national innovation systems. The common interest in S&T policy between SA and Japan unlocks opportunities for joint collaboration between researchers in higher education institutions, as well as other public and private R&D institutions. On the other hand, the differences characterised by the economic dominance of Japan combined with the wealth of human capital with high-quality training in maths and science unlocks opportunities to support South Africa’s S&T as well as African systems of innovation in general.

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1. Introduction After the release of former President Nelson Mandela from prison, Japan opened an Embassy in Pretoria in 1992, but fully-fledged diplomatic relations between South Africa and Japan started only after 1994. President Thabo Mbeki paid a state visit to Japan at the invitation of the Government of Japan in October 2001. During this visit, President Mbeki said: “Japan is for us in Africa, an important and inspiring example of how to overcome
seemingly insurmountable obstacles to become one of the leading economies in the world. The impressive lesson that is found amongst the Japanese people - the sheer energy, industry and innovation - has on numerous occasions, helped to build and rebuild this country from setbacks, including the destructions and ruins of the Second World War…From the success of this country since the Meiji Restoration, through the breathtaking advances out of the ruins of the Second World War, I am confident that Japan has many lessons to offer many of us as we strive to create conditions that will ensure that all of humanity lives the life fit for humans.”

The Agreement concluded on 28 August 2003 between South Africa and Japan on co-operation in science and technology (S&T) constitutes a framework for South African and Japanese S&T institutions to build capacity and promote S&T co-operation between the two countries as well as the African continent as a whole. Following this Agreement, the South African Government appointed Mr Vuyani Lingela as a Science and Technology Representative to Japan for a period of four years with effect from 1 September 2004. He has been appointed mainly to facilitate collaboration in S&T between South Africa and Japan. This report describes inter-governmental, inter-institutional and inter-university relationships that contributed to the implementation of the agreement on S&T between South Africa and Japan. Further, it presents modalities for future cooperation in S&T to increase flows of scientific knowledge and resources to South Africa through participation in joint programmes with Japan, as well as facilitating the participation of South Africa as a significant player in the international S&T arena. 2. South Africa-Japan Partnership Forum At the invitation of the Government of Japan, the previous South African Deputy President Thabo Mbeki and Mrs Zanele Mbeki, accompanied by the Deputy Foreign Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Aziz Pahad and senior officials visited Japan from 7-10 April, 1998. During the course of the visit, the Deputy President and Mrs Mbeki had an audience with Their Majesties, The Emperor and Empress of Japan, at the Imperial Palace. Deputy President Mbeki exchanged a wide range of views of future bilateral and multilateral relations with then Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto, then Minister for Foreign Affairs Keizo Obuchi, and then Minister of International Trade and Industry Mitsuo Horiuchi. In order to also expand relations further
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in various areas, the Government of South Africa and Japan decided to establish a "Japan-South Africa Partnership Forum" co-chaired by Ministers in order to strengthen co-operation in the areas such as international affairs, trade and investment, economic co-operation, science and technology, and cultural exchanges. 2.1 The 1st Partnership Forum The Japan-South Africa Partnership Forum meeting was held for the first time in January 1999 on the occasion of a visit to South Africa by former Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto. Mr Hashimoto, who became a Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to the late Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi after resigning in July 1998, headed the Japanese delegation to the Partnership Forum. He also and had talks with then Deputy President Thabo Mbeki, then Foreign Minister Alfred Nzo and other South African leaders. 2.2 The 2nd Partnership Forum The 2nd South Africa-Japan Partnership Forum meeting was held later in April 1999 when Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs Keizo Takemi held discussions with Deputy Minister Aziz Pahad in South Africa. 2.3 The 3rd Partnership Forum The 3rd Japan-South Africa Partnership Forum meeting was held in March 2000 during a visit of Minister Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma in Japan. Cooperation in science and technology between South Africa and Japan was discussed amongst other matters. 2.4 The 4th Partnership Forum In July 2001, Minister Essop Pahad chaired the 4th South Africa-Japan Partnership Forum meeting, which was attended by Mr Seiken Sugiura, then Senior Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs. In this Forum, the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (now DST) made an input, once again, on the desirability of concluding a Science and Technology Agreement between South Africa and Japan. The Japanese Government, once again, suggested that it was important to first seek to achieve exchange between South Africa and Japan in science and technology. His Excellency Ambassador Yasukuni Enoki of Japan requested that a workshop be held at the end of August 2001 to discuss specific project proposals for South Africa in the field of Information Technology (IT). Ambassador Enoki’s request followed four important events:

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In January 2001, the then Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori made a tour of African countries and pledged co-operation for IT development in Africa. At the G-8 Kyushu-Okinawa Summit in July 2000, IT was taken up as one of the main subjects of discussion and the “Okinawa Charter on the Global Information Society” was adopted. Prior to the Summit, Japan had announced a “Comprehensive Cooperation Package to Address the International Digital Divide” consisting of non-Official Development Assistance (ODA) and ODA public funding with the view to extending a total of US$15 billion over five years. This Co-operation Package is carried out by positively examining IT-related project proposals and no special framework is set up for IT co-operation. The Package puts emphasis on the following four fields: raising awareness and contributing intellectually to policy and institution-building; developing and training human resources; building IT infrastructure and providing assistance for network establishment; and promoting the use of IT in development assistance. In order to bring the idea of a Co-operation Package into practice, Japan engaged in policy dialogues with developing countries interested in IT development. In June 2001, the Japan IT delegation headed by Mr Wataru Nishigahiro, the Deputy Director-General of the Economic Co-operation Bureau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, visited South Africa institutions to investigate the possibilities of Japanese assistance in the field of IT to South Africa. In a meeting with the IT delegation, Dr G Von Gruenewaldt was requested to prepare two proposals for support under Japan’s Comprehensive Co-operation Package to Address the International Digital Divide.

The two project proposals in the field of IT were submitted by the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (now DST) to the Embassy of Japan and the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) for consideration. One proposal was on “ICT Research and Training Capacity in South African Institutions of Higher education” with a total budget of about R12.5 million over 5 years. The second proposal was on “Assistance with Training of IT Staff at Higher Education Institutions in South Africa” with a total budget of about R9.9 million. 2.5 The 5th Partnership Forum The Deputy Minister Aziz Pahad led the South African delegation to the 5th Japan-South Africa Partnership Forum meeting in Japan in May 2002. The South African delegation included four officials of the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST) including Mr Themba Wakashe, Deputy Director-General; Dr Botlhale Tema, Chief Director International Cooperation; Mr Simon Mpele, former Deputy Director Bilateral Co-operation; and Mr Vuyani Lingela, former Assistant Director Technology Development.

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The DACST delegation discussed the content of the draft Science and Technology (S&T) Agreement with Japan and the dispatching of the S&T expert to South Africa to facilitate and expedite the implementation of the Agreement. Minister Pahad emphasised that the S&T agreement will be the first ever between Japan and an African nation. 2.6 The 6th Partnership Forum The 6th South Africa-Japan Partnership Forum meeting was held in South Africa on 28-29 August 2003. Participating institutions in the Partnership Forum included the Departments of Trade and Industry; Arts and Culture, Science and Technology; National Treasury; Environmental Affairs and Tourism; Education; Agriculture; Health; and the South African Police Service. Minister Yano was accompanied by among others, Masahiro Kono, DirectorGeneral: Sub-Saharan African Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Yasukuni Enoki, Japan's Ambassador to South Africa; Hiroshi Nagano, DirectorGeneral: International Affairs, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology (MEXT); Hideyuki Tsunoda, Director: International Exchange Promotion, International Science and Technology Affairs Bureau (MEXT); and Yoshinari Akeno, Manager, International Co-operation Office of Technology Transfer and Research Co-ordination Division, RIKEN. 3. Science and Technology Co-operation 3.1 Inter-governmental collaboration 3.1.1 Department of Science and Technology The Department of Arts and Culture, Science and Technology (now the DST) has undertaken a number of high-level visits to Japan, including the visits in March 2000 by Mrs Bridgette Mabandla then Deputy Minister and by then Minister Dr Ben Ngubane in October 2000, to discuss co-operation in the field of science and technology. During Minister Ngubane’s visit, the two countries agreed to intensify co-operation in areas of mutual interest, especially in Information Technology, Biotechnology and New Materials. At the invitation of the DACST (now Department of Science and Technology), the Japanese delegation visited South Africa on 17-19 September 2001. The Japanese delegation was led by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, science and Technology (MEXT). The delegation visited a number of South African science and technology institutions to discuss opportunities for future co-operation. The delegation participated in a South Africa-Japan Science and Technology Workshop with various stakeholders. In the workshop it was agreed that an intergovernmental science and technology agreement would facilitate future co-operation between the two countries; the exchange of students and scientists could be an important element in future collaboration;

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and direct inter-institutional co-operation could likewise be an important element in future collaboration. The DST led a visit to Japan by a delegation consisting of Mr Simon Mpele, Deputy Director Bilateral Co-operation; Dr Dave Walwyn, CSIR; and Dr Francis Petersen, MINTEK; and Dr Khotso Mogele, President of the National Research Foundation (NRF) in February 2003. The visit was supported by MEXT for to main reasons; to further draft the S&T agreement prior to the Ministerial signature; and to visit various Japanese institutions of interest to South Africa as possible partners in collaborative projects. The delegation visited the NIMS, NIAS, NFRI, RCAST, NIID, Titech and JICA, where a number of potential areas for co-operation and possible mechanisms for funding joint projects between South Africa and Japan were made known. Most of the areas for co-operation and possible mechanisms for funding were further discussed during the South Africa-Japan Science Forum held in May. 3.1.2 Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) The Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), one of Japan’s ODA implementing body, is manly responsible for implementing technical cooperation for developing countries. JICA invites engineers (and skilled workers) and governmental officials from developing countries to Japan for training in a variety of fields. It also dispatches experts with skill and knowledge suited to the country’s needs. It provides the equipment needed to transfer technology appropriately and effectively. It also sends various study groups to draw up development plans for developing countries and regions. JICA dispatches volunteers such as Japan Overseas Co-operation Volunteers (JOVC) and Senior Volunteers. It also organises major training programmes for international co-operation specialists in Japan. As of 2003, 14 JICA volunteers have been working in South Africa in the following five areas.  Education. Two training courses on Local Educational Administration and Management and the In-Service Teacher Education and Training in Science and Mathematics to the Mpumalanga Department of Education. The University of Pretoria, as a partner, supports the project with academic issues, research activities and teacher’s career development. JICA also offers a scholarship programme, at the Naruto University and Horoshima University in Japan. Health. Seven Departments of Health received equipment for the Information Education and Communication Programme in 2002. In KwaZulu-Natal, the Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies received laboratory equipment to aid research in 2003. JICA also conducts training in Japan for South Africans to acquire advanced information already available in Japanese medical institutions.

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Agriculture and Rural Development. In October 2002, JICA introduced a Study for the Integrated Holistic Rural Development and Soil Conservation in Limpopo province. It also offers two training courses, Rural Development in the Field of Agriculture and Vegetable Cultivation, annually in Japan. Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). JICA is offering two training courses on Policies for Promotion of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises, and Consultancy Service on Small and Medium Industries. It also conducted a study in 2002 on the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises in KwaZulu-Natal. Capacity Building for Local Government. JICA offers training courses in Japan, entitled Regional Development Administration and Local Government Administration, to relevant officials at both provincial and local level especially in the North West Province.

In July 2004, JICA expressed interest to support mobilisation of academic human resource including research, consultation and training initiatives into the developing programmes based on the Department of Science and Technology. A DST delegation including Ms Noncedo Vutula, Manager International Technology Information; Ms Nonhlanhla Mkize, Deputy Director International Technology Information; and Albert Gazendam, CSIR, visited Japan on 3-9 April 2004 to learn from and develop a joint training programme with Japanese institutions involved in database development and technology information gathering, analysis, monitoring and dissemination. The visit culminated in a S&T Policy Analysis Internship programme that will be offered to the DST officials by NISTEP in November 2004 with the support of JICA. 3.2 Inter-institutional collaboration 3.2.1 National Institute for Material Science (NIMS) The NIMS is a research institution in Japan established on 1 April 2001, following a merger of the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM) and National Institute for research Inorganic Materials (NIRIM). Active collaborations between South African science councils, CSIR-Mattek and MINTEK, and NIMS were initiated with the aim to develop advanced hightemperature alloys for the next generation of jet engines, high efficiency gasturbines, high performance space rockets and others. Table 2 details collaboration activities between these three institutions since 1997. Platinum group metals (PGM) are becoming key elements as alloy additions or even as base metals because of their high melting points, high oxidation/corrosion resistance, etc. Hence the effective use of PGMs for developing high temperature alloys is the main aspect of the collaboration. Continuing activities at the NIMS include the development of new materials for

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nano-devices, research into nano-scale materials for energy and environmental applications, and other nano-materials research, primarily focusing on metallic and inorganic materials.
Table 1. Collaboration activities Period
st

Activity

02/05/2004 During the 1 South Africa-Japan Science Forum in May 2004, NIMS concluded two Memoranda of Understanding with MINTEK and CSIR to expand collaboration in the field of new and advanced materials. 12/2000 Dr H. Harada and Mr S Sato visited South Africa for a few days to consolidate existing collaborations in both formal and practical aspects.

06-12/2000 Ms Patricia Hill of MINTEK visited NRIM to conduct microstructural investigation of Platinum-based alloys. Several academic papers based on this research were published in a scientific journal. 11/1999 South African delegation visited NRIM to follow up on the memorandum on “Collaboration in Materials Research and Development”. The delegation included Dr C. Scheffer (DST), Dr M. Corties (MINTEK), Prof P. Ngoepe (University of the North), Mr J. Benson (CSIR), and Dr L. Cornish (University of the Witwatersrand) who were received by Dr H. Harada. NRIM launched the “High Temperature Materials 21” Project (FY. 19992004). The Project plan involves Mattek (CSIR) and MINTEK

06/1999 03/1999

Visit by NRIM delegation led by Dr H. Harada to the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (now DST), Mattek, and MINTEK. Mattek, MINTEK and NRIM signed a memorandum on “Collaboration in Materials Research and Development” including four potential areas for collaboration; Nickel-based superalloys, PGM-based alloys, Computer simulation, and Ceramics. Visit of the South African Technology Foresight Programme members to NRIM. Members included Mr John Stanko and Mr Bongani Mamela, with specific responsibility for the Mining, Mineral and Metal processing sector. Visit by the Dr Ngubane: Minister of Arts and Culture, Science and Technology (now DST) to NRIM: Nickel-based superalloys with platinum group metals (PGMs) additions, PGMs-base refractory superalloys, and others. Evaluation test of Nickel-base superalloys developed at NRIM was made by Mattek: collaboration bridged by the Dr Brendan Barker of the British Council Tokyo, Japan.

10/1997

09/1997

09/1997

3.2.2 South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) The agreement on scientific collaboration in the field of astronomy was concluded between the SAAO and the Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University in 1998.

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3.2.3 Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (HartRAO) The agreement on scientific collaboration in the field of astronomy was concluded between the HartRAO and the National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) in 2001. 3.2.4 iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) The agreement on scientific collaboration in the field of nuclear physics was concluded between the iThemba LABS and the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University in 2003. The iThemba LABS is also collaborating with Kyushu University in the field of nuclear physics on theoretical calculations for experimental data. 3.2.5 South African National Bioinformatics Institute (SANBI) The SANBI started collaborating with RIKEN in the field of life science on Functional Annotation of Mouse Project. RIKEN is engaged in basic research, which will form the foundation of nanoscience technology for future generations. This includes the measurement and control of nano-level properties and functions, simple quantum manipulation toward the development of new information processing devices, and space-time function materials for manufacturing auto-changing, autoreacting materials, and materials that can change over time. 3.2.6 Council for Geoscience The Council for Geoscience is collaborating with the NIPR in the field of Geology on polar research and on semi-controlled earthquake-generation experiments in deep gold mines. 3.3 Inter-university collaboration 3.3.1 University of Witwatersrand The agreement on inter-university exchange between the University of Witwatersrand and the Soka University was concluded in 1995. 3.3.2 University of Cape Town The agreement on inter-university exchange between the University of Cape Town and the Waseda University was concluded in 2000.

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3.3.3 University of KwaZulu-Natal The University of KwaZulu-Natal and the Kansai Gaidai University was concluded an agreement on inter-university exchange. 3.3.4 University of Pretoria The agreement on inter-university exchange between the University of Pretoria and the Naruto University of Education was concluded in 2002. 4. Science and Technology Agreement 4.1 The role of The Presidency In October 2001, President Thabo Mbeki paid a state visit to Japan at the invitation of the Government of Japan. He was accompanied by his wife, Mrs Zanele Mbeki, and six Ministers including Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Dr B Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology; Mr A Erwin, Minister of Trade and Industry; Mr V Moosa, Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism; Ms AT Didiza, Minister of Agriculture and Land Affairs; and Dr ME Tshabalala-Msimang, Minister of Health. During the course of the visit they had an audience with Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress of Japan at the Imperial Palace on October 1. President Mbeki met Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, and a wide range of views on bilateral relations, African regional issues, and multilateral issues were exchanged. Japan expressed its willingness to facilitate co-operation for IT dissemination throughout Africa. Japan also emphasised its active implementation of a US$ 3 billion programme over five years under the "Okinawa Infectious Diseases Initiative", also for African countries, which are most seriously affected by infectious diseases. At the same time, Japan repeated its intention to contribute US$200 million to the Global HIV/AIDS and Health Fund, which is highly appreciated by the international community. South Africa welcomed the policy visits by Japanese IT and Infectious Diseases task teams to various African countries in this regard earlier in the year. Welcoming progress on bilateral co-operation in the area of science and technology, both Governments decided to start negotiations with a view to conclude an agreement on science and technology co-operation. They also shared the view that the conclusion of the first ever agreement on science and technology co-operation, based on the principle of equality and mutual benefit between Japan and an African country would be of great significance. Japan also provided South Africa with a draft Agreement, a document approved by all the Ministries involved in Science and Technology in Japan.

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The Science and Technology Agreement between South Africa and Japan was finally concluded during the 6th Partnership Forum on 28 August 2003 in Pretoria, South Africa. Dr B Ngubane, then Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology and His Excellency Mr Yori Enoki, the former Ambassador of Japan, signed the Science and Technology Agreement on behalf of the South African and Japanese Government respectively. This Agreement constitutes a framework for scientific and technological collaboration between Japanese and South African S&T research institutions. In terms of this Agreement, S&T co-operative activities between South Africa and Japan may include:  Meetings of various forms, such as those of experts, to discuss and exchange information on scientific and technological aspects of general or specific subjects and to identify research and development projects and programmes that may be usefully undertaken on a co-operative basis. Exchange of information on activities, policies, practices, and laws and regulations concerning scientific and technological research and development. Visits and exchange of scientists, technical personnel, or other exerts on general or specific subjects. Implementation of agreed co-operative projects and programmes. Other forms of co-operative activities as may be mutually agreed upon.

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4.2 Japanese Science and Technology Advisor At the request of the South African Government, the Japanese Government dispatched a Science and Technology Planner, Mr Yoshinari Akeno, to South Africa from 26 August to 23 September 2003. During his visit to South Africa, Mr Akeno visited research councils, other public and private institutions and universities to collect information on the current research and development activities and needs in South Africa. He identified possible areas or projects of mutual benefit for collaboration between both countries and proposed the action plan to realize the collaboration. Following the agreement on science and technology on 28 August 2003, the Japanese Government dispatched a science and Technology Advisor, once again Mr Akeno, to South Africa for a period of two years with effect from 1 March 2004. His key responsibilities in South Africa include policy advice in the field of science and technology for better co-operation between the two countries under the Science and Technology Agreement; and advice on concrete co-operation between the two countries in the process of implementing the Science and Technology Agreement. He facilitated the visit of two Japanese experts Missions to South Africa in March 2004 and

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contributed in organising the South Africa-Japan Science Forum and the Joint Committee meeting in May 2004. 4.3 South African Science and Technology Representative The South African Government appointment Mr Vuyani Lingela as a science and Technology Representative to Japan for a period of four years with effect from 1 September 2004. Mr Lingela, a former recipient of the Japanese Government Scholarship (Monbusho), studied in Japan at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in 1999-2001. Mr Lingela has been appointed to facilitate collaboration in science and technology between South Africa and Japan. His key responsibilities include:  Supporting international cooperation programmes and building partnerships in the field of the development and joint commercialization of high technologies, science-intensive products and services. Supporting the alignment of South African science and technology policies and programmes trough active participation in international science benchmarking exercises. Supporting through international cooperation programmes South Africa’s skills and human resource development imperatives. Attracting foreign investment and venture capital to support the national and regional science and technology and innovation systems. Promoting a strong South African input into the international science and technology for sustainable development discourse as well as NEPAD and international science and technology policy formulation. Assistance to key customers and ad hoc requests.

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5. The 1st South Africa-Japan Science Forum During the 6th Partnership Forum, it was agreed between the Japanese and South African Government that South Africa host the first South Africa-Japan Science Forum in May 2004. At the invitation of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, science and Technology (MEXT), the Department of Science and Technology (DST) delegation including Ms Anati Canca, General Manager Human Capital and Science Missions; Mr Moeketsi Modisenyane, Deputy Director Bilateral Co-operation; and Mr M Chetty, Programme Manager NEPAD-ICT, CSIR visited Japan on 19-23 January 2004. The delegation discussed areas of science and technology co-operation; a framework of co-operation; preparation for the South Africa-Japan Science

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Forum; and the dispatching of a science and Technology Adviser to South Africa. The Science Forum was held in South Africa on 10-14 May 2004. The aim of the Science Forum was to identify and stimulate specific areas of science and technology collaboration by involving relevant research institutions in both countries. It consisted of site visits to public research institutions; the workshop between researchers, private organizations and government organizations at the CSIR International Convention Centre; and the Joint Committee Meeting between the two Governments. The framework for research co-operation in biotechnology, information and communication technologies, infectious diseases, new and advanced material and nanotechnology was discussed by separate interest groups at the workshop. 5.1 Biotechnology The group discussing biotechnology agreed that co-operation must be driven by strategic issues from both countries and be of mutual benefit. The discussions on research co-operation included:   The relevance of food security for both South Africa and Japan The opportunity offered by biotechnology to increase yields, develop resistance to pests, diseases and abiotic stressors (particularly drought in the case of Africa) and increase nutritional value (e.g. levels of protein, amino-acids and vitamins). The opportunities resulting from the rice genome information, and resources data developed in Japan were welcome. The relevance of bio-fortification for poorer African Union countries. The opportunity for South Africa to learn from the extensive Japanese experience on the public understanding of biotechnology arising from the attitude of Japanese public towards genetically modified organisms. Alternative routes to genetic improvement (e.g. cyclotron mutagenesis) The importance of wood (a major South African export item) and fibre biotechnology and the importance of pulp and paper industry for Japan. Post-harvest pathogens (fungi in particular). Opportunities to add value to Africa’s indigenous plant biodiversity. Research on indigenous crops (e.g. millet and sorghum) for the benefit of the poorer African Union countries.

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During the biotechnology group discussions, the following four research themes and nodal points were identified to facilitate joint collaboration:  Application of the rice genome information and resources, and alternative transformation methods, for the benefit of Africa’s staple cereal crops. This theme will include key stressors such as drought. The nodal points are Dr D Berger (FABI, South Africa), Dr S Mundree (PlantBio, South Africa) and Dr K Okuno (NIAS, Japan). Value addition to secondary metabolites from Africa’s indigenous plants to aid in combating infectious diseases. The nodal points are Dr B Okole (CSIR, South Africa) and Dr T Muranaka (RIKEN, Japan). Wood and fibre biotechnology. The nodal points are Dr AA Myburg (FABI, South Africa) and Dr T Demura (RIKEN, Japan). Public understanding of biotechnology. The nodal points are Mr Ben Durham (DST, South Africa) and Dr K Higo (NIAS, Japan).

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It was agreed that the above research themes do not prevent groups talking to each other about other possible areas of collaboration in the future. Both Japanese and South African organisations must be prepared to invest time and effort into learning more about science policies and issues of strategic importance between both countries. It was suggested that Japan and SA should develop templates from their universities and research organisations summarising their capacity and expertise. It was agreed that short-term exchange visits by scientists from both countries is an excellent way of learning about one another’s capacity while working together to develop complete project proposals to be submitted at a bi-lateral or international level for research funding. 5.2 Information and communications technology The discussion group focusing on information and communications technology (ICT) identified the three research priority areas and nodal points to facilitate joint collaboration:  In the area of High Performance Computing, it was suggested that collaboration should focus on intensive skills transfer and human capital development programmes between Japan and SA. The nodal points are the University of Cape Town (UCT, South Africa) and the National Institute of Informatics (NII, Japan). It was suggested that emphasis of Human Language Technologies be on collaborative research programmes and projects. These projects should focus on multilingual computer user interfaces, robust spoken dialogue systems and open source tools for language technology research. The nodal points are the University of Pretoria and MEXT.

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With regard to Earth Observation and Space, collaboration should be project-related. The following two projects were suggested; the development of an integrated web-based remote sensing portal and the development of an appropriate Earth Observation system for disaster management.

5.3 Infectious diseases The group on Infectious diseases focused on HIV/AIDS and other opportunistic diseases particularly entero-pathogens and respiratory pathogens and medicinal plants. The following areas were identified for cooperation:      Capacity building by teaching programmes and training. Clinical trials in South Africa of vaccines developed in Japan. Manufacturing capacity, facility and product Development. Direct investment by Japan in the SAAVI. Safety and efficacy evaluation of HIV candidate vaccines.

The four research themes proposed for joint collaboration included:   Genetic and phenotypic characterization of HIV. Genetic subtype monitoring and surveillance of entero-pathogens and respiratory pathogens and tuberculosis in HIV positive and negative patients. Bio-prospecting for therapeutic agents such as medicinal plants and fauna. Immunology of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

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The South African institutions that expressed interest in the areas identified above include;  SAAVI; University of Venda; MEDUNSA; Stellenbosch University; Wits University; University of Kwa-Zulu Natal; and the National Institute of infectious Diseases (Japan).

Fact-finding missions of the South African researchers to Japan and vice versa were proposed as an immediate action in order to identify specific institutions and researchers, the required capacity and infrastructure and to decide on time fames, budget and implementation.

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5.4 New and advanced materials Previous interactions and agreements on high temperature materials between Japanes and South African researchers date back a number of years, and the discussions started at the point of finalising a Memorandum of Understanding between NIMS, MINTEK and CSIR on 12 May 2004. The collaborations in the area of high temperature materials will be further developed towards actual benefits in the field of energy, environment, transportations and others in both countries. The group on new and advanced materials identified the following areas for collaboration and the nodal points to facilitate joint collaboration:       Nickel-base superalloys and coatings. The nodal points are Mr. R Bean (CSIR, South Africa) and Dr Harada (NIMS, Japan). Platinum group metals base superalloys. The nodal points are Dr L Cornish (MINTEK, South Africa) and Dr Harada (NIMS, Japan). Modelling and analysis. The nodal points are Prof P Ngoepe (University of the North, South Africa) and NIMS (Japan). Turbine materials for Helium-gas nuclear reactor. The nodal point is NIMS (Japan). Refractory alloys. The nodal points are MINTEK (South Africa) and NIMS (Japan). Exchange of researchers.

5.5 Nanotechnology The Japanese group that attended the session is not directly involved in nanotechnology and for that reason the South African group proposed areas that should be of mutual benefit. Areas of mutual benefit were based on general focus and the Japanese nanotechnology research strategy articulated in the Basic Plan. The following areas were identified for co-operation:   Precious Group Metals and gold. The nodal points are Dr D Compton (MINTEK) and Dr Harada (NIMS). Drug delivery, nano-encapsulation of drugs (TB, Malaria, HIV). The nodal points are Dr Hulda Swai (CSIR), Biomaterials Centre, Dr Hiroshi Watanabe; possibly Dr Tanaka (NIMS). Synthesis of nanomaterials. The nodal points are Dr Malik Maaza (Wits University) and Dr Bando (NIMS).

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Energy materials, fuel cells, solar cells etc. The nodal points are Ms L Petrick (UWC) and Dr Miyazawa (NIMS). Characterization (Japan has well equipped facilities in characterization and synthesis but SA lacks such facilities). The nodal points are Dr T Hillie (CSIR) and Dr Kazuo Furuya (NIMS). Modelling. The nodal point is Prof P Ngoepe (University of the North, South Africa).

A full list of activities in South Africa to be studied by Japan as possible starting point for other areas of collaboration. The current focus should firstly be on the areas identified. 5.6 Human capital development 5.6.1 High performance computing The following human capital development opportunities were identified in the area of High Performance Computing (HPC):   Programme on student exchange. Sharing of information on Japanese experiences in setting up and managing the HPC and Super Science Information Network (SINET) facilities. Technical assistance from Japan in setting up the grid infrastructure at the University of Cape Town. Opportunities for the South African students, researchers to do internship programmes at Japanese HPC facilities.

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5.6.2 Infectious diseases The type of human capital development suggested by the group focusing on infectious diseases was;   The exchange of scientists through studentships, fellowships and short visits. The Japanese researchers expressed interest to learn more about the South African ethical policies on HIV/AIDS and the implementation of the clinical trials in South Africa. A programme encouraging visits by the Japanese Postdoctoral fellows to conduct research in South African institutions was proposed.

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5.6.3 New and advanced materials, as well as nanotechnology The group on new and advanced materials, together with the nanotechnology group considered human capital development. Their discussions focused on the following areas:   Awareness generation is important to excite young people about science and particularly materials and nanotechnology fields. Materials research must be relevant and have a social impact. If not young people will not be interested. Japan can play an important role in demonstrating job opportunities in materials and nanotechnology fields. Post doctoral exchange programs are required, but a support base will be needed upon return. Industry contribution is critical to create to take new researchers. Develop relevant curriculum and strengthen capacity for materials activities and research in the higher education institutions.

5.6.4 Exchange of scientists and students The total numbers of the South African (SA) and Japanese exchange students under the Japanese Government Scholarship, as well as the South African scientists in Japan under the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Program are detailed in Table 1 below. The data suggests low numbers of exchange students between South Africa and Japan; even then the number of Japanese students studying in South Africa is much lower compared to South African students studying in Japan. The number of South African JSPS Postdoctoral Fellows in Japan is also very low compared to the number the Egyptian JSPS Postdoctoral Fellows. A special funding mechanism proposed in the 1st South Africa-Japan Science Forum meeting is necessary to stimulate joint research collaboration and exchange of students and scientists between South Africa and Japan.
Table 2. Japan-South Africa student exchange 2000 SA research students in Japan Other SA students in Japan Japanese students in SA SA Invitation Fellows (JSPS) SA Postdoctoral Fellows (JSPS) Egyptian Postdoctoral Fellows (JSPS) 7 1 3 1 0 20 2001 9 2 4 0 2 27 2002 7 3 5 0 2 31

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6. The 1st Joint Committee on Scientific and Technological Co-operation The South Africa-Japan Joint Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as the Joint Committee) met for the first time in South Africa on 13 May 2004. The South African delegation was led by Mr D Naidoo, Group Executive International Co-operation and Resources of the Department of Science and Technology, and the Japanese delegation was led by Mr Yoshitaka Hanada, Minister of the Embassy of Japan in South Africa. It was agreed that the Joint Committee meet once in two years and be chaired at Deputy Director-General level by both the South African Department of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. The chairpersons of the interest groups of the 1st Science Forum workshop presented summary reports on the four areas of co-operation, which included biotechnology, ICT, infectious diseases, new and advanced materials and nanotechnology. The delegates discussed and deliberated issues such as key areas of co-operation, identifying participating institutions, time-frames and next steps such as exchange visits. The significance of future co-operation, particularly in the application of the rice genome information, resources, and alternative methods for research on “Africa’s crops” and “Infectious Diseases” was emphasized. In is considered that the Memorandum of Understanding concluded between NIMS, CSIR and MINTEK will help accelerate progress in co-operation between these institutions. The Joint Committee adopted the report-back on the South Africa-Japan Science Forum Workshop. It was agreed that the possibility to include additional areas of co-operation, either than biotechnology, ICT, infectious diseases, new and advanced materials and nanotechnology, such as the science and technology policy studies and co-operation between funding agencies be considered. It was agreed that a Working Group chaired at the level of Director for Bilateral Co-operation will be established to implement cooperation these areas. The Working Group will meet once a year and the dates for meetings would be finalised through correspondence. It is envisioned that the co-operation between the respective funding agencies, the National Research Foundation (NRF, South Africa) and the JSPS, could facilitate South Africa-Japan S&T co-operation. It was agreed to hold the 2nd Joint Committee meeting in 2006 in Japan. An invitation was extended to Japan to participate in the Innovation, Science, and Technology Fair to be held in South Africa on 1-3 November 2004 as part of the Department of Science and Technology’s celebration of the 10 years of South Africa’s Democracy. The Japanese delegation requested to be given more time to consult with their government and their private sector on possible participation in the Fair. It was agreed that the draft minutes of the Joint Committee meeting be submitted for consideration by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The final dates for the 7th Japan-South-Africa Partnership Forum in Japan will be announced by both the Japanese and South African Governments.

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7. Future co-operation in science and technology 7.1 The 7th Japan-South Africa Partnership Forum The 7th South Africa-Japan Partnership Forum will take place in Tokyo, Japan on 30 September to 1 October 2004. Mr Aziz Pahad, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, will lead the South African delegation. The aim of the Partnership Forum is to strengthen the bilateral co-operation in the areas such as international affairs, trade and investment, economic co-operation, science and technology, and cultural exchanges. The S&T Representative will provide assistance at the request of the South African Government departments and the relevant public institutions to facilitate their participation in the Partnership Forum. 7.2 The 2005 Aichi World Expo Following the Cabinet approval, South Africa will be participating in the 2005 World Expo to be held in Aichi, Japan on 25 March to 25 September 2005. The S&T Representative will provide assistance at the request of the South African Government departments and the relevant public and private institutions to facilitate their participation in the 2005 World Expo. 7.3 The Japan-South Africa S&T Policy Forum It is proposed that the Science and Technology Policy Forum be held as a side event during the Aichi Wold Expo in Japan in April 2005. The aim of this Policy Forum is to create a platform where Japanese and South African Government officials and researchers can openly exchange views and experiences on key S&T issues based on their research experience and S&T policy implementation in both countries. The two key outcomes of the Policy Forum will include:  Increased understanding by government officials and researchers of the reorganization of the Government of Japan to significantly strengthen its national S&T administrative system. Shared lessons by both the South African and Japanese Government officials and researchers on compilation of indicators for scientific research, technological development and innovation activities to strengthen national innovation systems.

7.4 Research collaboration Figure 1 below illustrates an approach adopted to identify, communicate and facilitate opportunities for joint research collaboration between South African and Japanese researchers in priority research areas including biotechnology;

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information and communication technology; advanced and new materials; nanotechnology; infectious diseases; and science and technology policy studies, as agreed in the 1st South Africa-Japan Science Forum in May 2004. Stage 1 The Bilateral Co-operation Unit (Unit) in South Africa and the South African Science and Technology Representative (S&T Representative) to Japan will meet and interview researchers, research managers and policy makers in both countries to assess the research situation and needs, as well as plans to implement research strategies.

Stage 1

Request for Abstracts, Needs and Situational Analysis

Stage 2

South African Researchers

Japanese Researchers

Stage 3 Stage 4

Research Abstracts Joint Research Proposals

Research Abstracts

Stage 5

SA-Japan Research Collaboration

Stage 4

SA-Japan Joint Funding Programme

South African Fund • NRF Institutional Fund • MRC • MINTEK • PlantBio • CSIR • ARC • SAAVI • etc. Competitive Fund • NRF • Innovation Fund • THRIP • SPII • etc.

Japanese Fund • JSPS Institutional Fund • NIMS • RIKEN • NIAS • NIID • etc. Competitive Fund • Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research • JST Basic Research Program • Special Coordination Funds for Promoting S&T • etc.

Stage 3

Figure 1. Framework for research collaboration

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Stage 2 Following meetings with researchers in the Unit and the S&T Representative identify researchers in both countries and request abstracts of their research proposals. The relevant opportunities will be reported or communicated timely to appropriate South African and Japanese institutions. Research proposals from researchers (bottom-up approach) will also be accepted for submission to appropriate researchers in both countries. Stage 3 The Unit and the S&T Representative submit abstracts to relevant researchers in both countries. The S&T Representative in Japan will follow-up by arranging meetings with Japanese researchers who received abstracts from the Unit in SA. The Unit, in return will follow-up by arranging meetings with South African researchers that received abstracts from the S&T Representative in Japan. In addition to the above, both the Unit and the S&T Representative will consult government, independent institutions (science councils and independent administrative institutions) to identify opportunities for research funding. The Unit and the S&T Representative will provide sufficient information on opportunities for competitive research funding, where South African and Japanese researchers can jointly apply for open competitive funding, based on their novel research concept and a combination of their expertise. Stage 4 When the South African–Japan research funding for human capital development is established under a joint NRF-JSPS Memorandum of Understanding, funding can be ring-fenced specifically to support proposals submitted jointly by South African and Japanese researchers. The NRF-JSPS Evaluation Committee can meet once per year to evaluate proposals. Ad hoc requests will be funded, subject to the availability of money and the number of research proposals per year. The research proposals will focus largely on priority areas agreed upon in the South Africa-Japan Joint Committee meetings, but will not exclude new important initiatives. Stage 5 As a result of this approach:  A limited number of researchers can undertake research jointly based on the positive evaluation by the NRF-JSPS Evaluation Committee, subject to the availability of human capital development funding for South Africa-Japan research collaboration. Independent institutions such as MRC, NIMS, PlantBio, RIKEN, etc. can provide funding, subject to the availability of funds in these institutions to undertake joint research initiative.

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South Africa and Japan researchers can also undertake joint research depending on the successful joint research proposal approved for funding by a competitive research fund in either country.

7.5 New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Japan initiated the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) process in 1993, and the conference is held in Tokyo every five years to discuss and promote African development. That process was bolstered with a second Tokyo conference in 1998. The Heads of African State adopted the NEPAD in October 2001. The goals of the NEPAD are to achieve and sustain an average GDP growth rate of over 7% per year for the next 15 years and to ensure that the African continent achieves the agreed International Development Goals for education, poverty reduction and gender equity. Remarking on Japan's African Co-operation Initiative on 14 May 2003, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi said:
“Now that NEPAD is in place, Japan's basic policy on co-operation for Africa will be to support NEPAD through the TICAD process, and to expand partnership for that purpose.”

The NEPAD Ministerial Conference in 2003 stressed that it is a priority for all African countries to have comprehensive national science, technology and innovation policies with emphasis on the development of effective National Systems of Innovation. The Conference also recommended that all programmes of NEPAD should ensure that S&T are integral inputs in their conceptualisation and implementation in order to accelerate progress along the pathways for the realisation of Africa’s goals: job and wealth creation, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. The following flagship programme areas were identified and adopted: Biodiversity science and technology; Biotechnology; Information and Communication Technologies; Energy technologies; Materials science; Space science and technologies; Post harvest food technologies; Water sciences and technology; Indigenous Knowledge & technologies; Desertification research; Science and technology for manufacturing; and Laser technology. Following an approach detailed in Figure 1, the South African S&T Representative in Japan will meet and interview the Diaspora of African scientists, international divisions in Government, higher education institutions, as well as public and private R&D institutions in Japan to investigate availability of opportunities for collaboration in areas identified in the NEPAD Science and Technology Action Plan to benefit South Africa and the African continent as a whole. The S&T Representative will report relevant opportunities for collaboration with Japan timely to appropriate South African institutions.

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8. Conclusion The physical distance, economic and cultural differences between Japan and South Africa are some of the obvious disparities between the two countries. In the words of Mr Yasukuni Enoki, former Ambassador of Japan to South Africa on 21 September 2001:
“…Japan and South Africa both stand with one foot in each two worlds. For Japan, one foot is in Asia, while the other is in the Western World or the Global World. For South Africa, one foot is in Africa, while the other is in the Western/Global World.”

Despite marked differences between South Africa and Japan, concluding a science and technology agreement has established a basis for co-operation in R&D and human capital development. There are also common interests in S&T policy between the two countries, particularly the strong focus on life sciences and biotechnology, information and communication technologies, advanced materials and nanotechnology. The common interest in S&T policy between South Africa and Japan unlocks opportunities for joint collaboration between researchers in higher education institutions, as well as other public and private R&D institutions. On the other hand, the differences characterised by the economic dominance of Japan combined with the wealth of human capital with high-quality training in maths and science unlocks opportunities to support South Africa’s S&T as well as African systems of innovation in general.

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Contact:
Mr Vuyani Lingela Science and Technology Representative

South African Embassy, Japan 414 Zenkyoren Building, 2-7-9 Hirakawa-cho, 2-chome Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0093 Tel: +81 3 3265 3366, Fax: +81 3 3265 1108, E-mail: Lingela@rsatk.com

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