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Model Question Paper With Solution for PUT Exam

Set No -1

Course B.Tech (ET)

Subject Name & Code- Optical Communication

Semester & Section ET VIIC


Max Marks 100

Time 3 Hours

Section A
a) Explain the name of optical source & optical detector ?
ans Optical source LED, LASER
Optical Detector Photodiode
b) What are the important specification of a receiver ?
Ans- Bit rate , Error Probablity , Output Electrical Levels , Output Data Format , Bandwidth
c) Where the optical fiber communication used ?
Ans OFC is used basically in medical imaging such as bronchoscopes , endscope & also
used in military application & also in nuclear testing application .
d) Explain the internal structure of the optical fiber ?
ans Basically the optical fiber consists of three main region
i) Core
ii) Cladding
iii) Coating
The refractive index of the core is greater than refractive index of the cladding.
e) Draw the Block diagram of Optical Fiber Communication ?

f) Explain the non- linear scattering losses & its types ?

Ans Non linear scattering causes the optical power from one mode to be transferred in
either the forward or backward direction to the same or other modes , at a different frequency
. Non linear scattering are of two types
i) Stimulated Brillion Scattering
ii) Stimulated Raman Scattering
g) Define different types of LASER.
Ans. According to the type of material usd for formation of LASER beam , the
LASERs are classified as a. Solid LASER

b. Power LASER

c. Gaseous LASER

d. Semiconductor LASER

h) What are the characteristics of LED ?

Ans. The characteristics of LED are given as a. Optical output power

b. Output spectrum

c. Modulation bandwidth

d. Realiability

e. optical source radiance

i) Give the formula for band gap of ternary and quaternary alloys.
Ans. Band gap of ternary and quaternary alloys are given by Eg = 1.424 + 1.266 x + 0.266 x2
Eg = 1.35 - 0.72 y + 0.12 y2
where x , y = mole fraction.
j) Why is LASER preferred over LED ?
Ans. LASER is preferred instead of LED due to its a. Faster response time.
b. Narrow spectral width.
c. Higher optical power.

Q-2: Attempt any three parts from the following?


a) Write the Quantum Efficiency equation of Laser . Also derive the expression for LED
Ans - External quantum efficiencynD which is the ratio of the increase in photon output rate
for a given increased in the no. of injected electrons. If Pe is the optical power emitted from
the device, I is the current, e is the charge on an electron, and hf is the photon energy, then:
D= (dpe/ hf) /(dI/e) = dPe /dI(Eg)
Where Eg= bandgap energy expressed in electronvolts.
The internal quantum efficiency of the semiconductor laser ni, which was defined as:
i= (number of photons produced in the laser cavity)/(number of injected electrons)
It is related to the differential external quantum efficiency by the expression.
D= i [1 / 1+(2L/ ln(1/r1r2)]
where is the loss coefficient of the lasercavity,L is the length of the laser cavity and r1r2 are
the cleaved mirror reflectivities.
Another parameter is the total efficiency (external quantum efficiency) Twhich is efficiency
defined as :
T= (Pe/hf)/(I/e) = Pe/ IEg
as the power emitted Pe changes linearly when the injection current I is greater than the
threshold current Ith then:
T= D(1- Ith/I)
Led internal power efficiency
The LED internal quantum efficiency *int,which can be defined as the ratio of the radiative
recombination rate to the total recombination rate,
int= Rr/Rt = Rr/(Rr+Rnr)
= Rr/Rt
Rr is the total no. of radiativerecombinations per sec.
Rnris the non-radiative recombination rate.
If n are the excess carriers, then radiative life time ,Tr= n/Rr , and non-radiative lifetime , Tnr
= n/Rnr.

c) Explain the requirement of optical detector to be used for the purpose of optical
communication. What are the parameters by which performance of optical detector can
be judges?
Ans - Requirements of optical detector :
1.high sensitivity of optical detector.
2. high fidelity: the response of detector should be linear with optical signal being reproduced
with fidelity over a wide range .
3. large electrical response to the received optical signal: the photodetector should produce
maximum electrical signal for a given amount of optical power.

4. short response time to obtain a suitable bandwidth: future system will operate in GHz and
above range
5. a minimum noise introduced by the detector: dark,currents,leakage currents and shunt
conductance must be low.
6.stability of performance characteristics: the performance characteristic should be
independent of changes in ambient conditions
7. small size: for efficient coupling to the fiber and easy packaging size should be small.
8. low bias voltages: should not require excessive bias voltages or currents.
9. high reliability: detector must be capable of continuous stable operation at room temp.
Performance parameters
1. quantum efficiency: it is defined as the fraction of incident photons which are absorbed by
the photodetector and generate electrons which are collected at the detector terminals .

The performance of a photodiode is characterized by a term Responsivity R

WhereIp= output photocurrent in amperes

Po=incident optical power I watts
d) Describe the working and principle of pin photodiode? How its efficiency can be
Ans - Pin photodiode:
It consists of p and n regions separated by a very lightly n-doped intrinsic region

In normal operation a sufficiently large reverse bias voltage is applied across the device ,so
that intrinsic region is fully depleted of carriers.

When an incident photon has an energy greater than or equal to the band gap energy ,of the
semiconductor material can give up its energy and excite an electron,fromV.B. to C.B .This
process generates an e-hole pair called photocarriers. The high electric field present in the
depletion region causes the carriers to separate and be collected across the reverse biased
junction . This gives rise to a current flow in an external circuit called photo current.
The efficiency can be increased by using substrate entry technique. In this technique light
enters through a transparent-Inp substrate and the device area can be fabricated as small as
may be practical. Using metal oxide vapour phase epitaxy, high quality device can be
e) Explain optical link power budget ?
Ans- The optical power budget in a fiber optic communication allocation of available of
available optical power ( launched into a given source ) among various loss producing
mechanisms such as launch coupling loss, fiber attenuation , splice losses, and connector
losses in order to ensure that adequate signal strength is available at the receiver the optical
power budget is usually specified or expressed in decibels (dB).
The amount of optical power launched into a given fiber by a give transmitter depends on the
nature of its active optical source (LED or LASER ) and the type of fiber , including such
parameter as core diameter and numerical aperture . manufactureers sometimes specify an
optical power budget only for a fiber that is optium for their equipment or specify only that
their equipment will operate over a given distance, without mentioning the fiber
characterstics . The user must first given ascertain , from the manufacturer or by testing , the
transmission losses for the type of fiber to be used , and the required signal strength for a
given level of performance .
In addition to transmission loss, including those of any splices and connectors, allowance
should be made for at least several dB of optical power margin losses, to compensate for
component aging and to allow for the future splices in the event of a severed cable .


Q-3: Attempt any one part from the following?


a) What do you mean by refractive index? Also explain total internal reflection? what
do you mean by signal attenuation ?

b) Explain, what are the effect of the dispersion? An 8m core diameter single mode
fiber with a core refractive index of 1.5. A relative index refractive difference of 0.3 %
& an operating wavelength of 1.55 m?

Q-4: Attempt any one part from the following?


a) Explain the Acceptance angle when launching light into an optical fiber? Also
Explain Fiber Bend Loss ?

b) Explain the Mode field Diameter & Bire fringence ? Also explain the properties of

Q-5: Attempt any one parts from the following?


a) How is silicon RAPD operated? How does it differ from P-i-n photodiode. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of RAPD detector?
Ans - It consists of p+--p-n+ layers. The high field region where the avalanche multiplication
takes place is relatively narrow and centered on the p-n+ junction. Under low reverse bias
most of the voltages is dropped across p-n+ junction

When the reverse bias voltage is increased the depletion layer widens in the p-region until, it
reaches through to the nearly intrinsic -region. Since the region is much widen than the pregion the field in the -region is much lower than that at the p-n+ junction. This has the
effect of removing some of the excess applied voltage from the multiplication region to the region giving a relatively slow increase in multiplication factor with applied voltage.

1. At wavelength of 0.825 m quantum efficiency of nearly 100% is seen.
2.back currents are low.
3.back current depend slightly on bias voltage. response due to less transit time.
1. Difficulties due to complex structure.
2. Random nature of gain mechanism.
3. high bias voltages required which are dependent.
4. variation of gain with temperature.
RAPD vs p-i-n:
1.sensitivity is better than p-i-n.
2.RAPD has more sophisticated structure than p-i-n to create an extremely high electric field
region .
3.RAPD provides internal gain where p-i-n does not.
b) Define Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity of a Photodetector. Calculate the
transit time for silicon photodiode which has a saturation of 105ms-1. The depletion
layer thickness is 7m?
Ans - Quantum efficiency is defined as the ratio of no. of electrons collected to no. of
incident photons. The photons which are absorbed , produce electrons that are collected at


The performance of a photodiode is characterized by a term responsivity R

R=Ip/Popt A/W
Ip= output photocurrent in amperes
Popt= incident optical power in watts

Q-6: Attempt any one parts from the following?


A) Write a short note on.

a) Spontaneous emission
b) Stimulated emission
c) Absorption.
Ans. a) Spontaneous emission:It is a process by which a light source such as an atom, molecule, nanocrystal or
nucleus in an excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a low energy, e.g.,
the ground state and emits a photon.
If a light source is in the excited state with energy E2, it may spontaneously decay
to a lower level with energy E1, releasing the difference in energy between the two
states as a photon. The photon will have angular frequency and energy h.
E2-E1=h, where h=h/2

b) Stimulated emission:It is the working principle of laser beam because in this process only the
amplification of light takes place.
In the stimulated emission an external stimulation is given to make transition
of electron from higher energy state to the lower energy state.
In this a photon of energy h12 incident on the system while the electron is
still in its excited state, then the electron is immediately drop to the ground state
and give a photon of energy h12.
This emitted photon is in phase with the incident photon and the resultant
emission is known as stimulated emission.

c) Absorption:When a photon of energy h is incident on a system or device or

semiconductor, then the electron of that system excites from its lower energy E1
state to the higher energy state E2, thus the process of excitation through which
electron changes its energy state is known as absorption.
When the atom is initially in the higher energy state E2, it can make a
transition to the lower energy state E1, then it provides the emission of a photon
at a frequency corresponding to E=h.

b) What is optical feedback and laser oscillation?

Ans. Optical feedback:- Continuously amplified coherent emission is accomplished by
placing mirrors at either end of the amplifying medium. The optical cavity formed provides
positive feedback of the photons by reflection at the mirrors at either end of the cavity.
Hence, the optical signal is fed back many times whilst receiving amplification as it passes
through the medium. The standing waves in the cavity exist only at frequency for which the
distance between two mirrors is an integral number of half wavelength.
Thus when the optical spacing between the mirrors is L the resonance condition
along the axis of the cavity is given by
i.e. L=q/2n,
where, q=1, 2, 3
is the emission wavelength
n is the refractive index of the amplifying medium
(since, =f/c)
Where, c is the velocity of light
It may be observed that these modes are separated by a frequency interval f
f= c/2nL
the mode seperation in terms of the free space wavelength, assuming
f << f and f =   , is given by:


hence substituting for f from eq. (3) gives :


Laser oscillations:- They occur in the laser cavity over a small range of
frequencies where the cavity gain is sufficient to overcome the losses such as
absorption, scattering and diffraction .

Q-7: Attempt any one parts from the following?


a) Explain Wavelenth Division Multiplexing or WDM ?

Ans- In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-divison multiplexing(WDM) is a
technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a signals onto a single
optical fiber by using different wavelengths of laser light. This technique enables
bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber,as well as multiplication 0f capacity.
The main system features of WDM are:
1. Capacity
2. Transparency
3.Wavelenth routing
4. Wavelength Switching
Types of WDM:
1. Unidirectional

2. Bi-directional

WDM increases the carrying capacity of the physical medium (fiber) using a completly
different method from TDM.
In a WDM system, each of the wavelengths is launched into the fiber and the signals are
demultiplexed at the receving end.
In Wavelength-divison is commonly applied to an optical fiber which is typically its
wavelength, Whereas frequency -multiplexing type a radio carrier which is described
# (DWDM): Dense wavelength divison multiplexing (DWDM) uses the same transsmission
window but with denser chhanel spacing.'
(CWDM): Coarse wavelength divison multiplexing (CWDM) Iin contrast to conventional
WDM and DWDM uses increased channel spacing to allow less sophisticated and thus
cheaper transceiver designs.
Wavelength division multiplexers and demultiplexers:
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and demultiplexing (WDDM) devices are
considered to be two of the key elements for enhancing the transmission bandwidth of optical

* It is a useful means of making full use of low-loss characteristics of optical fiber over a
wide-wavelength region.
* WDM technology is widely used in data, voice, imagine,and video communication.
* Any WDM is used as a demultiplexer by simply exchanging the input and output
b) Explain the difference types of noise which Effects on system Performance?
Ans 1.Modal Noise
2.Mode-partition Noise
3.Frequency Chirping
4.Reflection Noise
Modal Noise:
This is predominant in multimode fiber. A number of propagating modes of the are
excited when light is launched by laser in a multimode fiber.
1. Modal noise also depends on the installation of the source. If LED s are used the
modal noise is avoided as the LED source incoherent.
2. Modal non be reduced by reducing the mechanical vibrations of the fiber avoiding
fiber misalignment.
3. Modal noise is vibration in optical power in multimode fiber.
4. Fluctuation in frequency of optical source can give rise to intermodal delays.
To Avoid Modal Noise:

Incoherent source be used which totally avoids the modal noise.

Incoherent source LED.
A fiber with large should be used.
Low loss connect must be used.

Mode partition Noise:


Mode partition is associated with the intensity fluctuations in the longitudinal mode a
laser diode. When the modes are not well established in multimode semiconductor laser
this noise exists.
A laser diode with a single longitudinal mode reduces mode partition noise.