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LABORATORY WORK

INSTRUCTION
IKRAM SELATAN LABORATORY
KUMPULAN IKRAM SDN BHD

KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09

DETERMINATION OF
PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

ISSUE NO

REV. NO.

EFFECTIVE DATE : 20.10. 2015

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LABORATORY
QUALITY INSTRUCTION

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


(SIEVING METHOD)
INSTRUCTION
Prepared by

Approved by

LABORATORY WORK
INSTRUCTION
IKRAM SELATAN LABORATORY
KUMPULAN IKRAM SDN BHD

KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09

DETERMINATION OF
PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

ISSUE NO

REV. NO.

EFFECTIVE DATE : 20.10. 2015

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MAIMUNAH ZAINAL ABIDIN

KAMARUDIN ZAKARIA

TECHNICAL MANAGER

DIRECTOR

Date: 20.10.2015

Date: 20.10.2015

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Table of Contents
1.

OBJECTIVE....................................................................................................... 3

2.

SCOPE............................................................................................................. 3

3.

TERMINOLOGY & ABBREVIATION.....................................................................3

4.

RESPONSIBILITY.............................................................................................. 4

5.

APPARATUS...................................................................................................... 4

6.

SAMPLE PREPARATION..................................................................................... 4

7.

TEST INSTRUCTION......................................................................................... 5

8.

CALCULATION.................................................................................................. 6

9.

GENERAL......................................................................................................... 6

10.

MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY......................................................................6

10.1.

Model equation......................................................................................... 6

10.2.

The components....................................................................................... 7

10.3.

Calculation for individual components......................................................7

10.4.

Combined Standard Uncertainty,

10.5.

Expand the combined standard uncertainty to 95%.................................9

11.

ucN .................................................8

ATTACHMENT............................................................................................... 9

LABORATORY WORK
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IKRAM SELATAN LABORATORY
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KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09

DETERMINATION OF
PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

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LABORATORY WORK
INSTRUCTION
IKRAM SELATAN LABORATORY
KUMPULAN IKRAM SDN BHD

KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09

Responsibility

DETERMINATION OF
PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

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REV. NO.

EFFECTIVE DATE : 20.10. 2015

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Work Process

(*) Quality
Record
(#) Reference
Document

1. OBJECTIVE
This document specifies a method, using test sieves, for the
determination of the particle size distribution of aggregates. It
applies to aggregates of natural or artificial origin, including
lightweight aggregates, up to 90 mm nominal size , but excluding
filler according to BS EN 933-1, :2012
2. SCOPE
The test consists of dividing up and separating, by means of a
series of sieves, a material into several particle size
classifications of decreasing sizes. The aperture sizes and the
number of sieves are selected in accordance with the nature of
the sample and the accuracy required.
The method adopted is washing and dry sieving. When washing
may alter the physical properties of a lightweight aggregate, dry
sieving shall be used.
3. TERMINOLOGY & ABBREVIATION
3.1.
Abbreviation
3.1.1.
Technical
3.1.1.1. CDDL :Controlled Document Distribution
List
3.1.1.2. ISL :Ikram Selatan Laboratory
3.1.1.3. Position
3.1.1.4. QM :Quality Manager
3.1.1.5. TM :Technical Manager
3.1.1.6. LE :Laboratory Executive
3.1.1.7. LO :Laboratory Officer

4. RESPONSIBILITY

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KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.

DETERMINATION OF
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DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

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The TM is responsible for supervising and coordinating


the tests done by all laboratory personnel.
The TM is responsible for supervising and coordinating
the tests done by all laboratory personnel.
The LE is responsible for conducting soil tests in
accordance to the standard.
The LO shall assist the LE in preparing the test items
for the test.

5. APPARATUS
5.1.
Test sieves, with apertures as specified in EN 933-2 a
and conforming to the requirements of ISO 33 10-1 and
ISO 3310-2.
5.2.
Balance (readable to 0.1 g)
5.3.
Oven (temperature set at 105 to 110C)
5.4.
Metal tray
5.5.
Scoop
5.6.
Sieve brushes
6. SAMPLE PREPARATION
6.1.
sample preparation
6.1.1.
Samples shall be reduced in accordance with BS
EN 932-2 to produce the required number of
test portions.
6.1.2.
The mass of each test portion shall be as
specified in table 1 for aggregates of density
between 2,00 mg/m3 and 3,00 mg/m3.
6.1.3.
Sample reduction shall yield a test portion of
mass larger than the minimum but not of an
exact predetermined value.
6.1.4.
Dry the test portion by heating at a temperature
of (110 f 5) C to constant mass. Allow to cool,
weigh and
6.1.5.
record the mass as M1.
6.1.6.
For some types of aggregate, drying at 110 C
binds particles together sufficiently strongly to
prevent

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LABORATORY WORK
INSTRUCTION
IKRAM SELATAN LABORATORY
KUMPULAN IKRAM SDN BHD

KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09

DETERMINATION OF
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DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

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6.1.7.

separation of single particles during subsequent


washing and/or sieving procedures. For such
aggregates
6.2.
equipment preparation
6.2.1.
set the oven temperature between 100 to 115 C
and allow to stabilise.

7. TEST INSTRUCTION
7.1.
Nest the clean and dry sieves on a fitting receiver in
order of increasing aperture size from bottom to top.
Place the dried residue on the top coarsest sieve and
cover with a fitting lid.
7.2.
Shake the sieves for a sufficient time to separate the test
sample into the size fractions determined by the sieve
apertures used.
7.3.
When the mechanical sieve shaker is used, after sieving
make sure the separation is completed briefly by hand
sieving.
7.4.
Weigh the material retained on each sieve, together with
any material cleaned from the mesh, on completion of
sieving on that sieve.

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KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09
7.5.

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DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

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Add the aggregate passing the sieve to the next sieve in


the series before commencing the operation on that
sieve.

8. CALCULATION
8.1.
Calculate the mass retained on each sieve as a
percentage of the original dry mass (m1 m2)
8.2.
to that found during the dry sieving.
8.3.
Calculate the mass passing each sieve as a cumulative
percentage of the total sample mass.
9. GENERAL
9.1.
All raw data and a visual description or general
classification of the soil based on what is seen, felt and
smell are recorded in the Test Form KISB/IS/ISL/WI02A.
9.2.
The LE shall compile, check and enter the raw data into
the computer for results and report writing
9.3.
For details, please refer to BS 1377 : Part 2 : 1990 :
clause 9.
10. MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY
10.1.
Mass of retained on each sieve=

10.2.

10.3.

mass of dry sieve retained


mass of original dry mass

Replace r = mass of dry sieve retained


s = mass of original dry mass
r
mass of retained on each sieve=
s

Model equation for

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LABORATORY WORK
INSTRUCTION
IKRAM SELATAN LABORATORY
KUMPULAN IKRAM SDN BHD

KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09

10.3.1.

DETERMINATION OF
PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION
SIEVING METHOD

mass of retained on each sieve=

r
s

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+ Reference for r

Reference for s

10.3.2.

Ishikawa Chart

M
Parallax

Balance

Sieve equipment
Geometry

Zero Setting

10.4. Reference for r


10.4.1.
Sieve equipment S1
10.4.1.1. u1 = S1 / k1
10.4.1.2. u1 is type B standard uncertainty
10.4.1.3. S1 is the expanded uncertainty of the sieve
equipment obtain from the
10.4.1.4. calibration Certificate
10.4.1.5. k1 is the coverage factor obtain from the
calibration certificate
10.4.2.

Parallax, S2
10.4.2.1. u2 = S2 / (2 x 3)
10.4.2.2. u2 is type B standard uncertainty
10.4.2.3. S2 is the deviation of reading due to analogue
scale reading of compression machine.
10.4.2.4. 3 is assuming rectangular distribution
10.4.2.5. 2 is the semi range

10.4.3.

Geometry, S3

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10.4.3.1. u3 = S3 / (2 x 3)
10.4.3.2. u3 is type B standard uncertainty
10.4.3.3. S3 is the deviation of reading due to relative
position of the block during measurement.
10.4.3.4. 3 is assuming rectangular distribution
10.4.3.5. 2 is the semi range
10.4.4.

10.5.
10.5.1.

10.6.

Balance, S4
10.4.4.1. u4 = S4 / k4
10.4.4.2. u4 is type B standard uncertainty
10.4.4.3. S4 is the expanded uncertainty of the balance
obtain from the calibration
10.4.4.4. certificate
10.4.4.5. k4 is the coverage factor obtain from the
calibration certificate
Reference for s
Balance, S1
10.5.1.1. u1 = S1 / k1
10.5.1.2. u1 is type B standard uncertainty
10.5.1.3. S1 is the expanded uncertainty of the balance
obtain from the calibration certificate
10.5.1.4. k1 is the coverage factor obtain from the
calibration certificate
Use combined standard uncertainty for r, to
combine all standard uncertainty contribute
to Mass retained at each sieve calculation as
follow.

10.6.1.

ucr = [(r/x)2 x un2 ]


10.6.1.1. r/Sieve equipment = 1
10.6.1.2. r/Parallax = 1
10.6.1.3. r/Geometry = 1
10.6.1.4. r/Balance = 1

10.6.2.

ucr = ( u12 + u22 + u32 + u42)

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KISB/IS/ISL/LWI-09
10.6.3.

DETERMINATION OF
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SIEVING METHOD

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Use combined standard uncertainty for s, to combine all standard


uncertainty contribute to Mass retained at each sieve calculation as
follow.
10.6.3.1. ucs = [(r/x)2 x un2 ]
10.6.3.2. s/Balance = 1
10.6.3.3. ucs = ( u12)

10.7.

Combined Standard Uncertainty


for mass retained at each sieve, to combine all standard
uncertainties contribute to

10.7.1.

uc = {[(w/r)2 x ucr2 ] + [(w/s )2 x ucs2 ]}

10.7.2.

10.7.1.1. w/r = (1 s)
10.7.1.2. w/s = (-r s2 )
uc = {[(1 s )2 x ucr2 ] + [(-r s2)2 x ucs2 ]}

10.8.
10.8.1.
10.8.2.
10.8.3.

11.

mass of retained on each sieve=

Expand the combined standard uncertainty


to 95%
U = uc x k
U is the expanded uncertainty
k = 2 refer to ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in
Measurement, 1995, clause 6.3.3

ATTACHMENT

r
s