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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


What is a hazard?
A hazard is an existing (or potential) hazardous or
unsafe condition or work practice that, by itself or in
combination with other conditions, could cause
injury, illness, or
death to workers, as well as cause property damage.
Hazards may exist from
To control hazardous and unsafe conditions and work
practices, use the most effective control methods
feasible at your work place. Try to reduce employee
exposure by
implementing effective controls that do not primarily
rely on individual employee behavior. Follow a system of strategies, called the
"Hierarchy of Controls," which prioritizes control methods that try to remove or
reduce the hazard:

PPE

In all areas of the site, excluding lunch rooms, offices and control rooms, the
following minimum requirements are:
Hard hats
Safety Glasses with rigid side shields
Prescription safety glasses - flimsy slip over type side shields not allowed
Footwear of full leather tongue included, with no breather holes to prevent
chemical exposure.
Clothing suitable for the work environment Not allowed:
Shorts
Flimsy footwear and sandals
Sleeveless shirts
Mesh
Visitors on site standard apparel should be based on
a hazard assessment taking into account the areas
of the site they will be escorted.
All PPE will be provided free of cost to employees unless otherwise noted. There
may be requirements for reimbursement of prescription safety glasses and steel toe
boots. Check with your supervisor.
Every employee will at all times wear clothing that protects the body and
extremities. The typical personnel hazards listed below can be prevented as follows:
Thermal burns resulting from contact with hot pipes, can be prevented by using
long sleeve shirts and cloth gloves.
Chemical burns and/or skin absorption of allergens and toxins can be prevented or
minimized by use of appropriate chemical protective clothing (CPC).
Loose clothing will not be worn where it can contact or catch on energized
conductors, moving parts, equipment, or other hazards of this type.
Preference should be given to natural fibers in the clothing worn by personnel.
Short pants are prohibited as outerwear.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL


Finger rings or necklaces are prohibited when there is a danger of catching them
on moving parts or contacting an energized conductor.

HEAD PROTECTION
CAUSES OF HEAD INJURIES
Falling objects such as tools
Bumping head against objects, such as pipes or
beams
Contact
with
exposed
electrical
wiring
or
components
TYPES OF HARD HATS
Class A designed to:
- Protect you from falling objects; and
- Protect you from electrical shocks up to 2,200 volts.
Class B are designed to:
- Protect you from falling objects; and
- Protect you from electrical shocks up to 20,000 volts.
Class C are designed to :
- Protect you from falling objects;
- DO NOT protect you from electrical shocks;
and
- DO NOT protect you from corrosive
substances.
Class E worn by:
Electricians
Instrumentation
Commissioning
Others with potential to contact live electrical
Class G for general construction work
HARD HAT COLOR CODING
White
Managers, foremen, engineers or supervisors usually wear white hats on site.
Brown
Brown hats are worn by welders and other workers with high heat applications.
Green
Green often signifies a safety inspector but can also be used by new workers on the
site or probationary staff.
Y ellow
Yellow is the colour for general labourers and earth moving operators.
Blue
Carpenters and other technical operators including electricians will normally wear
blue hard hats, while orange is worn by road crews.
Grey

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL


Grey is the colour often worn by site visitors. And if employees forget their hats or
misplace them, there is often a nice bright pink helmet on site they have to wear in
the meantime.

EYE AND FACE PROTECTION


Eye and face protection includes safety spectacles, goggles, face shields and similar
items used to protect against flying particles and foreign bodies, corrosive
chemicals, fumes, lasers and radiation. Often, the whole face may need protection
against radiation or mechanical, thermal or chemical hazards. Sometimes a face
shield may be adequate also for protecting the eyes, but often specific eye
protection is necessary, either separately or as a complement to the face
protection.
The two basic problems in wearing eye and face protectors are (1) how to provide
effective protection which is acceptable for wearing over long hours of work without
undue discomfort, and (2) the unpopularity of eye and face protection due to
restriction of vision. The wearers peripheral vision is limited by the side frames; the
nose bridge may disturb binocular vision; and misting is a constant problem.
Particularly in hot climates or in hot work, additional coverings of the face may
become intolerable and may be discarded. Short-term, intermittent operations also
create problems as workers may be forgetful and disinclined to use protection. First
consideration should always be given to the improvement of the working
environment rather than to the possible need for personal protection. Before or in
conjunction with the use of eye and face protection, consideration must be given to
guarding of machines and tools (including interlocking guards), removal of fumes
and dust by exhaust ventilation, screening of sources of heat or radiation, and
screening of points from which particles may be ejected, such as abrasive grinders
or lathes. When the eyes and face can be protected by the use of transparent
screens or partitions of appropriate size and quality, for example, these alternatives
are to be preferred to the use of personal eye protection.
There are six basic types of eye and face
protection:
1.
spectacle type, either with or without
side shields
2.
eye cup (goggle) type
3.
face shield type, covering eye sockets
and the central portion of the face
4.
helmet type with shielding of the whole
front of the face
5.
hand-held shield type
6.
hood type, including the divers helmet type covering the head completely

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

HEARING PROTECTION
No one knows when people first discovered that
covering the ears with the
flats of the hands or plugging up the ear canals with ones fingers was effective in
reducing the level of unwanted soundnoisebut the basic technique has been in
use for generations as the last line of defence against loud sound. Unfortunately,
this level of technology precludes the use of most others. Hearing protectors, an
obvious solution to the problem, are a form of noise control in that they block the
path of the noise from the source to the ear.
An earplug is a device worn in the external ear
canal. Premolded earplugs are available in one or
more standard sizes intended to fit into the ear
canals of most people. A formable, user-molded
earplug is made of a pliable material that is shaped
by the wearer to fit into the ear canal to form an
acoustic seal. A custom-molded earplug is
individually made to fit the particular ear of the
wearer. Earplugs can be made from vinyl, silicone,
elastomer formulations, cotton and wax, spun glass
wool, and slow-recovery closed-cell foam.
The Operation of Hearing Protectors
Earmuffs
The basic function of earmuffs is to cover the outer ear with a cup that forms a
noise-attenuating acoustic seal. The styles of the ear cup and the earmuffs
cushions as well as the tension provided by the headband determine, for the most
part, how well the earmuff attenuates environmental noise.
Earplugs
displays an example of a well-fitted, fully inserted foam earplug (about 60% of it
extends into the ear canal) and an example of a poorly fitted, shallowly inserted
foam earplug that just caps the ear canal entrance. The well-fitted earplug has good
attenuation at all frequencies. The poorly fitted foam earplug has substantially less
attenuation.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
There are several general categories of bodily hazards for which specialized clothing
can provide protection. These general categories include chemical, physical and
biological hazards.
Hazard

Examples

Chemical

Dermal toxins
Systemic toxins
Corrosives
Allergens

Physical

Thermal hazards
(hot/cold)
Vibration
Radiation
Trauma producing

Biological

Human pathogens
Animal pathogens
Environmental
pathogens

Hazard

Performance characteristic
required

Common protective clothing


materials

Thermal

Insulation value

Heavy cotton or other natural


fabrics

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

Fire

Insulation and flame resistance

Aluminized gloves; flame


resistent treated gloves;
aramid fibre and other special
fabrics

Mechanical abrasion

Abrasion resistence; tensile


strength

Heavy fabrics; leather

Cuts and punctures

Cut resistance

Metal mesh; aromatic


polyamide fiber and other
special fabrics

Chemical/toxicologic Permeation resistance


al

Biological

Fluid-proof; (puncture resistant)

Radiological

Usually water resistance or


particle resistance (for
radionuclides)

Polymeric and elastomeric


materials; (including latex)

Protective clothing configurations vary greatly depending on the intended use.


However, normal components are analogous to personal clothing (i.e., trousers,
jacket, hood, boots and gloves) for most physical hazards. Special-use items for
applications such as flame resistance in
those industries involving the processing
of molten metals can include chaps,
armlets, and aprons constructed of both
treated and untreated natural and
synthetic fibres and materials (one
historical example would be woven
asbestos). Chemical protective clothing
can be more specialized in terms of
construction,

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL


Respiratory protection devices of the approved type will be made available and shall
be worn by all employees when exposed to hazardous concentrations of toxic or
noxious dust, fumes, mists, or gases, at the direction of the Safety Department.
Specific hazard analysis will be developed for these activities.
Respiratory protection equipment will be used, stored, and maintained in
accordance with the manufacturers requirements and the Respiratory Protection
Program.
Respiratory equipment will be selected on the basis of hazards to which the
employee will be exposed.
Filtering Face-piece Respirator (Disposable)
Filtering face-piece respirators are for one-time use
only; some examples include N95 and P100. Filtering
facepieces may or may not have an exhalation valve to
help exhaled breath exit the facepiece. Filtering
facepiece respirators filter out particles, such as animal
dander, biological aerosols, asbestos, and silica and do
not protect against non-particulate hazards such as gases or vapors.
Air-Purifying Respirator (Cartridge)
Air-purifying respirators offer a wide variety of
protection based on the type of cartridge used. There is
NOT one set of cartridges that protects from all
possible chemicals. During your risk assessment, Risk
Management & Safety will assist in determining the
proper cartridge to protect against the chemical(s) that will be used.
PAPR - Powered Air Purifying Respirator
A PAPR is battery operated unit that consists of a half or
full facepiece, breathing tube, battery-operated blower,
and filter(s). A PAPR uses a blower to pass
contaminated air through filtering cartridges, which
removes the contaminant and supplies purified air to a
facepiece. This type of respirator is not equivalent to
supplied air, since it does NOT supply oxygen. As with
non-powered air purifying respirators, cartridges must
be selected based on the hazards present. For safe use, the battery must be kept
charged.
Surgical Masks and Dust Masks
The respirator regulations do not cover comfort masks (dust masks) or surgical
masks. These are technically not respirators, since they are not certified by NIOSH
(the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), and provide no
respiratory protection. If you are using these masks in the lab, consider whether
you might need a true respirator; contact Risk Management & Safety for an
evaluation.

HAND PROTECTION

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL


If the employees are exposed to any
of the following hazards requires
Hand protection
Severe cuts, lacerations, or
abrasions
Punctures
Thermal burns
Harmful temperature extremes
Chemical hazards
- Absorption of harmful substances
- Chemical burns
- Rashes, irritation
Durable gloves made of metal mesh, leather, or
canvas
Protects from cuts, burns, heat
Fabric and coated fabric gloves
Protects from dirt and abrasion
Chemical and liquid resistant gloves
Protects from burns, irritation, and
dermatitis
Rubber gloves
Protects from cuts, lacerations, and
abrasions
Hand Care
Avoid washing your hands with solvents, harsh soaps, or abrasives
Clean and bandage all cuts and abrasions
Immediately remove any imbedded foreign materials
Wash immediately after using any chemical Even if you did not detect leakage
Pay attention to skin rashesget an immediate medical evaluation
Wear cotton gloves under rubber gloves to reduce sweating
Types of Injuries
Cuts, fractures, punctures and amputations
-Cuts or lacerations May sever nerves, tendons or muscle or become infected
-Fractures can damage nearby tissue and be difficult to repair
Dermatitis and burns are caused by direct contact with chemicals, detergents,
metals, or very hot or cold objects
-Dermatitis may show up immediately after contact with a chemical causing the skin
to become red, swollen, itchy, or burning, and may develop blisters
-Dermatitis may develop after several contacts with chemicals known as sensitizers
- Nothing happens initially, later contacts with the chemical produce an allergic
reaction

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL


Carpal tunnel syndrome results from prolonged repetitive work with the hands - This
condition can be disabling and can have a variety of temporary symptoms like
swelling, tingling, numbness, and pain in the hands or fingers

FALL PROTECTION

Two types of fall protection equipment are used in power


generation, transmission, and distribution workwork positioning and fall arrest
equipment. Workers (except for qualified climbers, as noted below) must use this
fall protection if they are working at elevated locations more than 4 feet above the
ground on poles, towers, or similar structures if other fall protection (for example,
railings) has not been provided.
Body Wear: The personal protective equipment worn by the worker (Ex: full-body
harness)
Only form of body wear acceptable for fall arrest is the full-body harness.
Should be selected based on work to be performed and the work environment.
Side and front D-rings are for positioning only.
While focus is given to anchorage connectors and body wear (full-body harnesses)
components, the connecting device (a shock-absorbing lanyard or self-retracting
lifeline) between these two components actually bears the greatest fall forces
during a fall.

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

Spread load
across butt
strap and
belt strap if
on the
harness

Excess
pressure here
can cut blood
flow to the
legs

SAFETY VEST
Safety vests are worn by workers who work on or near roads, or places where there
are movements of vehicles, cranes, cables, winches, motors or any moving gears.
Workers who are engaged in emergency and construction work, need to be detected
by other parties who operate moving machinery that can be potentially dangerous.
Safety vests are found in yellow, orange or red, and have reflective stripes, insignia
and letters printed on them. Types of safety vests to be used depend on the user,
work environments or type of industry.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approves the following types of vests:
ANSI Class 2 Safety Vests: For workers working close to traffic traveling between 2550 miles per hour, in the presence of heavy machinery, or in inclement weather and
low visibility conditions
ANSI Class 3 Safety Vests: For workers working close to traffic exceeding 50 mph
and/or in very dark or zero-visibility conditions. These vests have longer sleeves
than Class 2.

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

ANSI 207-2011 Safety Vests: These are


also known as public safety vests, and
are worn by law enforcement agencies,
fire and emergency rescuers. These
are
normally worn
over
safety
equipment and can be removed
quickly
in
the
incident
of
entanglement.
Non-ANSI safety vests are made of
high visibility material, often with a
small number of reflective stripes.
They are inexpensive alternatives to
approved vests in some cases.

FOOT AND
PROTECTION

LEG

Injuries to the foot and leg are common to many industries. The dropping of a heavy
object may injure the foot, particularly the toes, in any workplace, especially among
workers in the heavier industries such as mining, metal manufacture, engineering
and building and construction work. Burns of the lower limbs from the molten
metals, sparks or corrosive chemicals occur frequently in foundries, iron- and
steelworks, chemical plants and so on. Dermatitis or eczema may be caused by a
variety of acidic, alkaline and many other agents. The foot may also suffer physical
injury caused by striking it against an object or by stepping on sharp protrusions
such as can occur in the construction industry.

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

PVC footwear
protects your feet
against moisture
and improves
traction.

Butyl
footwear
protects against
most ketones,
aldehydes,
alcohols, acids,
salts, and alkalies.

Electrostatic dissipating
footwear conducts static
electricity to floors that are
grounded.
Steel toe
footwear protects
your toes from
falling objects and
from being crushed.

Vinyl footwear
resists solvents,
acids, alkalies,
salts, water,
grease, and blood.

Electrical hazard
footwear are insulated
with tough rubber to
prevent shocks and burns
from electricity.

Metatarsal
footwear have
special guards that
run from your ankle
to your toes and
protect your entire
foot.

Nitrile
footwear
resists animal
fats, oils, and
chemicals

Disposable footwear
includes shower slippers,
clear polyethylene and nonwoven booties used in dust
free work areas.

Reinforced sole
footwear have
metal reinforcement
that protects your
foot from punctures.

Latex/Rubber
footwear resists
chemicals and
provides extra
traction on slippery
surfaces.

SOURCES

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). 1991. Respiratory Protection:


A Manual and Guideline. Fairfax, Va: AIHA.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 1974. Method for the


Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical
Attenuation of Earmuffs. Document No. S3.19-1974 (ASA Std 1-1975). New
York: ANSI.
. 1984. Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Attenuation of
Hearing Protectors. Document No. S12.6-1984 (ASA STD55-1984). New York:
ANSI.

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LACHICA, JERUEL

. 1989. Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face


Protection. Document No. ANSI Z 87.1-1989. New York: ANSI.
. 1992. American National Standard for Respiratory Protection.
Document No. ANSI Z 88.2. New York: ANSI.

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