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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information

Modeling

Master Thesis

Construction and Real Estate Management
University of Applied Sciences, Berlin
Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences

Submitted on 12.04.2011

Md.Afjalur Rahman
Student ID: 527076

First Supervisor: Prof.Dr.-Ing. Märkus Kramer
Second Supervisor: Prof.Dr.-Ing. Dieter Bunte

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

International Master of Science in Construction and Real Estate Management
Joint study program of HTW Berlin and Metropolia Helsinki UAS

Conceptual Formulation

January 12, 2011

Of the Master Thesis for Md. Afjalur Rahman(0527076)
Title: Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information
Modeling.
Background:
Like every industrial sector building development sector also needs a prototype before going
on construction. Building or every type of construction job is new and more challenging with
new difficulties. The prototype is the best solution for this kind of challenging work. BIM or
Building information modeling first create a opportunity in building sectors to make such
kind of prototype for forecasting construction stages.
But the process is still now quite limited with the early construction phase or in design
phase. More precisely most of the people used BIM or think BIM, as a method to give better
coordination in design and visualization. While the construction phase and life cycle is the
most vital part of any construction. It is also possible to make construction management and
life cycle management through BIM. But it needs the right application in right way, because
still now BIM used in construction management is fragmented with different thoughts and
ideas.
The task:
The main objective is that, how to define a clear way or how to synchronize the construction
activities after design stage through BIM. Construction of a project is divided in different
layers and construction management evolved all the layers with different names and different
scope.
The author will focus on the technical relationship of construction project work through BIM
and identify a route to be applicable as BIM approach in the construction project
management phase.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Research problems:
1. What is the key concept of BIM and construction project management?
2. Where is the linkage on BIM and construction project management?
3. How BIM can support construction project management?
4. Which kinds of tools presently exist to support construction project management
through BIM?
5. Which way BIM can make collaboration of total construction phase and in the
facility management through the life cycle of the building?
6. What kind of contractual problem arise in the implementing of BIM workflow in
construction management phase or in later phase?
7. How can BIM support all kinds of infrastructure projects?
8. Why BIM is fragmentized in the implementation part of construction project
management?

Signature of the 1st Supervisor

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in the end of last century Building Information Modeling concept came to the construction world. efficiency. To make this paper. online magazines and the most important practical experience based books and regarding related topics. Key words: construction management. When design phase is just only the inception of construction. While construction industry is unique in every project. The main aspect is to define a view to make construction management easier. With the advancement of technological support manufacturing industry reduce their waste. From the very beginning it focuses on the inception to execution process of construction projects. CAD is the first technological advancement in construction industry. But this advancement is not developed all over the construction process. thus due to lack of technological support the waste in construction industry is quite higher than any other industry. AEC journals. Later. construction MIS » iii . As well as often delayed due to faulty error prone calculations. The aim of this thesis paper is to demonstrate a clear view to manage a construction project in construction phase through BIM process. It means from the inception to execution it does not work. articles. The scope and range of work increased enormously. The purpose of this new concept or technology is to increase efficiency in construction industry.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Abstract In last 30 years construction industry has been changed with other industry. conceptual path. The findings of this thesis will make a conceptual path of construction management through Building Information Modeling or rather it can be better to say the whole process as construction MIS. materials are used as BIM software and construction management study experience. improve quality and time. publications. less waste and increase efficiency with technology. But unfortunately the technological advancement is not quite satisfactory compared with other manufacturing industry. software vendor brochure. CAD has limited effects until design phase. BIM.

Introduction 1 2.2.2.1 Pre Construction Phase 8 2. Construction Project Management 5 2.1.2 At-Risk CM 15 Construction Phase 17 2.2.1.4 Managing Project Quality 22 2.2.» iv Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Table of Contents Table of Figures ix List of Tables xii List of Abbreviations xiii 1.2 Construction Project Management Phases 7 2.1 Managing Job site and Construction operation 17 2.2.2.2.3.2.2.1 Project Punch Out 25 26 .2.1.2.2.2 2.2.1 Design-Bid-Build 9 2.2.2.2.1.2.1.1.1 Designer and Contractor Relationship 12 2.5 Managing Project Safety 23 2.2.1 Construction Project Management Definition 5 2.2.1.1.2.2.4.2 Design-Build 11 2.3 Joint Venture 13 2.2.2 Planning and Scheduling the project 18 2.3 Integrated Project Delivery Method 13 2.1 Agency CM 14 2.6 Assessing Project Risks 23 2.1.3 Monitoring and Controlling the Project Performance 20 2.2.4.4 Construction Management Method 14 2.3 Project Delivery Phase 2.2.2.2.2.2 Full Service Design Build Firm 12 2.2.

3.3.3. Building Information Modeling 42 3.3.4 Commissioning 27 2.5 Construction Management Scope 53 3.3.3.9 Construction Project Procurement Management 38 2.3.5 Construction Project Quality Management 34 2.3.2 Construction Project Scope Management 31 2.3.3.3.3.13 Construction Project Claim Management 41 3.3.3.3.3 Construction Project Management Framework 29 2.3.3.2.3.3.»v Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2.5 Final Documentation 27 2.2.10 Construction Project Safety Management 38 2.7 Construction Project Communications Management 36 2.2 Substantial Completion 26 2.1 Building Information Modeling Concept Definition 42 3.4 Construction Project Cost Management 33 2.6 Warranties 28 2.1 Construction Project Integration Management 30 2.3 Certificate of Occupancy 27 2.2 Building Information Modeling Principle 44 3.3 Building Information Modeling Scopes 47 3.12 Construction Project Financial Management 40 2.4 CAD Transformation in BIM 58 .4 Fabrication Scope 50 3.7 Sustainability and Life Cycle Scope 57 3.6 Construction Project Human Resource Management 35 2.2.2.3 MEP Scope 49 3.3.6 Facility Management Scope 55 3.2.11 Construction Project Environmental Management 39 2.3 Construction Project Time Management 32 2.7 Project Evaluation 28 2.3.3.3.8 Construction Project Risk Management 37 2.2 Structural Engineering Scope 48 3.3.3.1 Architectural Scope 47 3.2.3.

2.2 61 Autodesk Buzzsaw and Constructware Graphisoft BIM Tools 62 62 63 3.5.3 Eco Designer 64 3.5.5.5.5.1.1.1 Design and Documentation solution 60 3.3 Autodesk 3Ds Max Design 62 3.2.5.1.1.1.6.4 Artlantis 64 3.1 ArchiCAD 63 3.5.3 Collaboration Solution 3.1.1.4 Vico BIM Solution 68 3.2.6 Data Exchange solutions 72 3.1.1.5.5.5.5 Virtual Building Explorer 64 3.2 Solibri Model Checker 70 3.2.6.1 IFC 72 3.2.2.5.5.5.2.2.1.1 Autodesk Revit Architecture 60 3.5.5.1.3 Tekla BIM Solution 66 3.5.5.5.1 60 Autodesk BIM Tools 60 3.5.5.5.4 Autodesk Navisworks 62 3.2 Autodesk Revit Structure 61 3.6.5 Other BIM Solutions 70 3.2 Other Data Exchange solutions 74 3.2 Analysis and Visualization solutions 3.5.5.5.1 3.3 Autodesk Revit MEP 61 3.2 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 62 3.2 ArchiCAD MEP Modeler 63 3.1.5.5.5.4 AutoCAD Civil 3D 61 3.5 Autodesk Quantity Takeoff 62 3.3 Nemetscheck BIM Solution 71 3.1.1 Bentley BIM Solution 70 3.» vi Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.5.1.3 Comparison of Different Data Exchange Format 75 3.1 Autodesk Ecotect Analysis 61 3.3.5 BIM Tools 3.1.2.1.7 BIM based Construction Management Case study 75 .1.5.2.

7.2 BIM Implementation in Construction 102 5.» vii Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.3.3.1.11 Construction Project Claim Management in BIM 130 5.1.2.2.10 Construction Project Financial Management in BIM 129 5.3 Summary of Case Studies 78 4.1 Future BIM Construction Management 136 136 .1 Construction Project Time Management in BIM 103 5.2 Facility Management in BIM 134 6.2.2 Construction Management in Bridge Case Study 77 3.7.12 Construction Project Site and Logistics Management in BIM 131 5.9 Construction Project Procurement Management in BIM 127 5.1 Barton Malow Case Study 75 3.2.2.6 Construction Project Risk Management in BIM 118 5.2 Construction Project Scope Management in BIM 95 5.3 Construction Project Cost Management in BIM 100 5.2.5 Construction Project Communications Management in BIM 114 5.1 Construction Project Integration Management in BIM 88 5.3 BIM Implementation in Post Construction 133 5.4 BIM and Post Construction 85 4. BIM and Construction Project Management Linkage 79 4.2 Construction Project Cost Control Management in BIM 107 5.2.2.4 Construction Project Human Resource Management in BIM 112 5. BIM Simulation in Construction Project Management 5.2.7.2 BIM and Preconstruction 81 4.3 BIM and Construction 84 4.5 BIM and Facility Management 85 5.2. Discussion and Conclusion 6.1 Handover Management in BIM 133 5.3 Construction Project Quality Management in BIM 108 5.2.1 BIM Implementation in Preconstruction 88 88 5.1.7 Construction Project Safety Management in BIM 123 5.1 Construction Project Management Development through BIM 79 4.2.8 Construction Project Environmental Management in BIM 125 5.

2 Discussion and Results 140 6.» viii Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 6.3 Conclusion 144 List of Literature 148 Online Sources 150 .

10 Planning and scheduling diagram 19 Figure 1.2 Preconstruction phase 8 Figure 1.5 Tekla structure reinforcement bending model 67 Figure 2.4 Design-Bid-Build structure 10 Figure 1.5 Agency CM approach 14 Figure 1.2 CAD transformations to BIM 59 Figure 2.6 Vico cost planner 69 .12 Project close out phase 25 Figure 1.S.13 Typical construction management team 29 Figure 2.6 At-Risk CM process 15 Figure 1.8 Preconstruction phase cycle 16 Figure 1.9 Planning process 18 Figure 1.3 Design -Bid-Build process 9 Figure 1.1 Life cycles on construction projects 7 Figure 1.4 Exporting model in virtual environment 65 Figure 2.3 Artlantis rendering 65 Figure 2.» ix Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling List of Figures Figure 1.7 Non residential designs and construction delivery method in U.A 16 Figure 1.1 Fabrication from design data to CNC 52 Figure 2.11 Basic cost/value S-curve 21 Figure 1.

5 Integration management (plan development) through BIM 93 Figure 4.1 Schematic (simulation) design model in 3D by AutoCAD 90 Figure 4.13 Scheduling in Vico control software 105 Figure 4.2 Architectural (simulation) model for detailed design in ArchiCAD 90 Figure 4.12 BOQ in Vico control software 105 Figure 4.15 Location based time simulation for scheduling control 106 Figure 4.17 Total quality Management phases 111 .2 BIM preconstruction phase cycle work 83 Figure 4.3 Structural (simulation) model for detailed structural design by TEKLA 91 Figure 4.14 Scheduling control in Vico software without construction simulation 106 Figure 4.8 IAI vision shared project model.6 BIM based Design-Bid-Build proposed model 97 Figure 4.7 Solibri model checker rules check 71 Figure 2.9 Cost report in Microsoft Excel 101 Figure 4.8 Quantity information takes off from Solibri model checker 101 Figure 4. IAI 1997 73 Figure 2.9 Barton Malow Project 3D structure in Tekla 76 Figure 3.11 Process of scheduling through BIM support 104 Figure 4.16 Clash detection check (simulated model) in Autodesk Navisworks 109 Figure 4.4 MEP(simulation) model for detailed design by Vico Constructor 92 Figure 4.10 Flow chart of cost (estimation) model through BIM 102 Figure 4.»x Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Figure 2.1 Construction productivity index compared to nonfarm industries 79 Figure 3.7 Approach differences in integrated and traditional way 98 Figure 4.

28 Facility Management Flowcharts in BIM 135 Fig 5.19 Field communications through BIM 117 Figure 4.24 Procurement material list from architect (simulated) model 128 Figure 4.22 Transfer the model in Google earth for determine the env.» xi Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Figure 4. Effect 126 Figure 4.21 Safety net models through architect model 124 Figure 4.1 Composite model concept 137 Fig 5.25 Financial management processes in simulated model 130 Figure 4.26 Model placed at real site to make site management plan 132 Figure 4.23 Model in Google Sketch up Pro 126 Figure 4.2 BIM server data collection and transfer model 139 .18 Design communications through IFC data format 117 Figure 4.20 Safety rule set and check in Naviswork 123 Figure 4.27 Logistics placement model in the site 133 Figure 4.

1 BIM and preconstruction phase linkage 86 Table 3.2 BIM and construction phase linkage 87 Table 3.3 Summary of case studies 78 Table 3.9 Risk assessment and BIM support in environmental risks 122 Table 5.1 IFC 2*3 support software 73 Table 2.5 Risk assessment and BIM support on design risks 120 Table 4.3 BIM and post construction phase linkage 87 Table 4.3 Summary of quality management in BIM 112 Table 4.1 BIM support in overall construction management 145 .7 Risk assessment and BIM support on political and legal issues 121 Table 4.1 Summary of integration management in BIM 94 Table 4.1 Risks allocation table 24 Table 2.2 Comparison of different data exchange format 75 Table 2.4 Risk assessment and BIM support on prebid 119 Table 4.» xii Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling List of Tables Table 1.2 Summary of scope management in BIM 99 Table 4.8 Risk assessment and BIM support in financing risks 121 Table 4.6 Risk assessment and BIM support on construction risks 120 Table 4.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling List of Abbreviations AEC Architect. Engineering and Construction ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers BIM Building Information Modeling BOT Build-Operate-Transfer BOQ Bill of Quantity CAD Computer Aided Drafting CAFM Computer Aided Facility Management CMAA Construction Management Association of America CM Construction Management CNC Computer Numerical Control CityGML City Geographic Markup Language DBB Design-Bid-Build DB Design-Build DFX Drawing Exchange Format DWF Drawing Web Format ERP Enterprise Resource Planning GMP Guaranteed maximum price GIS Geographic Information System GPS Global Positioning System » xiii .

Ventilating.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling HR Human Resource HRM Human Resource Management IFC Industry Foundation Classes object oriented file format HVAC Heating. and Air Conditioning IPD Integrated Project Delivery IFC Industry Foundation Classes IAI International Alliance for Interoperability LEED Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design MIS Management Information System NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PM Project Manager PDF Portable Document Format QFD Quality Function Deployment RCC Reinforced Cement Concrete RFID Radio-Frequency Identification RFI Request for Information TQM Total Quality Management UK United Kingdom US United States VTT Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus WBS Work Breakdown Structure » xiv .

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling XML Extensible Markup Language 3D 3 Dimensional 2D 2 Dimensional 4D 4 Dimensional 5D 5 Dimensional » xv .

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » xvi .

A study conducted in USA. So it is clearly assumed that the complexity of this industry is much more than any other manufacturing industry due to the uniqueness of each construction project. They are different in size. Like any other manufacturing industry construction industry is also a big industry. People need new spaces for work. Every construction project is different here. As a result this industries productivity is quite low than other manufacturing industries. mankinds are intended to make house for their basic shelter. The development of industrial sector increases rapidly in the last century. Introduction Buildings and infrastructures are the symbol of civilization. the problems are as follows - Up to 30% construction rework »1 .Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 1. Scandinavia and UK shows that.8 billion1. This development also touches on the construction industry. Later with time. Mankind built the giant Pyramid. Great wall before making the BMW car. the demand of people increase and according to their demand all kind of civil facilities grown up. for industrial work. The history of this journey was glorious. money and obviously organizational value. From this it can clearly assumable the world construction industry produce how much wastes in total construction projects. With the increased and development of global trade in manufacturing industry. poses a cold competition to make better products in desire quality. The complexity starts with expectation of the owners and ends with the life cycle process of the structure or infrastructure. From the very beginning. in use. time. reduce wastes and provide efficiency in every phase of the production management. the annual waste in construction industry in US alone is $15. cost and so on. In recent NIST report shows that. With time the technology and knowledge developed and for that reason now on this age we see mega structures. So that the product can be made in quality and meet the demand of the consumer. They produce much more wastes in material. It‟s a unique production industry. high rise skyscrapers and so on. So people have knowledge from the beginning of civilization to built infrastructure with traditional developing technologies. for power and facilities that can meet the ongoing demand of the society. “The forms of wastes are defined by Sir John Egan.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

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Labor is used at only 40-60% of potential efficiency

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At least 10% of material are wasted” 2

From the beginning manufacturing industries are concern about the productivity of the
process system, market development, new technologies and implementing efficient
management system. So that, now we can see so many new production theory or concept
that can reduce wastes, increase efficiency and so on. As an example, so many production
companies in USA and Japan applied Deming price philosophy.
Dr.W.Edwards Deming focus on manufacturing problems and then make some appropriate
principles on management, organization an increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs(
target set as reducing waste, rework, staff attrition and litigation with increasing customer
satisfaction.) Dr. Deming thinks it as a process of continual improvement and think of
manufacturing as a system, not as particular part.
In the beginning of 1990 there was a new manufacturing concept came named as “Lean
manufacturing” or simply termed as “Lean”. The main concept of this philosophy is to
increasing efficiency, decreasing waste and using empirical methods for making decision
rather than followed traditional ideas. Lean concept came from Toyota production system,
when they remove their 7 wastes to improve value.3 Later this principle is widely used in
manufacturing companies to improve quality and remove wastes

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Solibri magazine/ 1.2010/open BIM is here/by Heikki Kulusjärvi/CEO Solibri, http://www.solibri.com/documents/englishmaterial/solibri-magazine-1-2010/download.htm access 17.01.2011 time, 4.30 PM
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BIM Journal. Issue 1; 2009, BIM Concept “over budget, delays, rework, standing time, materials waste, poor
communication, conflict.” Page -1, bimjournal.dev.asentechdev.com/index.php?option access 17.01.2011 time 5. 13 PM

3

Holweg, Matthias (2007). "The genealogy of lean production". Journal of Operations Management 25 (2): 420–437.

doi:10.1016/j.jom.2006.04.001,access 1.28.2011, 6,17 PM

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Construction projects are fully occupied with various kinds of wastes. The type of waste can
be defined as waste in time, waste in money and waste in value. To reduce this wastes
construction or AEC industry also focused on to develop the management system and the
production process. While construction process are different from other projects in a fashion
that, in a single construction project the no. of stakeholders are quite large and even the
process is complicated than other industries. To minimize wastes construction industry also
followed “Lean construction principles”. The main principle is same to “Lean manufacturing
process.” The process came to known by Lauri Koskela in 1992 in construction.
From research it is found that traditional construction management system not able to
perform execution in project maintaining time, quality and budget. The reasons behind that
found by 6th annual survey of construction owners by CMAA, "While the cost of steel and
cement are making headlines, the less publicized failures in the management of construction
projects can be disastrous. Listen carefully to the message in this comment. We are not
talking about just materials, methods, equipment, or contract documents. We are talking
about how we work to deliver successful capital projects and how we manage the costs of
inefficiency."4
Hence construction industry also feels to make changes in their working way, to break the
traditional system and to adopt new process to reduce wastes. While the practice of “Lean
construction” in construction industry rises day by day as a process.
Computer aided drafting or CAD system changes the world from pencil drawing to computer
drafting. The development starts at 1970 and from that time the construction and production
world changing enormously day by day. The blessing of information technology or computer
technology makes the world faster. This change brings us the faster flight from Paris to New
York. The production industry also used it quite impressively with management information
system; computer numerical controlling system, automation, and prototype build up. This
technology makes the production industry more efficient with their process based system.
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http://www.cmaanet.org/,access 1.28.2011,7.05 PM

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

But unfortunately the development in construction industry is not so impressive like
manufacturing industry. Perhaps at the beginning of new century a new technology or can be
specified as a system termed as BIM changes the construction world. It makes the door open
to developed construction industry with digital information. It makes the way to build
prototype before original construction takes place. It opens the door to provide better
information for better management and better process in practice. It opens the door to
implement its better information, inception to completion phase of construction.
To maintain success in construction industry it is essential to build up relation with process,
technology, organization and the most important thing is knowledge to combine this three
things.5
The process applicable in the construction projects are defined in project management body
of knowledge. Where cost, quality and time is most important factor. On the other hand
“Lean Construction principle shows a new way from traditional way to bring success in
construction industry. By research, there is a synergy found between Lean as a process and
BIM as technology.”6
At last in the part of conclusion of this introduction it can be said that, BIM provides support
as a technology that build the efficient and productive process of construction. In this thesis
the main idea is to make the practical way to support the process system or management
system through BIM in the construction phase of the project.

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Lean Construction, Construction blog, 2008, http://constructiondata.wordpress.com/2008/05/21/lean-construction/,
access 1/28/11 , 9.39 PM
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Revised and submitted 11/2009 to the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 2009 © Sacks, Koskela,
Dave and Owen,The Interaction of Lean and Building Information Modeling in Construction, page 1

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2003.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett . page no- 4 8 Leadership course.org/wiki/Management »5 .9 “Management comprises planning.”1 ______________________________________ 7 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). Page 51 10 http://en. Before giving any idea of construction project management it would be better to know what is project and management. PMBOK GUIDE. financial resources. leading or directing.wikipedia.Business & Economics . Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources. and natural resources. project means to perform some work to achieve a desired goal or destination. Thomas Rohweder. PPT material by Mr. In general. “A project can thus be defined in terms of its distinctive characteristics-a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. 2. Both word‟s have very deep meaning on its context. organizing. She described management as philosophy”. Construction Project Management This chapter will discuss about the mean of construction management. From the beginning to end until the desired goal achieved it can be termed as project or project period. Project Management Institute. and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.8 The key to move organization is management. staffing. who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century. According to“Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933). only in downhill”. A phrase given by Mr. technological resources. 9 Vocational Business: Training. defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. company or any process. Unique means that the product or service is different in some distinguishing way from all other product or services. Thomas Rohweder “Organization never moves itself. Project itself is a big term for explanation. the phases of construction management and the framework to maintain a construction project.”7 Management is the core heart of any industry.1 Construction Project Management Definition Construction project management is a broad meaningful word.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Now with combining project and management. But the main aspect is same for every construction management team to deliver project in time. Indianapolis. 3 rd Edition. page-24 »6 . Cause it consists of enormous task to perform and organizing these tasks is a big challenge for every construction management team. Oxford. 2nd Edition. co-ordination and control of a project from inception to completion. 12 Barbara J. scheduling.”12 Well. construction project management or we can simply term as construction management is not as simple as definition. Wiley Publishing. 2010. project management can be defined as. evaluation and controlling of construction tasks or activities to accomplish specific objectives by effectively allocating and utilizing appropriate labor. 2007. aimed at meeting a client‟s requirements in order to produce a functionally and financially viable project that will be completed on time. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.Inc.11 With combining this meanings according to the book of Charles Patrick‟s” Construction Project Planning and Scheduling” the definition of construction project management or construction management is that “Construction Management(CM)entails the planning. material and time resources in a manner that minimizes costs and maximizes customer/owner satisfaction. “The overall planning. with in authorized cost and to the required quality standards”. Blackwell publishing. page -40 13 Stanley E. Project Management for Dummies.13 _______________________________ 11 CIOB(2002) Code of practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. Portny. Indiana. Wiley Publications Inc. Jackson. with estimated cost and in desired quality.

for any project the most important factor is projects owner. London And New York . developers or it might be government project. 2005.»7 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. by Peter Fewings. can be divide in three major stages or phases. it divides the total time in some phases and every phase is managed by different people.(figure 3.1 Life cycles on construction projects. in general termed as completion or project delivery.2 Construction Project Management Phases Every kind of Construction has its own life cycle. The set begins in this way that. Construction Project Management. to meet owners demand a group of people worked together in some stages to deliver the project. CIOB (2002) Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development. _______________________ 14 Peter Fewings. Thus the owner can be a group of people like stakeholders.Source CIOB. An Integrated Approach.14 Through the inception to completion in the life cycle of the project. Figure 1. The total period starting from owner‟s idea. An Integrated Approach.1) . Blackwell Publishing Oxford. The following figure illustrate the general phases occurred in the life cycle of construction projects. 15 Well. Every project is the result of owner‟s demand. Taylor and Francis. The life cycle starts from client‟s point of view. page 7 15 Construction Project Management. Client‟s demand make the inception of the project and later through the successful handover of client‟s desirable product. page 8. Owner means the person who will initiate the project financially. 3 rd Edition. The word owner is used in a big context.

It can be said that. These methods are important. There is several delivery methods exist in the construction industry. Construction phase 3.»8 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling The phases are as below1. Project delivery phase The whole project life cycle majorly divided in these basic three stages. In this case the first issue comes as the contract. 2. design and tendering are the most common preconstruction phase in every construction project.2 Preconstruction phase From preconstruction stage owner think about the procurement or the project delivery method. After owner the second early participator in the project is architect. Preconstruction phase 2. cause according to this contract or delivery method . Where in every stage construction management team find new personnel and new approach. Project Conception / Predesign Initial Design/Schematic design Detailed design/Design development Implementations documents/Construction documentation Figure 1. Delivery methods are form of contract with different parties who will take the responsibility to completion of the project. Because depending on the project delivery method the construction process later goes on. After the concept of project the owner think about the procurement way for completion the project. From owner the concept of the project comes out and then it goes to architects drawing sheet. Project delivery is another important and crucial part of the project. From architect idea and drawings the next set begins in the field. In general every project inception phase is the same.2.1 Pre Construction Phase As earlier mentioned project starts with the idea of owner or end user.

The main part of preconstruction phase is to select the delivery method and according to this owner gives the working order to the contractor or related organization.2. Feasibility study can also be on this stage or owner can make it by different organization. The final design will be the joint collaboration of total design team where mechanical. ___________________________________ 16 Barbara J. owner makes a contract with architect for the total or partial schematic design. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Indiana. At first. design team focus on the documentation for general contract bidding. “A project delivery method in which the owner holds two separate contracts for design and construction. Jackson. 2010. It depends on Owners interest. After the completion of design. The common delivery methods are described below – 2. electrical and plumbing engineers are also take part in the design phase. But normally the feasibility study is done before preliminary design stage. three parties play the major role in the total construction. This method is often referred to as the traditional project delivery method”.1. Indianapolis. Often in construction industry dispute arise with owner to contractor due to faulty contract agreement.page no-47 »9 . Architect at first make the preliminary design.3 Design -Bid-Build process Design-Bid-Build is a linear concept of delivery process.16 Owner design Contractor Figure 1. Wiley Publications Inc.1 Design-Bid-Build The definition of DBB or Design-Bid-Build is that.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling contractor or the construction management team has to perform their work. They make the design document in digital PDF or in CAD files. In this method. schematic design and in later the total final design.

Because in this method they are not bounded with any legal agreement for data share in construction phase. 2009.48 . If there are gaps between the plans and specs and the owner‟s requirements or any errors and omissions in the design. Indianapolis. Wiley Publishing Inc. Jackson. It‟s a linear approach and there is no involvement of general contractor regarding design. 2010. Indiana. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Wiley Publications Inc.”19 ________________________ 17 Brad Hardin. and workflows. methods. however. Indianapolis.» 10 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Well there is an always complexity in sharing information of design in general bidding. Indiana.18 Design Bid Build Figure 1.. The main responsibility for contractor is to perform work according to the design document and accomplish the project in time with desired quality and cost. page no-09 18.”17 In this method. Proven tools. there is no communication between the designer and design team with the contractor. “Contractually. the owner warrants the sufficiency of the plans and specs to the contractor.4 Design-Bid-Build structure “Under the design-bid-build method. the design team is not typically responsible for sharing digital files and often doesn‟t to limit any involuntary editing or further possibility for misinterpretation of information. page no. BIM and Construction Management. the owner is responsible for paying for those corrections.19 Barbara J.

22 In design build method the main advantage is effective communication between designer and contractor.2 Design-Build Design build is quite flexible delivery method. duration. page no-11 21 Barbara J. In this method all the participators of the project can get better collaboration during all the phases of the project. and proposer qualifications. “The design-build form of project delivery is a system of contracting whereby one entity performs both architectural/engineering and construction under one single contract. 2010. Well it‟s necessary to make a clarification a relationship between architect and other people ________________________________ 20 Brad Hardin. or a competitive process involving one or more contracts. 2010. methods. Wiley Publishing Inc. and workflows. Under this agreement. Indianapolis. Thus this creates a better understanding. Wiley Publications Inc. There is an opportunity for general contractor participate in the project from the conception of the project. the design builder warrants to the contracting agency that it will produce design documents that are complete and free from error(design builder takes the risk). In this method design-builder takes the responsibility or warrants of delivering proper information to owner. Indiana.5 » 11 .. BIM and Construction Management. Proven tools.21 In the client point of view design-build is much more easier to monitor and reduce the risk from client.50 22 Barbara J. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. This kind of delivery system widely termed as single-source project delivery method. or a competitive process based on some combination of price. Portions of the overall design or construction work can be performed by the design-build entity or subcontracted out to other companies that may or may not be part of the design build team”. Indianapolis. 2009. page no. According to Design-Build Institute of America ( DBIA) the definition for design build method is. Jackson.builder party takes liability for any lags in the plans and specs according to owner requirements for the performance of the building. Indiana. The selection process under design-build contracting can be in the form of a negotiated process involving one or more contracts.1. page no. Indianapolis. co ordination and planning in field construction. Jackson. Indiana. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. Wiley Publications Inc. Normally design.20 The design-build concept is getting popular in the construction industry last 10 years.2.

Indiana.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling In DBB method there are three different parties.24 ________________________________ 23 Barbara J. engineers and other people worked together to accomplish a project and this one liked by owners mostly due to less contractual and legal works. where owner has to hire the architect for design. Hence the communication is much better and reduces the risk. 2010. Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition.1.1 Designer and Contractor Relationship In this type of relationship two company or firm.51 24 Barbara J.2. Indianapolis. In DB method perhaps players are same. In vice versa if the contract is designer led contract where architect or engineer firm made contract with owner will hire general contractor for construction.51 » 12 . Here is the difference from DBB method.1. Wiley Publications Inc. Jackson. In this case general contractor hired architect for design. as one architectural and one general contractor makes an agreement to work together in any project and the risk of the project will beard by one of those players. they are as follows2. The scenario is that this type of companies are fully serviced organization where architect.2.2 Full Service Design Build Firm In this method everything goes under one roof. page no. Indiana. As an example if general contractor made contract with owner team than general contractor has to provide for both design and construction service for the project.2. Either the lead can be taken by architect company or by general contractor company. One company will provide architectural drawing and construction support. Indianapolis. the player who makes the contract with owner takes the lead. The three key player as early mentioned are.2. page no. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Wiley Publications Inc. The Design-Build method demonstrate in three different ways. 2010. In this case the second party will act as subcontractor for the first party and don‟t have any relation with owner. Jackson. ownerdesigner-contractor. In general case.23 2. Approximately 56% of all design-build projects are led by contractors. but they configured in a little different way.

1. Indiana. systems. Wiley Publishing Inc. Indianapolis. Indiana. cost overrun and most important bring value engineering in construction.53 » 13 . In all cases. page no. Wiley Publications Inc. increase value to the owner. both parties are at financial risk for delivery the project.2. and the prime constructor. IPD principles can be applied to a variety of contractual arrangements. page no-20 27 Barbara J. and IPD teams can include members well beyond the basic triad of owner.”27 The main advantage of early involvement of contractor in the design is that. the prime designer. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. for the purpose of carrying out the design and construction of a specific project. architect.Page no-52 26 Brad Hardin. Jackson. 2009. Indiana. and workflows.3 Joint Venture “The joint venture configuration is similar to the designer and contractor partnership with one exception: the design firm and the construction firm actually create a legal entity. Indianapolis.1. working definition version 1:“Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that integrates people. ____________________________ 25 Barbara J.”25 2. 2007. BIM and Construction Management. methods. integrated projects are uniquely distinguished by highly effective collaboration among the owner.2. and contractor.2. Under this agreement..26 According to American Institute of Architectures May 15. Jackson.3 Integrated Project Delivery Method This is quite a new method of delivering project and it has gained popularity as an integrated solution. the joint venture. reduce waste and maximize efficiency through all phases of design. fabrication and construction. commencing at early design and continuing through to project handover. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. 2010. Indianapolis. and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results. Wiley Publications Inc. business structures. 2010.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. with his/her view architect produce better design documents which can able to reduce time over run. Proven tools.

Jackson.1. The construction manager offers advice and project management services to the owner but is not financially responsible for the construction. In this method a construction management company makes a contract with owner for the project.48 29 Barbara J.”28 In this method there are three contracts. 2010. This kind of arrangement worked in two different ways2. page no. 2010. owner and contractor and the last one with a construction management company as a representative of the owner in the project. Indianapolis.4. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.2.48 » 14 .1 Agency CM “It‟s one of the contract methods where. Indiana. page no. Figure 1. Wiley Publications Inc. Indiana. Jackson. “A construction management option in which the construction manager acts in the owner‟s best interests at every stage of the project from design through construction. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.1.4 Construction Management Method Construction management is also worked as a type of contract. They are between owner and designer.5 Agency CM approach29 _______________________ 28 Barbara J. Indianapolis.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2.2. Wiley Publications Inc.

DBB is a public or open procedure. Indiana. page no. Indianapolis. In this scenario.4. there are only two contracts. Turnkey. BOT and some others contracting methods are also available in construction industry ________________________ 30 Barbara J. one between the owner and designer and the other between owner and at risk CM. To make clear about one thing in preconstruction phase contract or bid is an important part. page no. Indiana. And these two crucial features set up at the preconstruction phase.2.6 At-Risk CM process31 After selecting the contract method owner gets relieved from the project. Jackson. but for the others it might not be open or public. In bid or negotiation contract procedure general contractor has to submit project cost and time line. The next responsibility will taken by contracted parties.49 » 15 . In some cases it might be come from the owner. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Indianapolis. The contract awarding procedure is different in different methods. Wiley Publications Inc. 2010. Jackson. Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition.2 At-Risk CM “The CMAA defines the at-risk CM project delivery method as an option that entails a commitment by the construction manager to deliver the project within a guaranteed maximum price (GMP).1. 2010.49 31 Barbara J. Because project budget and time line is a big factor for the project. Wiley Publications Inc.”30 Figure 1.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. The construction manager acts as consultant to the owner in the development and design phases but does the work of a general contractor during the construction phase.

After that make bid or contract with project cost and time.A32 Preconstruction works are finishes with selecting project delivery method. Jackson. page no-54 . Indianapolis.» 16 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Figure 1. ProjectDelivery method Award Contarct for Construction selection Bid/Negotiation Design Estimating cost and time Figure 1. 2010.7 Non residential design and construction delivery method in U. Wiley Publications Inc. and reward the contract to general contractor.S. Indiana. make estimation budget of total project and decide the time line of the project. completing design.8 Preconstruction phase cycle _________________________ 32 Barbara J. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.

Indianapolis. _____________________________ 33. So for the builder this place is important to set up necessary infrastructure for the people who will work in the project. While in this cases before making the contract with owner or after getting the job general contractor has to made some contracts with subcontractors and initiate the work.34 Barbara J.parking. General contractor or sub contractor has to provide necessary logistics such as construction tools.traffic. Wiley Publications Inc.storage. 34 To manage these issues and provide logistics support is the primary challenge for construction at the beginning in the field construction.1 Managing Job Site and Construction Operation Construction will take on a certain place.2.trash.signage. now construction management job will start for general contractor.Managing project safety .Assessing project risks. job trailer. Where estimating.2. In construction phase the main construction management tasks can be separated in the following ways-“Managing job site and construction operation.2 Construction Phase After getting the job and design documents.safety.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. 2.drinking water.Monitoring and controlling the project performance -Managing project quality . design and contract administration takes part at the pre construction phase of the project. crane everything which is necessary for constructing the project. 2010. Construction management consist inception to completion time period of the project.2. .Planning and scheduling the project . Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.deliveries.security. page no-56. Jackson.”33 These are common construction management responsibilities at the field in construction phase of the project. Indiana. equipment.communications.57 » 17 .

Construction planning. Thomas Telford.9 Planning process35 Planning job is mainly done by planners and for that planner follows following techniques. - Linear program or time chain age chart for linear work. 1998. - Gantt chart for normal construction work as master schedule - Line of balance for repetitive works.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. 1998.Neale and David E. Neale. London. Construction planning. page no. In general terms planning are the identification of the job activities and organize them according to availability of resources. London.2 Planning and Scheduling the Project Planning and scheduling the project is the most vital part of construction phase.Neale and David E. Because on this plan and schedule.2. Figure 1.6 Richard H.2. Neale. depends the project success to being on time and save cost and time overrun. page no. Thomas Telford.36 ______________________________ 35 36 Richard H. - Network analysis for complex projects.24 » 18 .

New Jersy. Hoboken.. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Construction Project Scheduling and Control. Project planning answers the questions. 2010. 2010. Construction Project Scheduling and Control. the project‟s start and end)? Scheduling deals with when on a detailed level”39 _________________________________________ 37 SALEH MUBARAK. Callahan. page no-4 39 SALEH MUBARAK. What is going to be done? How? Where? By whom? and when (in general terms. p.. Hoboken.10 Planning and scheduling diagram 38 “Scheduling is the determination of the timing and sequence of operations in the project and their assembly to give the overall completion time. page no-4 » 19 .p. John Wiley and Sons Inc. second Edition. 2010. second Edition. Hoboken.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling “Project planning has been defined as “the process of choosing the one method and order of work to be adopted for a project from all various ways and sequences in which it could be done”( Antill and woodhead 1990. Construction Project Scheduling and Control.. John Wiley and Sons Inc.2)”37 Figure 1.8. and rowing 1992. page no-3 38 SALEH MUBARAK. New Jersy. New Jersy. second Edition. Quackenbush.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. S curves are useful to measure performance for people. It‟s possible to reduce risk in any project by continuous monitoring of the project. Thomas Telford. If a project is failed to maintain schedule and cost. Control is important for managing risks.2. It‟s not like that full money will be paid at the end of the project. for cash flow. In S curve the overall progress of the project is possible to measure or monitored in terms of project costs and values. construction management team often uses different types of curves. 1998.2. money. But in general. contractor has the authority to control the project. For project performance measurement there are several tools exists. To maintain this estimated cost and time it is essential to monitor and control the project performance. page-93 » 20 . mostly poor controlling and monitoring is responsible more than other issues. plant and equipment. The control and monitor issue also discuss at the contract delivery method. Contractor‟s or owner control and monitor are necessary to give payment to subcontractor or the contractor. In construction the trend is to give money after completion of certain stage of the project. materials and other resources. This is the most sophisticated part for ay construction management team. London. This curve shows the estimated and current situation of any time to the project. These curves can be drawn for cost/value comparison. Neale. that who has the authority to control and monitor project performance. _______________________ 40 Richard H. for labor. Because if there is no monitoring there will be no control on the project. Project success depends largely on it. Among them S curve is famous. Construction planning.Neale and David E.40 To evaluate project condition.3 Monitoring and Controlling the Project Performance Estimating cost is the part of preconstruction phase.

completion data and later put it on parallel line of balance or linear programs from where they get the difference between actual and estimated progress of the project. In construction industry the practice is not so common. Construction planning. Neale. project team used daily report. 1998. page-93 » 21 . Thomas Telford. But besides this there is an opportunity to practice management information system on construction to measure performance. Figure 1.Neale and David E.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling For monitoring. ______________________________ 41 Richard H.11 Basic cost/value S-curve41 In industrial world people used MIS or management information system for measure performance and control their production. London.

2. 2010. 2003. The Management of Construction: A Project Life Cycle Approach. field tests and observations are necessary to maintain quality in the project.43 _____________________________________________________ 42 F. ISBN 0 7506 5254 3. temperatures and other technical specifications. The requirements included dimensions. thus during the design phase quality of the material or quality criteria are included in the design document by designer.”42 Quality brings value in the project. monitor and control the physical aspects of the work. Indianapolis.2. design professional and constructor‟. Designers and constructors (American Society of Civil Engineers.4 Managing Project Quality “The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Page no-218 43 Barbara J. These plans are taken care by procurement or logistics part of the management team that they can manage it during procurement period. More over most of the cases it seen that problem occurred for quality issues with owner. If the quality is not properly maintained than during the warranty phase contractor has to spent money again for those faulty construction which diminish the value of work. builder or contractor has to make quality control plan. as described in the contract documents. through a series of steps that plan. execute. Wiley Publications Inc. More over inspection. From this definition the contractor‟s task in managing quality is to assure compliance with the technical requirements of the project. Lawrence Bennet. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Owner always careful about the quality of the project. tolerances.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. page no-58 » 22 . test results. in its much-lauded Quality in the Construction Project: A Guide for owners. 2000) defines quality as „the fulfillment of project responsibilities in the delivery of products and services in a manner that meets or exceeds the stated requirements and expectation of the owner. Jackson. In some cases during the bid process contractor can be asked to submit a quality plan also. Indiana. To make it implementable in the field.

By providing safety.?‟ Once a risk has been identified and defined. who involved in the construction.. 2005. maintaining health and the environment of the construction site this amount of money can be possible to save. construction industry is the second worst industry after mining and agriculture.2. regulations and maintain them properly in the job site. An Integrated Approach. 44 Job site safety is the most important construction management goal. Construction project success also depends on the safety of the construction site. „What happens if.5 Managing Project Safety Construction industry jobs are often termed as one of the risky profession for the workers.2. More over human life is important than any other things. The rate is an accident per 1000 of workforce.2.6 Assessing Project Risks “Risk arises out of uncertainty. London And New York. Construction Project Management. Taylor and Francis. where it is four times worse than manufacturing industry. Risk in the context of project management is a realistic approach to things that may go wrong on the site and it is used in the context of decision making and in answer to the question. Moreover Egan shows that this accident makes 3. They achieve this rate just only providing better safety rules. So that safety and health of workers are the prime important factor for any industry. which is a milestone achievement for Finnish construction industry. As an example in Finland construction industries follow the rule that. ConREM 09.239 45 Mika Lindholm. Helsinki Metropolia UAS » 23 . page no. safety is first.. For over all accidental rates. International Site Management Lecturer.6% of project costs.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. it ceases to be a risk and becomes a management problem. By making a proper safety plan and regulation it can be possible to provide safer working environment which is necessary for every construction job site.45 Job site safety is also required for reducing the risk of construction delay and additional cost in accidental or in injury cases. In 1992 EU makes a survey of workers in construction and according to their report the work safety in construction was 10-20% worse comparing with others. For that in their construction job site death rate is 0%.2. ______________________________ 44 Peter Fewings. 2.

page no-59 » 24 . Jackson. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Indiana. reduce it or transfer it. 2005. Continuous monitoring and controlling. An Integrated Approach. Wiley Publications Inc. Taylor and Francis. This may also lead to the ethical question of acceptable risk.1 Risks allocation table 47 _____________________________ 46 Peter Fewings. job site safety reduces the risk in the project.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling In this context. Following table shows which risks are taken by whom- Table 1. Risks are in every phase of the project. Construction Project Management. Thus assessing risks is the important part of construction management team. 2010. it needs to be analyzed and a response made – usually to accept the risk. how many and who is responsible for it. In most of the construction project brings marginable profit considering the risks.”46 Construction projects are very risky project in terms of profit.195 47 Barbara J. It is important then to classify risks so that appropriate action is taken. Owner has risk about the profitability of the project and contractor has risk for cost and time overrun which will bring penalty. These risks are both for owner and contractor. proper quality control followed planned activities and schedule. Hence one simple error can bring catastrophe in the project. Indianapolis. London And New York. mitigate it. page no. People reactions are important and the response to the same risk varies according to who is effected.

Indiana. The project close out phase is also complicated. From inception to completion of the project construction management team has to do lots of planning how to organize this enormous workload. The construction management team has to figure out those steps and complete them with standard procedure before celebrating handover party.3 Project Delivery Phase Construction projects are often complex in every phase. 2010.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. project start up is difficult due to lots of paper work. page no-132.12 Project close out phase49 _________________________ 48.49 Barbara J. Indianapolis. Like that before project close out or handover to owner some sequential final touch has to performed by the contractor. Jackson. it‟s not wise to think that responsibilities are done. Wiley Publications Inc.133 » 25 . in construction management team people have to be ironic and construction manager has the ability to take decision instantly to move the construction in right track. These steps are as follows- Project punch out Substantial completion Final inspection Certificate of occupancy Commissioning Final documentation Final completion48 Figure 1. In construction. For that. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.2. After finishing the field construction.

51 ___________________ 50 Barbara J. Punch list can be termed as a fault report after inspection done by owner. issued a formal substantial completion certificate and from that the official warranty period starts. Every project has two ending periods they are termed as substantial and final completion. Indianapolis. Jackson.1 Project Punch Out In every project there are minor defects found after the completion of the project.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. product manuals etc. Indiana. and contractor in a formal project element checking period. Thus it often delays the project handover.2 Substantial Completion Every project has definite start and end. Indiana. 2010. Before handover the project. In this case architect make inspection through punch list and if the facility is ready to use.2. architect again certify for final completion and basis of this contractor get the retainage money. This is often a complex job to manage. page no-133 51 Barbara J. In this step when all paper works are done and given to facility management team. construction management team has to review the total project again to sort out these kind of minor defects which will not acceptable by the owner. The fault found on this report has to replace again by the contractor before handover the project.3. For this work construction management team make a punch list. designer. When all the work or task accomplished written in the punch list and approved by the architect is termed as substantial completion of the project. Cause for these minor works again contractor has to arrange people or may be asked for subcontractor while they are moving already in a new project. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Wiley Publications Inc. page no-134 » 26 . These punch list work is important for construction management team or contractor for completion to get the final payment from the owner. 2010.50 2. Final completion related with final paper work and documentation such as warranties. Wiley Publications Inc. Jackson.3. Indianapolis. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.2. On basis of this contractor get the final payment but still a small amount of money retained by the owner which is termed as retainage. But project ending is more complex compared with starting.

Commissioning can be arranged by general contractor or by subcontractor in each area of the project compiling with architect and engineers involved in the project.3 Certificate of Occupancy After substantial completion and getting architect certificate. after finished the project it is important to explain the functions of different machineries installed in the facility.2. This process is called commissioning. After giving this contractor has the responsibility for the warranty period to make repair in the facility. 2. -Warranties » 27 .3.5 Final Documentation In this stage construction management team have to made necessary handover documents which is necessary run the facility in its entire life cycle.2. Commissioning takes part in two phases. These processes might be different in different countries. they are working properly or not? In the second part of commissioning is related with training of facility management personnel to maintain and operate different instruments in the facility premises. contractor and architect invites official authority to check the project safety and other issues to provide occupancy certificate. Following documents have to necessary to hand over at the final documentation stage. After getting this certificate owner is able use the facility.4 Commissioning Before using any new product. This part is important in this sense that in the warranty period contractor takes the responsibility of functioning equipments properly.2. But there must be some authority who issued the occupancy certificate. at first it‟s necessary to know the working principle and about the maintenance of that product.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. In first phase equipments or facility machineries are checked by running them that. Like that in construction. 2.3.3.

3. Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis. _____________________________ 52 Barbara J. 2. their lacking.3. page no-135 » 28 . Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. After this stage officially construction management team ended the project.7 Project Evaluation This is important for general contractor or construction management team to evaluate their performance. Warranties can be two types. 2010. success and so on regarding the project. Because in this period contractor has to take care of the facilities problem and any other construction work for which contractor are responsible.2.6 Warranties Warranties are important in construction management. Indiana. Jackson.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling -Operational manuals -Inspections and testing reports -As built drawings or record drawings52 2.2. Every project is unique in construction and every project scenario is different. Thus from every project construction management team learns new techniques to bring success in the future projects. In one type it is written in the contract and another type can be set by the local rules or code.

Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis. 2010. Construction management team is a big team where every person has separate responsibility. Indiana. In next page these framework processes will be discussed to understand the management responsibilities in construction work. Thus “Project Management Body of knowledge” divides the whole management framework in some small manageable frames. According to their work in the management team the total management hierarchy divided in some particular management areas.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2.13 Typical construction management team53 In construction management a management team has to perform lots of work. This framework processes quite practiced well in all over the construction world. It‟s not possible to manage the whole work in an indiscipline way.3 Construction Project Management Framework Construction project are divided in some particular management areas. Following figure shows a typical construction management team. Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition. ___________________________ 53 Barbara J. page no-122 » 29 . Jackson. Figure 1.

3.55 In the second stage of integration management. PMBOK GUIDE.54 Project plan development is the first integration approach. PMBOK GUIDE. needs to execution of the project plan. page- 47 57 49 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). shows the integrated change control in the total project constructability. excitability and related forecasting which mostly takes place at the preconstruction phase of the construction management. It can be used as project plan updates. Project integration management focuses in three major areas. page- 41 55 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). For construction it can be defined as the total planning of the whole construction work based on project development plan. Where the plan revised in the executable mode which shows the result and forecasts executable approaches.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. Project Management Institute. Project Management Institute. Project Management Institute. Project Management Institute. Integration management is quite an official thinking work where project manager takes the lead of this integration.57 As a summary.56 In the third stage. page- 45 56 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). which make a clear view of the project plan. _________________________ 54 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). Project plan development takes place in the preconstruction phase of the project life cycle. Project plan development work relates to integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent. construction project integration management deals with the coordinating project processes. measuring the corrective action of the total plan. coherent document. PMBOK GUIDE. PMBOK GUIDE. page- » 30 .1 Construction Project Integration Management Construction project integration management means the combination and co ordination of all the processes which are required to complete the project.

to complete the project successfully. PMBOK GUIDE. scope verification and scope control. but they define their scope in a different way.102 » 31 .56. verified. In creating WBS part. management team subdivides the major deliverables and project work into smaller. construction project management system varies people to people. In scope definition it develops a detailed project scope statement as the basis for future project decision.59 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). Scope management is a wide term in the point of view of project management institute. controlled. and how the work breakdown structure (WBS) will be created and defined. Project Management Institute . But it‟s not mandatory to focus the entire step. organization to organization. scope definition.2 Construction Project Scope Management According to PMBOK 2000 edition.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2.3. And scope management is a step for well construction management practice. But everybody follows the general stages or the general procedure. The main factor is the processing step.page. processing way is not the main factor. In project management body of knowledge book. Instead of this the general management principles can be applicable for both industries.”59 Well. May be they don‟t follow the PM guideline at all. “Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required. and only the work required. ___________________________ 58. that documents how the project scope will be defined. project management institute defines a general guideline or procedure for project management. While controlling changes to the project scopes are the main part of scope control stage. “Scope planning process is to creating a project scope management plan. create work breakdown structure.”58 Project scope management process related with scope planning. It depends on organization value and management system how they treat this guideline. But construction and manufacturing management procedures are quite different in many cases. In general it‟s a guideline for the industries to manage the project scope. May be some construction company has their own philosophy to manage this scope management. Formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables take place in scope verification stage. more manageable components. The main thing is to emphasize here that.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.3.3 Construction Project Time Management
Time is a limited and important resource in construction management. The proper utilization
of this resource brings success in project. PM BOK, 2000 edition gives the definition that,
“Project Time Management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of
the project.” In further to manage this time properly they divide it in 5 major areas. They
defined this time management in terms of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity
duration estimating, schedule development and schedule control.60
Time management is the part of construction management phase. Because in preconstruction
phase general contractor submit a time limit to accomplish this job and the time limit starts
in construction phase. Besides that, for owner point of view in addition with this time, owner
adds the time for design, bidding and contracting period. With combining this total time,
total construction time found for owner purpose. It is important to define it from the
beginning for owner because time means money and money comes from bank. More over
profitability also depends on time period. However for construction management team time
is important because they have to accomplish this job in a certain period and for that they
need proper planning and scheduling. More elaborately time management done by planner in
planning and scheduling phase of the construction. In this phase planner define the activities
with the help of BOQ, or collaborating with estimator or following project management
institute guidelines. After that planner makes the sequencing on basis of available resource
in general and also define the activity duration. These activities can also be found from the
WBS structure. In later planner or time management people make the schedule with help of
any method describes in construction phase. After that they monitor the project schedule and
control it, which also describes at the project control and monitoring phase.
One thing has to mention again here that, PM institute guidelines are helpful for planners to
manage the time but they can also use their own methodology and experience to manage
time. Again the main philosophy is, time management is important and it might be followed
in different ways in different organization.
___________________________________
60

65

A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000), PMBOK GUIDE, Project Management Institute; page-

» 32

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.3.4 Construction Project Cost Management
Time, quality and cost are the three angle of project triangle. These three factors are
interdependent on each other. To change in one factor made changes in the other factors and
overall the project. The perfect balance of this three factors leads to a successful project
completion. Thus cost management is an important issue for construction management team.
PM Institute defines that “Project Cost Management includes the processes required to
ensure that the project is completed with in the approved budget.” They make a link of cost
management with resource planning,cost estimating,cost budgeting and cost control.61
Cost comes after design of the construction. As earlier mentioned after design owner invite
tender or proposal to accomplish the project. On that proposal the main criteria is the cost of
the project for giving the contract. So that cost management starts from the preconstruction
phase. Contrator‟s cost management team or estimator made a cost proposal according to the
architectural drawing, profit of contractor, construction costs and keep in mind other costs.
While making this estimation estimator has to made a BOQ or resource planning by which
estimator find out the exact cost estimating for project. Often subcontractors also helps to
make this with providing their individual work costs.
After that, if the contractor get the contract, the role of cost management team changed
immediately. Now they made cost budgeting for every phase of work and control the cost
according to the budget. Cost over run is one of the main factor for many unsuccessful
projects. Only cost control is the main key to make the project in estimated cost and budget.
For this, in the control phase cost management team used several types of cash flowcurve,s
curve, reports and other methods to control the cost in order to complete the project in
estimated budget.

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2.3.5 Construction Project Quality Management

Quality brings value in the project and also reputation for contractor.
According to PM BOK Guide -2000 Edition, “Project Quality Management includes the
processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was
undertaken.” These means ensuring project specifications in terms of product and process.
PM institute in further broadly define it in three stages as quality planning, quality assurance
and quality control.62
This quality management part will occurred in the construction phase of the project. Where
quality management team has to make a quality planning for identifying designer and project
quality requirements and according this accomplish the procurement stage.
Quality management team also has to focus on the quality assurance. Quality assurance can
be done by regular inspection of work, based on field engineer report, testing of material
before used, perfect workmanship, specified materials and so on. The main purpose of the
quality assurance is that project is going on quality that in later warranty or punch out period
they don‟t have to spend money for that.
Quality control and assurance are quite similar tasks. Both are linked together. To give
proper quality assurance quality management team has to control the quality of work in
every phases. It‟s only possible by strictly follow the quality plan which made by the quality
management team by the specification of the contract.

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page no.63 Among these resource men or human resource management is vital in nature. Neale.107 » 35 . individual contributors and others. Project Management Institute.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2.6 Construction Project Human Resource Management In construction basic resources are often termed as four Ms: men. It includes all the stakeholderssponsors. responsibilities and reporting relationships. As an example. Project Management Institute . __________________________ 63 Richard H. they have stress and power limit to work. machines.Neale and David E. “Project Human Resource Management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. documentary and assigning project roles. staff acquisition and team development.64 In a single project there are lots of people worked together in the management team and also in the field construction. In this aspect human resource management is important in construction management.3. managed and organized people at the right place and right moment. One part is related to the organizational management work and another part related to the field construction human resource.65 Human resource management can be separated in two parts. materials and money. Besides this time is an important resource for construction. Construction planning. Because these humans are able to move. customers. Human resource management work related with identifying. They need the logistics support at right place in right time. While field construction workforce are pre planned by the planner at the time of planning and scheduling. London. Moreover it is essential to develop individual a group competencies to enhance project performance. Thomas Telford. a human cannot work more than 8-10 hours in normal cases.” Project human resource management related with organizational hierarchy planning. page no. 1998. partners. PMBOK GUIDE. So that it can be wise to say that human resource management is important to enhance the project communication. page no-74 64 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). but for a machine is possible to operate 24 hours by 3 men. To manage this huge workforce project human resource management is necessary.107 65 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). PMBOK GUIDE.

and must understand how the communication in which they are involved as individuals affect the project as a whole. In project control and monitor reporting. dissemination. So that the aim of project communication management also to send information or make effective communication based on stakeholders need. storage. It receives data. “Project Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation. and information that are necessary for success.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. time and place.7 Construction Project Communications Management Communications management is a vital issue for any project. In a single project.3. Information flows every phase in the project. page117 » 36 . lot‟s of new people involved in every new phases of the project.”66 For better coordination in every project communication planning is necessary. store and gather. It provides the critical links among people. collection. After that it sends data to appropriate person in right place and time. ideas. collect. One of the project success key is to make effective communication between various participators inside the project. Project Management Institute. By effective communication management it is possible to bring better control in the project. data collection and sending to the control administrator is important. The definition of project communications management comes from PMBOK Guide2000 Edition that. Everyone involved in the project must be prepared to send and receive communications. Communications management is important from the beginning of the project. The information distribution is the main idea of communication management. Moreover stakeholder‟s information demand varies on person. More over communication management is important that it works as a data warehouse for the project. __________________________ 66 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). and ultimate disposition of project information. PMBOK GUIDE. That‟s why this workforce needs information.

It includes maximizing the probability and consequences of adverse events to project objectives. analyzing and responding to project risk. After that risk analysis is necessary to determine the level of risk.”67 Risk management involved from the preconstruction phase. Next job is to develop criteria for take action.8 Construction Project Risk Management Every construction project has risks. which will demonstrate the approach of the risk management team. PMBOK GUIDE. PMBOK Guide-2000 Edition. Continuous measurement is necessary because every new day can able to generate a new risk. page127 » 37 . It‟s not possible to start any project without risk but possible to reduce the level of risk by forecasting.3. Analysis can be done either qualitative or in quantitative way. gives the definition more clearly. For that the main job is to create a risk management plan. To reduce risk level it‟s not enough just to make plan and take action. So that monitoring is the best way to control risk. Project Management Institute. The way through risk can be reduced is called Risk Management. which will identify the activities or events which are relatively risky in the project. In the risk management plan there will be risk identification criteria. ____________________________________ 67 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). “Risk Management is the systematic process of identifying. Before taking the project contractor has to analyze the risk issues related with project.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. for reduce or diminish the risk from that particular activity. Early identification reduces the risk level or gives time to face or take preventive measure. which is the main job for a risk management team.

to attain project scope.3. In that period they have to make a lots of paper work related with seller or vendors. To manage safety properly it is necessary to include safety as a management frame. because procurement is directly linked with project budget.147 » 38 . where management team will focus only the safety issues of the construction. So that to keep project in pace procurement management team has to perform efficiently. quality and time. from outside the performing organization. PMBOK Guide-2000 Edition. one or many will generally be referred as a product. procurement management team has to organize bid. They have to maintain purchasing documents properly.”68 Like other management procedure procurement management team also have to make a plan. To purchase or procure these goods. which will show the procure items. “Project Procurement Management includes the processes required to acquire goods and services. Because at the closing time of the project when there will be an audit about project costs. After that they have to choose appropriate source. procurement management team also has to place the goods at the right place. where it shows the importance of safety in construction. on that time it will be necessary. For simplicity goods and services whether. make contract and procure the goods.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 2. Otherwise it will make delay on the total construction. Moreover it is closely linked with project budget and time. Well procurement is not important for purchasing goods. Well in the cost estimation period half of the procurement job will be done. This plan is based on project cost estimate material sheet. In procurement stage project team has to procure these items with project specification. 2.3. ____________________________ 68 Construction Extension to A Guide to the PROJECT Management Body of Knowledge. offers or tender from the vendors. page no.10 Construction Project Safety Management About safety it already discussed in the earlier construction phase. quotations.9 Construction Project Procurement Management Procurement is a stage where management team has to be careful.

safety instructions.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling “Safety Management includes the processes required to assure that the construction project is executed with appropriate care to prevent accidents that cause or have the potential to cause personal injury or property damage. have been. The important thing to understand here that. So the best way for environmental management team is to make a plan that what should be happen in the environment through this construction and what kind of impact should be occurred in the environment. So the main job for environmental management team is to keep the environment in the limit approved by law.”69 To manage safety properly safety management team has to make a safety plan and according to this plan they have to take preventive action to keep the construction safety. Safety is linked with project risk. For that they need to make collaboration with local environmental authority. Studies have shown that every dollar spent on a good safety program can result in a four to eight dollar reduction in losses from accidents. make communication with surrounding neighbors and after that make a plan that how to keep the environment in good condition.5% of constructed value or in the order of $50 billion annually. precaution during danger works can reduce the accident risks. PMBOK GUIDE. 2. So that a good safety management approaches can able to lead to a safer and risk free construction. making road or make some changes in the environment. But this impact should be in this range that it does not change the ecology and it‟s permitted by the law of local authority. In the United States alone construction accidents cost approximately 6. Accidents and personal injuries and deaths that result. compulsory safety guard. Because to destroy the environment can bring catastrophe in the project. it‟s not possible do this job without cutting tree. may be the project can be closed for ever.3. constructions is a monster job. They have to make a plan that how to reduce the impact of this in the nature.11 Construction Project Environmental Management Construction project environmental management is also a crucial issue in the construction.101 » 39 . a one still a major concern in the construction industry both in terms of humanitarian losses and the direct and indirect costs to the industry. Project Management Institute. Monitoring and reporting regarding safety is also important to keep this in order. _________________________________ 69 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). danger zone marking. For that guidelines. page no.

Thus initially contractor has to run the project by his/her own money. For every project contractor has to finance the work at the initial period. Environmental management is an important issue from the beginning of the project. 2. This is the best way to make everything in legal way. management team has to control this also. page no. PMBOK Guide-2000 Edition. On the construction moment. The implementation of environmental management plan in the field is not enough.117 » 40 . management team has to control the environment according to the plan and after that if it‟s necessary they have to improve the environment also by their own money and might be its wise to include a small amount of money in the estimation time to develop environment in the time of construction. Owner pays the money after completion of certain phase of construction. It might be happen by tasting of air. pay salaries and make project on going.12 Construction Project Financial Management “Financial management includes the processes to acquire and manage the financial resources for the project and is more concerned with revenue source and analyzing/updating net cash flows for the construction project than is cost management”70 Cost management and financial management are different. the plan should be executed in the field also. It‟s not only that the plan is enough for environmental management. water and soil quality or in some other ways according to the plan. Before taking the project it might be wise for contractor or owner to make an assessment for this how to control the job without impacting the nature. But beyond this project have lots of other issues related with finance.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling They have to contact with the neighbors and authority to approve this plan. So that from the first day contractor needs money. _________________________________ 70 Construction Extension to A Guide to the PROJECT Management Body of Knowledge. The main difference is that in cost management the estimated cost will control related with material. When the question comes about money or finance secondly it comes about the management of this finance or money. Owner usually pays not in advance any money. He/she has to pay the bill.3. Because in the plan they identified what kind of impact can be possible in which areas. bills etc.

usually the result of an action or direction. Claim management is an important process in construction. but claim can also originate with the owner who believes that some requirement of the contract is not being performed by the contractor.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling So that in construction management a group of people or may be a financial analyst can manage this finance management for the construction work.13 Construction Project Claim Management “Claim management describes the processes required to eliminate or prevent construction claims from arising and for the expeditious handling of claim when they do occur. For making a good financial management the best tool again to build a financial plan coordinating with other stakeholders and solve the issues before construction.3. quantification. arbitration. If not.125 » 41 . In construction “something” is usually additional compensation for work claimed to be extra to the contract or an extension of time for completion or both. money inflation and so on. 2. then the claim disappears and becomes a change. tax system.”71 _________________________________________ 71 Construction Extension to A Guide to the PROJECT Management Body of Knowledge. Financial works often deals with bank. page no. What distinguishes a claim from a change is the element of disagreement between the parties as to what is due or whether not anything is done. Claims can be viewed from two perspectives: the party making the claim and the one defending against it. The main job for financial management team is to keep project running by always supply money and deals about finance with other stakeholders in the project. mediation. Often claims are thought of in terms of the contractor making claim against the owner or other prime party and by subcontractors against the contractor. Claim management is done by claim identifying. Keep control of finance in the construction period make the construction process smooth. Webster‟s dictionary defines a claim as “A demand for something due or believed to be due”. prevention and resolution. PMBOK Guide-2000 Edition. which leads to a successful completion. and finally to litigation before it is ultimately resolved. the claim may proceed to negotiation. If agreement is reached.

Building Information Modeling Building Information modeling is the new technology in construction Industry. and workflows.A. methods.”72 “In definition of BIM technology M. and _________________________________ 72 Brad Hardin. mechanism.Measurable (quantifiable. Mortenson Company says. intends to increase the amount of communication and collaboration. development..Spatial(3D) . as: . -Accessible (to the entire AEC/ owner team through an interoperable and intuitive interface). building performance. More over the purpose of this section is to give a clear concept about BIM and its features that would be useful in construction industry. when shared among team members.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3. 3.” For a contractor. BIM is the virtual construction of a facility or structure that contains intelligent objects in a single source file that. “BIM is a digital representation of the building process to facilitate exchange and interoperability of information in digital format. Indiana.” They also define its six characteristics.Digital . scope of work. usages and tools will be described elaborately. Indianapolis. BIM and Construction Management. and include sequential and financial aspects of means and methods). Wiley Publishing Inc. 2009. and query-able).1999). “An intelligent simulation of architecture. Proven tools. “In a definition of BIM Charles Eastman puts it in Building Product Models: Computer Environments Supporting Design and Construction (CRC Press. page no -3 » 42 .1 Building Information Modeling Concept Definition In general definition building information model means a 3D model of construction project which contains intelligent building information inside it and makes proper information understandability with project stakeholders. Comprehensive (encapsulating and communicating design intent. constructability. In these sections Building Information modeling‟s definition. dimension-able.

75 The definition or idea provide at last it squeeze the BIM definition in terms of building only. BIM HANDBOOK.. USA. So the definition of BIM can be. it‟s the tool of simulation of a construction project.2008. page-28 75 Chuck Eastman. page-13 74 Willem kymmell. and analyze building models. Paul Teicholz. Paul Teicholz. GLOBAL BIM AWARDS 2009. Kathleen Liston. “A building information model is a project simulation consisting of the 3D models of the project components with links to all the required information connected with the project‟s planning. From a single simulation project stakeholders can derive their necessary information. Kathleen Liston. While manufacturing industry used this simulation decades. John Wiley and Sons Inc. A Guide to Building Information Modeling. Hoboken. McGRAW HILL CONSTRUTION. BIM HANDBOOK. Rafael Sacks. construction or operation. While some companies used the same technology for making infrastructure such as Luanda Stadium or Iron horse bridge in San Francisco.76 ________________________ 73 Chuck Eastman. construction industry don‟t use any simulation that can reflect the constructions pros and cons.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling -Durable (usable through all phases of a facility‟s life). New Jersy. communicate.page 38 » 43 . Hoboken. They used BIM modeling concept in the construction of this projects. and decommissioning. John Wiley and Sons Inc. BIM can be simply defined that.2008. Rafael Sacks. A Guide to Building Information Modeling. So that it might be wise to say. BIM is not just for building the concept is applicable for all kinds of construction. New Jersy.”73 As earlier mentioned that. Building Information Modeling: Planning and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and Simulations..page-13 76 TEKLA.”74 Or BIM can be identified as a modeling technology which can be able to produce.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

3.2 Building Information Modeling Principle
As earlier mentioned Building information modeling is a system of simulating the facility
before going on construction. The general concept for building information modeling is to
make database model which will give total life cycle information through model. But
normally architect and other people of AEC sectors just use it as a 3D graphical
representation of their project, while this is just a partial function of BIM.
In previous section the concept definition of BIM was focused. In this section the model
principle or the mechanism of working system will be discussed.
At first have to look at what is BIM means functionally? Building Information Model or
Modeling? Well both can be explained with BIM and both have the functionality with the
definition.
Building Information model means, “A model of information about a building (or building
project) that comprises complete and sufficient information to support all life cycle
processes, and which can be interpreted directly by computer application. It comprises
information about the building itself as well as its components, and comprises information
about properties such as function, shape, material and processes for the building life
cycle.”77
The ideology of BIM is that, it will create information, store information and works as an
intelligent model, where one replacement of data can be viewed in other phases of the
design.
Now the question comes what type of intelligence has inside BIM? Before describe it, it is
necessary to say something about product modeling. BIM comes directly from the idea of
product modeling of buildings.

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The definition of product modeling is that, “a digital model of a product comprises all
relevant information of a product.”78 The term product modeling is extensively used in the
manufacturing industry.
From this definition it‟s clear that, BIM and product modeling are quite similar and to say
more precisely BIM is the application of product modeling in the construction industry
sector.
BIM is a process to generate information and information will be intelligent or the model has
itself intelligence. As an example of this intelligence, previously in CAD drawing people
have to make changes all the drawings if there were any mistake found in the drawing. That
means if architect make a wrong dimension in the plan than he/she has to again redraw it and
hence mechanical, electrical, estimating, structural every drawing also have to be changed
with the new drawings. It is assumable that man is not a machine, so error is a normal
approach. But for that error they have to spend lots of time and money.
BIM brings solution by providing intelligent data or intelligence in the model. If architect
made a change in the drawing it will reflect in the other parts of the model automatically and
with this, other drawing documents can be changed more easily and accurately.
In this section the aim is to provide basic idea about BIM working principle or mechanism,
not the software architecture details. BIM model software provider used object parametric
modeling concept.79 This is the main difference of BIM and CAD tools, that this object
oriented parametric objects have intelligence itself.

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“In parametric design, instead of designing an instance of a building element like a wall or
door, a designer defines a model family or element class, which is a set of relation and rules
to control the parameters by which element instances can be generated but will each very
according to their context. Object are defined using parameters involving distances, angles,
and rules like attached to, parallel to, and distance from. These relations allow each instance
of an element class to vary according to its own parameter settings and contextual
relations.”80
Another important aspect to discuss about BIM is that, BIM is a process, not a single
software based approach. A process, that can able to generate information and able to
interpretable by other BIM software. That‟s why data exchange tool is an important issue in
Building Information Modeling. IFC and other data exchange tools solve this problem. IFC
is a type of data exchange tool that makes one model data extractable to other model
software, that can extract the information from the model.
As an example, Architect build the model in ArchiCAD( a BIM architectural software)and
now the job is for structural engineers to make the structural design. But ArchiCAD cannot
do structural model design. Thus structural engineers have to choose another BIM software
like TEKLA Structure (a BIM model software). Again the problem in TEKLA software is
that it cannot read ArchiCAD file or extract data. In this case the total BIM idea will be lost
if the model cannot be exchanged by other stakeholders of the project. IFC brings solution
for this.
IFC make the data interoperate able by converting it as an IFC file or other method are exist
to make this data exchanges, but IFC exchange is quite common in such issues. Hence Tekla
software can extract data from ArchiCAD model and make the structural model, based on
architect model information. In this way one model information is shared or used by other
stakeholders and build particular model and simulate the concerning issues before
construction takes place.
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The starting of project start with architects schematic drawing.3 Building Information Modeling Scopes Again to remember about BIM is that.2008. A Guide to Building Information Modeling. Architects drawing are the basis of construction. BIM has particular scopes for implementation. As early mentioned BIM provides visualization and intelligent data. Hoboken. and archiving based on 3D digital models”. design is the beginning of project phase.81 ________________________ 81 Chuck Eastman. In projects the communication and collaborating problems start with design drawings.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.1 Architectural Scope Architecture is the key player for any construction. But in normal cases architect provide the basic architectural design document. communication and visualization. New Jersy. better visualization. Previously architects used 2D paper based hand drawing. where architect take the role of designer.page-151 » 47 . where all the design team get the model based drawing from architect and they worked together under one platform which makes the work smoother. In terms of construction process flow. construction. BIM is not a single tool. Paul Teicholz. but still now they are not able to build the real virtual environment. Rafael Sacks. The scope of architectural work fully depends on the contract. BIM start contribution in any project by architectural scope in design phase.. In this aspect.3. understanding. Where for a single error whole documentation time increased. Depends on architectural drawing rest of drawings like structural. It might be possible architect has a full functional design team collaborating with structural. that provides architect better design efficiency. faster and reliable. BIM is a process to make collaboration. 3. This section will briefly discuss about that scopes which are required to perform construction project through BIM. The first success of BIM is collaborating and communication. “Building information modeling can be considered revolutionary in the way it transforms architectural thinking by replacing drawings with a new foundation for representing design and for aiding communication. MEP drawings are made. Later 3D model comes for visualization. There is only pictorial data. MEP models. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Kathleen Liston. understandability and errorless design document. which don‟t have any intelligence itself. BIM HANDBOOK.

3. More detail means it give architects more option. On the basis of that document the structure will be cast in place. As an example a window placed in a wall.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Architects are the major user of BIM in design. On the basis of architectural drawing and dimension structural engineers make the structural component analysis and drawing. Structural drawings or models are important for field construction understanding and for fabrication of component BIM plays a significance role on this structural engineering. The question is how BIM provide architectural scope through its component? From user experience the answer is that. The process is like that. The advantages are same as BIM gives in architectural scope. A single change in the model automatically adjusted in every documents and phase of the drawing which saves time if there is any mistake in the drawing. For normal CAD system architect can move the wall. understanding and better visualization. collaboration. According to McGRW Hill Construction. The total process is similar to other industrial » 48 . not the window. Intelligent in this sense that it provides parametric objects with intelligent behavior of that object models. More over it gives the more detailed design document with high level of detailed information and different perspective drawing at a time. Virtual means it gives the real life accessibility in the project and explores different area and modifies them according to client‟s choice and other project participators recommendation. BIM is the process that gives more detailed.2 Structural Engineering Scope Structural design is the second part of any design document. Better communication. virtual and intelligent drawing information in a minimum time. 3. after completing the architectural design architect sends the design document to structural engineers. Through BIM software according to architectural model the structural model can be made easily. more choice for drawing which provides the maximum level of detailed information like the type of the brick of a wall or the material of the ceiling and so on. It changes the window position with changing the wall position. But BIM 3D models have own intelligence. 2010 report architects are the project participants who are perceived to experience the most value and its 71%. Now architect wants to change the position of the wall.

Intelligent data. BIM plays the same role here for MEP drawings. there is no one composite model that can carry every information for every aspect of work. Later phase the same model is used for MEP design model and merges it to the original architecture model. electrical and plumbing work. on that IFC model and later merge it to original ArchiCAD architect model. In general BIM working principle is for every aspect is same. at first have to made the architectural model and make it interpretable with other MEP design software with IFC or other data exchange format like CS2 and so on.3. better design in short time. real time realization and level of details in documents are better. After that structural engineers made the structural model in TEKLA. The design documents are complete with architectural. design model send to structural model section and then structural engineers made their own model or merge components on that model. like structural and architectural drawing.3 MEP Scope MEP means mechanical. In broader way these parts are all belongs to design part or the preconstruction part. Make effective communication system between all the drawings.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling process. Like this way. In procedure BIM gives the same advantages as like architectural scope. MEP drawings are also based on architectural drawing or model. But the design models are quite same and they can merge through IFC one software to another. Right this moment the legacy for BIM is that. Like manufacturing plants has separate section for separate work and after one phase complete the product comes to another section. » 49 . structural and MEP drawings. So that the concept is same. In construction these works need coordination with the architectural drawing. This work also needs a design drawing and following those design drawings main contractor or subcontractor performed their job. As a simple example architect made the plan in ArchiCAD or Autodesk Revit and convert it as an IFC file which is readable to structural model software TEKLA. After finishing architectural model. Hence from that. 3. Because with coordinating architectural drawing the rest of drawing documents are made. design is also a product and BIM is the process that combines the processes. a single model has both structural and architectural information.

MEP designer grab the information inside the architectural model and make the design and later transfer the model or merge the model with the main architectural drawing. make mesh of reinforcement and then placed concrete. In cast in situ method everything is done on site. It‟s also possible to build concrete precast structure. 3. The key concept of BIM is also same here. reduced risk and doing work more efficiently. Construction can be done either precast method or in cast in situ method. In this way they can able to build the MEP model with architectural information. another software from Autodesk mostly used for MEP design. Where precast method means made the components in the industry like slab. beam. so that if there is any error found on the architectural drawing architect can change it easily and communicate with other parts designer effectively. collaboration. Now a single model have both architectural and MEP information. Make visualization. MEP designers made the design thorough Revit MEP. beams are made in industry and later join them with bolts or welding according to the structural design. column. This was not possible previously in paper based drawing or in 3D drawings. Because it‟s not wise to make frame and then pour liquid steel inside the mould for make a steel column.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling So that a single model file contains the both MEP and architectural information. » 50 .4 Fabrication Scope In now construction world precast is a famous method to construct infrastructure due to control quality.3. BIM make coordination with all design works. Steel construction is similar to timber construction. As a simple working process. Like make the framework. Where steel columns. But for steel structure precast method is widely accepted. Basically these things are mostly happened for concrete structures. if architect make the architecture model in Revit Architecture a BIM product of Autodesk and later transfer it to MEP designers. But for MEP subcontractor design documents with MEP data are more required than architectural data. while architect made the architectural model than transfer it into IFC format and share this model with MEP design team to make the MEP model. sandwich concrete panel and so on. As an example. But BIM makes integration on the drawing documents. effective communication and better design documents.

pdf access 1. According to James Sutcliffe (Sutcliffe Construction U. It means one model has the information for both structural work and for fabricator.3. These things are much more needed in fabrication and structural detailing drawing of construction. “As our structural design broadens. Tekla Structures allows us to assess our clients‟ individual requirements so that accurate drawings are produced accordingly. http://images.com/adsk/files/revit_bim_and_digital_fabrication_mar08. More simply in precast method fabrication is an important part and fabricator is a part of design team mostly related with structural design. they just make the structural drawing and general component drawing. so do our business opportunities. Later fabricator has to make drawing according to structural drawing information and made shop drawings for fabrication purpose.2011. While structural drawing can be used as a fabrication drawing. collaboration and communication. for shop drawing goes more than 1000.82 For that instance fabrication work need more digitalization or model based system to create the exact component for the structure.autodesk. This ensures a smooth and continuous fabrication process”. As early mentioned BIM is a virtual model based digital database system that brings visualization. BIM gives the fabricator to made better shop drawing and combining the model data with CNC to increase productivity. _____________________________ 82 Revit BIM and Digital Fabrication. Thus these models are widely used by steel fabricators for complex project.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Fabricator issue in construction comes if any part of the construction component has to make in industry. understanding.45 pm » 51 . of shop drawings are much more than structural drawings.S) said. Structural designers don‟t produce shop drawing. As an example Tekla structure is a software that provides structural model with fabrication. Fabrication works and no. After that structural engineer or designer matches these drawings with the structural drawing and if everything matches than fabricators go for fabrication for the elements. 16. For a 1000 ton steel structure building generally 7080 construction drawing needed while the no.

11 P. http://images.45 pm 84 85 www. On the other hand some softwares like “Revit Structure” the design model later adjusted or make more informative with the help of “Robobat RCAD” a steel detailing solution.83 With the help of this two software more accurate shop drawing can be made and can be executed digitally with CNC machines which is using in some steel fabrication firms.graphisoft. Figure 2. generate more information that helps to fabricate with collaborating structural model or designers for better productivity.htm. In this case the structural model and fabrication model or shop model are quite similar.2011.84 The main purpose of this BIM based fabrication is that to understand the complex fabrication procedure in real virtual environment. 17.3.bimoutsourcing. The main difference is in the useable BIM software. access 1.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling The process is simple like other scope of using BIM.2011.Lecture10Co.Pdf http://www.00 pm BIMcurriculumn12.3.3.com/bim-for-fabrication.pdf access 1. Some software provide structural model with digital shop drawing like Tekla structure. 16.autodesk.M » 52 .com/education/curriculum/ access 6.2011.1 Fabrication from design data to CNC85 ________________________________________ 83 Revit BIM and Digital Fabrication.com/adsk/files/revit_bim_and_digital_fabrication_mar08. 3.

Vico is pioneer in scheduling with BIM model data. In case of BIM. In this way » 53 . In Tekla bar chart is used for scheduling. like in preconstruction phase the management system has to focus on design documents and contractual issues. Even every job in construction is related with construction management.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3. that construction is a three stage management system where the role of construction management team is different in every phases. For that many software has integrity with the model. In previous section construction management pattern it discussed. The mode of management can be changed in different phases. For some people construction management might be the management of field construction or related with cost. Vico get the data from Vico cost planner as bill of quantity and according to this scheduling can be done in Vico control.3. scheduling.5 Construction Management Scope Construction Management has a broad meaning in sense. But the real scenario is that management is an essential tool from the very beginning of the project. In the post construction phase the management role again changed and they focused on commissioning and project delivery documentation etc. Like Tekla structure make schedule according to model component and according to scheduling made simulation. But BIM has the potentiality to synchronize the management work from inception to the life cycle of the project. The main objective of this thesis is to demonstrate a path or discover the new ways to implement BIM in construction management stages. scheduling and simulation of the project. Currently BIM solutions are mainly provided supports on construction management process into cost estimation. BIM has no direct construction management approach. quality control and other issues related with construction. But BIM individually is not a management system. schedule and control that system. Vico constructor gives the 5D represent as cost and time simulation of the building. In construction phase the focus should be more on field construction related task like cost control. BIM is a technological development in process which makes management task more productive. Currently BIM is enabling to do scheduling through the model data. while bar chart is not the only solution for scheduling.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling BIM work process flow through architectural model to schedule model. The intelligence is here that.2011. By using that quantities estimators make the total cost estimation with material price and labor consumption. during the contract awarding moment cost is an important criterion. In project management triangle cost is one of the angles. In traditional way.86 BIM provides support in quantification or information take off. Design models like structural models. 8. estimator need s quantity and the accuracy of the estimation is fully depend on grab the exact quantity from the project drawing or from the project model. 8.87 ________________________________ 86 BIM and cost estimation. BIM_cost_estimating_jan07_1_.30 PM » 54 . Cost is the most important parameter for successful project. Cost is related with cost estimation.com/revit-bim-cost-estimating-jan07-pdfd63601557_. a single change in the model can be replaced on the quantity also. Estimators also can use digitizer which makes the estimation process little easier than manual quantity take off. Due to take quantity from the model the quantity information are as same as the model has.http://ebookbrowse.com/revit-bim-cost-estimating-jan07-pdfd63601557 access 1.http://ebookbrowse. MEP models. which is more time consumable and have chance to make error.21 PM 87 BIM and cost estimation. estimators takes the quantity manually from the drawings provided by architects. Cost estimation is the part of preconstruction phase.3. It simulates the construction in terms of time. Cost estimation is also having vital significance due to dependency of contract award. Even for some contract method like DBB method cost is the main criteria to give contract award. But still the problem of efficiency remains in the total estimation. It might be wise to say it as a time model of building. Cost is an important part of construction. Quantity is nothing but a kind of information or data. fabricator models are giving that quantity or intelligent information.3. For cost estimation or cost management. 50-80% time of estimation is just used for quantification.2011. cost monitor and control that bring the success to do the project in estimated approach. access 1. More over it is more time consuming due to manual quantification.pdf. BIM support model contains all the necessary quantity based information and a suitable software grab all the quantities from the model and transfer it on a excel cost sheet and estimator put the material price and from that get the exact cost estimation of the total project. The process is that. architectural models. BIM_cost_estimating_jan07_1.

com/revit-bim-cost-estimating-jan07-pdfd63601557_. On this way the cost estimation. Like BIM model cost information can be transferrable to Vico control software as a bill of quantity and later Vico control will generate the schedule along with cash flow diagram and also check the cash flow control. So that they need information about the whole facility that they can calculate the energy demand. Facility management process will start after construction phase when contractor will hand over the project with commissioning of the facility.pdf. access 1.30 PM » 55 . So that estimator has to take the quantity from each of the model.6 Facility Management Scope Now in construction process facility management part also joined together from the very beginning of the project. But most of the cases the following system is that. BIM_cost_estimating_jan07_1.http://ebookbrowse. still now BIM is not able to manage a composite model that can hold all the quantity information. 8. Like architectural. Solibri model checker is also a solution to collect quantity take off information directly from the model. Like application programming interface system Revit model file exported to Innovaya or U.3. The main role of the facility management team is that. MEP. monitor and control can be done through BIM process. 3.2011. Perhaps for controlling BIM or Vico will provide necessary information.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling The procedure for the information takes off or quantification is the same like other ways. air demand and other stuffs related with facility management system. Separate models are used to quantify separate objects.86 More over Autodesk has Autodesk quantity take off software which also do the same job by grabbing quantity from the model. facility manager has not to do anything. structural.3. BIM brings the idea to include facility management involvement in the preconstruction phase. to maintain the facility within minimum cost on the desired time period of the facility. The lack of this system is that. The control and monitor system of cost can also supported by BIM. But facility management team has to gain a clear idea about the facility and makes plans for future facility management. Some BIM software has integrated quantity giving system. fabrication each model has different sorts of material or component. ________________________ 88 BIM and cost estimation. transfer the model into quantity software readable format and grab the information from that particular quantity software. In this phase or until completion the construction.S cost to grab the quantity.

But the process again comes in paper based drawing system. In these days facility management team used computer aided facility management system or CAFM. BIM HANDBOOK.91 _____________________ 89 BIMandFacilitiesManagement. A Guide to Building Information Modeling.2011 4.3. after construction general contractor make the commissioning of the facility.. The process is that.89 BIM makes the process smooth and easy and more accurate by making model based information system. occupancy and so on.14 PM 91 Chuck Eastman. John Wiley and Sons Inc. By using polyline method facility management team get the necessary data from the CAD file or paper based drawing file. New Jersy . BIM software like Revit architectural drawing model can be able to transfer in DWF format files which can be readable by FMDesktop an Autodesk solution for facility management. Rafael Sacks. Where it takes a week for a building and the process is labor intensive and manual. pdf access 2.14 PM 90 BIMandFacilitiesManagement. U.bim_and_fm_jan07_1_.http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/bim_and_fm_jan07_1_. The implementation of BIM process in facility management is that.S Coast Guard is using BIM based facility or asset management system and they found 98% time savings through BIM to manage their facility management database.page-109 » 56 . pdf access 2.bim_and_fm_jan07_1_. Paul Teicholz.2011 4.pdf.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Without BIM the system is.com/adsk/files/bim_and_fm_jan07_1_. facility management team can get all the information which is needed for the database of the facility. More over this BIM approach make reduction in their labor cost also to enter the spatial information.pdf. Hoboken. where they stored the facility data from the design drawing by scanning. Where there is a chance to misinterpret data.2008. By using this data share method facility management team hold necessary information regarding facility management like space. through BIM model based information.http://images.3. After that they hand over all the drawing documents and all the installed equipment manuals and so on.autodesk.90 These FM software systems are make a database for the total facility which will provide necessary information in later phases. Kathleen Liston.

Autodesk Revit white paper http://www. architectural. access 2. 3.1011.92 These data reflects the sustainability demand in construction industry.15 P. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network(EREN). in another sense which also defines the sustainable parameters of the building. facility management team gets the idea of the facility at the beginning of the project and they can share their experience to make the design more sustainable or can reduce the life cycle cost. they defined some indicators for life cycle assessment of a building. efficiency use of energy.M 93 Building Information Modeling for sustainable design.S Department of energy.M » 57 . Construction industry is a major source for green house gas emission. Sustainability or green building or echo building main concept is to preserve the living condition through reducing green house gases by reducing energy consumption. LEED is famous in the worldwide as a national standard for sustainable design. For that. In this way facility management team take the advantages of BIM in facility management.pdf. More over facility management team has different real visualized informative 3D models for structural. indoor environmental quality. materials and water.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling The advantage of BIM based construction system is that. like passive house so many design concepts are come to building design.3. In U. 6.Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Development 2003.S residential and commercial buildings consume 40% of total energy and responsible for 30% greenhouse gas emission.S all over the world sustainability is a concerning issue. Through that they can develop their database system and can easily maintain the facility through model based analysis.93 ___________________________________ 92 U. Not only in U.com/pdfs/BuildingInformationModelingforSubstainableDesign-white%20paper.3.2011 6. With sustainability life cycle of building is closely related. In VTT research centre Finland. utility consumption and emission of green house gas. They have a rating system in five major categories: site design. 00 P. Sustainability depends on the energy consumption.federalnewsradio.7 Sustainability and Life cycle Scope Sustainability is a concerning issue in construction world. access 2. cost and MEP system.3. More over producing 136 millions of construction and demolition wastes.

org/wiki/Computer-aided_design. Most of the BIM software are now equipped with sustainable or life cycle analysis tools.50 PM http://en. prediction of life cycle. It was a 2D presentation of lines where it never used as a commercial product. On that phase architect can make analysis on energy consumption.graphisoft. BIM has significance on sustainable design.3.94 More over Autodesk Revit Building also provides sustainable and life cycle cost information regarding LEED points. There were a revolution occurred when CAD came to in spotlight. Riuska and other software for make analysis on sustainable elements like energy analysis. access 2.com/products/archicad/interoperability/energy/ access 2. demolition waste and so on.cad-addict.3.com/2010/02/from-cad-to-bim-part-i-history-of-cad. Autodesk Revit white paper.2011. Hanratty develop 2D CAD system in the 1960 period and used it for General Motors research work. green building. In life cycle costing sustainable elements such as energy efficiency reduces the life cycle cost.97 ________________________________ 94 www.95 3.2011 7. In 1970 the transformation from 2D to 3D began.3. For life cycle costing or sustainability. but it has an impact on CAD development. design period is an important phase.M 96 97 http://www.pdf access 2.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Now in architecture or construction world sustainability is an important issue for environmental aspect and also for life cycle costing.M 95 Building Information Modeling for sustainable design.96At the beginning CAD software used FORTRAN as program language and in later the CAD developed with C programming language and the process goes on for development of CAD. More over in integrated life cycle design sustainability is the major concerning issue. http://www. access 2.3. In this aspect these two issues are certainly related with each other. Revit building works with Green Building studio for energy analysis.30 P.4 CAD Transformation in BIM CAD means Computer Aided Design or (CADD) Computer Aided Design and Drafting. 7.wikipedia.federalnewsradio.com/pdfs/BuildingInformationModelingforSubstainableDesign-white%20paper.30 PM » 58 . This is a common term for manufacturing and construction industry.2011 6. Like Graphisoft BIM software has interoperability with Ecotect. 6.20 P.2011. The first CAD software was sketchpad with graphical interface developed by Evan Sutherland in 1963.html.

2 CAD transformations to BIM Through in this way CAD was transformed in BIM. Hoboken. John Wiley and Sons Inc. A Guide to Building Information Modeling. Kathleen Liston. In traditional 3D CAD every aspect of an element‟s geometry must be edited manually by users. In parametric design. ________________________ 98 Chuck Eastman.”98 Figure 2. Some aspects of production.2008. Solid modeling CAD systems were functionally powerful but often overwhelmed the available computing power. the shape and assembly geometry in a parametric modeler automatically adjusts to changes in context and to high level user controls. Paul Teicholz. Rafael Sacks.. where the data has intelligence itself. BIM idea came from the object based parametric modeling.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling “Building modeling based on 3D solid modeling was first developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s.page-29 » 59 . New Jersy. instead of designing an instance of a building element like a wall or door. such as drawing and report generation. BIM HANDBOOK. were not well developed. which is a set of relations and rules to control the parameters by which element instances can be generated but will each vary according to their context. a designer defines a model family or element class.

5. founded in 1982. 3. construction planning.autodesk.5. Autodesk makes a pioneer movement in BIM from 3D CAD to intelligent design systems.5. Each of them has the ability to make BIM process itself.1.3.1 Autodesk BIM Tools Autodesk is a leading BIM software vendor in AEC industry. Their BIM solution software information‟s are provide below3.M » 60 .1 Autodesk Revit Architecture Autodesk Revit Architecture has the BIM functionality and widely used in architecture and design community due to better collaborative and integrated building design system. clash detection. These software or software group termed as BIM tools. Thus BIM is a combination of different software.1. AutoCAD is the product of Autodesk widely used all over architectural and design industry. In this process different participators make effective collaboration and communication by sharing design data to all the project participators to reduce errors and increase productivity. It has data interoperability with other BIM solutions and has unique features on sustainable design analysis.5 BIM Tools Building information modeling is not particular software. Each software is different in work approach but the basic structures of the software are quite in the same frame.1.1 Design and Documentation Solution Autodesk has different software for design and documentation.2011 11. and material fabrication.15 A. Autodesk focuses on 2D and 3D design and animation software for media also. it is a system of process.com/revit-architecture/ access 3. Autodesk has different software which supports the total BIM process. It has all the BIM functionality that makes it better in design with maintaining documentation and construction.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3. Autodesk provides design software which is also used widely in manufacturing industry.99 _________________________________________ 99 http://usa. Design and documentation software‟s name and their function shortly briefed below3.

autodesk.1 Autodesk Ecotect Analysis Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software is a tool used for energy analysis.autodesk.3.com/building-information-modeling/products/ access 3.2 Analysis and Visualization Solutions Following solutions are widely used as BIM tools for analysis and visualization3.1.1. Fabrication has the another important feature of this solution also. solar radiation.1.1.M » 61 .3.1. Revit MEP has interoperability with other BIM design software like with Revit Architecture for collect the architectural model data and so on. Visualization and simulation is the key concept of this sustainable building design tool.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.2011.1.100 3.4 AutoCAD Civil 3D A BIM solution for civil engineers to facilitate civil engineering related tasks as transportation system developed.102 3. thermal performance. shadows and reflections analysis.2.autodesk. Provide civil 3D model data for geospatial and storm water analysis.2011. water use and cost evaluation.2011.00 A.autodesk.5.M http://usa. Revit MEP is used for MEP system design and analysis.101 3.com/civil-3d/ access 3.5.com/revit-structure/. electrical and plumbing designers. 3.3 Autodesk Revit MEP A Building Information modeling solutions for mechanical. and also provide automated machine guidance during construction work.3.103 _______________________________ 100 101 102 103 http://usa.2 Autodesk Revit Structure Provides structural BIM model contains information for structural design and analysis.40 P. land development and environment build projects.3.5. daylight analysis. 2. access 3.M http://usa.1.M http://usa.5. Also has better coordination with sustainable and cost effective MEP design. 3.2011.45 P.10 P.1. 12. general quantity take offs.com/revit-mep/ access 3. Also provides structural design drawings with real visualization and makes a bridge on data share between architect and structural design team.5.

4.autodesk. 5.3.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.2011.4 Autodesk Navisworks Autodesk Navisworks software is used for advanced analysis process like clash detection and project simulation.20 P.1 Autodesk Buzzsaw and Constructware Both software‟s are providing web based collaboration related with project documentation.3.com/building-information-modeling/products/ access 3.2. Also have more effective lighting analysis. 5.2011.20 P.2.autodesk.5. bridges and other infrastructure facilities.2.autodesk.3.3 Autodesk 3Ds Max Design Used for better visualization and generate real case scenario of different BIM models in built environment.M http://usa.3. Generate a single platform for explore. Interoperability exists with Autodesk Revit Structure for better exchange in analysis result.105 3. ___________________________ 104 105 106 107 http://usa.3.106 3.104 3.10 P.2 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional Enhance the BIM structural engineering model with advanced structural analysis capabilities for buildings.5 Autodesk Quantity Takeoff Advanced cost estimating software. Also used for combining and reviewing the design data‟s which are created through different BIM software.com/navisworks/ access 3.3 Collaboration Solution 3.autodesk. 4. advanced rendering capability and digital continuity with other BIM solutions. Also used for more detailed fabrication scope.40 P. Interpretable with other BIM solutions and grab the quantity from different model and make exact model based quantity takeoff.2011.com/building-information-modeling/products/ access 3.M http://usa.M » 62 .1.5.5.1.1.1.5.5.M http://usa.2.com/3ds-max/ access 3.1.1.107 3. evaluation and make decision by design team.2011.5.

ArchiCAD provides more focus on design.graphisoft.109 3.com/products/mep-modeler/ access. MEP modeler makes the collaboration between architectural and MEP drawings.2011. 3.M http://www.”108 ArchiCAD is a real BIM solution where all the information stored in a central database system and changes in any data reflects all the other data‟s.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.30 P.2 ArchiCAD MEP Modeler ArchiCAD MEP modeler is an extension tool to import. schedules.3. 3. architectural and construction details. 3.5. “In ArchiCAD. edit or create MEP models in the architectural drawing.M » 63 . They have also various BIM based design products. Last 25 years Graphisoft maintained a pioneer role in virtual building solutions.1 ArchiCAD ArchiCAD is an architectural BIM solution provide by Graphisoft. renderings animation and virtual reality scenes can be generated. Since 2007 Graphisoft is the part of Nemetscheck group. All over the world ArchiCAD is a famous BIM solution due to its user friendly interface.2.110 _______________________________________ 108 109 110 http://www. Building Information Authoring tools create a central database of 3D model data. Bills of quantities. time 7. which are shortly described below3. make collaboration with other BIM solutions and has team based coordination approach. More over it has data interoperability with other MEP software vendors. hassle free lay outing and clear communication inside the design team. Also has open design collaboration that allows other designers to work with ArchiCAD model through their particular BIM solution.graphisoft.2.10 P.com/products/mep-modeler/ access. time 7.com/products/mep-modeler/ access.graphisoft. From there complete plans. sections and elevation.45 P.5.5.2 Graphisoft BIM Tools Graphisoft is the leading BIM software vendor all over the world. evaluate design alternatives.2011.3. ArchiCAD produce intelligent objects. time 7.3.M http://www. They are mainly developing in sustainable architectural solution and provide architectural BIM support all over the world. manage changes easily.2011.

111 3.10 P.113 ___________________________________ 111 112 113 http://www. Through data exchange ArchiCAD architectural model can possible to import in Artlantis and is possible to make more realistic view of the project.graphisoft.com/products/artlantis/ access 3. Eco Designer helps the architect to make sustainable design solution providing energy analysis. More over by that it‟s easy to make decision related with building or facility modification. architect enables to make sustainable design and able to provide life cycle information.5 Virtual Building Explorer A unique solution for architects to explore the 3D BIM model.3. 8. 9.com/products/ecodesigner/ access.10 P.5.com/products/virtual-building-explorer/ access 3.3 Eco Designer Graphisoft has sustainable building design analysis software named as Eco Designer.M » 64 .5. From that the total energy consumption or energy savings is possible through the detailed analysis.2011.112 3. With this software analysis. It makes easy for project participators and for owner to understand the project and make decision. 8.2.graphisoft.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3. light effects of the facility.4 Artlantis Rendering software commonly used for Graphisoft solutions.graphisoft. It has the power of visualization inside the project.3. which makes a better view for both owner and architect.2011.2.3. 3. It provides real time visualization.M http://www.40 P. Virtual Building Explorer brings real visualization in BIM.2.5.2011.M http://www.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Figure 2.3 Artlantis rendering114 Figure 2.4 Exporting model in virtual environment 115 _______________________________________________________ 114 115 ArchiCAD model made by author for simulation of BIM and rendered by Artlantis ArchiCAD model made by author for simulation of BIM and exporting in virtual environment through virtual explorer » 65 .

it‟s also possible to make the model reinforcement in the concrete beam. Through that fabricator get the clear idea of the element and make it perfectly as required by the model.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.com/INTERNATIONAL/PRODUCTS/TEKLA-STRUCTURES/FULL/Pages/Default. Moreover. Tekla has several software solutions for construction industry.34 P. elevation arrangement drawings and so on.M » 66 . From the very beginning this software maintains BIM process itself.3. Every version is modified by some new tools or new advantages.tekla. Tekla founded in 1966 in Finland.116 _________________________________ 116 http://www. Tekla has improved its software quality by releasing several versions.aspx. It has all the steel structure elements. It gives a model of skeleton of the building. plot drawings and reports. Tekla is not just only able to do steel work.2011 time 12.5.3 Tekla BIM Solution Tekla is one of the major BIM software vendors in construction world. Tekla gives the fabrication model also. section. can bale to make connections with different connector. Through that it‟s easy to create reinforcement reports. Currently in construction world Tekla 16. DSTV and so on. Thus Tekla is widely accepted for structural model also. Tekla structure has some unique BIM features itself. column. precast cast unit drawings. Tekla is also famous for fabrication scope. Tekla has both concrete and steel component. So that in steel structure modeling Tekla makes a pioneer movement. detailed connection. create welds and so on. Among them Tekla structure is the famous BIM process based software. Tekla has also unique reporting option. In steel structure or precast concrete structure fabrication is an important part of construction. Tekla has BIM based data interoperability like. general plan. Tekla Corporation is the official provider of Tekla structure software. Through that component a concrete model structure can also be possible to make in BIM process. IFC.0 is widely accepted specially for steel construction modeling. It has grid options and able to load analysis. It means that Tekla has the all components regarding with steel structure.access 4. through that designer can able to make any kind of steel structure by assembling that parts. slab or footing. Tekla has also the functionality to make concrete structure as well. CNC . Tekla data can be exchangeable with CIS/2.

3.5 Tekla structure reinforcement bending model 118 ____________________________________ 117 118 http://www.50 P.com/us/solutions/reinforced-concrete-designers/Pages/Default. Tekla structure is used as structural modeling detailing software. 4D and partially 5D options. In this way a single project can be used in different aspects in different BIM software and Tekla is one of the major solutions of them.2011 .html access 4.tekla.00 P. architectural model is done by ArchiCAD and later this model transferred in Tekla structure to make the structural model.com/community/press_zone/global-open-bim-demo. it has the 2D.M » 67 . 1. As an example in Budapest the Microsft office near river Daniub.M http://www.aspx access 4. Tekla can generate scheduling and schedule based construction simulation. also able to provide cost information related elements.graphisoft.3. 3D.2011.117 Figure 2. 12.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Tekla is a BIM solution that.

3. BIM is a process and the BIM vendor software makes collaboration with each other as required to this process. For quantity take off Vico has “Vico Takeoff manager” which grab the quantities from the BIM model and place it for cost estimation.4 Vico BIM Solution Vico software is another important BIM solution for cost. More over “Vico Doc Set Manager” used for documentation review which is an important job in construction. more precisely in construction estimation. These Ds are quite fragmented in nature. As an example for architectural model ArchiCAD can be used and than that model go to Tekla structure for structural and fabrication model.5. “Vico software focuses on the 4D and 5D part of construction. these models come to Autodesk quantity take off or Vico estimator for cost estimation. For that Vico has “Vico Control” which provides cost scheduling in different modes and it‟s an impressive solution for planning engineers. scheduling. 2. construction simulation and construction documentation work.2011. As early mentioned that BIM is not single software and a single model does not hold the all information. that project will complete in estimated budget.”119 _______________________________ 119 http://www. schedule and construction management.28 P. Additionally “Vico Constructor” 5D representer is a famous solution for virtual building simulation with scheduled cost and time. After that.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3. Clash detection is an important part in construction documents.M » 68 . that makes effective communication among all the stakeholders of the project through different BIM software. So the total path is a process where BIM is a technology of that process. Then the same model comes to Vico control for make the scheduling and goes to constructor for construction simulation. These data are then transferred to “Vico Cost Planner” for cost calculation. the main task is to control the cost.com/ access 4. In construction management cost estimation is the primary phase of the cost related task. estimation and value engineering. But in general Vico focuses on construction management part.vicosoftware. “Vico constructability” software focuses on clash detection in BIM models. Thus Vico has “Vico Cost Explorer” which focus on the cost control part of the construction When cost is estimated than the major task for construction is to make the schedule and control the schedule.

aspx access 4.com/products/vico-office-cost-planner/tabid/85288/Default.6 Vico cost planner120 __________________________________ 120 http://www.3. Figure 2. As an example the cost model information can be take through other BIM models and the data transferred to other Vico software for make schedule . The main approach is that.44 P.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Vico has integration with other BIM solutions.2011 2.vicosoftware. documentation and for 5D simulation of the construction work with schedule and cost.M » 69 . from other models Vico get the information and make visualization for better understanding and collaboration.

Besides them there are also BIM vendors exist in the construction industry. AEC people and government these rules are important for safety and other environmental issues. Vico.5 Other BIM solutions In construction world there are so many software vendors are providing CAD solution. water and so on.122 ______________________ 121 122 http://www. Bently has wide solution for bridge.5. infrastructure. mining and metals. Among them most famous are Autodesk. for structural “Structural modeler V8i”.1 Bentley BIM Solution Bentley is a famous CAD solution provider in different aspect of construction industry Previously Bently provides CAD solutions for AEC industry. In every country has some specific building code.M » 70 . Senate properties in Finland also doing the same thing. building.5. In some countries like Denmark. More over “MicroSation V8i” is an improved solution for design model. and documentation. A short brief about them demonstrated below3. Tekla. Bently provides solution for every sector of construction and even manufacturing industry also.senaatti. communications.bentley.5. each model of building has to follow that rules. utilities.fi/document. Graphisoft.com/en-US/Products/Bentley+Architecture/ access 4. electrical engineering.3. quality and physical safety.3. structural engineering.2011 3. Finland they made some building model rules and those rules should be maintained in the model.2011 3. industry. Solibri model checker brings new technological development in building rules. “Bentley Electrical Systems V8i” for electrical work is used in BIM approach.20 P.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.45 P.2 Solibri Model Checker Solibri model checker is analyzing software. power generation.5. For owners. Bently provides BIM solution in architecture.M http://www. For architectural work “Bentley Architecture V8i”.5. “Bentley Building Mechanical Systems V8i” for mechanical engineering.asp?siteID=2&docID=517 access 4. CAD solution providers are now turned into providing BIM solution due to the increase demand of BIM based construction approach. mechanical engineering.121 3. The function of this software is to check the predetermined rules in the BIM models for integrity. Sweden. visualize.

2011 3.51P.51P.2011.M http://www.M http://www. “Vectorworks Architect” is the BIM solution which is used by architects.3 Nemetscheck BIM Solution Nemetscheck also provides BIM solution for Architects.10 P. structural. model checker gives clash detection and information take off which is also can be used in cost estimation.125 _________________________________ 123 124 125 http://www.digitalalchemypro.solibri. than model checker will check the model against that rules. MEP and other rule checking benefits.nemetschek.M » 71 .net/architect/index. The system is that these rules will be set in Solibri and the model will export in Solibri model checker.3.2011.5.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Solibri model checker provides architectural. Besides that.3.htm 4.php access 4.3.5.123 Figure 2.com/DA_Products_Solibri_files/DA_Products_Solibri.com/solibri-model-checker.html access 4.4.3.7 Solibri model checker rules check124 3.

As an example the working principle of IFC is that IFC change the data inside the model in a common neutral format and then BIM software again get access that data and make changes.31 P. For that they make IFC format which is almost compatible with all famous BIM solution. ____________________________ 126 http://www. They at first think about a common platform to make comprehensive collaboration and interoperability in AEC sector.2011 4.3.M » 72 . Each software programming language is different.ifcwiki. merge it to the previous model.1 IFC IFC is a data exchange format provided by building Smart International to smooth the BIM work flow and to bring interoperability in the combined work process. IFC is a neutral data format to exchange data from one vendor software to another. Now in every BIM software vendor take this advantage.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.php/Main_Page access 4. After that.126 As earlier mentioned IFC data exchange format comes from IAI or International Alliance for Interoperability.6 Data Exchange Solutions Data exchange has significance in BIM.6. Without data exchange or interoperability it will not possible to establish BIM work flow.org/index. 3. BIM is a combination of different software. Now in the construction world for BIM workflow data exchange solutions are make the BIM process more understandable and more precise. For that they think make their vision to make a shared model through IFC which is a burning demand in today‟s construction industry. So that a common format is necessary that can bring the solution of interoperability. Through that they make more easy communication through the data transfer with IFC.

But for that they need IFC certification and Building SMART or former IAI provides that certification. IAI 1997 127 IFC is currently used by all famous softwares.fi/file.org/news Janne Salin.metropolia. Product ACTIVe3D ALLPLAN ArchiCAD AutoCAD Architecture Bentley Architecture DDS-CAD Facility Online IFC for Oracle CADView-3D MagiCAD Revit Architecture SCIA ESA-PT Solibri Model Checker Tekla Structures Vector Works Discipline Architectural design Architectural design Architectural design Architectural design Architectural design Architectural design.php/1975/conrem_2010/week_15/BIM_week15_IFC.» 73 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Figure 2.1 IFC 2*3 support software128 _______________________________________________ 127 128 http://buildingsmart-tech. product Modeling-IFC ConREM M2. Following BIM software are now able to generate IFC data for interoperability with other software vendor.HVAC Facility Management Architectural design Company Archimen Groupe Nemetschek Graphisoft Autodesk Bentley Systems DDS Exchange direction Import Import/Export Import/Export Import/Export Import/Export Import/Export Vizelia Norconsult Import Import HVAC Architectural design All All Structural design All Progman Autodesk Nemetscheck Solibri TEKLA Corporation Nemetschek NA Export Import/Export Import Import Import/Export Import/Export Table 2.3. http://moodle.pdf .8 IAI vision shared project model.

Although IFC has problem related lost of information but still now exists as a reliable format to exchange data which contains maximum information. 3. As an example DWG is a common format for data exchange at the beginning. DFX.3.php/1975/conrem_2010/week_15/BIM_week15_IFC. For IFC file. IFC associated with following problem in current stage which is also a big problem for data interoperability - Information lost while exporting the model. current exchange solutions are not able to meet that demand. DFX. But normally for 2D drawing documents these formats are useful not for BIM based solution where there are lots of information on a single model. Hence these formats are not able to keep or store or transform every information with their exchange format. http://moodle. XML and so on. _______________________ 129 Janne Salin.metropolia. But all of them are not interpretable by all the BIM solutions. XML is a web based format which has also the same problem. In generally it can be said that. Like Autodesk has DWG. information proper transformation is an important parameter. Means not able to extract all the information in a model. Graphisoft has also the function to read the DWG or DFX file from Autodesk. product Modeling-IFC ConREM M2. Current other solutions are good for traditional work but for collaborative BIM approach. But still now IFC is not reachable on that stage where data interoperability is perfect. Some of these formats are compatible with other software but not with every software. Each software vendor has their own solutions. interoperability is a concerning issues in AEC sector and obviously in the implementation issues of BIM. XML.6.PDF and other formats. IFC has open viewer which can be used anyone and can be judge the model without parent software. On this case. - Specification problem related with parameterized data - Complex specification129 These are common problems associated with IFC in current stage.fi/file.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling IFC is a current solution for the interoperability problem.pdf » 74 . The current formats are not able to transform information in a common format which can be extractable by all the other vendor solutions.2 Other data Exchange Solutions Besides this there are so many different data exchange formats are exist like DWG.

They assigned Tekla BIM solution to support cost control and reduce the risk level associated with construction. On this way they minimize their design cost and reduced risks. They are using Tekla (BIM) solution. Following table shows the difference between IFC and other solutions in a short way Format Provider IFC Building Smart DWG Autodesk XML W3C PDF Others Adobe systems Various software format according to their data language 2D documentation and transfer IFC include model basd 2D and 3D information Well and defined BIM data exchange Currently best solution Interoperability Information missing Model based 2D data interpretation Well and defined Varies according to software support Information missing Not able Varies with other software integration with that format Maximum BIM solutions interpretable Tekla and few other softwares Not able Depends on integration with other software Interpretable with BIM solutions Table 2. They used Tekla BIM technology to maximize the benefit in planning and make collaboration . They are used to with BIM technology in construction management area in their projects.S.7.» 75 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3. Although it has also the problems with information lost.3 Comparison of Different Data Exchange Format IFC is the most widely and accepted format used in BIM solution.6. In this section some implemented case study will be discussed. 3. In some construction site AEC people used BIM as an improving design tool. design coordination and communication with everyone in a virtual real time environment. They make an outstanding result in the Lynchburg General Hospital expansion project through using BIM technology. as a construction management supporting tool and so on. a well reputed general contractor in U.2 Comparison of different data exchange format 3.7 BIM based Construction Management Case study: BIM is implemented all over the construction world in different areas. They used Tekla BIM solution on that project due to high collaborative approach.1 Barton Malow Case Study Barton Malow.

BIM Concept “over budget. They take the collaborative advantage from BIM which saves their time and reduced error.com/index. standing time. delays. 2009.php?option 131 BIM Journal.000 due to early MEP detailing in 3D environment. rework.asentechdev.9 Barton Malow Project 3D structure in Tekla130 In this construction project Barton Malow company project manager divide the whole project in three phases. These are utilities phase. They saved $20. They used Tekla structure in three phases due to high interoperability and manage the total construction management process which brings sufficient savings in their project cost.» 76 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling . poor communication. conflict. Issue 1. poor communication. Hence through using Tekla BIM solution. rework. 2009. In together they set the GMP for the project.131 _______________________ 130 BIM Journal.asentechdev. materials waste. BIM Concept “over budget. conflict. bimjournal. Issue 1.com/index. bimjournal. Figure 2.dev. structural phase and architectural/HVAC phase. delays.dev. standing time. Barton Malow Company increase their productivity in work and saves a good amount of money which is one of general blessing of technology in the form of BIM.” Page-1.” Page-1.php?option . materials waste. Thus they don‟t have to pay this money to the subcontractor to do the same job.

about construction processes. More over BIM based rendering and import it on the Google earth make a clear view which enables to understand different constructability issues. and workflows. they take the 3D model in Naviswork and build 4D project model and linked it with Primavera based contract schedule. Like that in U. On the basis of that data they build the 3D digital model and use Autodesk 3ds MAX software for getting the real view by rendering. They also used 3D BIM model for structural and MEP components for the total project. Proven tools.2 Construction Management in Bridge Case Study BIM technology is not applied on the building. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) makes the renovation of this bridge. Indiana. BIM can use all types of infrastructure project. Such as famous German general contractor Max Bögl used BIM in their projects. Parsons Brinckerhoff makes the 3D model for the bridge span which shows the completed design. but BIM model brings collaboration on the works. The bridge construction authority used BIM technology to make effective scheduling and perform work according to scheduling. Currently they used BIM modeling technology in a Stadium in Bucharest. BIM is applying all over the total infrastructure sector. That is also a significant contribution of BIM that..Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 3.S Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) in San Francisco. After that. it is not only applicable in building. BIM and Construction Management. The BIM involvement in this project brings benefit in design collaboration. As a result they have now a clear visualized look about the project according to schedule. Wiley Publishing Inc.132 _______________________________ 132 Brad Hardin. In this way the total project get benefited by using BIM.7. bring effective communication and it gives visual representation of the total project to the people through virtual model. They used BIM simulation as the measurement of the project performance. methods. They used BIM simulation to identify potential clashes in the different phases of the project which gives early forecast and reduced the total risk. At the beginning the bridge documents were completed in 2D CAD applications. They used their 4D model for the prefabricated component. The total process is complicated due to so many contracts. 2009. page -139 » 77 . Indianapolis.

» 78 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Thus this case study is the answer of one of the question of this thesis paper. It can be used all over civil works. In Barton Malow and San Francisco bridge case studies they are using BIM as a partial tool to support construction management. More over to make a clear understanding of BIM is that. BIM is a technological advancement not only for buildings. 3. But this management cannot be termed as total construction management. Autodesk different BIM solution Existing design remodeled and rendered 4D time scheduling through Naviswork with combining Primavera database Visualization through different BIM solutio Google Earth compiled with BIM Table 2.3 Summary of Case Studies BIM is used in construction industry discretely.3 Summary of case studies Through this way these two construction projects are taking advantage of BIM in collaborating and visualization of project phase. Even there is no such kind of construction take place which . May be for some complex projects its need some extra plug in tools to facilitate the the total project. Overall construction management means from the beginning to the end phase of construction is doing by BIM. that BIM can able to contribute infrastructure also. The total BIM construction management is not take place still now due to the lack of appropriate solution. But overall construction management through BIM still now is a myth. Although they take the advantage of BIM in reduction of cost and synchronizing their work. Besides that. Most people used these technological blessings at the design phase. Category Barton Malow case study Used BIM solution Tekla structure Design phase MEP modeling and coordination other designs Tekla construction management used collaborating time Time scheduling Collaboration Other software Through Tekla visualization - San Francisko Bridge case study Naviswork. Following table will summarize the BIM influence in their work.7. in these two case study projects they take the maximum advantage of BIM in their work through utilize it with different other tools. But they are limited in some areas like cost scheduling with visualization and early collaborative documental approach.

In this section the relation or linkage of construction project management and BIM will be discussed.1 Construction Project Management Development through BIM Construction project management is a diverse way of management.1 Construction productivity index compared to nonfarm industries. And Building Information Modeling is a technological support to make construction works more collaborative. From the previous two chapters or sections the purpose of construction management and building information modeling is now clearly assumable. understandable and productive. But overall the management criterion is to achieve a certain goal with desired cost. The management tasks are defined differently in different places or different conditions. Figure 3. methods. page -3 » 79 . and workflows. Wiley Publishing Inc. 133 _____________________________ 133 Brad Hardin. time and quality. 2009.. Indiana. BIM and Construction Project Management Linkage Construction project management is a systemic approach or path to achieve a certain goal or product as a building. But with combining other software support it can be manageable at this stage. BIM and Construction Management. The reason for that is still now BIM is not so much developed to support the full construction management. Proven tools. 4. 4. Indianapolis.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling is done through complete BIM technology. The main aspect of this paper is to demonstrate that.

net/images/Integrated%20Project%20Delivery %20Definition. owners. Well if any one said that.134More about integrated project delivery will be discussed on chapter four. contractors. so that it might be one reason for less productivity with those systems.3. The argument for that is. This judgment is based on authors understanding and experience.ipdca. Integrated project delivery discussed in construction management section.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling These are common fundamental objectives of construction management philosophy. for bring productivity in construction? One answer is that to reduce the problems associated with construction. The main reason to bring it in this section is to make clear that building information modeling has close linked for development of construction management approach. cost efficiency and time efficiency in construction. First one. estimation and management ______________________________ 134 ipd_definition_doc_final_with_supplimental_info. So that construction is defined as an industry due to its involvement in national economy. access 5. engineers. as an integrated practice which means a collaborative process with technological support as building information modeling.M » 80 . To remove these constraints there is a new system of project delivery named as IPD. IPD is a BIM based approach where it is a combined effort of architects.21 P. make estimation manually. manage construction with paper based documentation. the comment will not be wrong.2011 1. So what might be the solution. the productivity of this industry is now getting lower day by day.pdf. In this project delivery method three major parts are involved.http://www. Within time the development of construction increased enormously. Unfortunately. BIM is a technological support to bring quality. Traditional management systems have poor technological involvement.pdf. In project management body of knowledge they focused on more documented work. But the question comes about efficiency. sub-contractors. for construction management there is no need to use BIM. And the efficiency is now better when people used BIM or CAD for drawing. people make building before CAD and BIM by pen and paper. where it takes much time and has chance of error. Secondly essential principles where every stakeholder are committed to this principles and last one project workflow that begins building in an integrated team and concluding with integrated close out.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling The main aspects of this section is not too discussed about construction management productivity.2 BIM and Preconstruction Preconstruction is the phase where construction documentation work takes place. structural designer and MEP designer. When the design document is complete than the job is to invite bid from general contractor for the work. on that time there might be dispute arise due to lack of collaborative workflow. After that design documentation is the key job in this stage. BIM is able to manage the preconstruction stage through collaboration and communication with the total design team in the design phase. understandability and realization of the project and only BIM linking to management is able to meet that demand. BIM makes the preconstruction design work more productive and more accurate by making a work flow between the design teams. where they show new management philosophy with BIM. 4. Well BIM makes collaboration in the total design work as earlier described. IPD gives the answer. After that. structural and MEP scope. Through BIM the documentation can be done also effectively and errorless. But the main fact is that. The BIM implementation can be possible in all types of contract with adding some clause. » 81 . This phase has deep relation with BIM. communication. it seen that BIM has architectural. In the previous section where BIM scope has been described. design documentation is necessary to make contract document. The phase starts with feasibility study by the owner. Where design team consists of architect. Integrated project delivery system provides a system of work flow which is based on BIM. Thus it makes sense to say that. the aspect is to find the link with BIM and construction management. Design documentation is the main job in preconstruction phase. By using BIM these designs can be done in a collaborative way which brings efficiency and productivity in the work. Construction management system needs collaboration. In this sense contract is a very important tool to link the total construction work with BIM.

DBB is not a collaborative management or project delivery work. in preconstruction management work BIM is an important tool that makes the work easier. Like considering DBB method owner has initial management task for feasibility study and finding architect for design work. Through different BIM software general contractor can do that accurately according to the model provide by the design team. In this method one thing is clear that. In this way the management paradigm shifts on architect to complete the design and documentation for bid. When the project starts.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Construction management is a job where various stakeholders take part in different phases. But it also depends on the contract pattern. » 82 . collaborative and productive through make effective communication in different stakeholders. After getting the bid general contractor takes the role for construction management. So that in respect of general contractor estimation is an important task to complete in the preconstruction phase. design is the main aspect and for the general contractor construction with estimated time. Again if we think about integrated project delivery system where from the design phase all the stake holders‟ work together has close collaboration on management in the project from the very beginning with BIM. from that time the management will start. For the design team. comprehensive. cost and quality is the main job. So here is also a link of BIM with preconstruction work phase management. But management patterns depend on various systems of construction project delivery method. From this discussion one thing is clear that. After finishing the project facility manager takes the role for life cycle management role. It can be possible by assigning a project manager or construction manager from the very beginning of the project to the end of the project to make coordination in the project.

2 BIM Preconstruction phase cycle work .» 83 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling architectural design structural design Bid BIM and Preconstruction Cost estimation MEP design Combined Design documentation Figure 3.

Like planning and scheduling is a part of construction job. General contractor has his/her construction management team who will manage the whole work with all the stakeholders. In this section before giving the answer it might be wise to discuss at first which things are important in construction phase. The question is that. Site management or co ordination is also possible through BIM various models. BIM can able to do this planning and scheduling with combining model data from architectural model and make construction simulation. Still now this kind of operational management does not exist. So that BIM can able to make visual representation of the project phase in field construction. In this regard BIM provides model based cost control and monitor through different BIM solution. Perhaps BIM software‟s are reducing the probability of risk by providing virtual access and communication between all the stakeholders. crane position. environmental management and job site management are the main task for construction work. procurement.3 BIM and Construction Construction phase is the second phase of the project. Because through BIM model site manager has virtual on site access before construction and can able to design the site infrastructure like workers trailer. safety. risk. Using this technological support. in this stage like individual sub contractors. As it seen in the previous sections that BIM has significance on design. how BIM will make a work link in the construction phase? Well the answer is not so easy to give. Through this way BIM makes time management more effective and visualize the real scenario of the project at different time. cost. documentation. But in this paper author will demonstrate some new discoveries regarding management » 84 . Risk management has close relation with every aspect of construction. Cost control and monitor is the second important task in construction. General contractor will be the main responsible person in this stage. material placement and so on. As earlier described BIM is a visual intelligent data based representation of the project. and cost estimation. Obviously time. management team efficiently manage the cost monitor and control. quality.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 4. Safety management can be done by providing safety model of construction job site. This phase is most vital phase because in this phase the real construction will take place from virtual to reality. In the next chapter the exploration of BIM in construction phase will provide more briefly.

scheduling control and monitor can be done through BIM in construction phase. On that time BIM can make an effective role to discover project incomplete issues.4 BIM and Post Construction After construction stage completion. procurement and claim management. 4. From this point of view BIM makes clear and defined role by provide the project virtual model and real construction scenario. where they can get the day to day data for project success evaluation.6 the facility management scope described that how BIM data can support the facility management team.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling like safety. BIM provides visual data based monitoring and control. In section 2. time is to handover the project. the management of the facility will transferred to facility management team. but before handover the project management team has to check everything more detailed to get the certificate from architect. environmental. For getting the substantial certificate architect and contractor both can use the model data and check the total project according to model information. More over contractor has to provide manuals of the equipment and warranty period. Through this management team get the better control to the total project. 4. cost control. For getting occupancy certificate architect and owner might use BIM model and analysis data for submission that government authority gets a clear idea about project quality and scope. in this way the total checking will be done through model based data. Finally it‟s now time to check the project evaluation in terms of contractor point of view. The procedure can start from making the punch list. Contractor can make this documentation through support of BIM. According to the contract defined law it would be helpful for future maintenance if the contractor gives the entire construction model and information database of total project to the facility manager. quality. So that.5 BIM and Facility Management After completion the handover. In current practice. Contractor can make this evaluation through BIM model database. site planning.3. By BIM model 3D visualization architect or owner can detect the minor defects on the project which can be later solved by contractor. » 85 .

In this way until the end of demolition of the facility it will generate valuable planning data. manuals of equipments. For facility management BIM model will work as a building digital database. facility management team don‟t need to look so many 2D drawings. from which facility management team can reorganize the facility and make future renovation and reconstruction. they can analysis the facility situation through the raw data get from construction model. Precosntruction stage Feasibility stage Design stage Documentation Bid Cost estimating Main information needed Site location and other factors Architectural model BIM support BIM tools No direct support Not applicable - BIM based model - Structural model MEP model Single document BIM based model ArchiCAD. Solibri Model checker No direct cost estimation Table 3. The process will be depending on the contract type. if the contract has clause that general contractor has to provide all the models than same model can be used also for facility management purpose. maintenance schedule and so on. which makes more effective maintenance and reduce life cycle costs. BIM models make facility management easier than before. Because with BIM. For that instance BIM model can give very clear idea to facility management team about the consumption of energy.1 BIM and preconstruction phase linkage Remarks Only model structure .Nemetsccheck Vectorwork Tekla Structure BIM based model Individual model documentation Autodesk MEP and others Every software has own documents Designs and specs BIM design documents according to contract Different design solutions No composite model or document Model transfer depends on contract or bid procedure Design documents to take quantity BIM model based quantity or information take off Autodesk quantity take off. different component warranty period that they can maintained the facility in calculated life cycle costs. utility. Revit architect.» 86 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Facility management team need the building plans.

3 BIM and post construction phase linkage These tables shows general data requirement in different phases of construction project. models Facility management Maintenance Renovation All design and spec data All design and specs data and BIM support BIM tools Remarks Laser scanning check with BIM model All model based drawing All model based intelligent data Model based data Different model Photography scanning Different model Different tools Different tools - model Convert in CAFM model - Table 3. labor. identify material and quantification Identify model material and exact quantification Vico cost planner. Solibri model checker for information take off Site management Coordination design data Coordination through different model Revit. BIM has influence through visualizing the project and by providing intelligent data information.2 BIM and construction phase linkage PostConstruction Substantial completion Main information needed Punch out list. Perhaps now BIM has no composite model that contains all the data like a central database.labor and total component construction cost is not reflect on the model Plug-in tool used with BIM software as Google sketch up or Google earth Table 3. All the aspects of construction project.» 87 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Construction phase Time schedule Main information needed Activity data with material and equipment BIM support BIM tools Remarks BIM model based scheduling Vico Control Cost control Cost data and monitoring data Specs document and quality guideline Model based data input and measure Direct measure not possible Vico Control Simulation possible with location based schedule Insufficient controlling in cost Model based 3D laser scanning with BIM bring solution Cost estimating Cost of material. inspection Documentation Drawings. Google Earth. In next chapter BIM implementation in various . Sketch up Quality control Different model software Cost of material.

It depends on owner. At a summary of BIM and construction management is that. project management body of knowledge is a widely used project management guideline. activities. That will simulate in various phases of construction management through BIM. management procedure. While now the system is well enough to increase productivity but the automation or fully digitalization is not possible in current stage. The difference is in implementation. For that reason a separate simulation model made by author. the contract method and also to the project stakeholders. BIM can be used as an auxiliary tool to manage the construction project throughout its life cycle. In this thesis the combination of this two management philosophy are used with BIM.1 Construction Project Integration Management in BIM As earlier mentioned project management core issues are same for every project but the system defined in various ways. These approaches are described with a simulation model in below5. More over in this section author will identify some new approaches. 5. some new issues related construction management and BIM which will lead to a perfect construction management through BIM. building information modeling tools and link with construction management described. Like in project management body of knowledge defines the total project processes in five major stages. The stages are project initiating. More over traditional project management scopes are also exist.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling phases will describe by simulating practical model. project planning processes.1 BIM Implementation in Preconstruction Construction project management is a vast area of management with different scopes at different stages. and project closeout processes. building information modeling scopes. In this section the main intention is to show the pathway of synchronizing of construction project management through BIM. building information modeling. BIM Simulation in Construction Project Management In the previous three chapter construction project management definition.1. These processes works are » 88 . The basic core jobs are same in both management systems. BIM current position is not so strong that it can posses all the steps of construction management through digital model. 5. In the construction world. executing processes.

At first. business basis. project management tasks are common for every project where the following approaches are different for different persons or project team. Integration means combining different parts or elements. For feasibility study BIM cannot make any direct effort. page- » 89 . Project Management Institute. talk about feasibility study. The main task is to make the feasibility study of the project. and scope basis.135 Project plan development means integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent. The main idea to speak about it that. page- 41 136 41 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). Where integration management according to PMBOK 2000 is that. detailed design and make design documentation. design development. Where the key inputs are project plan development. The simulation model for this entire section is a two storied building according to owner demand. The tools and techniques are used for this step is BIM tools. construction and post construction phases. make schematic design. Feasibility study is done by the owner at the very beginning of the project to judge the suitability of the project in various terms like location basis. where the owner is a virtual person. project plan execution and integrated change control. Project plan development phase and design phase are common in task. PMBOK GUIDE. the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling also distributed in preconstruction. PMBOK GUIDE. This job is quite methodological and it depends on the owner determination either the site is viable or the scope of this project is viable or not. Project Management Institute.136 In preconstruction phase this is the most important phase which is also termed as design phase. The contract method for this project will be discussed in later phases ________________________________ 135 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). After the feasibility study the next job is to do the schematic design. In this simulation feasibility is done by owner requirement basis. coherent document.

the 3D BIM model made.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling For the simulation author draw the building in AutoCAD 2D and than modeled it in 3D for schematic design. This BIM model has intelligence itself Figure 4. the 2D drawing is transferred to Archicad in DWG file format and on that 2D design drawing. For this ArchiCAD BIM architectural solution is used to make architectural model in design development phase.1 Schematic (simulation) design model in 3D by AutoCAD After drawing the schematic model the next phase is to transfer it on BIM architectural model. Figure 4.2 Architectural (Simulation) model for detailed design in ArchiCAD » 90 . The process is that.

After doing the structural drawing model with details. Here one thing should mention that. For structural model Tekla structure is used to make the 3D model. Hence it is also possible to do the MEP design through other » 91 . as early described which is a data tool used for data exchange. In this simulation independent model system applied because on that time it can be used in the fabrication scope also. which is the systematic approach for BIM.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling After making the architectural drawing in detailed design phase.3 Structural (Simulation) model for detailed structural design by TEKLA Structure Next job is to make the MEP model which is a part of total design. this structural model is not containing any structural analysis data. Figure 4. MEP design is done by Vico constructor MEP solution. the next job is to transfer the model for structural model and for structural documentation. Architectural model transferred in Tekla structure through IFC data exchange. model can be possible to merge with architectural model or also be possible to make it as an independent model. This model contains the reinforcement mashing and other design drawings for understanding field structural work and fabrication scope more clearly and visually.

» 92 . structural and MEP model designs.4 MEP( Simulation) model for detailed design by Vico Constructor Now the design documents are ready through architectural.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling BIM solution like Benley MEP solution and AutoCAD MEP solution. In integration management. That can used for detailed documentation and run the bidding process. The main thing to focus here that. It depends on MEP designer to choose BIM solution for MEP design. After that the model and model data are combined together for design documentation. So that. plan development means the management of combining all the design data together. Figure 4. in this regard BIM has suitable feature to make integration in the design documentation. In generally these models are made by different designers under BIM process. BIM makes integration in all the designs by transferring the schematic and architectural models to different designers and integrates the total design procedure.

5 Integration management (plan development) through BIM Integration in design is required because with this design document the construction takes place. Because for the later stages individual element management are exists like time. When the design documents are ready. project plan execution and integrated change control can be done by management team. In this aspect author emphasize on the design part at integration management. integration means coordination in the various elements of the work. time. According to design documentation rest of coordination will be done. quality. quality. BIM provides effective communication and collaboration in this integration.» 93 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling MEP design IFC data exchange Structural design SCHEMATIC DESIGN Integration management through BIM (plan development) and design documentation IFC data exchange DWG data exchange Architectural design Figure 4. And the coordination starts from design part. and risk. cost and so on. The idea of this management through BIM is that. general contractor will select and also project plan will done. By using BIM collaboration project management team create integration on the work. So that author identifies integration management as the initial integration among the designers and design documents. Through that. From that later integration will be achieved in cost. plan execution and integrated change control will manage systematically considering the design document. On the basis of this design documents bid will done. Lastly for this integration in .

BIM is a process of doing work. The summary of the integration management. structural and MEP design Maximum Coordination documentation through IFC ArchiCAD. In this case he/she or their design team makes the role of integration management in design through BIM. Where particular people like chief architect or designer gets all the drawings and integrate them in design documents. But the fact is. On that case the digital integration will not be there. Thus in later these drawings are used for cost estimation. So one single change can easily identify and makes that change on every model easily. Through BIM one person or design team can integrate the total design stage. in this simulation model three different models are made by author through IFC data exchange and in later all the model drawings and models are combined together by author. without BIM integration will not possible. Because through BIM one single model data used for all the design works. It‟s the form of a digital integration. So that. One thing should be noticed here that. The same thing can be done by CAD or 2D drawing. which done by author in this simulated model. As an example.» 94 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling this simulation model BIM is used successfully that shows different design integration together for producing better design data and better integration in management. structure. with BIM it makes digital integration among the designs and also the management works. Constructor Google sketch up or AutoCAD 3D is suitable for schematic design where data detail is not so high Design integration improves productivity in Tekla Vico Table 4. by BIM author makes a design database which has all the design data like architectural. time estimation. bidding and for further management. shortly briefed in the following tableIntegration management phases Feasibility study Information required BIM scope Simulation used BIM tool Remarks Initial site study for feasibility Schematic model placement in Google earth and site analysis ArchiCAD Design Coordination in architectural. structural and MEP. It will not right to speak that. And BIM makes the link of data to every model.1 Summary of integration management in BIM .

project management body of knowledge said that scope management consists of initiation which means authorizing the construction project. scope planning. The main reason to do this is to check the viability of traditional and project management body of knowledge guidelines with BIM. » 95 . scope definition. PMBOK 2000. invite bidding and make contract.1. and only the work required. In PMBOK 2000. where the contract made with particular contractor.2 Construction Project Scope Management in BIM In terms of project management body of knowledge PMBOK 2000 edition. For that the combination of this management philosophy can be managed with BIM. The difference is in implementation procedure as early discussed. Like that.” In previous integration management author described about integration of all the design works in pre construction phase. Well authorizing of the project is occurred initially after the feasibility study and finally the bidding phase. by which later tasks will integrate. scope verification and scope change control. As earlier mention in this thesis author makes a combination of traditional construction management approach and project management body of knowledge guidelines. scope management is the job after integration of design drawing. Thus author takes the management framework from project management body of knowledge. By combining them with BIM author synchronized the construction management simulation for this thesis. to complete the work successfully.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling 5. project management body of knowledge guidelines stages are same as in traditional construction management approach. It consists of initiation. Contract document is the source to check or manage the scope of the work which consists only the project related work. Author found that. scope definition means subdividing the major tasks in some manageable deliverables. the key concepts and merges it in traditional way with BIM. scope management means “the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required. After integration of all the designs now someone has to construct it in the field. also describes the scope planning which means documentation of project work. But before that it‟s necessary to ensure that project includes all the necessary work to accomplish the job. And the systematic way is to ensure this thing by proper documentation.

So in this contract method there is no involvement of general contractor in the early stages of design. To make it BIM viable there is need to make changes in the contract method. Among this IPD has direct relation of implementing BIM. These total issues are discusses in contract stage of the traditional management approach. On this stage BIM process has not any direct involvement with scope management.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling scope verification to get the acceptance from owner or stakeholders. and finally scope control for controlling in other phases of project. where it is one of condition to get the usefulness of BIM. So that contract is an important issue. There might be some clauses included. In DBB approaches owner makes separate contract with architect and general contractor. By making this clauses BIM can be efficiently used in total construction to life cycle period. The question is how BIM make contribution on this stage. Also makes effective collaboration during construction phase and finally they will hand over their individual design and construction models together to the facility management team. But this phase is important in this fact that on the basis of contract BIM can be implemented on the later stages. IPD and so on. At first author makes contract with architect and after that on the basis of architect design documents author invites bid from general contractor. On the other contracts there are no such kinds of involvement of BIM. CM at risk. that all the design models should be transferred to the general contractor and make collaboration after the bid stage and before the construction takes place. As early mentioned there are several types of contract like DBB. Due to the contract structure it is not possible to involve general contractor at the beginning of the design phase. DB. » 96 .

In this case. Or construction team who will also take the design responsibility. As earlier mentioned BIM brings collaboration in all aspects of construction work. this method provides collaboration between design team and general contractor with a separate contract which has no relation with owner. the main theme is to create collaboration or integration among people. In this approach Owner has to make a single contract with design firm who will also take care the construction. Thus design build approach partially set the stage for BIM application in the construction process. According to that contract. » 97 . To make this contract suitable for BIM implementation owner has to make a contract with design or general contractor to make this project through BIM implementation and make collaboration with facility manager either in the design period or after the construction period.6 BIM based Design-Bid-Build proposed model In DB or Design. the main leading team done the job by implementing BIM and later transfer it to the facility management team after completing the construction.Build method comparatively it‟s easy to implement BIM.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Owner Design team General contractor Design team BIM model Genaral contractor Genaral contractor BIM model Combined model and transfer to FM Figure 4. On that agreement it will defined who will take the responsibility or pay the money for additional BIM cost. In this method. Integrated project delivery method is a BIM technology supported project delivery method.

net/images/Integrated%20Project%20Delivery%20Definition. In IPD process due to early collaboration to all the stakeholders.2011.. constructability issues.137 Thus IPD makes the stage to practice BIM in construction without changing the contract pattern or without any modification in the contract.ipd-ca. The aim of IPD goal can be achieved without implementing BIM also. The same principle applied in IPD where it combined the documentaries works of AEC group and provides combining BIM documentation.7 Approach differences in integrated and traditional way 139 BIM is a system of art to imply in construction for get the maximum benefit.pdf access 9. page -22 » 98 . Thus IPD is the best present contract method for BIM practice in construction. BIM and Construction Management. But it does not have own potentiality to run by itself.138 Figure 4. Contract method will create this platform. For that it brings successful results in the total project. Later stage this model based documents used for estimating. Wiley Publishing Inc. site coordination and makes bridge on other coordination responsibilities.00 PM 139 Brad Hardin.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling systems. in later phases it reduces the coordination and changing issues in design document. Indianapolis.138 http://www. 2009. Indiana.3. also focus the same collaboration in BIM process.9. methods. but it recommended practicing BIM for better result. In terms of BIM. BIM implementation phase starts with project documentation as design document where the involvement of all stakeholders brings coordination. _______________________________ 137. Proven tools. clash detection. For this it is necessary to set a platform by which BIM can contribute itself on the total construction. and business structures to reduce the waste and optimize efficiency. and workflows.

Like in Norway. Probably an architect or BIM expert can take the role of a BIM manager. It‟s called BIM manager.M . Thus contract is the main issue of scope management as well as preconstruction stage and BIM implementation also depends on the form of contract otherwise it will arise dispute regarding BIM costs and other issues.01.com/documents/english-material/solibrimagazine-1-2010/download. But it can possible to add by some additional clauses which will reduce the dispute arises regarding BIM cost. Now a day in BIM construction process there is a new term besides project manager. BIM has no direct effect on it.140 In the summary of scope management can be said that scope management is the stage to define the scope of the projects through proper documentation and documentation legally bound on the contract. “Multiconsult” a leading engineering company has BIM manager for their projects. But Contract methods should be changed to make it viable for BIM. TEKLA.» 99 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Without IPD rest of contractual methods are now not able to make this platform. Author suggest some modification in the current contract method to make it suitable for BIM implement Table 4. 5. Currently only IPD is best solution for BIM.2011 time. http://www. architectural quality guidelines BIM scope Integration in documentation and involving contractor and other stakeholders at the beginning of the project Simulation BIM tools ArchiCAD.2010/open BIM is here/ Solibri.2 Summary of scope management in BIM ________________________________ 140 Solibri magazine/ 1. VICO is used for document integration which is used later for Contract Remarks Contract is a legal process. In the following table total scope management is summarized shortly Scope management stage Contract Information required Design document.htm access 18.45 P. In some construction companies now a days they have this separate BIM manager position. The role of BIM manager is to make collaboration of all the BIM models or files and transfer necessary information to individual stakeholders.solibri.

3 Construction Project Cost Management in BIM Cost is an important issue in construction. In this case the main task is to define the resource requirements. slab. From that model different information can be grabbed like volume of wall. In some management philosophy it distinguished separately as resource planning. transferred that quantity in another estimating software or make it easily on the excel sheet by adding labor cost and material cost. doors etc. Build the MEP model in Vico constructor and build the structural model in Tekla structure. BIM provides the necessary quantities needed to make the cost estimation. In this regard. Author makes a simulation for this cost estimation process through BIM. This IFC format file can be uploaded to Solibri model checker for taking the quantity or take the information from that model. This cost comes from material suppliers and also from labor supplier or from the subcontractors. Before making details it should be clear that. On the preconstruction part cost estimation and in construction phase cost control is the basic function of cost management.1. of other materials. in architecture model . After taking that quantity based information. costs are always a vital factor to determine the project initiation or project success. The project success or project taking decision also depends on cost. In this case estimator has to do the resource planning by traditional information and put that data on the cost estimating sheet or in the cost estimating softwares. Cost management consists of two parts. But for resource planning there is no such kind of effort come from BIM. One thing has to mention here that. this cost data will not provide from any BIM solution. Today‟s BIM technological solutions are widely used for taking the quantities or information from various models and transfer it to cost estimating BIM solutions for make cost estimating. It should be mentioned here that.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 100 5. no. Design documents are always changed due to reduce cost as owner requirements. Now the architecture model transfer through IFC in an IFC format file. As earlier mentioned author build the architecture model in ArchiCAD. For cost estimation BIM has unique functionality which will give the estimator accurate model based costing with minimum time. So cost management is an important issue from the very beginning of the project. thickness.

9 Cost report in Microsoft Excel In cost report now material price.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 101 also generate some quantities as door.8 Quantity information takes off from Solibri model checker Figure 4. With combining this two reports estimation can be done in a separate software or in the excel sheet. window size etc. Figure 4. In this simulation of cost management author shows the relation of model based data to . labor and including other prices estimating can be done.

2 BIM Implementation in Construction Construction phase is the implementation phase of construction design documents or the drawings in the field. implement. after that that quantity will transfer to Vico estimating software. the simulation shows different location costs in the simulation. From that it‟s easy to manage cost control. site management and so on. procurement. To make this at first the model has to upload in Vico cost planner and then grab the quantity. In BIM 5D means model based cost simulation. There is other vendor‟s software like AutoCAD quantity take off.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 102 estimation. But for estimation there is no need for simulation. monitor. These phase is consists of various work regarding control. On this stage BIM is used as to monitor and forecasting. . After that Vico estimator will make cost database and make a link to Vico constructor to show the 5D representation with cost data. Though the process is same in all software to grab the model information or quantity and then make cost report or cost estimation.10 Flow chart of cost (estimation) model through BIM 5. The fact is that. Vico cost planner for quantity takes off. Architect. structural. just only quantity information are enough to make cost estimation and BIM provides model based quantity take off for estimation. MEP BIM model Data translation Quantity take off from model Transfer quantity to model based estimation solution Location based cost model simulation Figure 4.

This two major part combining the terms described in project management body of knowledge. As an example for government projects such as a school building has to deliver in a certain time.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 103 5. activity sequencing. activity duration estimating. Time management begins at the last of preconstruction phase and ends after handover the project. . Time management definition given by project management body of knowledge is that. Scheduling or time estimating in activities should be concerned at first. Time management issue comes from the preconstruction contract phase. On that time contractor submit a time frame to complete the project. BIM makes pioneer development in time management. At the preconstruction phase time is not a concerning matter in terms of control. But it‟s the major management part in construction phase. One part estimate the total duration to complete the project and second complete the project according to estimated time. Management of time includes two major parts. schedule development. This management is also possible from the early phase of the project like as described for government project where time is a concerning issue from the feasibility study.2. schedule control are the major tasks in time management. On that moment project is in initiating phase and after making contract time management issues come according to the estimated time schedule. On this phase planner has to make schedule according to that time limit and also control the project to complete in time. To make this analysis of time management with BIM at first has to determined which issues are concerning and which tasks are related with time management. Time management mode changes according to the desire of owner or according to the type of project. It can be well scheduled or can be lump sum estimated.1 Construction Project Time Management in BIM Time is one of important resource to manage in construction project. management of the processes to complete the project in estimated time. In general time is an issue which affects the total project from the very beginning. They define activity. So the total time spending duration count from the feasibility study. This management is an important issue in construction management because time overrun made the project failed or brings financial disaster in to general contractor by paying penalty money.

Also author check the . After that planner used that BOQ to make scheduling. For planning planner can use various techniques according to type of the project. Model based BOQ by BIM cost estimation software Model based activity in BIM supported planing software activity sequencing form scheduling activity duration estimation Figure 4. resources related activities. In this way BIM solutions also linked with scheduling through cost estimating. From that BOQ planner make an idea about his activity. So for scheduling or time estimating the major need is to define the data. form activities.11 Process of scheduling through BIM support Author also determines the scheduling through this way and simulating the model for scheduling. Planner needs resources to complete the project and estimator add that resources in cost estimating. BIM provides intelligent quantity data from model. data will come from cost estimating as BOQ means bill of quantity. The bill of quantity forms from the excel sheet where all the quantities are available. define resources. activity time estimation according to resources and form scheduling. calculate time estimation and then make scheduling. Cost estimating BIM solutions grab that data from the model and make BOQ. activity sequencing. Now the question is which kind of data? And from where they will get this data? The answer is that. BIM provides support planning in scheduling and in controlling in both stages. For this the first step is to form the bill of quantity. Scheduling and estimating has quite good relation. Thus both job are interlinked each other.» 104 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling For scheduling planner need the idea of activities.

12 BOQ in Vico control software Figure 4. Scheduling related BIM solutions provide model based simulation in terms of time. BIM provides support to check this monitor visually. It means it shows the . In projects to control time. After that transfer that BOQ to Vico Control software and by using that data make the scheduling. planner used general techniques like s curve. structural and MEP model to define the activities and put them on excel sheet and determine the resources like consumption.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 105 architectural. linear curve or other methods to monitor or control the project.13 Scheduling in Vico control software The second stage for time management is time control and monitor. Figure 4. This means to monitor or track the activities and resources according to the scheduling. resources and quantities. hours.

14 Scheduling control in Vico software without construction simulation. Though it‟s the structural model simulated here but it‟s also possible to simulate the whole model according to the schedule. Figure 4. Vico 5D representer or Navisworks can be used to simulate the project situation according to scheduling. For that. More over for time control author used Vico control view which shows the activity condition and marking them in different colors. Figure 4. To control the project by visual representation author used Tekla software which has integrated solution of simulation of activities. More elaborately it combines the time and activity in the simulation. It simulates the project completion in each day.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 106 progress of model or performing work done on timely basis.15 Location based time simulation for scheduling control .

The first condition to be termed as BIM is that. Cost control is the similar kind of job like schedule monitor and control. In Vico control there are some option to include cost information like cash flow but its not sufficient to be termed as BIM based cost control management system. Like S curve. General contractor has to submit the cost estimation in the bid. But it‟s also possible through BIM. For this simulation author also choose the way of semi BIM process. In real time construction cost control team put the data on that database and measured the situation.2. The use of BIM in time management can be done in two ways. This process can be termed as semi BIM process. One way in time estimate where BIM model provides location based quantity. where the quantity information grabbed from BIM model to estimate the cost and after that used different software to monitor that cost which has no visualization related cost. In cost control management BIM vendors has not get any big success still now. BIM provides simulation based time control in time management but not able to do that for cost control.2 Construction Project Cost Control Management in BIM In construction cost estimation is the part of preconstruction phase. To bring success in project and make the project in desired cost. But the system is not related with direct model. Like that cost control is the important factor in construction phase. cost control is the only tool. Where every cost information should be displayed.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 107 Through this way BIM provides controlling and scheduling by providing model based information. BIM software vendors have to make the similar simulation model for cost control as like schedule model. In current BIM technology there are few practices regarding cost control. 5. but the process is not so strong that it can be termed as BIM based cost control system or management. Where the cost report generated . Another way in control shows the location based time simulation with activities. Some of them are computer software program and some of them are manual process. it should be visualized. Thus for cost control one way is that BIM vendors make the model and generate a database linked with the model. Some BIM solutions like Vico cost planner compare the cost with actual. For cost control there are different tools exist. different types of cash flow curves can be generated through manual process or with some individual process.

142 Quality management is a large process where every construction step should have to go through this process to bring value in project. to make it as BIM process BIM vendor should provide costing software which has a database according to model data. But the recommendation is that. In the definition of quality management project management body of knowledge defined it as the processes which are necessary to make sure that project will satisfy the needs of its initiation. According to that actual data. On that database there should be two steps where one side the actual and one side budgeted and should have some color coding if the budgeted goes wrong compared with actual.3 Construction Project Quality Management in BIM Quality is an important issue to bring value in the project. sub divides the quality management in three major terms as quality planning. PMBOK 2000. Quality management involves from the design phase of the project until get the substantial complete certificate from the architect. More over there should be integrated s curve and other cash flow curves which can be possible to generate through estimated and measured data from the model. Quality reflects on the total processes from design to handover documentation. BIM takes . 5. Monitor the quality standards and bring project value is the main task in quality control. Quality assurance is an evaluating process of the project quality to ensure that project will completed in quality. make manual s curve analysis to monitor or to measure the cost control situation. quality assurance and quality control. This stage defines the standards of the project and makes way to complete it as desired. Quality is not just reflecting on material or appearance.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 108 in excel sheet and besides that cost report make every single cost entity and input the actual data‟s.141 Quality planning is the beginning stage of quality management. BIM supports the quality management activities through various ways in various steps. Quality management issues are more physical than other issues. General contractor has to perform according to that quality guidelines or follow that quality measurements. It also depends on the owner budget and requirements. In every project the quality is defined by the architect.2. Physical can be interpreted as the appearance of the project that shows the projects value.

Quality depends on specifications. To make a quality plan BIM models provide sufficient spatial information to make quality plan. that can give the specification of the material quality. and through BIM model it can be easy to understand the expected construction and real construction. On the basis of quality plan management team will implemented the quality settings by architect.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 109 part in quality from the design phase by making the design more collaborative and accurate. Always supervision improves quality. Quality is a job of supervision. This way BIM brings or improve design documentation quality which also affects the later stage quality issues. Through BIM it‟s not totally possible to make quality specifications in the model. As earlier described for quality management quality plan is an essential tool. The whole construction depends on design drawing. page. so the quality of the design drawing should be on high level and only BIM improves design quality by arranging collaboration and data exchange through different designers. Because BIM models have not enough material content in their library. PMBOK GUIDE. BIM solutions have unique clash detection technology which checks the total project design quality. More over control the time and cost in project also brings quality and improve value of the project.16 Clash detection check (simulated model) in Autodesk Navisworks ___________________________________ 141. Figure 4. But from BIM model it can possible to find out the specification on size of the material such as door. Project Management Institute.95 .142 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). window. floor tiles etc.

Indiana. But don‟t make any direct contribution in quality assurance of project. BIM can provide general information which can be useable on this quality control stages but BIM cannot monitor or control the quality through its own working process. testing standards. quality check in the procurement or choose high quality vendor. Quality assurance depends on hiring skilled people. Through this quality comes to every stage of the construction. In precast work construction elements are made in factory by fabricator. So many factors are related with careful construction. material quality and also field test of material.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 110 For quality management plan major issues are careful constructions at the first time. Indianapolis. Jackson. Wiley Publications Inc. 2010. Indiana. By providing accurate shop drawing BIM contribute to make the element in desired quality. Where the quality of product can controlled better than the site. Just only provides design information from various models. ______________________ 143 Barbara J. training program for people. Indianapolis. BIM model can only provide construction design data continuously. page no-286 . inspection and tightly followed the architect quality standards where the scope of BIM is less than physical inspection. control on activities that should be in right way and continue improvement. In this regard BIM cannot make any contribution. Quality assurance and quality control are also two important functions in quality management. It depends on the skill of the craftsman. page no-286 144 Barbara J. Wiley Publications Inc. Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition. safety.143 Careful construction at the first time means to reduce the risk of faulty work and rework. Jackson. For quality control it also has relation with the material quality check. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Another aspect has to describe to maintain quality in precast work. 2010.144 This issues are quite physical process based rather than model data based.

latista.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 111 TQM or Total quality management is a widely accepted philosophy in manufacturing industry. The same philosophy can also be applicable for construction industry to get zero defect on construction.17 Total quality management phases145 Well Total Quality Management is a process to improve the quality in the project through continuous inspection in different phases. Kaizan‟s consequent client orientation and so on. So many construction companies are also focusing on TQM to bring quality and reduce defects in construction job site.com/index.10 P. _______________________________ 145 http://www. Thus in summary it might be wise to say that Quality management is a continuous process to improve in every stage and BIM can be used as a source of information to bring desired quality.3. In quality management some other philosophy are also used like QFD. But these processes are not yet completely linked with BIM still now. 7.M . For that this process also depends on design and other phase‟s data that can be accurately provide by BIM model solutions. Figure 4.php/latista-field/quality/273 access 10. Perhaps it might be possible in future on BIM solutions to integrate TQM process in BIM software.2011.

staff acquisition and team development. reliable documentation and clash detection support to maintain quality in documents and in field work Navisworks Quality assurance Information on quality in every aspect.» 112 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling In a short summary quality management can be viewed through following table Quality management stages Quality planning Information required BIM support Simulation tools Design quality information(material specification. Rests of resources are being static. Dynamic in this reason those other resources cannot move without this resource. In organizational planning they sets the project roles to . Thus to manage this resource is a vital and important job in construction management. Among them human is one of the important resource contrasts to other resources like machine. More over project has different phase and in every phase new human resources are joined in the project.2.3 Summary of quality management in BIM 5. Table 4. The main aspect of setting this human resource management is to ensure the optimal use of people involved in the project that project get success.4 Construction Project Human Resources Management in BIM Construction project are involved with several types of resources. material and money. dimension and so on). Project management body of knowledge defines this management consisting with organizational planning. Construction quality maintain approach through various field test Visualization. Humans are dynamic resource. Navisworks Quality control Quality information to control Visualization to check the real and virtual model quality Visualization and monitoring support through quality database BIM Navisworks or different models software Remarks BIM acts as a partial supportive tool for quality planning cause quality management needs inspection and the inspection should be in real and virtual BIM helps to compare judge the real and virtual quality BIM acts as a supporting tool Continuous monitoring control quality.

Because of maximum human resource is used in this stage. in staff acquisition assigned skilled people and in team development to enhance project performance. Superintendent or site manager takes the lead to manage these resources and architects. human resource management can be more elaborately divide in two sections. One section represents the management desk job and another section represents the field work job consisting with different sub contractor‟s human resource also.146 Well besides this. PMBOK GUIDE. Human resource management task in desk job starts from the beginning of the project. Key responsibility of human resource management is to assign their work. In construction stage scheduling defines the role of human resources according to location and activity. BIM gives the advantage of human resource management team that they can get exact project information that makes them to assign people and to manage people. This stage is more vital and crucial in project. BIM provides scheduling team necessary information regarding project that helps them to assign people and define their role. mode of work and placement according to location. This step is termed as management desk job and preconstruction human resource management phase. On behalf of owner a project manager or construction manager assigned and organize design team. Project Management Institute. BIM is a source of appropriate project information for all the project stakeholders. numbers.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 113 different person. Where a project manager can act as a HR manager and make coordination all the preconstruction works. A construction manager takes the HR manager role in this phase and coordinate the works come from different subcontractors. BIM cannot support human management team by assigning or appointing humans. In this stage he/she has to assigned different people and has to make coordination in their work. page- . sets the bid and organize the contract with general contractor. In construction phase field human resource management is the main job to the management team. As an example for field construction scheduling derives the human resource needs. meet their requirements and organize necessary supports to perform their work. _____________________________ 146 107 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). project manager takes the leader role of office human resource management that everyone in the project gets coordinated all the time.

But model based BIM data acts as a helping tool for human resource management team to manage this resource in an efficient manner that brings project success.5 Construction Project Communications Management in BIM Communications means contact with other people in order to get information.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 114 So that in this way BIM doesn‟t take any direct participation in human resource management. Project management body of knowledge defines the communication management as the process which ensures collection. performance reporting and administrative closure. Human resource management is more physical work than technical and BIM provides technical assistance through different model to assign human and to manage human resource. Like BIM base HRM system is not exist right now. filtered it and sends it to higher management personnel that they can identify needs and take action.2. storage and supply the project information to various stakeholders. They need information. Where BIM will provide information regarding humans and MIS database will query that information. More over MIS based dashboard. model based scheduling and simulation. In construction there are several stakeholders who are working in different stages. In future BIM and MIS software can be make this thing together. Communication management includes communication planning. information distribution. But their jobs are linked with each other. But rests of other issues solutions are not available right this moment. reporting system with BIM information makes this system more dynamic and efficient. PMBOK GUIDE. page- . But BIM has the opportunity to increase the productivity of this resource by visualizing model based work and to optimize the work force.147 ________________________________ 147 117 A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000). Project Management Institute. updated information and shared project status through communication. 5. In future it might be possible to make the human resource management system more efficient through including MIS and BIM together. BIM development only occurs in design stage and some stages of construction phase like model based estimating.

They will review the drawing to identify the problem. But for voice communication designers should use telephone. In this regard BIM brings effective communication in the design phase through BIM server. As an example architect has to communicate with MEP and structural designer to solve design related issues. BIM brings the visual communication which brings efficiency in work. Communication is more vital in the field construction. If there is any problem arise they have to inform it to site supervisor or manager. On that time there might be no architect or other engineers present for construction.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 115 Communication is a demand of all phases of the project. In architectural drawing also several people do different section drawing in the same model. BIM server or BIM models are using as a supportive tools to enhance the communication inside the design team. According to that drawing and schedule they have to construct. From that server a single model is possible to develop through different people from different computers. They have to contact with design team or demand for RFI. Communication starts from the beginning of the project when design phase starts. fax. In traditional or without BIM technology the way is each trade foreman or site supervisor has the drawing and schedule. BIM provides effective communication in all stages. Through that the entire designers have effective communication by sharing their model. Due to 2D drawing sheet where information‟s are not intelligent it might not be easy to understand or to realize the problem. Field engineers or subcontractors have the drawing to build. On the design phase designer has to keep communication with other designers. and telephone or video conferencing. Site manager will meet with other stuffs in the job trailer to solve this issue. . In authors simulated model the same principle can be applicable. Different architectural BIM solutions have BIM server. They are not working in the same model or the same computer. Thus the construction dispute can avoid from design phase. BIM communication contribution starts from the design phases. To bring project success communication is also another important criteria. When there is a lack of understandability of design drawing or any error occurred in the construction field people has to communicate with different people to mitigate the issue and keep pace on the project. Communication management is most important in the construction phase of the project.

If the problem is not solved by field engineer they can contact with architect or design team and send the model file with problem instantly through internet. It might be also possible to create link between various MIS software solution and BIM together. reporting or dashboard communication system does not exist in BIM model. After that site manager will discuss the issue with other persons in job trailer where there should be a big screen to visualize the problem. that on site they can identify the problem and send it to the site engineer with voice communication. That means designer has to provide BIM design models to site manager or team that they can understand the design drawing in real 3D with intelligent information. And data transfer can be possible through wireless network connection or wireless internet. On this case for effective data communication they used BIM and for voice communication they used video conferencing. 2D document based communication is not able to support instant solution of problems. instantly they can send it to the field engineer to maintain the project schedule. The voice communication. Through this way BIM makes an effective role in communication management inside the project.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 116 Though they have voice or videoconferencing system with architects or design team. If they can identify the problem and find out the solution. 2D or 3D documents are not capable to generate real idea about the project or to make any solution in the project problems. that will also bring effective communication inside the project which will reduce the risk of project time and cost overrun. For that the full process should be run on BIM. the situation will not change that brings instance solution or solution in a short time. BIM provides solution of field construction disputes instantly or within a short time. After that architect or design team can review the whole thing and make update drawing for solution and send it through internet again. But in future it might be possible to create these features inside the BIM tools to make effective communications through BIM solutions. At first the design mistake or construction mistake should be send to the site manager. The main philosophy to use BIM in communication management is that project stakeholders need information to perform work and to identify work. Visualization is an important fact for identifying and resolving problem. BIM . Even it might be also possible to have this software on field engineers tablet PC or in their laptops.

18 Design communications through IFC data format Figure 4.19 Field communications through BIM .Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 117 based 3D information make clear about all the issues which brings effective results in communication and in design understanding in all phases of the project. Figure 4.

2010. Thus risk management is a crucial part of construction project management. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.2. Indiana. Wiley Publications Inc. risk quantification and risk mitigation. Indianapolis. _____________________________ 148 Barbara J. page no-310 149 Barbara J. For a good risk management approach risk management divided into three major terms. Though those risks can predict to come from some major stages and the stages are. it has no risk reducing technique itself. page no-310 . Because BIM is a virtual tool to explore the model. Jackson. Wiley Publications Inc. Risks are in every phase of the construction process. Indiana. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Jackson. These terms are risk identification.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 118 5. -Prebid risks -Design risks -Construction risks -Political/legal/regulatory risks -Financing risks -Environmental risks149 BIM can support to reduce all the risks in some level. Indianapolis. 2010.148 Risk can come from any phase of the project.6 Construction Project Risk Management in BIM Construction profession is one of the highly risked professions. Thus risk management team can take the advantage of visualization of the project to mitigate the risk in some level.

page no-311.» 119 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Prebid risks. 2010.4 Risk assessment and BIM support on prebid 150 __________________________________ 150 Barbara J.312 . Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Indianapolis. their causes and influence of BIM are showing in the following tableRisk Prebid Risk type Contract Risks Prebid Owner Risks Prebid Price Risks Prebid Time Risks Prebid Work/Labor risks Prebid Location Risks Prebid Estimating Risks Risk pattern Changes in work Force majeure Payment process Retain age requirements Warranty requirements Reputation Ability to fund project Payment history Company culture Cost of self performed work Cost of subcontractor labor Cost of overhead Cost of equipment Cost of materials High price materials/ equipment Total project cost Overall contract time Subcontractor reliability Time of year Regulatory bureaucracy Familiar work process Major demolition of site work Insufficient ground investigation Proximity to office Familiar with area Difficult/remote access Site congestion Adequacy of pricing data Excessive prep cost BIM support Model analysis reduce risk No support No support No support No support No support No support No support No support Cost model analysis Cost model analysis Cost model analysis Cost model No support Cost model Cost model analysis Model schedule No support Cost model analysis No support No support Model analysis No support Site analysis Site analysis Site analysis Site analysis Cost model analysis Cost model analysis Table 4. Jackson. Wiley Publications Inc. Indiana.

page no-314 152 Barbara J. Wiley Publications Inc. Indiana. Indianapolis.5 Risk assessment and BIM support on design risks151 In construction procedure are also exist different types of risks. 2010. 2010. Information is not sufficient or inaccurate Quality problem due to poor design Model based information reduced inaccuracy Simulation reduce that risk Adjusted easily everything through design change Model review takes shorter time Table 4.6 Risk assessment and BIM support on construction risks 152 ____________________________________ 151 Barbara J. Jackson. architect Inaccurate information sharing Latent design defects Description Information and detailed for construction is missing Design does not met the requirements by code Owner change his mind during the construction Longer time to make review BIM support BIM drawings have quality and reduce this risks Model checker reduce this risk. Model and site analysis helpful to make good security plan Not supported in BIM Unpredictable issue Not supported through BIM Table 4. Indianapolis. Indiana. Those risks and BIM effect to reduce those risks are given belowConstruction risks Labor availability and quality of labor pool Differing site conditions Site access. page no-315 . lack of skilled labor Not according to plans and specs of design drawing Highly dense area can cause significant delay Security is an big issue Coordination in utilities BIM support Location based scheduling model determines labor workforce Through Google earth and BIM model early analysis BIM model placement at the real site reduced that risk. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. traffic and parking issues Property damage or theft issues Coordination with utilities. Jackson. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition.» 120 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Design risks pattern. adjoining neighbors. causes and BIM support are showing in the following tableDesign Risks Poor quality in design drawings Noncompliance with design drawings Owner directed changes Excessive design review by owner. and so on Adverse weather Description Inadequate labor. Wiley Publications Inc.

7 Risk assessment and BIM support on political and legal issues153 Financing risks pattern and BIM effort are in following tableFinancing Risks Economic climate Contractor cash flow description Economic disaster Unavailability of credit Interest rate increases Bank or other financial institute decision Delay in payment from client Subcontractor financial crisis In sufficient funds Subcontractor/supplier bankruptcy BIM support No direct support Cost model give prediction of location and timely based cost No support No support No support Table 4. 2010. Wiley Publications Inc. page no-318 .8 Risk assessment and BIM support in financing risks154 _____________________________ 153 Barbara J. page no-317 154 Barbara J. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. noise. Indianapolis. Jackson. Wiley Publications Inc. Indiana. state and federal laws Changes in tax structure or inflation Public protest due to different aspect Dust. 2010. Indianapolis. mud and different community issues Breaches by employees BIM support No support No support Site analysis through model reduce that risk Site analysis through model reduce that risk No support Table 4. In the following table risk pattern and BIM support showsPolitical/Legal risks Changes in law Changes in tax structure Public concern disputes Community issues Harassment issues Description Changes in local. Jackson. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Indiana.» 121 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Political and legal rules are also a big risk factor for construction project.

Indiana. Thus by early evaluation construction management team makes decision about the project. BIM is a helping tool to quantify and mitigate the risk. Jackson. BIM also evaluate the process best for mitigate that risks. page no-318 . They can use risk retention. Like in scheduling “Monte Carlo” simulation reduced the scheduling risks. risk transfer or risk allocation method to remove the level of risk from the project. In that way BIM plays efficient role at the design risks also. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. In general the process is risk management team identifies the risks and then quantifies it according to numbers. Where BIM collaborate all the project designers and make coordination on the documentation. ____________________________ 155 Barbara J.9 Risk assessment and BIM support in environmental risks 155 These are common risks are associated in construction project. After that they tried to mitigate those risks through different ways. Some certain stages BIM reduced the level of risk and make forecasting. coastal protection or flood plain issues Description Environmental permit delays affect the construction time In construction this issues if discovered Unknown artifacts discovered Spieces protection and special care in construction Special protection BIM support No direct support No direct support No direct support Site analysis support Site analysis support Table 4. Perhaps it is not fully possible to mitigate or make analysis of all kinds of risks through BIM. risk abatement. BIM plays the role as an analysis tool to quantify the pattern of risk.» 122 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling The last stage of risks related with environmental and BIM supports are in the following tableEnvironmental Risks Environmental permits Hazardous material or site contamination Archeological findings Endangered spieces Wetlands. risk avoidance. Indianapolis. Wiley Publications Inc. This design related risks are mitigating a lot through BIM. 2010.

equipment handling procedure and so on. It does not have any safety measurement by itself. Site managers or the senior hierarchy in the field construction has to ensure the construction safety. It also affects the completion of project in estimated time and cost. BIM makes an important contribution to make safety plan by determining the unsafe zone in the project.7 Construction Project Safety Management in BIM Safety is related with construction procedure quality. For that in every project safety plan is important. It should be keeping in mind that. safety planner can made their safety plan. If a rule can be set like safety zone determination and check it through model check software than those model check results can determine the unsafe zone in the project. BIM based software are the visualizing tools for safety planners. Thus in every project safety management is an important task to perform. Like Naviswork and through Solibri model checker this can be possible. Figure 4. safety instructions. But it can be possible through the rule set checking.2. hazardous material information.20 Safety rule set and check in Naviswork . As usual safety professionals are using concepts like safety plan. It is helpful to determine the risky zone for the workers and according to that. It mentioned about the safety importance and casualties in construction in the first chapter of this thesis. Life is much worth than anything.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 123 5. unsafe zone marking.

In these four components BIM can provide support only on jobsite analysis as previously discussed. As we know on each jobsite they have some nets and other safety features which provide safety on behalf of fall in. instrument manual. Through BIM it can possible. Like by virtual exploring safety team can able to determine the unsafe zone and even if they want they can install some video cam that provides safety and also help to monitor the work also. The placement of this net in right position is also a big task for the safety management team. jobsite analysis. from the top of structure. Even it‟s also possible to make the model of the framework on which worker will work. safety and health training.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 124 Model checking rule set can give solution to identify risky zones for workers. For safety management OSHA Jobsite handbook provides some guidelines. Besides this by virtual exploring the model safety planner can able to take safety measures. Figure 4. hazardous prevention and control.21 Safety net models in through architect model Through virtual visualization BIM support the safety management in the project which brings better safety plan and safety measurement. Among them the four primary components are management commitment. BIM provide support by model check and virtual inspection for determine unsafe zone. But for other safety measurements like safety training. safety according to machine work is more physical task . In BIM model after identifying the unsafe zone this net can be possible to set up by adding some object like net or other safety tools in the model.

The general problems in environment due to construction are noise. Indiana. how to reduce the storm water pollution by providing drainage. Indiana. As discussed in the first chapter environmental management is important due to building legislation. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. Through BIM model importing in the real site. historical and cultural artifacts clean up and trash removal. Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition. where to put up the trash and debris. ecological concern and so on. Environmental management is also important with other issues in construction. working method. falls around 33% of total job site accident can be possible to prevent through BIM based visual safety plan.2. Over all in ethics it will not good to disturbed the environment for construction.8 Construction Project Environmental Management in BIM Environmental issues are now a day‟s big issue in construction industry. where to set up the trash removal plant and so on. page no-318. vegetation. page no-303 157 Barbara J. The environmental impact also depends on project size. In this simulation author place the model in real situation and explore the surroundings which should be a matter of concern about environment and according to these take necessary actions. Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis. Wiley Publications Inc. project place. neighbor concern. 2010. Indianapolis. ___________________________ 156 Barbara J. These management issues are physical issues to take decision regarding environmental management. recycling the wastes. endangered species. construction dust and mud. environmental management team can decide the issues like how to minimize the effect on vegetation.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 125 and hence BIM based model is not effective on this issues. machineries used for construction and over all the involvement of people. 2010.156 5. environmental legislation. page no-318. storm water pollution. But the major issue. wetland protection. BIM model provides support to make necessary decision related environmental management. Due to environmental impact so many construction works stopped at the mid stage of the project. Jackson. Jackson. page no-214 .157 BIM cannot provide total solution for environmental protection or environmental management.

Figure 4. In present situation BIM can provide the real condition scenario before construction and through help Google earth it is possible to get the idea about surroundings. Obviously this visualization can help to make an effective environmental management plan. At last about environmental management through BIM is that. Google sketch up gives the opportunity to transfer the model in the real position by providing co ordinate in the Google earth software.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 126 Figure 4.22 Transfer the model in Google earth for determine the environmental effect The main role of BIM model is to visualize the project situation with respect to the real site condition.23 Model in Google Sketch up pro . this job is very physical decision based and BIM can be a supporting tool for analyzing and visualizing the situation through virtual real time placement.

To procure material and other things the main important aspect is to take care about the quality of the product. In this regard during procurement stage procurement team has to take care architect specification on individual material for quality maintain and to procure timely that workers get their materials in the right time. price negotiation. according to project management body of knowledge. source selection. For procurement BIM can contribute largely. .2. quality checking etc. For procurement. on that case BIM software provides a procurement list. But about for material like stone. labor. and machineries etc. labor for that manual calculation is needed. In this regard procurement management is divided in procurement planning. Procurement in construction means procure material. The main reason for that is. These quantities are based on RCC design. So that procurement list already comes from the design model. cost estimating and quality. It‟s also possible to make a database through BIM for procurement. how to procure and also concerning the related cost and quality. In this simulated model author used such curtain wall. If architect used the material from the vendor object library. solicitation. on that product the total project will build. From the design estimator calculates the material needs. documenting product requirements.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 127 5. In procurement BIM can contribute more. But right this moment BIM procurement is exist only in design elements. planning is necessary. This procurement can be done either by tender procedure or by previous work relationship. cement. In procurement the first thing to understand that what should procure. Procurement is largely involved with design. Now a day‟s designer used different types of material object which comes from different vendors.9 Construction Project Procurement Management in BIM Procurement is a step related with design. are quite manual work. door and windows from a vendor object library and thus on later stage procurement team has not to waste time to decide where to procure and how to procure on this step. But there still quality issues and pricing issues are important which cannot be solved by BIM. But to procure things such as contract. contract administration and contract close out with seller. Vendors make the object model and make their own library and architect by using that library design the model.

If there are enough objects from vendors on that time it helps the engineers and others to design and also procurement team. laser scanning technologies support the procurement through BIM database. where to place and how to place this information‟s can be found. . GPS technologies.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 128 Figure 4.24 Procurement material list from architect (simulated) model By digital fabrication BIM is not only helped the fabricator it also helped the procurement team to define the material and procured it with quality. More over BIM based time simulation shows the construction stage. tender on this cases BIM still now not make any contribution. Thus it ensure the procured material security and their placement information. By using that. But in rest of formalities like purchase order. As a summary of procurement stage. procurement team can define the material needs and according to that they can make their plan like the latest time to procure the material which can also brings save in project and make coordination in the works. the involvement of BIM is depends largely on the object library. RFID tags. Like if the procured material has RFID tags and on that tag the information‟s such material quality. cost.

2. cost estimation and financial management are linked together. In this project delivery method for this aspect financial management has more importance. But the important fact is that financial plan is closely linked with cost estimation and can be said that it will be a more updated version of cost control sheet. cash flows. The idea of financial management is that. The cost control techniques can be applicable for financial control also. Besides this financial analyst has their own techniques to control and forecast about financial control. Recently financial management gets more importance due to some new project contract system such as Design-build-own-operate or design-build-operate-maintain. financial plan.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 129 5. For a good financial management financial planning and financial control is both important along with administrative financial data record. salary and in other aspects also. Thus BIM software might be not able to generate direct financial management contribution but partially through cost model it makes the way to collaborate both financial management team and cost management team. __________________________________ 158 Construction Extension to A Guide to the PROJECT Management Body of Knowledge. financial control and administrative data.158 For financial management financial analyst is an important person who has might be no knowledge about BIM. it has more concerned about revenue. As earlier mention by using BIM software cost estimation can be done easily. So in this way cost control. But project is an ongoing process. in the very beginning of any project general contractor has to carry the initial costs for couple of months. PMBOK Guide-2000 Edition. Owner always pays money after completion of certain stage. Moreover it‟s relating with day to day expense or cash flow management of project labor and materials.10 Construction Project Financial Management in BIM Financial management and cost management have very deep relation in nature. So for a financial analyst he/she will use his tools for making financial analysis. From cost estimation data both cost control and financial control can get more accuracy in cost information. page no.117 . Money is needed for paying subcontractor. labor cost. material costs. Financial management is different from cost management in this way that.

» 130 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling Finance plan •Cost estimation from model •BIM process •Financial plan and control •Cost control Cost identify •Total project finance and cost control •BIM initial process. claim prevention and claim resolution. In this case BIM provides the initial information for project cost. cost control techniques. . So many stakeholders are bounded in a certain project through different legal contracts or legal entities. 5. financial analysis techniques collaboration techniques Figure 4. financial management team make financial plan and make combined application of cost control and financial control. construction claim management discussed earlier. In the first chapter. According to that cost. In this way BIM contribution can be possible in financial management that can make collaboration together cost management and financial management work. It might be possible to come out from owner due to poor work by general contractor or may be from general contractor due to give some misinformation. It also possible that claim comes from another party like from neighborhood. cost control method and implement financial day to day data as a cash flow in excel sheet.11 Construction Project Claim Management in BIM Construction projects are vital. claim quantification.2.25 Financial management process in simulated model In this simulated model author made the financial management by combining cost estimation data. Project management body of knowledge divides this claim management in claim identification. At last they input the data in excel sheet along side with cost data. Claim can be arise from any side of the project. In this section the contribution of claim management in BIM will focused.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 131 BIM is a virtual view of the construction project. The construction work pace also depends on site planning and logistics support. crane . The result shows that 99% accuracy with model. In this simulated model author makes a claim and identify it and quantify it with BIM. To solve this claim general contractor discussed with architect how to identify and quantify this claim. BIM can be a useful tool for both claim identification and quantification. Because it‟s not like an automated process. So that. human interaction is needed to prevent and resolve claim issues 5. According to owner identification project certain part is not meet the model requirements. The claim comes from owner after completion the project. Hence it has no relation with BIM. Claim prevention and resolution are more physical negotiation process. In construction job site in a single moment so many works take place. General contractor take the physical dimension of the project and compare it with model dimension. After that. Crane position is also an important factor on job site to get the maximum output from that. Through BIM and Google earth site coordination and management are now faster and reliable. prevention and resolution are done by negotiation. So if there is any claim regarding project construction. If the claim comes from neighborhood on that case BIM can also provide necessary information in maximum aspects. BIM gives more advantages in claim management issues by technological support but cannot provide full solution. Site coordination job is related to the job trailer set up. In summary of claim management it might be wise to say that. They take a decision that both manual process and photography or laser scanning model compared with BIM model and solve this problem. Workers need materials and other stuffs close to their hand. In this way both owner and general contractor through the BIM model data solved this issue. BIM also has an intelligent model database which contains all the necessary data regarding project.12 Construction Project Site and Logistics Management in BIM Site coordination and logistics setting are also important in field construction.2. material placement. Later they also take photography and laser scanning model data and compared it with the model and found also 98% accuracy.

Page no-67 . Even through using Google earth and Google sketch up it also possible to set the model in the real place and analyze the site situation. Terrains and Architecture. Like the best or suitable place from which workers get maximum benefit. 2009 . set the site material and other equipments. Site Plans. For material transport such as readymade concrete and other materials which are not possible to store in site. on that case material radius measurement through Google earth makes difference in productivity. A guide for Modeling. BIM model are helping tool to set the logistics support like crane and other equipments.26 Model placed at real site to make site management plan For logistics. toilet trailer and other necessary facility. Figure 4. BIM provides support on logistics placement.Inc. For site planning model based analysis is create forecasting regarding project different works coordination. John Wiley and Sons.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 132 placement. BIM software models provide visual analysis to place these things according to location based schedule work.159 In this simulated model author also place the model in the real site to analyze the site condition and according to that. Through Google earth logistics plan can make according to judge the distance from the site and this information makes effective role on scheduling and material procurement. different types of equipment set up.Google Sketch Up For Site Design. ______________________ 159 Daniel Tal.

Figure 4. But before that.3 BIM Implementation in Post Construction After completing the construction stage general contractor has to hand over the project to the owner for occupancy. 5. general contractor has to perform some documentation and final inspection regarding check out and so on. But the final completion certificate provide by architect when the entire contract related paperwork has done.27 Logistics placement model in the site 5. Every project has such kind of minor errors. .Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 133 Through this way BIM based model analysis and other tools such as Google earth makes more efficient site and logistics plan. BIM has also identical role on project handover and facility management team take off the facility. On that time if they found some minor defects it called as punch-out. But before handover general contractor has to inspect everything that must meet the design quality and specification requirement.1 Handover Management in BIM After finishing the construction general contractor has to handover the project to the owner. After repairing or changing that places architect inspect everything and if that goes right architect issues a substantial completion certificate.3.

Commissioning is also an important stage in the handover period where general contractor has to show how to run the total facility equipment system. equipment manual. in addition excel based database can be made. More over if the model has database itself through different equipments name and function than it will make a digital location based facility equipment information. Hence the contribution of BIM in punch-out phase is negligible. It depends on contract that general contractor has to provide the model or just only document. In this section .Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 134 BIM makes a well organized documentation handover in this stage. can be used as an auxiliary tool to review the model. can take the advantage from BIM. But for inspection of the project for both architect and general contractor. thus already model has all the documents. Because BIM model data and laser scanning model data can help to find out the specification requirement problem and for quality also. operation manual right this moment is not possible to make such kind of database through BIM software. models. makes a clear idea to the government officials about the facility and according to their visit they can ensure about the model and real construction safety for occupancy. Certificate of occupancy is an important job before using the facility.2 Facility Management in BIM Facility management starts after hand over the project. Through this way author defines the documentation and handover phase in this simulated project. But for warranties. Because facility is construct according to the design drawing. 5. Through BIM this process takes less time and makes a digital documentation. drawings. equipment warranty list etc. where all the information will be written according to model location. As earlier mentioned BIM provides well documentation about drawings. But for that. On that time project team hand over all the documents. BIM based MEP models can make a good visual representation that helps people to understand about the facility equipment system. In the chapter no. To get this BIM model representation. Thus BIM makes a well representation of facility to understand the safety requirements meet or not. testing reports. two how BIM contribute in facility management describe briefly. Punch-out list comes from physical inspection and it‟s related with quality control of the project.3.

that they can take the necessary data from design model and make their own database. Besides that. early involvement of facility management team in the beginning of construction design. After getting the model design and specs. After completion the project they will add some additional information and by that they will make maintenance and further renovation if necessary. In this simulated model author makes the early involvement of facility management team in the design phase and solved this issue at the beginning phase of the project.» 135 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling author will demonstrate how BIM can provide facility management support in the simulated model. On the other hand they can use the construction model also. . models and other documents together and transfers it to the facility management team.. facility management team will make their own model or make a database through CAFM. The easy solution for that. But on that case the main problem is that.28 Facility management flowcharts in BIM Facility Manage. Design team and facility management team Facility documents in CAFM database Manual input construction data Facility Database Figure 4. After finishing the construction general contractor arranged all the drawings. Author followed the following pattern to get assistance from BIM to do the facility management. ment. general contractor provides a database of information regarding MEP. The simulated building model is a 2 storey building. General Contractor arranges a commissioning and provides training support to facility management team that they can take care of the facility. they have to own the software on that time which is a big issue and it will increase the expense to maintain the facility.

With visualization construction people need data. BIM is a present technological advancement in construction industry. Discussion and Conclusion Last four chapters demonstrate the relationship between construction project management and Building Information Modeling. These models are different from each other in functions. Thus BIM is widely used by designers. Through one change in design by any designer it can generate rest of changes very easily in the rest of design drawings. BIM is not yet developed properly as theoretically it termed. this relation sometimes not generic. To make these changes BIM is an effective tool. But visualization is not enough now. architectural. BIM is now getting the basic skeleton. Thus it can work as a complete design model. That one single model contains all the information. It‟s true that there is better coordination in data exchange that makes the collaboration in design team. Like for architectural work architect model. for MEP engineers MEP model. But the process in today‟s BIM technology is that. it‟s true that BIM makes a good visualization. The major fact is the development limitation of BIM. there are some identical proposals made by author for the future prospects of BIM. One single model has separate database for structural. 6. It gives the opportunity to make the simulation of the building. First of all. But the tool is not yet developed properly that AEC people can get the benefit in all the sector of construction industry. MEP model. Future BIM should develop like this. But there is a big prospect through BIM to make automation in construction industry. Now BIM models are individual model.1 Future BIM Construction Management The modification of construction industry is needed due to increase the productivity and keep pace with manufacturing industry. for structural engineer structural model. But it does not a complete solution for construction automation in every phase. Now the BIM developer needs to make this skeleton as a full structure. Through this thesis work. In these sections some lacking of BIM and future of BIM discussed.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 136 6. sometimes are superimposed. it can make change in a single model and then . But this process can be developed by making a composite model The future BIM model should be composite model. But the basic design data is same. which data‟s are intelligent and have the ability to change linked data through changing one data. But the fact is.

Post construction model will consist of all the design documents in a single file and helps to make punch out list through comparing the . and cost model. The idea is that. Construction model will be combination of time. Or it might be that. But if there is a single design model that have all the data. Through filtering that data different designer will make their individual model and send data on the main server. than one single change can change the whole model. Besides that. In this way the whole process will go on a single platform. It‟s also a tedious job. It has the total database of the project. separate models are also existing in that window. claim and site logistics model. one software have different window to make individual model and later merge it in a single model. risk. financial. environmental. procurement data. That model works as a composite or master model. safety. environmental data and all the aspect related to construction. It has cost data. Construction model Pre construction model Post Construction model Composite model Figure 5. risk data. when people need to go through they can see that model. procurement. But for that there should be separate model for every aspect. It contains the entire data related project. there should be a server of models where the skeleton of structure made at first and then different people will make it as a complete structure and it will work as a database.1 Composite model concept The preconstruction model will be consist of design (architect. Composite model means not just only contain the design data.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 137 again has to transfer the modified model data to the rest of models to make changes. safety data. structural and MEP).

Through using that model. ERP or enterprise resource planning probably brings the solution. There should be a question how to make the database of BIM. The concepts of BIM server is that. It might be wise if facility manager can involved earlier and through all the model information they make their own model and merge it to the composite model.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 138 original model and checking through laser scanning data. But the composite model will build after getting all the data‟s. facility manager take it on their server or CAFM system. But it is possible to combine this by changing their architecture. When the model will complete. So if the BIM 3D intelligent data model and ERP can combine together it will make efficient result through BIM server which will make the real automation in the construction management approach. By using ERP and BIM it‟s possible to provide information in all the stages with combining some . The complete BIM server platform will be worked as a composite model. Through this way BIM server provides necessary information or data throughout the full construction process. The second concept of BIM server is that. After that all the information will be transferred to facility manager that. ERP system has own interface to query and extract data and make data flow in necessary areas. There is a solution to include MIS system with BIM. It‟s not only just adding information. It will also possible to get the data access from that server. This BIM server also linked with the composite model. it will act as a central database where all the data will store and after that it will filter that data and provide in next stages. The future BIM should have connection with GIS like Google Earth software and 3D laser scanning data that any real time information can put in the model. This one is a big subject to illustrate the view how to combine both ERP and BIM. BIM server will be the system of enriching or extracting model information that can be used in various stages of the project. either it will be an open source of platform where architect will made the model or the frame of the model and than in later stages rest of designers or users will reach that database with adding information. can make the view of real scenario and reduce different risks. BIM server collect that model and grab all the information inside it and stored it on the database or it can be worked as a data warehouse. It will determine the data need for the next stage by query that information and after that flow information to make that certain model.

like house. The idea by author for that is. Through BIM construction automation can be possible.2 BIM server data collection and transfer model Construction automation can be another future aspect of BIM. if the structure is precast concrete than with this BIM support construction automation can be possible. As a simple example so called “Lego toys” where there are different parts of this toy and they have to make the toy like a house by combining different parts of that house. After that each element has a RFID tag according to the model data like a number. Facility management model data Pre construction data Query and filter data BIM server/ BIM datawarehouse Post construction documentation model data Query and filter data Query and filter data Design data model Query and filter data Construction management data model Figure 5. read the RFID tag and put it on the . Than an automated crane select the elements.» 139 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling other plug-in tools like Google earth. There are matching toys for child. CityGML data. On that time there will be real interoperability with different software. Children‟s are matching that toy to make different structure. Like this if the model made by BIM and the whole model is divided into some manageable parts for precast into factory.

The idea for that is. Some people thought construction management will start at the construction stage. But author has different opinion. It‟s not a complete automated process. Hopefully through that the productivity of construction industry will increase much more than today‟s progress. after making the building or facility now has to check the quality of the building in materials or in dimension. Then both models can be checked together in a model checker and easily figure out the actual construction and the deserved construction. After that both data will transfer in CityGML format and make the 3D model through laser scanning. This should be future automation in construction industry with the support of BIM. Because without proper management from that time it will not possible to bring optimize result.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 140 right place. The starting time of construction management is differed to people. These are some ideas from author as an optimistic user of BIM. 6.2 Discussions and Results The main objective of this thesis paper is to demonstrate the way of using BIM in construction management. By scanning the total data of the building and by some kind of ray quality can also be judged. As earlier mentioned BIM is a supporting tool process. 3D laser scanning data and BIM can be used together for quality or design checking of the building. Thus here is a link construction management and BIM. It‟s not wise to spend 1 year for design and bid and later make hurry to make it in just 2 years. optimization or collaboration from the very beginning of the project. BIM brings that idea. It is a matter of researches that how to combine BIM technology with others to get a visualized intelligent support. The concept is that optimization should be from the very beginning. Construction management starts from the idea of the construction. This technology is not used today but author suggests it as a future technology by using BIM. This is possible through laser scanning of the building. It should be remember . As a simple example in the site management author used Google Sketch and Google Earth software. AEC people have to take the maximum advantage of this technology with some other helping tools. Both are not BIM solution but they are worked as helping tools for BIM model.

The main problem arise in the contract that who will bear the . Thus author has to take it on Revit architecture make it as DWG file format and then transfer it to the Google sketch up for uploading it on the real environment. But the fact is interoperability. Where AEC people have the knowledge of BIM and the whole construction work should be done in BIM approach through collaboration. But rest of other contract method has to modify for BIM implementable in construction. Microsoft excel and so on. In a summary of this can be said that. Some are technical. The answer of question three and four are also in chapter three and chapter four. First question was about the concept of BIM and construction management. It‟s not a big fact that current BIM solutions have no every features itself which required for total construction management. Some BIM solutions have limited interoperability. visual collaboration is the key concept of BIM and optimize the project from the beginning phase is the key concept of construction project management. Contract is a vital issue for implement of BIM. Site condition software‟s are working as auxiliary tools.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 141 that. Only IPD is defined as a BIM based contract. BIM worked as a model based visual tool to increase the productivity of construction through using it in various construction management phases. Current BIM solutions are not perfect to support the total construction management. There are limitations and problems in BIM current technology. But in a simple sentence the answer can be given as. Chapter no. As an example author made IFC file as a common format but in Google earth or sketch up it‟s not possible to upload IFC file. BIM make collaboration in this concept that it brings the entire stakeholder in one platform from the very beginning. these solutions need additional supports from other software like Google Earth. With using other tools in required format the process can be done. the model of building or infrastructure is the basic element to judge the construction. Through this way BIM brings continuous data exchange and information flow from inception to facility management of the construction. three has the answer of linkage of BIM and construction project management. some are financial and some of them are process based. The answer is spread throughout the work. Before making any criticism on BIM it‟s wise to look at the research questions and their answers.

Virtual management team and . In chapter four author give some solutions about this how to modify the general contracts by adding some clause and make it friendly for BIM implementable. BIM is a new technology with lots of potentiality itself.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 142 cost of BIM technology and exactly what should be the data details in the contract. Currently infrastructure projects are also using BIM as a technological advancement support. Thus BIM also needs a management. The concept is theoretically strong. It‟s a matter of time to get the full success from BIM. Bucharest stadium by Max Bögl etc. The answer of last question by analyzing the total construction process through BIM it found that. This can be termed as virtual management or BIM management. More over BIM is an expensive technology. It‟s not a single software or database that holds all the information. BIM provides benefit at the design stage of the construction by making collaboration with all kind of stakeholder of the project for better understanding and productivity in work. are the big advanced use of BIM in infrastructure projects. The practical application of this virtual management will be the field construction management. But the idea of BIM is to make it as an intelligent database for the facility which can be used by project stakeholders from the very beginning to the end of the facility. The software‟s are capable to do some part of construction management by itself and by taking help from other plug-in tool. BIM is not implementable only for building projects. BIM is not yet developed to support the total construction management right this moment. Like described in this paper horse shoe bridge in USA. The total BIM solution is a combination of several software solutions and each of them are highly cost able. Current BIM solutions are partially capable to do this but not exactly provide full support. But in construction management BIM is not a complete technology. So that interoperability of this software is also a big question. In chapter four these lacking and brief recommendation are given by author about this research question. construction project management is a vast area to manage where visualization and intelligent information provides support to manage this but there are so many lacking still now exist which should have to develop to bring total construction management through BIM. It‟s not productive for any contractor to change BIM software for every new contract. The main reason for this fragmentizes is that.

BIM work procedure should be continuous.Architectural requirement fulfill 3.Design integration BIM support Scope Management 1.Model based element quality data. More over cost data not reflect on the model No model based cost control 1. 2.Full support on design integrtaion Challenge to BIM 1. No clear statement about BIM costs and responsibilities Visualization is not perfect. manual control is needed with different other software Time management Scheduling Model based scheduling and simulation Quality management 1.Make separate quality database 2. These tables demonstrate the demand and support of BIM after analyzing the total construction management by BIM Management approach Integration Management Requirement support 1.Other contract method are not suitable for BIM.Feasibilty study 2. Provide digital design information for bid Cost management 1.Visualization support 1.IPD provides BIM based contract. Laser scanning model build up for measure quality and compare with BIM .Bid 1. model cannot identify every element.Total quality control 1.Quality measurement database unavailable 2.Cost estimation based cost control No support on cost control.Through Google earth and sketck up 2. They have linked with other software and that data change must be reflect on the total model Time should be measured from the inception of the project 1.» 143 Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling practical management team can be run by same people. So that it also a matter of give proper education to understand BIM. 3. Adding some additional legal clauses is possible to make BIM based contract where it should written who will bear the software cost and additional other expenses Up gradation on costing models that shows the cost and should have some plug-in tools with cost estimating software that one change on that software reflect on the model Cost estimation software should be model and data based.Contract method 2.Integration depends on owner requirements and also ability of the design firm 1. plug-in with BIM software that schematic design can analysis roughly at the feasibility stage 2. It‟s also a big reason.Zero defect 2. so that BIM based design firm should be choose 1.Model based cost estimation Information and quantity take off from the model and make cost estimation Cost Control 1.Not able to determine zero defect Recommendation 1.Google earth and sketch up are not intelligent BIM software 2. not to welcome this technology in construction management fully. Manual input is needed.

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Management
approach
Human
resource
management

Requirement
support
1.Skilled human
assigned
2. Project role
determined

BIM support

Communication
management

1.Communication
planning
2. Information share
3. Reporting

1.Intelligent
information share
2. Data exchange
support
3. Effective
collaboration by
sharing
information

Risk management

Risk measurement
in every stage of
construction

Model
based
simulation
and
analysis support

Safety management

Safety data

Model
based
visualization to
determine unsafe
zone

Environmental
management

Determine the
impact of
construction on
surrounding
environment

Visualized
construction site
analysis through
help of Google
earth

Procurement
management

1.Procured element
list

1. Model based
procured element
support through
BOQ

Financial
management

1.Financial control
2. Financial data
record

1. Support
through cost
model

1.Through cost
and time
estimating human
requirement
measurement
2. Data share to
assign role of the
human resource
3.Data
management
support for desk
management

Challenge to
BIM
1.No template
available to
assign people
2. Not able to
query data
3.Manual data
share support
4. No monitoring
and reporting
process on
project activities

Recommendation

1.Manual process
2. Not able to
filter data
3.No database to
store all the
design
information in a
single model
3. No voice
communication
Not able to
assign risk
assessment in
different stage
Not
able
to
provide
total
safety support

1. Composite model
2.BIM open server
3.BIM and MIS
linked together
4. Should provide
voice communication
support

No database
related
environmental
impact, like noise
measurement,
dust control etc
1. No automatic
data entry

1.No detail
information
related project
financial
condition.

1. MIS and BIM
should be together to
manage human
resource more
effectively

1.Separtae risk
analysis model

1.Naviswork safety
rule check
2. Element safety data
3. Instrument manual
4. safety information
database and share
1.Should be checked
at the design stage by
different analysis
BIM solution

1. RFID tag or bar
code to entry the
procured model in the
database of the model
2. Qulaity checking in
the procurement stage
1. Financial software
should merge with
BIM cost model to
make efficient report
to determine financial
condition of the
project.

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Management
approach
Claim management

BIM support

Site and logistics
management

Requirement
support
1.Claim from owner
2.Claim from
general contractor
3.Claim from third
party
1.Site planning
2.Logistics planning

1. Model place in
the real
construction site

1. No separate
tools for design
site and logistics

Handover
management

1.Documentation
2.Punchout list

Model based
complete
documentation

Facility
management

1.Facility over all
data

Model based
design data

Construction
management
incomplete
documentation
Facility
management
model

1.Visualized
model based
claim analysis

Challenge to
BIM
1. No decision
support

Recommendation
It‟s a physical
judgment procedure
and BIM helps to
make a good
judgment
Google earth and
BIM work together to
assign a real site and
logistic plan
Composite
model
documentation

CAFM and BIM
model can combine
together

Table 5.1 BIM support in overall construction management

In previous table the total strength of BIM in construction management is came out. Through
this analysis it found that BIM is enough good to increase the productivity of construction
industry by providing collaboration. This thesis paper demonstrates that the synchronization
of construction management is possible through BIM but it needs some additional software
support. Currently the situation of BIM in total construction industry is that BIM is the
solution of construction problems but need to make it more advanced with diminishing the
implementable physical and technical problems like contractual, interoperability,
advancement with new tools and all over on combining MIS and BIM together to make a
central database.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

» 146

6.3 Conclusion

BIM or Building Information Modeling is the technological demand of present construction
industry. But unfortunately it is used in some particular areas of construction. Such as
design, cost and time management and little bit in facility management.
Meanwhile the prospect of BIM is much wider. For that the first thing necessary is to
understand the possibilities where it can be applicable. Right this moment it‟s true that BIM
cannot able to manage the total construction management itself. But it should be remember
that BIM is a technological support tool to bring productivity. It does not itself as a
systematic process. BIM brings efficiency with a systematic process and it also depends on
the user creativity. At this moment BIM is in an initial stage. Thus it needs help from other
software such as Google earth for real time visualization.
BIM or Building Information Modeling is a visualization and collaboration technique which
has the prospect to bring automation in construction from the design to completion phase of
the project. Currently all over the world BIM is used in construction process but not with full
utilization power.
The aspect of this paper is to demonstrate the way of using BIM in construction
management. Well BIM has limitation or is developing itself. Besides that it‟s possible to
use BIM in the construction management phases with the help of some other software. It
might not bring total automation management in construction but it can show the future
construction automation. Construction management process is a complicated process where
lots of personnel are involved. To maintain or synchronize construction project work exact
data or information in a short time is mandatory. Through this work it‟s now clear that BIM
can meet the demand of exact information in a short time. More over data transfer or share is
also a big aspect in management. BIM brings efficiency on it with IFC also. Still now
interoperability is a concerning matter but its developing. Manufacturing industries
productivity increased due to use of technological support where construction industries are
now intending to take this support. BIM is a technique or supporting process which increase
productivity like manufacturing industries.

The way showed this paper is a way to use BIM in construction management while it‟s a urge that research work are more necessary on it to bring automated construction. Construction industries have to use this technology with the help of other technologies to synchronize construction management work from now and should have to contribute developing this technology. . It will not be wise to wait until the full automation technology discovered.Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling » 147 At the end to say about BIM is that. BIM is the future of construction but the beginning should start from now. Because BIM will take the lead on that automation process.

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