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Among multicarrier transmission techniques, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most popular one of that uses parallel data streams in communication system for its ability to enhance the data rate. This paper concerned with comparison of the performance of OFDM system using different modulation schemes under influence AWGN and Rayleigh fading channel. Simulations of OFDM signals are carried out with Rayleigh faded signals to understand the effect of channel coding and to produce optimum value of Bit Error Rate (BER). Evaluate with applying the ½ rate convolutional code (CC) for Rayleigh channel in order to optimize the error correction of the information bit in conjunction with Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. The simulation is done on MATLAB software.

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Channel

Pradini Puspitaningayu1, Faisal Aries Ramadhany2, Ahmadan Ainul Fikri3, Rosmita

Dwijayanti4

1,2,3

Jalan Ketintang, Surabaya

1

pradinip@unesa,ac,id, 2

faisalaries8@gmail.com,ahmadanainulfikrii@gmail.com, rosmita.dwijayanti@gmail.com

Abstract Among multicarrier transmission

techniques, Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most popular one of

that uses parallel data streams in communication

system for its ability to enhance the data rate. This

paper concerned with comparison of the

performance of OFDM system using different

modulation schemes under influence AWGN and

Rayleigh fading channel. Simulations of OFDM

signals are carried out with Rayleigh faded signals

to understand the effect of channel coding and to

produce optimum value of Bit Error Rate (BER).

Evaluate with applying the rate convolutional

code (CC) for Rayleigh channel in order to

optimize the error correction of the information

bit in conjunction with Quadrature Phase Shift

Keying (QPSK) modulation. The simulation is

done on MATLAB software.

(AWGN),

Rayleigh

Fading

Channel,

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM), Convolutional Code (CC).

1.

packet loss, bit loss BER and SNR as compared

to AWGN channel which shows that Rayleigh

Channel is better than AWGN channel. This

research still only focus on the comparing

which is the best channel using in OFDM with

QPSK, and did not give a solution to correcting

errors in the transmission communication

process of the information bit.

Digital communications can use a

transmission technique that is Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

which is sending data in parallel. OFDM itself

is a multicarrier transmission technique, which

the spectrum is broken into multiple subcarriers

and on each subcarrier is modulated to the low

rate using QPSK modulation. Convolutional

coding is one part of the coding techniques that

help the working of channel coding in order to

work optimally that generated from wave and

the forward error correction techniques.

INTRODUCTION

Telecommunication

technology

nowadays requires more and more reliability

security to ensure the information can be sent

with minimal errors. Many methods were

developed, from optimizing a modulation

technique, until providing a channel encoder in

a set of communication system.

As one of the most promising

multiplexing

and

modulation

methods,

orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

(OFDM) also offers higher reliability and

capacity increase. It sends data in parallel by

dividing the whole channel into subcarriers.

Each subcarrier has a narrow bandwidth which

makes signals more durable from frequency

selective caused by multiple delay spread.

Sharma, et all [3] in their research

analyzed the OFDM with QPSK using AWGN

and Rayleigh fading Channel. It came up with a

OFDM system performance with 1/2 rate

convolutional coding and using different

modulation schemes between AWGN and

Rayleigh Fading Channel. From those different

modulation schemes, we will perform its

performance to produce optimum value of Bit

Error Rate (BER) function. The obtained results

then have the ability to give recommendation

which one is the most suitable scheme for a

OFDM system in communication process.

2.

Telecommunication

systems

development are growing rapidly with the

presence of digital communication. In this

digital communication data transmission had a

slight change and adopts a little from analog

has little interference with the data transmission.

A. System Model

techniques, namely Single Tone Jamming (STJ)

and Multi Tone Jamming (MTJ). Single Tone

Jamming is transmitted on a single frequency

shown in Figure 2. Thus, the jamming signal is a

continuous tone wave that placed on a single

frequency. STJ also called Jamming spot.

transmission technique with a lot of frequency

(multicarrier) perpendicular (orthogonal) which

is called OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing). In OFDM modeling

input data containing bits of information that

generated randomly and uniformly distributed

then encoded by convolutional encoder with

rate and constraint length 7. Once the input

data is sent in parallel that have previously been

in the serial to parallel converter (S/P)

according to the number of subcarriers used

which is 48 and the number of data symbols on

each subcarrier which is 64, then that input data

will be modulated on QPSK

In QPSK there are four different output

phases, then there must be four different input

conditions. To produce four different input

conditions more than a single bit have to be

used. Using 2 bits, there are four possible

conditions: 00, 01, 10 and 11. The next process

is Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) and

guard interval addition in the form of Cyclic

Prefix (CP) with a length of 1/8 of the number

of IFFT points. Then data passes Rayleigh

channel contained Jamming and the input data

is received by the recipient. After that proceed

with cyclic prefix removal, FFT which the data

is passed back to the data series and

subsequently occur demodulation then the data

will be compared with the data input data to get

the number of Bit Error Rate (BER). The

explanation is illustrated in Figure 1.

j(t )= Acos(2 ft +)

(1)

Where:

A

= Amplitude

f

= STJ Frequency

B. Jamming

Jamming is a disturbance at the time of

receiving and sending data that effected by

receive the data signal due to interference from

signals.

An

early

stage

of

uniform

C. Orthogonal

Frequency

Division

Multiplexing (OFDM)

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing) is a transmission technique that

uses some mutually perpendicular frequencies

(orthogonal). Data transmission is done

paralleled on a frequency domain. Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a

multicarrier transmission, whereby existing

spectrum is divided into several subcarriers of

each subcarrier and modulated by the data

stream at a low rate.

D.

Modulation

QPSK modulation is a type of

modulation

M-Quadrature

Amplitude

Modulation (QAM) with M=4. Input bit binary

split into two transmission channels, namely

baseband I and Q, then the channel is converted

into a signal by the PAM signal converter, from

a binary signal which has an amplitude of +1

and 0, to L-level signal which has amplitude +

(L -1) and - (L - 1), can be called with 2 to L

Converter, where the value of L = 2k / 2. Once

the signal had converted into a signal PAM, then

modulated by the balanced modulator with Sin

then summed linearly, into a signal I + jQ and

signals turn into modulated signals M-QAM.

Has four symbols that have the same

amplitude with different phase. The fourth

symbol is formed from a group of two input

bits, so there are four possible conditions, there

are 00, 01, 10 and 11. Each bit produces one of

four possible phases, so the output rate is half of

the input rate.

input data sequence is n bits. The code rate :

E.

sequence into code n sequences using k n

matrix transfer function G (D). In this study,

In the OFDM system, the relationship of

the subcarriers orthogonal can be implemented

using Fourier transformation, in which the

transmitter side OFDM (modulator) using

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) to

convert the signal with frequency domain to the

time domain, while at the receiving side OFDM

(Demodulator) using Fast Fourier Transform

(FFT) to convert the signal back into the domain

frequency.

IFFT and FFT make the equation for

modulation and demodulation process becomes

simpler and easily applied on the OFDM

system.

F.

Convolutional Coding

Convolutional Coding is a part of the

coding techniques that can help the working

channel coding in order to work optimally that

generated from waves and Forward Error

Correction (FEC) technique. Convolutional

Coding itself is often used on the system when

the system SNR is low. Then coding techniques

check the errors on the transmission of

information bits. Convolutional coder able to

check e bit error of each 4k bits, where k is the

solution to 2k = the number of nodes (state).

R = k / n ..(3)

The parameter N is called the constraint length

and indicates the number of input data bits that

the current output is dependent upon. The

constraint length determines how powerful and

complex the code is.

1

2

G.

Parameter Simulation

important parameters. First thing to consider is

the simulation is performed in baseband

equivalent model. The channel coding used is

convolutional coding with half rate, 7 constraint

length and [171 131] as the polynomial

generator. The modulation technique is 16QAM with 48 subcarriers and 64 points of

IFFT/FFT. The cyclic prefix is 25% of the FFT

points, with Eb/N0 are between 0 40 dB. The

used channel in the simulation is assumed

priority Rayleigh channel. The jamming

strategies are single-tone and multitone

jamming.

.(2)

dmin is the shortest distance between two

lines with the same start and end nodes on the

trellis diagram. dmin is also the shortest distance

between zero track and the other track on the

trellis diagram that starts at node 0 (time 0) and

ends at node 0 (next time).

A convolutional code is generated by

passing the information sequence through a

finite state shift register. In general, the shift

register contains N k-bit stages and m linear

algebraic function generators based on the

generator polynomials. The input data is shifted

into and along the shift register, k bits at a time.

discusses all of the results obtained by the

computer simulation program written in

Matlab7.9.0, following the analytical approach

of a wireless communication system

considering AWGN, Rayleigh Fading Channel.

A test case is considered with the synthetically

generated data. The results are represented in

terms of bit energy to noise power spectral

density ratio (Eb/No) and bit error rate (BER)

for practical values of system parameters.

A.

channel and Rayleigh Fading Channel.

convolutional coding and interleaver with jamming insertion

matrix was the 8x8 compared to 4x4 and 16x16

when the system was attacked by single-tone

jamming.

channel is better than Rayleigh-fading channel.

But this is the closest approach to the real

condition that when a signal is passed into the

channel, it will surely experience fading. From

now on, the rayleigh-fading approach will be

used for the following simulations.

B. BER Comparison in Rayleigh Fading

Channel between system with and without

convolutional coding and interleaver.

0

10

-1

10

-2

BER

10

-3

10

-4

10

no codec

code rate 1/2

code rate 2/3

rate 1/2 with interleaver

rate 2/3 with interleaver

-5

10

-6

10

8

Eb/No (dB)

10

12

14

16

convolutional coding and interleaver addition

coding with rate and interleaver has the best

performance compared to other coding rate.

C. BER comparison between system with

convolutional coding inserted jamming and

system with convolutional coding without

jamming.

Single-tone Jamming

10

-1

BER

10

-2

10

-3

10

Interleaver 4x4

Interleaver 8x8

Interleaver 16x16

-4

10

8

10

Eb/No (dB)

12

14

16

18

IV. CONCLUSION

By looking for those simulation results, it

can be concluded that system with

convolutional coding and interleaver performs

best in rayleigh-fading channel to overcome the

effect of random error and burst error.

The best convolutional coding rate was

and the best interleaver matrix was 8x8. It

means that this formula is the most

recommended to be applied on OFDM-based

communication system.

REFERENCES

[1] Proakis, John G., Digital Communications,

Third edition, New York, McGraw Hill, 1995.

[2]Gitlin, Richard D., Jeremiah F. Hayes, and

Stephen B. Weinstein, Data Communications

Principles, New York, Plenum Press, 1992.

[3]. G.F. Elmasry,l Comparative Review of

Commercial vs. Tac tica I Wi re less Networks,

IEEE Communication Magazine, October

201O.

[4]. R. Prasad, OFDMlor llireless

Communicotion System, Artech House,2fiX

[5]. J.G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Drgzlal

Communication Fifih Edition, McGraw-Hill,

200E

[6]. AM. Michelson, AH. Levesque,

Error{ontrol Techniques for Digital

Commuoication, John Willey & Sons, 1985.

[7]. TJ( Mmq Error Correction Coding, A John

Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication" 2fi)5.

[8]. R Poisel, Modern Communications

Jamming Principles and Techniques, Artech

House,20l l.

BOOKS :

U0l. J,G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Drgrral

Commtnication Fifth Edinon, McCrawHill,2008 I l]. AM. Michelson" AH. Levesque,

Error{ontrol Techniques for Digital

Communication, John Willey & Sons, 1985.

[ 2]. T.K- Mmn, Error Correction Coding, A

John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication, 2005.

[3]. R. Poisel, Modern Communications

House,20l l.

Pradini

Puspitaningayu got her

bachelor degree from

Brawijaya University in

2010. Has 2 years

experience working as

R&D software engineer in

Samsung Electronics. She

finished master degree in

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember under

Antenna and Propagation Laboratory. Now she

is working as a lecturer at Universitas Negeri

Surabaya (Unesa).

Faisal Aries Ramadhany

is a 5th semester student in

State University of

Surabaya. He is taking

Electrical Engineering as his

major and choose

Telecommunication as his

specialization.

Ahmadan

Ainul

Fikri graduated

from

Public Senior

High

School 10

Malang

in mid 2013. 5th

semester

Studying

Electrical

Engineering in

State

University of Surabaya. He choose Control

Spezialitation.

Rosmita Dwijayanti graduated from publi

Senior High School 1 Sidoarjo in 2014. 3rd

semestre studying Electrical Engineering in

State University of Surabaya.

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