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- Chaos: Making a New Science
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- The Universe in a Nutshell
- The Order of Time
- A Universe from Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather than Nothing
- The Physics of Everyday Things: The Extraordinary Science Behind an Ordinary Day
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- The Edge of Physics: A Journey to Earth's Extremes to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe
- The Nature of Space and Time
- This Is Gonna Hurt: Music, Photography, and Life Through the Distorted Lens of Nikki Sixx
- The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality
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- Polar Shift
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- Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos
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If we convert the two body problem to a C.M. and relative coordinate framework and assume that

the bond is rigid, then we need not worry about the C.M. motion and consider only the equivalent

problem of rotation of a free particle on a sphere.

The Hamiltonian for the system is H =

p2

2m

J2

2I

~2 2

~2

=

2m

2mr2

1 2

1

sin

+

sin

sin2 2

1

~2

( part) +

( part))

=

2I

sin2

1

(, ) = Yjm (, ) = N.Pjm (). eim

2

where j is a non-negative integer and m can take 2j + 1 values starting from l all the way to l

in increments of +1.

For j = 0, there is only one value of m, namely m = 0. It turns out that P00 () = 1.

Thus, Y00 (, ) = N. 12

On normalising, we ndN =

1

2

. Hence, Y00 (, ) =

1

4

2. For j = 1, m can take three values, m = 1, 0, 1. It turns out that P10 () cos and P11 ()

sin .

Thus

1

1

Y10 (, ) = N. cos and Y11 (, ) = N. sin ei

2

2

After normalising,

r

Y10 (, )

3

. cos

4

and

r

Y11 (, )

m (, ) = Ej Y m (, );

3. The energy states are, HY

j

j

3

. sin ei

8

Ej = Bj(j+1) and B =

~2

2Ihc

Thus the transition energy, Ej+1j = B[(j + 1)(j + 2) j(j + 1)] = 2B(j + 1)

Thus the rst line corresponding to 1 0, will appear at 2B , the second one at 4B , the next

at 6B , etc. And, the dierence between the consecutive lines, (Ej+1j ) = 2B .

Thus the spectrum will consist of a bunch of lines equally separated at intervals of 2B. The rst

line j = 1 j = 0 for the CO rotational spectrum appears at 3.84235 cm1 .

4. What about the intensities of the lines in the absorption spectrum? This will depend on the

population of the lower level, from where the excitation is taking place. The gure on the right

2

above shows typical intensities calculated theoretically for a linear rotor. Since the population

depends on temperature, so will the intensities and the location of the largest peak.

Ej

BT

Iabs Njlower = N0 gj e

= (2j + 1)e

Bj(j+1)

kB T

T (o K)

0.59

1 .

B(in cm )

dIabs

dj

Bj(j+1)

kB T

We can nd the value of j for which the intensity will be maximum,

= 0 = (2jmax + 1)2 =

2kB T

Bhc

Further modication comes from symmetry restrictions on nuclear-spin states. For permutation

of coordinates of any two particles, a quantum mechanical wavefunction must be anti-symmetric

for half-integral spin systems (Fermi Dirac statistics) and symmetric for integral spin systems

(Bose Einstein statistics).

On an average, at high temperature, exactly half the levels expected for a diatomic molecule will

be missing in the spectrum due to this symmetry restriction.

5. A more general treatment requires a detailed analysis involving moments of intertia for rotation w.r.t. the three principal axes of rotation. The gure below taken from Atkins' Physical

Chemistry, shows how dierent molecular systems can be categorized and the moment of inertia

calculated (m=total mass):

6. Selection rules: Time dependent quantum mechanics gives us an expression for the rate of

transition between energy states (hf | hi| of a Hamiltonian, H 0 , caused by a perturbation

0 as the celebrated Fermi Golden rule (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermi%27s_golden_rule;

H

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/fermi.html):

Rf i =

2

0 |ii|2

|hf |H

~

~.

where is the density of nal states. Within dipole approximation, H 0 = ~.E

0 |ii = E.

~ ~f i , where ~f i = hf |~|ii

hf |H

~ = x Ex + y Ey + z Ez

is called the transition dipole moment. And,

~ .E

x = 0 sin cos ;

y = 0 sin sin ;

z = 0 cos

Thus for a transition hj 0 , m0 | hj, m|, the matrix element involved is,

~ 0 , m0 i| =

|hj, m|~.E|j

(You may skip the next few lines of algebraic detail and go directly to the last sentence of this

section)

hj, m|x |j 0 , m0 i = 0 hj, m| sin cos |j 0 , m0 i;

hj, m|y |j 0 , m0 i = 0 hj, m| sin sin |j 0 , m0 i;

1

2

Y11 + Y11

0

d(cos )Pjm P11 Pjm0

i(m+1+m0 )

de

0

d(cos )Pjm P11 Pjm0

dei(m1+m )

0

It is easy to see from the integral that unless m = m0 + 1, the rst integral is zero. And unless

m = m0 1, the second integral is zero.

For the integral, we take help from handbooks and we nd that unless j = j 0 1 the integral

is zero. We can similarly prove the same conditions for y component. For z component, the

condition is that unless m = m0 or j = j 0 1, the integral is zero.

Notice that in each case, the magnitude of the dipole moment, 0 , is obviously non-zero.

Thus, the selection rules can be written as, (i) the molecule must have a permanent dipole

moment; (ii) j = 1 and (iii) m = 0, 1.

7. The eect of isotopic substitution: Isotopes have dierent masses, but the same number of electrons. Thus the internuclear distance that depends on the number of electrons will not change

5

12

C16 O vs.

13

C16 O

B

>

B'

all the levels except j = 0 will decrease in energy and hence the spectral lines will appear at

smaller frequencies as we go to the larger mass.

2B 0 2B

4B 0 4B

6B 0 6B

8B 0 8B

Prob. Given that the rst lines in rotational spectrum of 12 C16 O and 13 C16 O appear at respectively 1.92118 cm1 and 1.83669cm1 . Given the mass of 16 O to be 15.9994 and of 12 C to be

12.00, nd the atomic mass of 13 C.

8. Nonrigid rotor: Centrifugal distortions:

The real molecule is not a rigid rotor.

Vibrations can change the bond lengths. Another way the bond lengths can change is the

stretching away from the equilibrium position by centrifugal force in the rotating molecule. The

eect of the centrifugal force stretching on the energy levels can be found by calculating the

new equilibrium bond length in the presence of rotation, and thus can be done by equating the

centrifugal force Fc to the restoring force.

(The eect will be prominent as j increases, because increase of j indicates increase of angular

momentum, which means faster rotation). It can be shown,

Erot /hc Bj(j + 1) D (j(j + 1))2

where D ==

B3

2

For typical values, B = 1cm1 , = 1000cm1 , and for j = 30, we nd that the centrifugal

distortion is 1 cm1 out of a total of 900cm1 .

Ej+1j = B [(j + 1)(j + 2) j(j + 1)]D (j + 1)2 (j + 2)2 j 2 (j + 1)2 = 2B(j+1)4D(j+1)3

in cm1 .

Thus all the lines will be shifted to lower frequencies.

2B

4B

6B

8B

10B

12B

14B

16B

9. Eect of vibration on the rotational levels: The eect of vibration is quantied by the following

empirical relation:

1

E = eq (v + )

2

where eq is about

1

100

of Beq.

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