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# HEAT BALANCE TEST ON COMPUTERIZED SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL

## ENGINE FITTED WITH EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMETER

AIM:
To conduct a heat balance test on a single cylinder diesel engine fitted with eddy
current dynamometer.
SYSTEM RESOURCES:
1. I.C.Engine: Single cylinder four stroke diesel engine 5 H.P. (Approx.)
2. Eddy current dynamometer
3. PC & Data acquisition system.
4. Calorimeter
5. Fuel tank & Air box
6. Sensors: a) Pressure sensor b) optical sensor c) Inductive sensor d) load cell e)
Level switch
7. Transmitters: a) Engine load transmitter b) Engine Speed transmitter c) Air
velocity transmitter d) Pressure sensor conditioner e) Wheel flow transmitter
f) Fuel flow transmitter g) Encoder
FORMULA USED:
1. Brake Power (B.P)
B.P = Torque x Angular acceleration
= (W x9.81 x R) x (2 x x N / 60)
= (W x N x 0.25 9.81 x 2 x 3.14) / (60 x 1000) (kW)
= (W x N) x 0.0002566 kW
Where W = Load in kg
N = Engine speed in RPM
2. Fuel consumption (F.C) = Quantity of fuel / Time (kg/sec)
Quantity of fuel = 23 ml = 23 / (1000 x 1000) = 0.000023 m3
= 0.000023 x 870
= 0.02001 kg
Where, Density of diesel = 870 kg / m3
3.Brake specific fuel consumption (B.S.F.C)
= (F.C in kg/sec)/(Brake power in kW)
4. Heat input = (F.C in kg /sec) / (calorific value of fuel) kW
Where, Calorific value of fuel = 42000 kJ / kg
5. Heat utilize for brake power (H.U.B.P)
= Torque x Angular acceleration
= (W x 9.81 x R) x (2 x x N / 60)
= (W x N x 0.25 x 9.81 x 2 x 3.14) / (60 x 1000) kW
= (W x N) x 0.0002566 kW
Where W = Load in kg
N = Engine speed in rpm
6. Percentage heat utilized for brake power (P.H.U.B.P)
= (Engine brake power / Heat input) x 100 %
7.Heat carried away by exhaust gas (H.C.E.G)
= 4.1868 x (T1 - Ta) x m cal x (T4 T3) / (T1 T2) kW
Where,

## OBSERVATION TABULAR COLUMN: 1

Engine speed
Fuel
Water flow at outlet
(kg)
(rpm)
consumption of calorimeter
(kg/sec)
(litres/sec)

## OBSERVATION TABULAR COLUMN: 2

Sl.No Exhaust
Exhaust gas Calorimeter
gas IN
OUT (C)
water IN
(C)
(C)

Calorimeter
Water OUT
(C)

## CALCULATION TABULAR COLUMN: 1

Sl.No Heat input Heat utilized for
Heat carried
(kW)
brake power (kW) by Exhaust
gas (kW)

## CALCULATION TABULAR COLUMN: 2

Sl.No % of heat utilized % of heat carried away
for brake power
by exhaust gas

Engine
Water IN
(C)

Heat carried
by cooling
water (kW)

% of heat carried
away by cooling
water

Flow of outlet
of water
(litres/sec)

Engine
water
OUT (C)

Heat
Unaccounted
(kW)

% Heat
Unaccounted

## T1 temperature of exhaust gas in.

T2 Temperature of exhaust gas out
Ta Ambient temperature
mcal Quantity of water passing through exhaust gas calorimeter in kg/sec
T3 temperature of calorimeter water in.
T4 Temperature of calorimeter water out.
Cp 4.1868 kJ/kgk
8. Percentage heat carried away by exhaust gas (P.H.C.E.G)
= (Heat carried away by exhaust gas / Heat input) x 100 %
9.Heat carried away by cooling water (H.C.C.W)
= m x Cp x (T6 T5)
Where m quantity of water passing through engine in kg/sec
Cp = 4.1868 kJ/kg
T5 Temperature of engine water in
T6 Temperature of engine water out
10. Percentage heat carried away by cooling water (P.H.C.C.W)
= (Heat carried away by cooling water / Heat input) x 100 %
11. Heat unaccounted (H.U)
= Heat input ( Heat utilized for brake power + Heat carried away
by exhaust gas + Heat carried away by cooling water) kW
12. Percentage heat unaccounted (P.H.U)
= (Heat unaccounted / Heat input) x 100 %
PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure that water supply is given to calorimeter, engine & dynamometer.
2. Switch on the 230V supply to the panel. Switch on the main switch button on
the control panel.
3. Switch on the PC and monitor.