You are on page 1of 19

Prepared by Mustafa Ali

Senior Metering Tech.


OMV Sawan
13-11-06

Types of Oxygen analyzers


(By detection method)
1

Direct method

Zirconia Oxygen analyzer

Indirect method

Paramagnetic Oxygen analyzer

Zirconia principle
Zirconia is one of the few compounds that actually become conductive at
high temperatures & more conductive as its temperature increases
Zirconia starts out with a very high resistance at room temperature greater
then one trillion ohms / cm , Having less then 1000 ohms / cm resistance
at 1000 degrees Celsius & become a very good conductor
Heating the element allows different partial oxygen concentrations of the
gasses to come into contact with the opposite side of the zirconias creating
an oxygen concentration cell.
These ions travel through the zirconias element to the other electrode. At
that point, the Nernst expression applied to calculate the force by
measuring the electromotive force generated between the two electrodes.

Zirconia principle
A process gas (A) with an unknown

oxygen concentration flows around


the outside of heated Zirconium
oxide measuring cell (B)
A reference gas (C) with a known
oxygen concentration flows inside the
measuring cell
At an optimum temperature a
voltage (U) in mV is created between
the two surfaces of the cell which are
dependent only on the ratio of oxygen
concentration (partial pressures) in
(A) & (C)
Using air as a reference gas the
measured voltage is a direct measure
of the oxygen concentration in the
process gas (A)

Paramagnetic principle
The paramagnetic oxygen analyzer is based on the scientific principle
that oxygen is a paramagnetic material
When a test sample containing oxygen is introduced into the test cell,
the oxygen in the sample is attracted to the point of maximum field
strength.
The magnitude of dumbbell displacement is proportional to the amount
of oxygen in the sample. The movement of the dumbbell is detected by
a light beam from a light source exterior to the test cell.
The light beam is reflected from a mirror on the dumbbell body to an
exterior photocell. The output of the photocell is amplified and
transmitted to an indicating unit that is calibrated to read out the oxygen
content in the test sample in percent.

Paramagnetic principle
When a test sample containing oxygen is
introduced into the test cell, the oxygen in the
sample is attracted to the point of maximum
field strength.
The magnitude of dumbbell displacement
is proportional to the amount of oxygen in the
sample.
The movement of the dumbbell is detected
by a light beam from a light source exterior to
the test cell. The light beam is reflected from
a mirror on the dumbbell body to an exterior
photocell.
The output of the photocell is amplified and
transmitted to an indicating unit that is
calibrated to read out the oxygen content in
the test sample in percent.

Novatech Zirconia Oxygen analyzers are being use


for combustion control / optimization in Incinerators
Hot oil heaters & Regenerators , vital to fulfill the
EPA & ISO 14001 requirements

Novatech Zirconia Oxygen Controller

Novatech Zirconia Oxygen Sensor

Train # 1 Incinerator control through Oxygen analyzer

Common reference parameters of Oxygen analyzers


Controller display
Oxygen %

1.19%

Impedance

2.1 K

EMF
Parameters

60 mv

Number of sensors
Sensor offset

1
-0.4

Transmitter output chan


1 scale

liner 02

Transmitter span chan 1

30%

Top line display unit

Deg C or Deg F

Flue pressure Fix / Var

fix

Flue pressure
mm/inch/kp

mmwg

193.3

Ref air pump Int,ext,inst


air

inst air

Reference voltage=3

1198

Reference RH

Reference voltage=4

2479

Damping

Output channel 1 cal

man cal

Reference voltage=1

27.5

Reference voltage=2

Sensor 1 Type
Thermocouple Type

34
k

5%
5

Testing & calibration of Zirconia Oxygen analyzer


SENSOR OFFSET
SENSOR IMPEDANCE
SENSOR HEATER
SENSOR THERMOCOUPLE
A/D (Four channels Milli Volts) CALIBRATION
D/A (4-20mA output) CALIBRATION

Sensor offset
Calibration of the probe generally only requires the Sensor Offset to be set.
If the offset for a sensor is not set the error will generally be less than 5% of
the actual oxygen reading. By setting the offset the error will be less than 1%
of the oxygen actual reading.
With the probe or sensor heated to over 700C, Connect reference air to the
probe calibration check port. 50 to 500 cc/ minute,
To check a probe offset on site, the probe must be sensing air, with
reference air, and allowed to settle at the probe operating temperature for 30
minutes. Read the offset Sensor EMF in RUN mode in milli volts on the
lower line. Switch back to set-up mode and enter Sensor Offset of equal
value and the same polarity.

Sensor Impendence
The zirconia sensor impedance is a basic measurement of the
reliability of the oxygen reading. A probe or sensor with a high
impedance reading will eventually produce erroneous signals. The
analyzer checks the zirconia sensor impedance every 24 hours and if
the impedance is above the maximum level for a specific temperature
then the impedance alarm (Sensor Fail) will be activated. Typical
sensor impedance is 1 K to 8 K at 720C. With the probe or sensor
heated to over 700C, Connect reference air to the probe calibration
check port. 50 to 500 cc/ minute
To test the source impedance set the meter to read ohms and take a
measurement, within a couple of seconds, reverse the meter and
repeat the reading. Take the average of the two readings, if the
impedance is above 10k, then the probe or sensor needs to be
replaced. The reason that impedance measurements need to be
performed quickly, is that the zirconia sensor polarizes with the DC
voltage from the milli volts across it.

Sensor Heater
For heated probe or sensors, a heater failure will cause a
SENSOR UNDER TEMP or HEATER FAIL alarm. Heaters can
be tested with a continuity test. The heater element impedance
should be approximately 100 ohms. The heater insulation should
be approximately 10 mega ohms, should the heater be open or
short-circuited, replace the probe or sensor.

Sensor Thermocouple
The analyzer has an alarm function that will advise the operator of
an open circuit thermocouple; however bench testing can be
performed by simply measuring the thermocouple continuity.

A/D (Four channels Milli Volts) Calibration


The analyzer maintains its accuracy over a very long period by continuously
checking itself against internal references. The only calibration required is to
set the actual values of these references into battery backed memory. The
analyzer will read these references every minute and update its zero and
span correction factors. These references should be checked every 12
months.
Set-up items 7 to 10 are used to calibrate the A/D of the instrument. This
should be done 30 minutes or more after the instrument has been on,
approximately once every year. The calibration constants are retained in
battery backed memory unless a COLD START is performed. Connect a 3
1/2 digit multi meter negative lead to the test point marked C to the right of
the PCB on the inside of the door (labeled REF VOLTS). Measure the four
voltages on the test point marked 1 to 4 with the positive lead. Enter the
measured values in set-up items 7 to 10. Whenever new values are entered
the D/A Section should be re-calibrated

D/A (4-20mA output) Calibration


The Manual Cal mode is selected in set-up 13
Set the 4mA calibration first and then the 20mA calibration.
1.

Select Set 4mA Trim in set-up 13

2.

Return to RUN mode.

3.

Measure the output on the channel to be calibrated with a digital


multi meters. If the current is not exactly 4.00mA, return to set-up
mode and change the 4mA calibration factor in set-up 14

4.

Re-measure the current while back in RUN mode until the current is
within 3.9 to 4.1mA.

5. Return to set-up mode and select Manual Cal in set-up 13


Set the 20mA calibration factor.

D/A (4-20mA output) Calibration cont..


6. Select Set 20mA Trim in set-up 13
7. Return to RUN mode.
8.

Measure the output on the channel to be calibrated with a digital


multi meters. If the current is not exactly 20.00mA, return to set-up
mode and change the 20mA calibration factor in set- up 15

9. Re-measure the current while back in RUN mode until the current is
within 19.9 to 20.1mA.
10. Return to set-up mode and select Manual Cal in set-up 13
This calibration is now saved in battery backed memory until the
factors are changed in the manual calibration
The analyzer is forced into a COLD-START

Zirconia sensor probe life expectancy


Zirconia electrode material loss can be measured in an attempt to
determine the remaining life of the probe. The impedance changes
must be taken as a series of readings over a period of several weeks.
The best indication of an impending probe failure is in a series of
impedance readings showing a definite and rapid increase.

Common problems
Condensation
Vibration