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concrete

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The spacing of reinforcement and the concrete cover should be sufficient to make concreting more easier;

consequently, the concrete surrounding the reinforcement can be efficiently vibrated, resulting in a dense

concrete cover which provides suitable protection of the reinforcement against corrosion.

1.8.1 Spacing of Reinforcement

Figure 1.19 shows two reinforced concrete sections. The bars are placed such that the clear spacing s shall be

at least equal to the maximum diameter of the bars, or 25 mm, or 1.50 times maximum size of aggregate,

whichever is greatest, according to the Egyptian Code. Vertical clear spacing between bars, in more than one

layer, shall not be less than 25 mm.

FIGURE 1.19 Spacing of steel bars (a) in one row or (b) in two rows.

The specified minimum concrete cover for different structural members, according to their degree of exposure, is

given in the Egyptian Code, Table 4-13. Concrete cover for beams is equal to 25 mm for main bars and 20 mm

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given in the Egyptian Code, Table 4-13. Concrete cover for beams is equal to 25 mm for main bars and 20 mm

for stirrups and that for slabs is equal to 15 mm, when concrete is not exposed to weather or in contact with

ground.

1.8.3 Number of Steel Layers and Overall depth of Concrete Section

The general equation for the required width of a concrete section

is as follows:

(1.55)

The total depth t is equal to the effective depth d plus the distance from the centroid of the tension

reinforcement to the extreme tension concrete fibers, which depends on the number of layers of the steel bars. In

application to the section shown in Fig. 1.19a,

(1.56)

(1.57)

for two layers of steel bars, Fig. 1.19b. The overall depth t shall be increased to the nearest 5 cm. If No. 8 (25

mm) or smaller bars are used, a practical estimate of the overall depth can be made as follows:

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t = d + 75 mm, for two layers of steel bars

Example 1.4:

For the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 1.20, if DL = 13.5 kN/m' (including own weight) and LL = 35 kN, it is

required to:

a. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 250 mm.

b. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 120 mm.

c. Design the beam section for an effective depth d = 450 m when b = 250 mm.

d. Design the beam section for an overall depth t = 700 m when b = 120 mm.

Given:

= 25 N/mm2 and

= 280 N/mm2.

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Solution:

The ultimate moment

as specified by the Egyptian Code (where

moments, respectively) is to be:

and

150 kNm.

Part a:

Enter Table A.1 with fcu = 25 N/mm2 and

= 0.534 and

Then, calculate

= 196.7

and

as follows:

414 mm

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mm2

For

Steel Bars

6 f 20

4 f 25

5 f 22

9 f 16

2 f 25 + 2 f 22

1884

1960

1960

1800

1740

The area of steel bars must be closest to the required steel area. If 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 are chosen, As = 1740 mm2,

which is 102 mm2 less than the required area of 1842 mm2. But since the overall depth t may be increased a

fraction of 50 mm, the actual effective depth will be a little greater than the calculated dmin, consequently reducing

the required As .

The 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 would have to be placed in one row as 250 mm width is sufficient. Calculating the

required width to place 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 in one layer:

= 2 (f25 + 22f22) + 3s + 2fstr + 2c

= 2 (25 + 22) + 3 25 + 2 8 + 2 25 = 235 mm

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which is less than b = 250 mm. The overall depth t, is then computed from:

t = d + 0.5f25 +f str + c

= 414 + 0.5 25 + 8 + 25 = 461.5 mm; say 500 mm

The actual effective depth d = 500 - 50 = 450 mm

which is greater than the calculated d of 414 mm. Because of the small variation, reduction in the required steel

area can be approximated by the ratio of the calculated d to the actual d.

1693 mm2

which is less than 1740 mm2 (2 f 25 plus 2 f 22) provided, Fig. 1.21.

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Part b:

The minimum effective depth that correspond to b = 120 mm equals 597.5 mm. The area of steel As required

equals Asmax or 1276 mm2. If 4 f 20 is chosen, As = 1256 mm2, which is 20 mm2 less than 1276 mm2. If the steel

bars are placed in one row:

= 4 20 + 3 25 + 2 8 + 2 25 = 211 mm

which is greater than b = 120 mm, therefore, the steel bars have to be placed in two rows as 120 mm width is not

sufficient. The overall depth t is thus,

t = 597.5 + 25 + 8 + 20 + 0.5 25 = 663 cm ; say 700 mm

The actual d = 700 - 75 = 625 mm

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Part c:

First calculate K1 from:

which results in K1 = 0.581.

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K2 = 208. Then,

442 mm2

mm2

1.3

mm2

Asmin = 442 mm2

Here,

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Part d:

If steel is assumed to be placed in two layers as 120 mm width is not sufficient.

d = 600 - 75 = 525 mm

First calculate K1 from:

Enter Table B.2 with K1 = 0.468, the first value of K1 (that correspond to

than 0.468. This implies that

0.225.

1416 mm2

319 mm2

Since

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Concrete floor slabs and beams are normally tied together by means of stirrups and bent-up bars if any and then

are cast form one mass of concrete. Such a monolithic system will act integrally i.e., it is allowed to assume that

part of the slab acts with the beam and they form what is known as a flanged beam, Fig. 1.23.

The part of the slab acting with the beam is called the flange, and it is indicated in Fig. 1.24a by the area Bts . The

rest of the section confining the area (t-ts )b is called the stem or web. As Fig. 1.24b indicates, in an I-section

there are two flanges, a compression flange, which is actually effective, and a tension flange, which is ineffective

as it lies below the neutral axis and is thus neglected completely. Therefore, the design of an I-section is similar

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to that of a T-section.

As Fig. 1.25 indicates, the compressive stresses, in a T-section, are at a maximum value at points adjacent to

the beam and decrease approximately in a parabolic form to zero at a distance x from the face of the beam.

Stresses also vary vertically from a maximum at the top fibers of the flange to a minimum at the lower fibers of the

flange.

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As a means of simplification, rather than varying with distance from the web, an effective width B of uniform

stress may be assumed. The effective width B is a function of span length of the beam and depends on:

1. Spacing of beams

2. Width of web of beam

3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth

4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)

5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)

6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance

between webs.

1. Spacing of beams

2. Width of web of beam

3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth

4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)

5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)

6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance

between webs.

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The Egyptian Code prescribes that the effective flange width B of a T-section, as in Fig. 1.26, shall be taken as

the web width b plus the effective overhanging flange sides x1 and x2. Thus,

B = b + (x 1 + x 2 )

(1.58)

(1.59a)

or

when t s1 = t s2

(1.59b)

(1.59c)

where L2 is the distance between the points of zero moments. For a simply supported beam, the distance

L2 referred to above is just the span distance between centers of supports. For beams continuos from one end and

simply supported from the other end, the distance L2 may be taken as 0.80 times the span distance between

centers of supports. For beams continuos from both ends, the distance L2 may be taken as 0.70 times the span

distance between centers of supports. ts1 and ts2 are the thicknesses of the right and left slabs and S1 and S2 are

the clear distances to the next right and left beams.

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To increase the compression force capacity of isolated rectangular beams, concrete overhanging flange sides

are added, Fig. 1.27. This isolated T-shaped section is most commonly used

Egyptian Code specifies the size of isolated T-sections as:

and

(1.60)

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The end beam of a slab-beam girder floor is called a spandrel beam. The beam joins the slab from only one

side.

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The Egyptian Code specifies that the effective flange width B shall be taken as the web width b plus the effective

overhanging flange width x1. Thus,

B = b + x1

(1.61)

(1.62a)

(1.62b)

(1.62c)

The design of inverted L-shaped sections may approximately follow the same procedure of T- and I-shaped

sections but with employing the respective effective width B.

1.10 FLEXURAL DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLANGED SECTIONS

In flanged sections, it can be seen that a large area of the compression flange, forming a part of the slab, is

effective in resisting a great part or all of the compressive force due to bending. If the section is designed on this

basis, the depth of the web will be small; consequently the moment arm yct is small, resulting in a large amount of

tension steel which is not favorable.

Because of the large area of the compression flange, the design of a T-section does not need, in most

practical cases, to consider a doubly reinforced section. But, in case of precast units, when the width of the

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flange is small and the effective depth is limited, compression steel may be added.

1.10.1 Effective Depth d

In many cases, the effective depth d can be known based on the flexural design of the section at the support in a

continuous beam, e.g. section 2-2 in Fig. 1.29a. The section at the support is subjected to a negative moment,

the slab being under tension and ignored, and the beam width is that of the web b.

If the effective depth d of section 1-1 in Fig. 1.29b is not known, an approximate effective depth can be

obtained by considering a rectangular section with a reduced width

greater than the width of the web b and less than the effective flange width B. A reasonable choice of

varies between

amount of

and

ratio

depending on the applied moment and shear requirements. If shear is high or a small

is

may approach

approaches

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depth using equation

may approach

(1.63)

(1.64)

Table D.1 gives values for K1min for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths.

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As already stated in Section 1.9, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section. When the depth of the

equivalent stress block a lies within the flange; i.e. a ts , the section behaves as a rectangular section with the

beam width equal to the flange width. Otherwise, if a is greater than ts , a T-section design is a must.

T-Section Behaves as a Rectangular Section

If a ts , the section may be designed as a rectangular section of width B, Fig. 1.31.

The design may be commenced by assuming that a ts . Taking moments of forces about the tension steel, we

have

(1.65)

as assumed, the tension steel

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(1.66)

T-Section Behavior

When the depth of the equivalent stress block is greater than the flange thickness, i.e. a > ts , the section may be

designed using the equations for a doubly reinforced beam, as follows. As Fig. 1.32 indicates, the tension steel

As may be considered to be divided into an area As1, which resists the compression in the concrete over the web,

and an area As2 or Asf , which resists the compression in the concrete in the overhanging of the flange.

Assuming that the tension steel is yielding, considering equation T2 = C2, then

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(1.67)

or

(4.68)

The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the two moments Mu1 and Mu2:

(1.69)

where

(1.70)

and

(1.71)

solving the quadratic equation yields a.

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If a amax

This implies that the section is adequate without

(1.72)

or

(1.73)

The total steel used in the T-section is

(1.74)

If a > amax

This implies that

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(1.73)

The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the three moments Mu1, Mu2 and Mu3:

(1.75)

where

(1.70)

(1.76)

and

(1.77)

and

(

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)

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(1.78)

The total steel used in the T-section is

(1.79)

If

, then

(1.80)

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The Egyptian Code allows another approach to determine As when a > ts . Ignoring the compression in the web

part below the flange as shown in Fig 1.34, the tension steel can be obtained from:

(1.81)

giving

(1.82)

Example 1.5

A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and ts = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength Mu of

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450 kNm. If fcu = 25 N/mm2 and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when:

a. d = 550 mm

b. d = 440 mm

c. d = 400 mm

Solution:

Assume a ts . Then,

giving :

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Part a: d = 550 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 79 mm which is less than ts . Therefore, the section will behave as a

rectangular section. For equilibrium, C = T, we have

25.

Part b: d = 440 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 104 mm which is greater than ts . Therefore, a T-section design is

required. With reference to Fig. 1.32, for equilibrium,

, hence from

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we have

kNm

giving

kNm

But cmax = 0.44 d = 0.44 x 440 = 193.6 mm which is greater than c. This implies that the section is adequate

without

kN

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we have

Another Solution

For equilibrium, C1 = T1, we can put

Also, for equilibrium, C2 = T2, we can put

As = As1 + As2 = As1 + Asf = 1034 + 2675 = 3709 mm2

As1 = As - Asf = 1034 mm2

A

smax

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Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

mm2

Part c: d = 400 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 118.5 mm which is greater than ts . Therefore, a T-section design is

required. For equilibrium,

, hence from

kN

we have

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kNm

giving

kNm

But cmax = 0.44 d = 0.44 x 400 = 176 mm which is less than c. This implies that compression steel is required,

Fig. 1.33.

Here, also

A =A

sf

max

s2

kNm

= 2675 mm2

= 0.80 c

max

= 140 mm

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kNm

A

s1

=A

smax

=m

max

kNm

Since

which is less than 0.15 for steel 360/520, this implies that

= 255.56 mm2

A =A

s

s1

+A

s2

+A

s3

=A

smax

+A +

sf

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

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mm2

Example 1.6

In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was

250 mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm, Fig. 1.36a. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external

moment Mu of 240 kNm. Given: fcu = 20 N/mm2 and steel 240/350.

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Solution:

Since the effective depth is not given, a reduced flange width is assumed; say

. Thus,

mm.

That is, an equivalent rectangular section, Fig. 1.36b, can be chosen with Br = 580 mm and

which results in d = 380 mm. Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later).

t = 380.8 + 75 = 455.8 mm; say t = 500 mm

actual d = 500 - 75 = 425 mm

Proceed as in the previous example to calculate As .

Assume a ts

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For equilibrium, T = C, we have

should not be less than 0.10 As , use 3 f 12.

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Once b and d are known, the design of a T-section simulates that of a rectangular section when a

equals B, Fig. 1.38a. Otherwise, if a >

, with b

and K1 from

(1.67)

Then, with the known value of

, determine the design table that corresponds (Tables E.1 through E.5).

value and also to

value K2 to be used. Then, calculate As from

(1.68)

If a >

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Example 1.7:

In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was

250 mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment Mu of 240

kNm. Given: fcu = 20 N/mm2 and steel 240/350.

Solution:

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= 580 mm

= 380 mm

Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later)

t = 380 + 75 = 455 mm; say t = 500 mm and therefore, actual d = 500 -75 = 425 mm

and

Enter Table E.1 and obtain K2 = 197.3 and a = 0.40 ts = 48 mm. Then,

= 286.2 mm2

(Use 3 f 12)

Example 1.8:

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A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and ts = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength Mu of

450 kNm. Using fcu = 25 N/mm2 and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when d = 550, 440 and 400

mm.

Solution:

a. d = 550 mm

and

25) and

= 281 mm2

(Use 3

12)

b. d = 440 mm

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and

= 368.2 mm2

c. d = 400 mm

and

= 410.7 mm2

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