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HEAT BALANCE TEST ON COMPUTERIZED SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL

ENGINE FITTED WITH EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMETER


AIM:
To conduct a heat balance test on a single cylinder diesel engine fitted with eddy
current dynamometer.
SYSTEM RESOURCES:
1. I.C.Engine: Single cylinder four stroke diesel engine 5 H.P. (Approx.)
2. Eddy current dynamometer
3. PC & Data acquisition system.
4. Calorimeter
5. Fuel tank & Air box
6. Sensors: a) Pressure sensor b) optical sensor c) Inductive sensor d) load cell e)
Level switch
7. Transmitters: a) Engine load transmitter b) Engine Speed transmitter c) Air
velocity transmitter d) Pressure sensor conditioner e) Wheel flow transmitter
f) Fuel flow transmitter g) Encoder
FORMULA USED:
1. Brake Power (B.P)
B.P = Torque x Angular acceleration
= (W x9.81 x R) x (2 x x N / 60)
= (W x N x 0.25 9.81 x 2 x 3.14) / (60 x 1000) (kW)
= (W x N) x 0.0002566 kW
Where W = Load in kg
N = Engine speed in RPM
2. Fuel consumption (F.C) = Quantity of fuel / Time (kg/sec)
Quantity of fuel = 23 ml = 23 / (1000 x 1000) = 0.000023 m3
= 0.000023 x 870
= 0.02001 kg
Where, Density of diesel = 870 kg / m3
3.Brake specific fuel consumption (B.S.F.C)
= (F.C in kg/sec)/(Brake power in kW)
4. Heat input = (F.C in kg /sec) / (calorific value of fuel) kW
Where, Calorific value of fuel = 42000 kJ / kg
5. Heat utilize for brake power (H.U.B.P)
= Torque x Angular acceleration
= (W x 9.81 x R) x (2 x x N / 60)
= (W x N x 0.25 x 9.81 x 2 x 3.14) / (60 x 1000) kW
= (W x N) x 0.0002566 kW
Where W = Load in kg
N = Engine speed in rpm
6. Percentage heat utilized for brake power (P.H.U.B.P)
= (Engine brake power / Heat input) x 100 %
7.Heat carried away by exhaust gas (H.C.E.G)
= 4.1868 x (T1 - Ta) x m cal x (T4 T3) / (T1 T2) kW
Where,

OBSERVATION TABULAR COLUMN: 1


Sl.No Load
Engine speed
Fuel
Water flow at outlet
(kg)
(rpm)
consumption of calorimeter
(kg/sec)
(litres/sec)

OBSERVATION TABULAR COLUMN: 2


Sl.No Exhaust
Exhaust gas Calorimeter
gas IN
OUT (C)
water IN
(C)
(C)

Calorimeter
Water OUT
(C)

CALCULATION TABULAR COLUMN: 1


Sl.No Heat input Heat utilized for
Heat carried
(kW)
brake power (kW) by Exhaust
gas (kW)

CALCULATION TABULAR COLUMN: 2


Sl.No % of heat utilized % of heat carried away
for brake power
by exhaust gas

Engine
Water IN
(C)

Heat carried
by cooling
water (kW)

% of heat carried
away by cooling
water

Flow of outlet
of water
(litres/sec)

Engine
water
OUT (C)

Heat
Unaccounted
(kW)

% Heat
Unaccounted

T1 temperature of exhaust gas in.


T2 Temperature of exhaust gas out
Ta Ambient temperature
mcal Quantity of water passing through exhaust gas calorimeter in kg/sec
T3 temperature of calorimeter water in.
T4 Temperature of calorimeter water out.
Cp 4.1868 kJ/kgk
8. Percentage heat carried away by exhaust gas (P.H.C.E.G)
= (Heat carried away by exhaust gas / Heat input) x 100 %
9.Heat carried away by cooling water (H.C.C.W)
= m x Cp x (T6 T5)
Where m quantity of water passing through engine in kg/sec
Cp = 4.1868 kJ/kg
T5 Temperature of engine water in
T6 Temperature of engine water out
10. Percentage heat carried away by cooling water (P.H.C.C.W)
= (Heat carried away by cooling water / Heat input) x 100 %
11. Heat unaccounted (H.U)
= Heat input ( Heat utilized for brake power + Heat carried away
by exhaust gas + Heat carried away by cooling water) kW
12. Percentage heat unaccounted (P.H.U)
= (Heat unaccounted / Heat input) x 100 %
PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure that water supply is given to calorimeter, engine & dynamometer.
2. Switch on the 230V supply to the panel. Switch on the main switch button on
the control panel.
3. Switch on the PC and monitor.
4. Follow the software procedure.
5. Increase the load gradually in step 3 to 4.
6. Note the observation readings and the result tabulation at the end of the
experiment.
7. switch off the computer and all transmitters.
8. Switch off the mains.
9. Ensure all water connections are closed.

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT:
Thus the heat balance test on a single cylinder diesel engine fitted with eddy
current dynamometer was conducted and the heat balance sheet was drawn.