You are on page 1of 5

The Effect of Convolutional Coding and Bit

Interleaving for Rayleigh Communication

Pradini Puspitaningayu1, Faisal Aries Ramadhany2, Ahmadan Ainul Fikri3, Rosmita

Electrical Engineering Department of Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Jalan Ketintang, Surabaya
pradinip@unesa,ac,id, 2,,
Abstract Among multicarrier transmission
techniques, Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most popular one of
that uses parallel data streams in communication
system for its ability to enhance the data rate. This
paper concerned with comparison of the
performance of OFDM system using different
modulation schemes under influence AWGN and
Rayleigh fading channel. Simulations of OFDM
signals are carried out with Rayleigh faded signals
to understand the effect of channel coding and to
produce optimum value of Bit Error Rate (BER).
Evaluate with applying the rate convolutional
code (CC) for Rayleigh channel in order to
optimize the error correction of the information
bit in conjunction with Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying (QPSK) modulation. The simulation is
done on MATLAB software.

Keywords : Additive White Gaussian Noise

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM), Convolutional Code (CC).

conclusion that Rayleigh Channel are less in the

packet loss, bit loss BER and SNR as compared
to AWGN channel which shows that Rayleigh
Channel is better than AWGN channel. This
research still only focus on the comparing
which is the best channel using in OFDM with
QPSK, and did not give a solution to correcting
errors in the transmission communication
process of the information bit.
Digital communications can use a
transmission technique that is Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
which is sending data in parallel. OFDM itself
is a multicarrier transmission technique, which
the spectrum is broken into multiple subcarriers
and on each subcarrier is modulated to the low
rate using QPSK modulation. Convolutional
coding is one part of the coding techniques that
help the working of channel coding in order to
work optimally that generated from wave and
the forward error correction techniques.


nowadays requires more and more reliability
security to ensure the information can be sent
with minimal errors. Many methods were
developed, from optimizing a modulation
technique, until providing a channel encoder in
a set of communication system.
As one of the most promising
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) also offers higher reliability and
capacity increase. It sends data in parallel by
dividing the whole channel into subcarriers.
Each subcarrier has a narrow bandwidth which
makes signals more durable from frequency
selective caused by multiple delay spread.
Sharma, et all [3] in their research
analyzed the OFDM with QPSK using AWGN
and Rayleigh fading Channel. It came up with a

This research propose an analysis of

OFDM system performance with 1/2 rate
convolutional coding and using different
modulation schemes between AWGN and
Rayleigh Fading Channel. From those different
modulation schemes, we will perform its
performance to produce optimum value of Bit
Error Rate (BER) function. The obtained results
then have the ability to give recommendation
which one is the most suitable scheme for a
OFDM system in communication process.


development are growing rapidly with the
presence of digital communication. In this
digital communication data transmission had a
slight change and adopts a little from analog

technology. Digital communication itself also

has little interference with the data transmission.

A. System Model

In this study used two Jamming

techniques, namely Single Tone Jamming (STJ)
and Multi Tone Jamming (MTJ). Single Tone
Jamming is transmitted on a single frequency
shown in Figure 2. Thus, the jamming signal is a
continuous tone wave that placed on a single
frequency. STJ also called Jamming spot.

The digital communication, there is a

transmission technique with a lot of frequency
(multicarrier) perpendicular (orthogonal) which
is called OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing). In OFDM modeling
input data containing bits of information that
generated randomly and uniformly distributed
then encoded by convolutional encoder with
rate and constraint length 7. Once the input
data is sent in parallel that have previously been
in the serial to parallel converter (S/P)
according to the number of subcarriers used
which is 48 and the number of data symbols on
each subcarrier which is 64, then that input data
will be modulated on QPSK
In QPSK there are four different output
phases, then there must be four different input
conditions. To produce four different input
conditions more than a single bit have to be
used. Using 2 bits, there are four possible
conditions: 00, 01, 10 and 11. The next process
is Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) and
guard interval addition in the form of Cyclic
Prefix (CP) with a length of 1/8 of the number
of IFFT points. Then data passes Rayleigh
channel contained Jamming and the input data
is received by the recipient. After that proceed
with cyclic prefix removal, FFT which the data
is passed back to the data series and
subsequently occur demodulation then the data
will be compared with the data input data to get
the number of Bit Error Rate (BER). The
explanation is illustrated in Figure 1.

Fig. 2 Single-tone jamming

j(t )= Acos(2 ft +)
= Amplitude
= STJ Frequency

B. Jamming
Jamming is a disturbance at the time of
receiving and sending data that effected by
receive the data signal due to interference from






distribution between (0, 2).

C. Orthogonal
Multiplexing (OFDM)
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing) is a transmission technique that
uses some mutually perpendicular frequencies
(orthogonal). Data transmission is done
paralleled on a frequency domain. Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a
multicarrier transmission, whereby existing
spectrum is divided into several subcarriers of
each subcarrier and modulated by the data
stream at a low rate.

Fig. 1 OFDM design

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)

QPSK modulation is a type of
Modulation (QAM) with M=4. Input bit binary
split into two transmission channels, namely
baseband I and Q, then the channel is converted
into a signal by the PAM signal converter, from
a binary signal which has an amplitude of +1
and 0, to L-level signal which has amplitude +
(L -1) and - (L - 1), can be called with 2 to L
Converter, where the value of L = 2k / 2. Once
the signal had converted into a signal PAM, then
modulated by the balanced modulator with Sin

(ct) on channel I and Cos (ct) on channel Q,

then summed linearly, into a signal I + jQ and
signals turn into modulated signals M-QAM.
Has four symbols that have the same
amplitude with different phase. The fourth
symbol is formed from a group of two input
bits, so there are four possible conditions, there
are 00, 01, 10 and 11. Each bit produces one of
four possible phases, so the output rate is half of
the input rate.

The number of output bits for each k bit user

input data sequence is n bits. The code rate :


Convolutional encoder converts data k

sequence into code n sequences using k n
matrix transfer function G (D). In this study,


In the OFDM system, the relationship of
the subcarriers orthogonal can be implemented
using Fourier transformation, in which the
transmitter side OFDM (modulator) using
Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) to
convert the signal with frequency domain to the
time domain, while at the receiving side OFDM
(Demodulator) using Fast Fourier Transform
(FFT) to convert the signal back into the domain
IFFT and FFT make the equation for
modulation and demodulation process becomes
simpler and easily applied on the OFDM

Convolutional Coding
Convolutional Coding is a part of the
coding techniques that can help the working
channel coding in order to work optimally that
generated from waves and Forward Error
Correction (FEC) technique. Convolutional
Coding itself is often used on the system when
the system SNR is low. Then coding techniques
check the errors on the transmission of
information bits. Convolutional coder able to
check e bit error of each 4k bits, where k is the
solution to 2k = the number of nodes (state).

R = k / n ..(3)
The parameter N is called the constraint length
and indicates the number of input data bits that
the current output is dependent upon. The
constraint length determines how powerful and
complex the code is.

code rate used is


that means one input

will be encoded into 2 output.


Parameter Simulation

For the simulation, we set some

important parameters. First thing to consider is
the simulation is performed in baseband
equivalent model. The channel coding used is
convolutional coding with half rate, 7 constraint
length and [171 131] as the polynomial
generator. The modulation technique is 16QAM with 48 subcarriers and 64 points of
IFFT/FFT. The cyclic prefix is 25% of the FFT
points, with Eb/N0 are between 0 40 dB. The
used channel in the simulation is assumed
priority Rayleigh channel. The jamming
strategies are single-tone and multitone


dmin is the shortest distance between two
lines with the same start and end nodes on the
trellis diagram. dmin is also the shortest distance
between zero track and the other track on the
trellis diagram that starts at node 0 (time 0) and
ends at node 0 (next time).
A convolutional code is generated by
passing the information sequence through a
finite state shift register. In general, the shift
register contains N k-bit stages and m linear
algebraic function generators based on the
generator polynomials. The input data is shifted
into and along the shift register, k bits at a time.

This section of the chapter presents and

discusses all of the results obtained by the
computer simulation program written in
Matlab7.9.0, following the analytical approach
of a wireless communication system
considering AWGN, Rayleigh Fading Channel.
A test case is considered with the synthetically
generated data. The results are represented in
terms of bit energy to noise power spectral
density ratio (Eb/No) and bit error rate (BER)
for practical values of system parameters.

BER comparison between AWGN

channel and Rayleigh Fading Channel.

Figure 5. Performance on Rayleigh-fading channel with

convolutional coding and interleaver with jamming insertion

Figure 5 shows that the best interleaver

matrix was the 8x8 compared to 4x4 and 16x16
when the system was attacked by single-tone

Figure 3. Performance of AWGN vs RayleighChannel

Figure 3 shows that bit error rate in AWGN

channel is better than Rayleigh-fading channel.
But this is the closest approach to the real
condition that when a signal is passed into the
channel, it will surely experience fading. From
now on, the rayleigh-fading approach will be
used for the following simulations.
B. BER Comparison in Rayleigh Fading
Channel between system with and without
convolutional coding and interleaver.











no codec
code rate 1/2
code rate 2/3
rate 1/2 with interleaver
rate 2/3 with interleaver





Eb/No (dB)





Figure 4. Performance on Rayleigh-fading channel with

convolutional coding and interleaver addition

Figure 4 shows that by using convolutional

coding with rate and interleaver has the best
performance compared to other coding rate.
C. BER comparison between system with
convolutional coding inserted jamming and
system with convolutional coding without
Single-tone Jamming









Interleaver 4x4
Interleaver 8x8
Interleaver 16x16



Eb/No (dB)





By looking for those simulation results, it
can be concluded that system with
convolutional coding and interleaver performs
best in rayleigh-fading channel to overcome the
effect of random error and burst error.
The best convolutional coding rate was
and the best interleaver matrix was 8x8. It
means that this formula is the most
recommended to be applied on OFDM-based
communication system.

[1] Proakis, John G., Digital Communications,
Third edition, New York, McGraw Hill, 1995.
[2]Gitlin, Richard D., Jeremiah F. Hayes, and
Stephen B. Weinstein, Data Communications
Principles, New York, Plenum Press, 1992.
[3]. G.F. Elmasry,l Comparative Review of
Commercial vs. Tac tica I Wi re less Networks,
IEEE Communication Magazine, October
[4]. R. Prasad, OFDMlor llireless
Communicotion System, Artech House,2fiX
[5]. J.G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Drgzlal
Communication Fifih Edition, McGraw-Hill,
[6]. AM. Michelson, AH. Levesque,
Error{ontrol Techniques for Digital
Commuoication, John Willey & Sons, 1985.
[7]. TJ( Mmq Error Correction Coding, A John
Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication" 2fi)5.
[8]. R Poisel, Modern Communications
Jamming Principles and Techniques, Artech
House,20l l.
U0l. J,G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Drgrral
Commtnication Fifth Edinon, McCrawHill,2008 I l]. AM. Michelson" AH. Levesque,
Error{ontrol Techniques for Digital
Communication, John Willey & Sons, 1985.
[ 2]. T.K- Mmn, Error Correction Coding, A
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication, 2005.
[3]. R. Poisel, Modern Communications

Jamming Principles and Tecbniques, Artech

House,20l l.
Puspitaningayu got her
bachelor degree from
Brawijaya University in
2010. Has 2 years
experience working as
R&D software engineer in
Samsung Electronics. She
finished master degree in
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember under
Antenna and Propagation Laboratory. Now she
is working as a lecturer at Universitas Negeri
Surabaya (Unesa).
Faisal Aries Ramadhany
is a 5th semester student in
State University of
Surabaya. He is taking
Electrical Engineering as his
major and choose
Telecommunication as his
Fikri graduated
Public Senior
School 10
in mid 2013. 5th
Engineering in
University of Surabaya. He choose Control

System and Instrumentation as his

Rosmita Dwijayanti graduated from publi
Senior High School 1 Sidoarjo in 2014. 3rd
semestre studying Electrical Engineering in
State University of Surabaya.