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AFFIX

An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word.


Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like
English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by
definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. Affixation is, thus,
the linguistic process speakers use to form different words by adding
morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or
the end (suffixation) of words.

Positional categories of affixes


Affixes are divided into plenty of categories, depending on their position with
reference to the stem. Prefix and suffix are extremely common terms. Infix and
circumfix are less so, as they are not important in European languages. The other
terms are uncommon.

Affix

Categories of affixes
Example
Schema

Description
Appears before
Prefix
un-do
prefix-stem
the stem
Appears after
Suffix/postfix
look-ing
stem-suffix
the stem
Appears after
Suffixoid[1]/semithe stem, but is
cat-like
stem-suffixoid
[2]
suffix
only partially
bound to it
Appears within a
stem
common in
Minneflippin'sota stinfixem
Infix
BorneoPhilippines
languages
One portion
circumfixstemcircumfi appears before
enlighten
Circumfix
the stem, the
x
other after
Interfix
speed-o-meter
stema-interfix-stemb
Links two stems

Duplifix

Transfix

Simulfix
Suprafix

Disfix

together in a
compound
Incorporates a
reduplicated
portion of a stem
money~shmoney stem~duplifix
(may occur
before, after, or
within the stem)
A discontinuous
Maltese: kiteb
affix that
interleaves
"he wrote"
stransfixtetransfixm
within a
(compare root ktb
discontinuous
"write")
stem
Changes a
mouse mice
stem\simulfix
segment of a
stem
Changes a
produce (noun)
stem\suprafix
suprasegmental
produce (verb)
feature of a stem
Alabama: tipli
"break up"
The elision of a
stdisfixm
(compare root
portion of a stem
tipasli "break")

Prefix and suffix may be subsumed under the term adfix in contrast to infix.
When marking text for interlinear glossing, as in the third column in the chart
above, simple affixes such as prefixes and suffixes are separated from the stem
with hyphens. Affixes which disrupt the stem, or which themselves are
discontinuous, are often marked off with angle brackets. Reduplication is often
shown with a tilde. Affixes which cannot be segmented are marked with a back
slash.

What Are Affixes? (with Examples)


An affix is added to the root of a word to change its meaning.
An affix added to the front of a word is known as a prefix. One added to added to
the back is known as a suffix. Sometimes, prefixes are hyphenated.
Read more about hyphens in prefixes.

Examples of Affixes
Here are some examples of affixes:

incapable
(The affix is the prefix in.)

ex-President
(The affix is the prefix ex-.)

laughing

(The affix is the suffix ing.)


Most Common Prefixes. The four most common prefixes are: dis-, in-, re-, and
un-. These account for over 95% of prefixed words.
Most Common Suffixes. The four most common suffixes are: -ed, -ing, -ly, and
-es. These account for over 95% of suffixed words.

A List of Common Prefixes


Here is a list of common prefixes with some examples:
Prefix
a-, ananteantiautocircumcocom-, concontradedisenexextraheterohomohyper-

Meaning
without
before
against
self
around
with
with
against
off
not
put into
out of, former
beyond, more than
different
same
over, more

Example
amoral, atypical
antecedent, antenatal
anti-establishment
autopilot
circumvent
co-conspirator, co-pilot
companion, contact
contradiction
delist, devalue
disappear
enclose, envelop
extract, ex-governor
extracurricular
heterosexual
homonym, homophone
hyperactive

il-, im-, in-,


irininterintramacromicromonononomnipostpre-, prosubsyn-

into
between
between
large
small
one
not, without
all, every
after
before, forward
under
same time

illegal, impractical, inconsiderate,


irresponsible
insert
internet, intersection,
intranet, intravenous
macronutrients
microscope
monocle
nonentity, nonstarter,
omnipresent, omniscient
post-mortem
precede, project
submarine, substandard
synchronize

supertrans-

above
across

supervisor, superhuman
transmit

triununi-

three
not
one

tripod, triceratops
undone, unfinished,
unicorn, unilaterally

not, without

A List of Common Suffixes


Here is a list of common suffixes with some examples:
Suffix
-able, -ible
-al, -ial
-ed
-en
-er
-er, -or
-est
-ful
-ic
-ing

Meaning
can be done
having the characteristics of
past-tense verbs (weak verbs)
made of
comparative
one who
superlative
full or full of
having characteristics of
verb form (present participle and
gerund)

-ion, -tion, -ation,


act or process
ition
-ity, -ty
state of
-ive, -ative, itive adjective form of a noun

Example
comfortable, passable
personal
danced, jumped
golden, wooden
tidier, nicer
actor, narrator, worker
nicest, greatest
cupful, careful
linguistic, sarcastic
dancing, singing
attraction, attrition
humility, infinity
expensive, plaintive

-less
-ly
-ment
-ness
-ous, -eous, -ious
-s, -es
-y

without
adverb ending
action or process
state of, condition of
possessing the qualities of
plural
characterized by

topless, fearless
nicely, quickly
enjoyment, entrenchment
eagerness, kindness
erroneous, joyous
tables, foxes
fatty, happy, jumpy

Prefix
A prefix is a group of
letters placed before the
root of a word. For
example, the word
"unhappy" consists of the
prefix "un-" [which
means "not"] combined
with the root (stem) word
"happy"; the word
"unhappy" means "not
happy."

Suffix
A suffix is a group of
letters placed after the
root of a word. For
example, the word
flavorless consists of the
root word "flavor"
combined with the suffix
"-less" [which means
"without"]; the word
"flavorless" means
"having no flavor."

A Short List of Prefixes:

A Short List of Suffixes:

PRE MEANI EXAMP


FIX
NG
LES
de- from, decode,
down, decrease
away
reverse,
opposite
disnot, disagree,

SUFF MEANI EXAMP


IX
NG
LES
-able able to, comforta
having
ble,
the
portable
quality
of
-al relating annual,

ex-

ilim-

inmisnon-

pre-

pro-

opposite disappear
,
reverse,
away
out of, exhale,
away explosio
from,
n
lacking,
former
not
illegal,
illogical
not, impossib
without
le,
improper
not, inaction,
without invisible
bad, mislead,
wrong misplace
not nonfictio
n,
nonsense
before prefix,
prehistor
y
for, proactive
forward, , profess,
before program

-er
-est
-ful
-ible

-ily

-ing

-less

-ly

to
comical
compara bigger,
tive stronger
superlati strongest,
ve
tiniest
full of beautiful,
grateful
forming reversibl
an e, terrible
adjectiv
e
forming eerily,
an
happily,
adverb lazily
denotin acting,
g an showing
action, a
material
, or a
gerund
without, friendles
not s, tireless
affected
by
forming clearly,
an
hourly
adjectiv
e

re-

again,
react,
back reappear
un- against, undo,
not, unequal,
opposite unusual

-ness denotin kindness,


g a state wilderne
or
ss
conditio
n
-y full of, glory,
denotin messy,
ga
victory,
conditio
n, or a
diminuti
ve