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Department of Civil Engineering \ Transportation

Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment


The National University of Malaysia
Semester I - Session 2015/2016

Urban Transport Planning


Task 8 / Environmental Impact

Name Student
Ameer Abdul Adheem Hussein
P81466

Lecturer
PROF. DATO' IR. DR RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH BIN
O.K. RAHMAT

Task 8 \\
Choose any highway construction. Evaluate development impact to the environment in the
following areas, both during and after construction:
(a) Soil and erosion. Likely impacts for soil quality and soil erosion are assessed.
(b) Water (Change in hydrological characteristics (change in ground water level), change in
water quality).
(c) Flora (Impact for rare plant species).
(d) Fauna (Impact for rare animal species).
(e) Noise.
(f) Air quality.
(g) Society life and economical activity.
(h) Land use (Change in land use, possible conflicts with the existing land use plans).
(i) Cultural heritage.
(j) Landscape (Compatibility with the plans of nature frame. Impact for valuable landscape
complexes, protected areas).

Solution \\

Introduction:
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating
the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development,
taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health
impacts, both beneficial and adverse. An environmental system has been
developed to minimize the environmental impact of projects. Details to the
contractor will mitigate construction impacts and documents the
contractors plans for inspecting, monitoring, Construction of transport
infrastructure can have significant environmental impacts of not undertaken
with care. The objective to study the impact on environment to provide
construction workers with the knowledge to identify environmental issues
associated with their activities and best practice methods to minimize
environmental impact. It will also outline environmental legal obligations
relevant to construction activities.
Completion and maintenance of the highway in Iraq (Highway No.1&NO.2),
which is the first project of its kind in the country in terms of linking the
eastern Mediterranean countries, the Arab Gulf States as well as linking the
provinces of Western diameter and Central by the South with a length of
1,200 kilometers almost start from the Iraqi border - the Syrian and IraqiJordanian to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border add to branch to the center of Basra
province, and because of the magnitude of this project, which was longer
because of Iraq's largest and sprayed ways for quick passage of the world.
Designed braces numerous horizontal to spare road users unchanged
boredom and drowsiness and because of Driving for long distances on a
straight road and designed brackets horizontal diameters and large due to
design high speed (140 km \ h) has been made Visibility (Sight Distance)
high and designed the road to six lanes with a corridor to stand forced the
along the straighter road with airstrips compelling aircraft number \ 6 and all
intersections containing bridges two levels or three levels and the number
of high bridges 113 bridge and the number of the lower bridges 85 bridge
and there are several parking for cars stations (Parking area) passenger
comfort and is equipped with a fence and a protective Negotiable lift and
furnished the road all the requirements traffic safety so as to ensure the
comfort and the safety, speed and access to the target, such as fencing
and protective fencing wire and fences safety of bridges and signs of traffic
types and reflectors phosphorous and system lighting of the junctions and
the phone system forced route planning and designed the way to take the

focus of the weight of a central rate of 16.3 tons and contains the way a
number of the rest stations and packaging fuel with centers for the
immediate and ambulance traffic control points.

Highway in Iraq (Highway No. 1 & No. 2 with line red), in terms of
linking the eastern Mediterranean countries, the Arab Gulf States.

(a) Soil
and picture
erosion: Highway No. 1 in
Some
Iraq

Soil erosion is one form of soil degradation along with soil compaction, low
organic matter, loss soil structure, poor internal drainage, salinization, and
soil acidity problems. These other forms of soil degradation, serious in
themselves, usually contribute to accelerated soil erosion.
Soil erosion is a naturally occurring process on all land. And the distribution
of soil forms present varies considerably along the route in keeping with
changing topography and position on the slope. Soil erosion may be a slow
process that continues relatively unnoticed, or it may occur at an alarming
rate causing serious loss of topsoil. The loss of soil from farmland may be
reflected in reduced crop production potential, lower surface water quality
and damaged drainage networks.
Soil stabilization protects soil from erosion, waterlogging and salinization.
Amenity Vegetation beautifies or enhances the character of an area
heritage may be of historical importance or protected by legislation.
There are some streams in the project that are crossed by one or more of
the roads alternatives and thus, would be soil affected because road works,
also flow rainwater of sides of highway causing soil erosion.

(b) Water (Change in hydrological characteristics):


Some of the rain water usually seeps into the ground, but when they fall on
the ground is a window such as asphalt roads, parking lots, it begins to flow
in a slope, and this sketch set forth below to illustrate the percentages and
the change in hydrological characteristics (change in the groundwater level,
and change in water quality). Due to road works and the movement of
heavy equipment, machinery and soil compaction; it will impact for ground
water and water quality, and it will also contaminate the groundwater.

(c) Flora:

May be urban street trees or remnant native vegetation; Vegetation has a


range of benefits including biodiversity contains a diverse range of plants
and provides, habitat for animals and insects, remnant native vegetation or
naturally occurring local native plants include trees, small ground covers,
native grasses, wetland plants and marine plants, these plants been
located in natural scrub or in isolated plants in a modified setting.
The pollution with particles is suspension (dust) may generate negative
effects, should be for the protection of flora the road alignment and does
not cross the forest areas.

(d) Fauna:
Native vegetation provides habitat for native animals, reptiles and insects
including shelter, food, protection from predators and breeding areas. The
Environmental Management Implementation Plan identifies any special
requirements for protecting native fauna on your site.
Construction sites may encroach on native animal habitat and it is
important to make sure that no native animals are harmed or killed during
construction operations. If animals, including lizards and snakes, are found
on site and are likely to be damaged by earthmoving equipment, they
should be relocated to an area away from the project.
Ensure that no runoff of materials, fuels or other substances is allowed to
enter storm water drains, watercourses and the marine environment to
avoid damage to aquatic and marine animals and fish, usually in certain
parts of the new road section perennial or semi-perennial streams and
small wetlands occur.
The flora and fauna in areas to be impacted by the proposed road should
be adequately assessed, to ensure that no protected or threatened species
are lost:
- Appropriate fencing should be erected to prevent animals and
livestock from gaining access to the proposed road.
- The presence of threatened bird species should be established and
disruption of these species during the breeding season avoided.
- Existing wetlands should be conserved.
- Impacts on wells and the Stream of rivers on various farms along the
route should be addressed.

(e) Noise:

Excessive noise can be a considerable nuisance to neighbors. It is


important to minimize noise emissions, particularly outside normal
operating hours and in areas of sensitive land use.
Vibration excessive vibration may cause property damage and be a
nuisance to neighbors. Vibration may be due to blasting, piling, truck
movements and compacting operations.
Existing sources of noise along the route would include traffic, agricultural
activities (tractors) and road traffic using the secondary and farm roads in
the area.
Stakeholders are concerned about the potential noise from the highway
and its visual impact on the environment.
Key issues raised are:
- The highway will be visible from farmhouses and be unsightly.
- The noise (large vehicles) and air pollution (dust) that will be
generated during construction of the road will be disturbing.
The design engineers will be advised sites so that they can incorporate
noise-reducing surfaces at these points.

(f) Air quality:


The main component of air pollution derived from construction activities is
fugitive dust. Fugitive dust is the generation of sufficient particulate matter
that some portion of the material escapes beyond the construction
boundary. Fugitive dust emissions can be created by many construction
related activities. Reasonable precautions are typically sufficient to control
fugitive dust emissions during construction. Dust can cause a nuisance to
neighbors and impact on the environment by contaminating plants and
watercourses.
New road construction per se is not a marked generator of dust since
effective dust suppression systems exist. However, gaseous emissions as
a result of increased traffic volumes may affect the air quality. Other air
emissions are related to the exhaust fumes of equipment. These emissions
are generally controlled by ensuring that equipment is well maintained.

(g) Society life and economical activity:

Interest by stakeholders in becoming involved in aspects of the project that


would boost the local economy. Stakeholders asked if local expertise and
resources could be used whenever possible. Key issues rose included:
- The proposed roads may impact negatively on the economic viability
of businesses.
- Quality of life for adjacent residents will be affected by the proposed
road.
- Local labor should be utilized of the project, and created new job
opportunities.
- If possible, local haulage companies should be used to transport
materials.
- Informal settlements next to the proposed his should be provided with
a bridge or underway to enable safe crossing of the highway.
- Transport costs would become prohibitive if local road users have to
pay toll fees.
- Informal settlements should be addressed in accordance with the
responsibilities of the various spheres of government.

(h) Land use:


Most of the land along the proposed route; is proclaimed paved roads.
The existing paved roads pass through numerous small towns, where
the land use can be classified as residential and industrial. The
proposed new road passes through farmland primarily used for
agriculture and grazing.
Numbers of stakeholders have expressed concern of the value and
viability of their farms could be negatively impacted by the construction
of the proposed road. The principal issues of concern are that:
- The value of farmland will be lowered, especially if the road traverses
their land. But during operation increases the value of farmland,
especially lands on road sides.
- The economic viability of farms would be negatively impacted upon.
- Existing agricultural infrastructure such as crop sprayers, boreholes,
pipelines, points of access to farms or portions of farms would be
affected.
- Current farming practices on certain portions of farms may no longer
be viable if these areas are split by a road.

(i) Cultural heritage:

Definition of material and cultural resources that it includes any movable or


immovable objects, sites, structures, groups of structures, natural
monuments and landscapes of archaeological, historical, archaeological,
religious and aesthetic and cultural significance, and others. The physical
cultural resources may be located in urban or rural areas, and can be
above or below ground or under water. These cultural resources may be of
interest at the local level and at the provincial level or the national level, or
within the international community, and in the case of accidents lead to
results or raised on the physical and cultural resources that may occur
during the implementation of sub-projects, the contractor must inform the
municipality immediately, and this means that:
- Contractor is responsible for identifying the following "measures to
find the assets" in the event of detection of culturally valuable
materials during drilling.
- Stop working immediately after the discovery of any material doubted
that have historical value of the archaeological excavation, or other
cultural; announce the results to the project manager, and should be
reported to the appropriate authorities.
- Protect the artifacts as well as the possible use of plastic sheeting,
and implement measures to achieve stability in the region, if
necessary, for the protection of archaeological pieces correctly.
- Prevent and punish any unauthorized access to the artifacts.
- Restart construction work after obtaining permission from the relevant
authorities.
- Control access to the site.

Photos remove some of the cultural heritage landmarks


because of the conflict with the highways.

(j) Landscape:

Create highways may cause loss humid lands; and deforestation; and the
transfer of houses and housing, and the associated noise and nuisance
and concern for the population in the region.
The most obvious effects on landscape beautiful of those relating to the
proposed projects directly, and can it is associated with the event that
causes them.
Visual pollution phenomenon has become one of the most important
problems that we face in this Era and is linked to the loss of a sense of
beauty and the collapse of considerations, aesthetic, satisfaction, and
acceptance for images unsightly and spread until it became the visual scale
of the eyes of the norm and the law exists and is even more dangerous
whenever the eye accustomed to it, so take it this is in place and are
difficult to repair.
And pollution optic is feeling alienated soon see the views or manifestations
of non-aesthetic or repulsive in the built environment elements or structural
voids or ways inconsistent and incompatible with both the environment
natural, climatic, and functional or values religious, and moral or cultural or
values aesthetic or architectural.

Conclusion:
n

Impact on

a Soil and erosion

b Water

(Change in
hydrological
characteristics)

c Flora

d Fauna

e Noise

During
Construction

During operation

Effects on soils due to road works


and the movement of heavy
equipment, machinery and sand.
Including: sand and soil
compaction and causing loss of
topsoil.
Effect on change in hydrological
characteristics.

Soil stabilization protects the soil from


erosion, waterlogging and salinity
comfort outlines or enhance the
heritage character of the area may be of
historical significance or protected by
legislation.
Prevent some of the rain water of seeps
into the ground, and effect on change in
hydrological characteristics.

The destruction of vegetation due


to road works and the movement of
equipment and heavy machinery,
and deposition materials and
construction waste as well as waste
water.
Construction sites may encroach on
native animal habitat. If animals,
including lizards and snakes, are
found on site and are likely to be
damaged by earthmoving
equipment, they should be
relocated to an area away from the
project.
Make a noise as a result of the

The pollution with particles is


suspension (dust) may generate
negative effects, should be for the
protection of flora the road alignment
and does not cross the forest areas.
Putting fencing erected to prevent
animals and livestock from gaining
access to the road.

Existing sources of noise along the

Air quality

g Society life and


economical
activity

h Land use

(possible

conflicts)

Cultural heritage

Landscape
(Compatibility with the
plans of nature frame)

rehabilitation of roads, especially


bulldozing roads to loading and
unloading operations and the use of
vehicles and heavy equipment, as
well as other activities related to
constructions.
The impact on air quality as a
result of the rehabilitation of roads,
especially roads and bulldozing
operations of loading and
unloading mechanisms and the use
of heavy equipment, as well as
other activities related to
constructions.
Impact negatively on the economic
viability of businesses. Quality of
life for adjacent residents will be
affected by the road. Local labor
should be utilized if the project
created new job opportunities, local
haulage companies should be used
to transport materials. Informal
settlements next to the proposed his
should be provided with a bridge or
underway to enable safe crossing
of the highway.
The value of farmland will be
lowered, especially if the road
traverses their land. The economic
viability of farms would be
negatively impacted upon.
Pipelines points of access to farms
or portions of farms would be
affected. Effect on vendors shops,
and small businesses, which
exceeded the limits of the road or
completely adjacent to him, as a
result the road building and
installation of the fence.
Some areas or buildings; are
threatened by too much pressure
and other, suffer from neglect or
destruction; it is important to save
these and it is important factor in
creating desirable cities or areas
and tourist attraction. These areas
should be looked at as assets, not as
just things that must be preserved.
Create highways may cause loss
humid lands, and deforestation, and
solid waste generation resulting
from construction project are
potential to landscape impact.

route would include traffic.

Gaseous emissions as a result of


increased traffic volumes affect the air
quality.

Marginalized neighborhoods and


residential complexes on both sides of
the highway because of the installation
of the fence. Transport costs would
become prohibitive if local road users
have to pay toll fees. Informal
settlements should be addressed in
accordance with the responsibilities of
the various spheres of government.

Increases the value of farmland,


especially lands on road sides. Current
farming practices on certain portions of
farms may no longer be viable if these
areas are split by a road.

Effect on some areas Cultural heritage


that may occur during the
implementation the road.

Create highways cause in lands loss,


and deforestation; and effect on
landscape beautiful.

Landscape such as reserve pores,


existing lake, flora, and protected
areas will be polluted. Due to the
leachate that produced by solid
waste.