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CAL ANDERSON PARK

LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

CAL ANDERSON PARK

LIGHTING MASTER PLAN


prepared for:
Capitol Hill Chamber of Commerce
prepared by:
dark | light design
December 2015

dark | light

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
04 AERIAL VIEW
05 SUMMARY
06 INTRODUCTION
07 BACKGROUND

surrounding influence

park zones
entrances

circulation paths

park furniture
13 EXISTING CONDITIONS

existing light levels
14 LIGHTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
glare

light pollution
17 CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES

CPTED recommendations

18 LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS

lighting zones
pathway
landscape
architectural
entrances
11th avenue
29 COST ESTIMATES

CONTENTS | 3

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

AERIAL VIEW

ol

iv

ay

e john st

12th ave

11th ave

broadway

e denny way

e pine st

e pike st

so
di

st

em

NOT TO SCALE

AERIAL VIEW | 4

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

SUMMARY
This Lighting Master Plan (the Plan) was developed through a process
involving the Capitol Hill Chamber of Commerce, Capitol Hill Arts District,
the Seattle Neighborhood Groups CPTED Advisor, and the dark | light
design team.
The Plan proposes lighting improvements for the park based upon
current lighting technologies and safety considerations. The goal of the
proposed improvements is to address the visual needs of park visitors,
enhance the nighttime experience of the landscape, and reinforce the
historic character of the parks design.
The Plan presents overall concepts for luminaires, light sources, and
illumination levels. It also presents detailed recommendations to serve as
a framework for future lighting improvements.
Implementation of the Plan presented in this document is pending project
funding and detailed design and engineering.

SUMMARY | 5

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

INTRODUCTION
Today Cal Anderson Park is home to over 10 acres of beloved
public space within one of Seattles densest and fastest growing
neighborhoods, Capitol Hill.
Its history began in 1901 as Lincoln Reservoir. It wasnt until 1904, when
the Olmsted brothers surveyed and redesigned the park to include a
public play field, that it became a community gathering place. By 1922,
its popularity garnered it a new name, the Broadway Play field.
In 2003 the reservoir was covered, opening up space for expanses of
open lawn areas, a reflection pool, childrens playground, and winding
paths. The space of Cal Anderson Park is treasured as a breath of fresh
air from the intensity and density of the surrounding neighborhood and
city beyond. It acts as an outdoor living room and common ground for
many of the residents of, and visitors to, Capitol Hill.

1904

1992

1995

2002

INTRODUCTION | 6

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

BACKGROUND

SURROUNDING INFLUENCE

expected 2016

e denny way

12th ave

11th ave

nagle pl

broadway

e howell st

e olive st

e pine st

The above graphic indicates the various uses of buildings


surrounding Cal Anderson Park. Today the southwest corner,
adjacent to Seattle Central Community College and various
commercial businesses, has a substantial influence on the Park
as a heavily used entrance point.
Currently, the northern edges of the park are surrounded
primarily by residential uses, making the north end of the
park much quieter throughout the day and night. However,
the anticipated 2016 opening of the Sound Transit station will
drastically increase pedestrian activity at the north end of the
park.

RETAIL / DINING
ART VENUES + RESOURCES
EDUCATION
TRANSIT STATION
RELIGIOUS CENTERS / COMMUNITY
SERVICES
CLOSED TO PUBLIC

BACKGROUND | 7

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

BACKGROUND
PARK ZONES

(zones ordered below from North to South as


listed on map)

sound transit hub: underground


boarding at the corner of Broadway and
East John St.; projected that by 2030,
14,000 riders will board daily; service is
expected to begin in 2016
landmark heritage tree: a Chinese
Scholar Tree has been designated one
of the oldest and largest of its kind in
Washington
water features: the fountain, texture
pool, and reflection pool compose
a reminder of the reservoir that lies
beneath the park as well as a common
point of relaxation for visitors on
surrounding benches
gate house: this building contains
working equipment for the reservoir,
and dates back to the original Lincoln
Reservoir; a vital element to views
throughout and across the park
childrens playground: a variety of play
equipment screened from other park
uses by planters and retaining walls
wading pool: open during the daytime
in the summer season
sunbowl: sloped area of open lawn;
home to summer outdoor film series
among other public gatherings
shelterhouse: a 900 square foot space
for meetings and events; opposite the
shelterhouse lies a public restroom;
between the restroom is a trellis covered
plaza with occasional seating and a
ping-pong table
courts: fenced courts for a variety of
games including tennis, basketball, and
dodgeball
play field: home to baseball and soccer
fields

BACKGROUND | 8

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

BACKGROUND
PARK ZONES

SOUND TRANSIT HUB


(PROJECTED RENDERING, SDOT)

HERITAGE TREE

FOUNTAIN

TEXTURE POOL

REFLECTION POOL

GATE HOUSE

CHILDRENS PLAYGROUND

WADING POOL

SUNBOWL

SHELTERHOUSE

COURTS

PLAYFIELD

BACKGROUND | 9

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

BACKGROUND
ENTRANCES
10

DENNY WAY / 10TH AVE

NAGLE PL / HOWELL ST

NAGLE PL NORTH OF COURTS

DENNY WAY / 11TH AVE

11TH AVE / HOWELL ST

11TH AVE / OLIVE ST

angle of arrow aligns with angle


photograph is taken from
size of circle references relative
popularity of use

NAGLE PL NEAR COURTS

PINE ST / NAGLE PL

11TH AVE RAMP ACCESS

PINE ST / 11TH AVE

BACKGROUND | 10

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

BACKGROUND

CIRCULATION PATHS
East to West routes at Howell Street
and Olive Street are often used by those
passing directly through the park. The
winding paths of the park more naturally
cater to a slower circulation that allows
visitors to stop along the path, rest on
park furniture, or cross into open grass
spaces.

primary frequently used, an arterial


means of circulation
secondary leisurely use of path, and
stoppage along it
tertiary infrequently used

BACKGROUND | 11

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

BACKGROUND
PARK FURNITURE

Furniture locations are recorded as a


way of understanding where people
gather formally. As the map indicates,
the highest density of resting locations
occurs around the texture and reflection
pools.

BACKGROUND | 12

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

EXISTING CONDITIONS
LIGHT LEVELS

Recorded light levels are measured


in footcandles and taken on April 08
between 9:30 and 10:30PM.
Measurements taken with a Konica
Minolta Illuminance Meter T-10A, last
calibrated on 08/15/2014.

A high contrast lighting


condition on the
shelterhouse patio
below the trellis is
created by narrow
beams of light.

EXISTING CONDITIONS | 13

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


With an understanding of the existing conditions and neighborhood
context of the park, options for lighting improvements have been
developed for multiple park areas and elements.
The goal of the proposed lighting improvements is to enhance the park
after dark by creating an inviting and comfortable environment. Providing
adequate light for safe passage is important, and this is already provided
in many areas of the park. However, simply providing enough light is not
enough to create an environment that invites users to stop and enjoy the
park, or create visibility in the distance to invite them to other elements
within the park.
The lighting improvements proposed in this plan aim to address multiple
issues within the park by reducing glare to improve visual comfort and
visual acuity, increase contrast on surfaces to create visual interest,
increase light levels where they are deficient to increase visibility and
security, and highlight architectural elements within the park to create an
increased sense of place at night.

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


GLARE

Glare can create an after-dark environment where safety and security


are impacted by affecting park users visual acuity, as well as create an
uncomfortable environment that does not reinforce positive behaviors.
A CPTED analysis conducted for Cal Anderson Park indicates that the
globe shaped pole-mounted luminaires in the park impose glare upon
park visitors from every angle.
Utilitizing luminaires with improved shielding will minimize undesirable
sightlines which impair vision and increase visual comfort.

OMNIDIRECTIONAL

SEMI-DIRECTIONAL

DIRECTIONAL

LIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


LIGHT POLLUTION

Light pollution is an issue in the urban environment. Electric lighting


being either directly released above the horizon, or reflected off of
surrounding surfaces, is partially responsible for reducing urban
residents ability to viewthe night sky. To reduce light pollution, lighting
equipment must be carefully specified and installed. Omnidirectional
luminaires, such as the round globes installed at the Park, are a common
cause of urban skyglow.
The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) address
skyglow in their Recommended Practice publication RP-33-14 Lighting
for Exterior Environments. The recommended methods for reducing light
pollution are summarized below:
+ minimize upward emissions

Design exterior lighting to minimize, or eliminate where

possible, upward emissions. Ideally, light output will not exceed a

45 angle from the target surface.
+ minimize non-target lighting

Upward lighting systems must be designed to minimize light

that trespasses beyond the target (examples include sign lighting

or architectural features). Many manufacturers offer attachments

such as snoots or baffles that will direct the light where needed

and eliminate indirect spill.
+ do not over light
Use no higher light level than is needed for the activities
occurring in the space.

OMNIDIRECTIONAL
OMNIDIRECTIONAL LIGHTING AND THE SKYGLOW EFFECT

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES


CPTED RECOMMENDATIONS

Action items found within the Draft CPTED Recommendations for Cal
Anderson Park: Natural Surveillance & Territorial Definition After Dark
+ lighting equipment must:

(1) be vandal proof as much as possible and

(2) not produce glare
+ perimeter recommendations:

(1) no glare exposure at eye level (north and east)

(2) delineate park boundary with light (north and east)

(3) explore lighting in tree canopies (east)

(4) illuminate new pump house structure (west)
+ entrance recommendations:
(1) integrate path, surface, and landscape lighting

(2) replace historical replica globes with a less glaring luminaire
+ interior recommendations:
(1) use fully shielded and full cutoff fixtures

(2) apply additional path lighting throughout the park

(3) support focal points throughout the park

(4) provide very low levels of light in the childrens play area to

allow passerbyers to observe problems

(5) use step-down lighting to support dark adaptation as people

transition into darker areas near the play field

CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES | 17

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
LIGHTING ZONES

pathway: primary goals within the circulation zones of the park are to
increase the amount of light on the path surface, decrease glare in the
visual field, and, in the same location, increase contrast on the path
surface to create a processional pattern on the pathway.
landscape: several peripheral landscape zones throughout the park
offer an opportunity to light plants and trees to increase comfort and
feelings of security in especially dark areas.
architectural: the fountain, gatehouse, and shelterhouse are
architectural elements that are visible from many viewpoints throughout
the park. Applying light to these features will enhance the sense of place
in the parks nighttime environment by providing visual points of interest
throughout the park.
entrances: lighting at the various entrances to the park should be
welcoming while reducing the glare problem that currently exists.
Additionally, visual consistency between entry points is important for a
cohesive park identity.
11th ave: the pedestrian sidewalk along the 11th avenue park edge is in
need of increased lighting at the walking surface for safety reasons. To
further increase the quality of space, lighting of the trees overhead and
other landscape elements is recommended.

PATHWAY, ENTRANCES
LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURAL
11th AVENUE

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 18

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
PATHWAY

OPTION 1
LED LIGHT ENGINE RETROFIT
retrofit globes with downward-directed LED
light engines, addition of supplemental in-grade
directional marker lights

OPTION 2
LED LUMINAIRE WITH DIRECT DISTRIBUTION
replace globe luminaires with a historically
referential direct LED fixture, addition of
supplemental in-grade directional marker lights

OPTION 3
LED FLOODLIGHT ADDITION
refurbish existing globe luminaires, mount a
small scale LED flood light at the base of the
globe to aim at the path directional marker lights

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 19

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
PATHWAY
01 / LED LIGHT ENGINE RETROFIT

An LED retrofit atop the existing pole and


beneath identical diffusers can be specified
to direct light down onto the path. This
recommendation includes replacing the globes.

AMERLUX AVISTA

input: 40W
output: 3500 lumens
color temperature: 3500K
CRI: 80+
additional: asymmetric distribution option
available
PROS:
+ no changes to the existing form, easing
approval process
+ higher light levels on ground than existing
condition
+ increased color rendering
+ longer life than existing source
CONS:
- does not change problem of discomfort
glare in field of vision across the park
- light levels are still very uniform,
reinforcing lack of visual interst

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS

PATHWAY
02 / LED LUMINAIRE WITH DIRECT DISTRIBUTION
New lens technology can offer the soft
appearance of indirect illumination but with the
energy efficacy of a direct luminaire. Surface
brightness (or luminance) is measured in
candela per square meter. Available materials
will reduce this glare indicating value in a direct
luminaire by 76%, with only a 21% reduction in
light output. These reductions are capable of
vastly improving both the quality of light and the
environment being lit.

STERNBERG EURO WITH SOFTVUE LENS

input: 40W
output: 2000 lumens
color temperature: 3500K
CRI: 80+
additional: soft-view diffusion lens
PROS:
+ only 1% uplight
+ minimimal glare, soft view lens
CONS:
- a luminaire form change may mean
some difficulty getting approval from some
reviewing bodies

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 21

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
PATHWAY
03 / LED FLOOD LIGHT ADDITION

The installation of a small LED floodlight at the


top of each existing pole is a way of creating
processional pools of light throughout the paths
in the park. This method is a relatively low cost
way of aiding wayfinding within the park. Basic
relamping of the existing globes included in this
scheme.

BK DELTASTAR

input: 8W
output: 350 lumens
color temperature: 3500K
CRI: 90+
optic: medium flood
additional: include 45 cap and
honeycomb baffle

PROS:
+ increases light level on the
pathway
+ processional pools of light on
path surfaces aid in wayfinding
throughout the park
CONS:
- intensive installation process
- does not reduce existing glare from
globe fixtures

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 22

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
PATHWAY - WAYFINDING LAYER

Marker lights placed periodically between poles


are a way of adding a wayfinding pattern layer
on certain pathways to the relatively even path
illumination of schemes one and two. These
may be limited to major circulation pathways (at
Howell and Olive Street), along with the walkway
around the water feature) to increase light levels
and contribute to placemaking on those routes.

WE-EF EFC120

input: 10W
output: 750 lumens
color temperature: 3500K
CRI: 80+
additional: single sided distribution

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 23

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
PATHWAY
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON PLANS
0 / EXISTING CONDITION

1 / LED LIGHTING ENGINE RETROFIT WITH MARKER LIGHTS

2 / LED LUMINAIRE WITH DIRECT DISTRIBUTION WITH MARKER LIGHTS


ILLUMINANCE
(footcandles)
2.00+
1.75
3 / LED FLOOD LIGHT ADDITION

1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 24

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS

PATHWAY
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON AXONOMETRICS
0 / EXISTING CONDITION

1 / LED LIGHTING ENGINE RETROFIT

ILLUMINANCE
(footcandles)
2 / LED LUMINAIRE WITH DIRECT DISTRIBUTION

2.00+
1.75
1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75

3 / LED FLOOD LIGHT ADDITION

0.50
0.25
0

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS | 25

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
LANDSCAPE

Poles with multiple adjustable fixtures located


throughout the landscapes are a way of
lighting through the trees and casting light onto
especially dark patches of sidewalk or grass.
Pole locations are envisioned adjacent to
existing plantings or pathway edges.

BK DELTASTAR SHOWN

input: 8W
output: 350 lumens
color temperature: 3500K
CRI: 90+
optic: spot
additional:
- 12 tall aluminum tapered pole, 4
diameter at base
- four flood lights mounted 10 or
higher
- include 45 cap and a
honeycomb baffle

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
ARCHITECTURAL
FOUNTAIN
The currently installed fountain
luminaires are not operational. This
could be because they need relamping
or because the fixtures have failed. In
any case, to ensure long-lived operation,
the fixtures should be replaced with a
similarly performing fixture with an LED
light source.
GATEHOUSE
Applying light to the gatehouse will
create a visual anchor visible throughout
the park. Linear LED light tape in an
aluminum extrusion can be mounted
around the cornice to create a soft
ring of light at the top of the building.
Additional LED lighting can be installed
along the base of each windowsill to
light up in the arched cavities. These
simple treatments will softly illuminate
the architecture of the gatehouse
without creating an overwhelming visual
element within the nighttime landscape.
SHELTERHOUSE
The evening lighting conditions of the
shelterhouse plaza should reflect its
significance as a communal gathering
place. Currently, the high contrast
lighting conditions of the space make
it an undesirable place to be. Installing
narrow beam luminaires to light the
side of each column (to highlight
architecture), as well as several wide
beam downlights throughout the space
(to provide task illumination), will lower
contrast and create more inviting layers
of light.

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

LIGHTING RECOMMENDATIONS
ENTRANCES

The globe diffusers at the various entrances to the park


require replacement due to damage or vandalism. Changing
the light source to achieve color temperature consistency
with other fixtures in the park should be considered as well.
To create a more welcoming entry experience, the stone
pedestals at the base of the poles can be uplit. This will give
more visual weight to the entry points and highlight the stone
material of the base to create a more inviting entry condition.

11TH AVENUE
The multihead poles shown on page 24 can be applied to the landscaping on the
western side of the 11th Avenue sidewalk to alleviate the darkness on both the
ground surface and the greenery overhead. Providing light in multiple directions
serves two purposes: illuminates the sidewalk surface, which is uneven and a
trip hazard, and providing light on vegetation, which surrounds and covers the
sidewalk, to increase the perception of security.
Mounting fixtures in the boulevard strip on the east side of the sidewalk would be
challenging, given that because this area is within the right-of-way, lighting would
typically be provided by Seattle City Light, which has a very limited palette of
pedestrian-scale fixtures available for use, and mounting locations, given current
tree locations, would be difficult to find.

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CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

COST ESTIMATES
Price estimates below indicate currently-researched product costs, installation expenses,
and an estimated contingency to account for permitting, design fees, escalation, and
unexpected installation conditions.

PRICE ESTIMATES BY ZONE

PATHWAY

LANDSCAPE

ARCHITECTURAL

scheme 01
LED light engine retrofit

$120,000

scheme 02
LED direct luminaire

$210,000

scheme 03
LED flood light attachment

$105,000

marker lights (qty. 64)

$145,000

12 multihead poles (qty. 25)

$385,000

fountain

$105,000

gatehouse

$70,000

shelterhouse

$15,000

pedestal uplights (qty. 15)

$45,000

lamp and globe replacements

$15,000

ENTRANCES

11th AVENUE

12 multihead poles

cost included in
Landscape estimate

TOTAL PRICE ESTIMATES


OPTION 01
LED light engine retrofit, with
marker lights

OPTION 02
LED direct luminaire, with
marker lights

OPTION 03
LED flood light attachment

$870,000

$960,000

$780,000

COST ESTIMATES | 29

dark | light

CAL ANDERSON PARK - LIGHTING MASTER PLAN

END OF DOCUMENT