News

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D,C. 20546 AC 202 755-8370

-:_ \ J '"" ._7,.o_ '_\
,_ AUQ i,,o77

_ .-:__

For Release

IMMEDIATE

Press Kit
RELEASE NO : (NAS A-News-Release-7 OBBIIER FREE FLIGHT |National Aeronautics Administraticn) 16

:-!.
SHUTTLE AUG. 12

roject

FIRST FREE

SHUTTLE ORBITER FLIGHT TEST

7- 16 0) FIRST TEST SET FOR and Space p

N77-81091

00/16

News
Nal_onal Aeronaulics Space AdmmJslralion and Washmglon. D C 20546 AC 202 755-8370 F_,r Release David Garrett D.C. IMMEDIATE Headquarters, Washington, (Phone: 202/755-3090)

Robert Johnson (Phone:

Gordon Space Center, 713/483-5111) Houston, Tex.

Ralph B. Jackson Dryden Flight Research (Phone: 805/258-8311)

Center,

Edwards,

Calif.

RELEASE

NO:

77-160

FIRST

SHUTTLE

ORBITER

FREE

FLIGHT

TEST

SET

FOR

AUG.

12

Shuttle and atop and C. a Gordon 747

Orbiter

Enterprise at the for NASA's

, with

astronauts will free Flight 12, 1977. be

Fred

W.

Haise from

Fullerton carrier test

controls, the first

released

aircraft (ALT) no at

flight Research

approach Center,

landing

Dryden Aug.

Edwards,

Calif.,

earlier

than

Haise unpowered release of about of

and

Fullerton on a from

will dry

fly lake

the runway

75-ton after

Orbiter explosive at

to

an bolts

landing the Orbiter

its

747

carrier above five

aircraft ground minutes.

an

altitude The free

6,738 the

meters Orbiter

(22,100 will take -more-

feet) about

level.

flight

Mailed: August 3, 1977

Z

\\

-2-

This and began a series manned in

initial captive

solo test

flight flights The

follows

a

series at carried

of

unmanned which for

conducted was (Orbiter and flew

Dryden aloft

mid-February. of five "inert" Haise and

Orbiter

flights and Richard

systems fellow subsequent

inoperative) ALT crew captive

before members flights.

astronauts Joe Engle

Fullerton Truly

The capabilities systems

captive of and crew

flights the

verified

the

aerodynamic as

and well

handling as Orbiter

747/Orbiter

combination

procedures.

Takeoff with of the separation two

time

for about

the 45 is

flight minutes

is

8

a.m.

PDT The

(ii

a.m.

EDT) weight

later. kilograms

combined

vehicles

265,350

(585,000

pounds).

Enterprise's this pattern: °

first

solo

flight

will

generally

follow

The pattern 13 the will

flight with

path separation (8

of

the

Orbiter

and when

747 the

follows vehicles

a

racetrack are about to

occurring to From ground the the

kilometers landing fly a

miles)

right Separation to

and

flying point, runway.

parallel the Orbiter

runway. U-shaped

track

the

-more-

-3To perform
down glide to -6

the

separation
and accelerate km per and

maneuver,
to hour -9.2

the

747

will

pitch

degrees of speed

establish (310 degrees mi. per

equilibrium hour) path sepaat level.

conditions air At by this arming of

500

equivalent angle. ration an

(EAS) the firing 6,736

flight will

point, and about

Orbiter a m series

pilot of

initiate bolts runway

explosive above

altitude

(22,000

ft.)

At maneuver than left 60

separation, which m (200 the will ft.)

the

Orbiter a

crew vertical five right

will

command separation The

a

pitch of more will

up

provide in about turns

seconds. to provide

747

turn

while

Orbiter

horizontal

separation.

On to 270

the KEAS ft.)

first and

flight then

the

Orbiter a

will

pitch flare

down, at to 6,705

accelerate m to of

perform allowing EAS to

practice the

(20,000 333 the km/hr

altitude, mph) landing

airspeed the flying

decrease qualities

(2_7 at

evaluate

Orbiter

speed.

The at to the the

Orbiter same left time, which

pilot

will

then the

pitch first

down of two

to

accelerate

and, turns runway.

initiate will align

90-degree a lakebed

the

vehicle

with

-more-

\

-4-

At landing, tude the -9 of

completion the 1,980 Orbiter m

of

the is

second aligned ft.) and

turn with about (310

and the 14 mph)

98

seconds at mi.)

from an alti-

runway km EAS (9

(6,500

from path

touchdown degrees.

point,

500

km/hr

flight

First and a

flare the

starts Orbiter

at

an from

altitude the -9

of

274

m

(900

ft.) slope to

transfers -1.5 degree

degree gear m (200-300 slightly establishes which 180

glide is

glide

slope. between

The 60 and

landing 90 at

deployed ft.) less a altitude than sink to mph) 30 rate m

shortly and (i00 of the ft.)

afterward, landing

flare

is The

initiated final ft.) per is flare

altitude. 1 m Touchdown elapsed 10 time

approximately

{3

second about to

is km/hr

held (112 is

touchdown. EAS five and

airspeed from

separation

touchdown

about

minutes,

seconds.

During be evaluated

rollout at

various different

braking speeds.

and

steering

methods

will

Astronauts the four second weeks

Engle flight, later.

and

Truly

will

pilot

Enterprise for about

during three to

tentatively

scheduled

-more-

-5A series Shuttle
platform flights, Orbiter, worthiness, and automatic Carrier from with are

of free

flights

is

currently
serving will be

scheduled
as the

with

the

Aircraft(SCA-747_ which NASA designed the Orbiter at

airborne These the unpowered air-

launched. of

astronauts to verify

the the

controls Orbiter's and

subsonic pilot-guided

integrated approach

systems and

operations

landing

capabilities.

The designed a

Orbiter, to be

workhorse used a minimum

of

the of its (122

Space 100

Shuttle It

program, is is and to be as big

is as kg has

times. weight in Orbiter three length

commercial lb.); of Earth by

jetliner it 23.8 orbit a pair is m

(DC-9); 37.2 (78 in of m

empty ft.)

68,000 it

(150,000 a wingspan low

ft.). 1979 with

The

is main

launched

into

its

engines

augmented

solid

rocket

boosters.

The solid the

Space rocket

Shuttle boosters three

is and

composed an

of

the fuel

Orbiter., tank

the which

two feeds

external

Orbiter's

engines.

The the tank. reused. solid

Orbiter boosters solid The

is

attached are

to

the to be be

back each

of side

the of

fuel the

tank

and

attached will will

external and recovered.

The

boosters tank

recovered, jettisoned

refurbished but not

external

-more-

-6-

Enterprise, Dryden of the flight Shuttle

the test

first program, to

Orbiter is come the off

(i01) first the

to

be

used

in

the article Under

development assembly line. main the by

program since June

construction from The numerous crew module

19,

1974,

Enterprise's throughout were fabricated Space bay) by

parts country. the

come

aerospace and aft

contractors fuselage

prime

contractor, Calif.; San N.Y.; Diego, and the

Rockwell mid-fuselage Calif.; its tail N.Y.

International's (cargo by

Division,

Downey,

General

Dynamics, Corp. of Co., Bethpage,

wings assembly

Grumman by

Aerospace

Fairchild

Republic

Farmingdale,

The 2.1 being Canoga

Orbiter's newtons by the

three

main

engines, lb.) of

each thrust

of at

which launch,

provide are

million built Park,

(470,000 Rocketdyne

Division,

Rockwell

International,

Calif.

Enterprise assembly Jan. be 31, ferried plant 1977. atop

was at At the

transferred Palmdale, completion SCA Ala., tests. to

from Calif., of NASA's ALT,

the to

Rockwell the Dryden first Space undergo these

International Center Orbiter Flight extensive will

this

Marshall it will to at the

Center, ground return for

Huntsville, vibration to the

where Subsequent

tests and be

it

will

Rockwell flight

facility in

Palmdale early

prepared

orbital

sometime

1980s.

-more-

-7-

The will Flight 1979. be

second the Test Six

Orbiter vehicle program

(102), to

currently be used is in

under the

construction, Shuttle to begin the becomes Orbital in Orbiter's

first (OFT) OFT in in

which

scheduled to the

flights Earth 1980.

are orbit

planned before

demonstrate Shuttle

capabilities operational

-more-

ALT Event Crew Wakeup Crew Depart Quarters Crew Arrives Trailer (physical & breakfast) Crew Departs for Suitup Crew Departs Trailer St art Ingr e ss Ingress Complete ALT Ground Team/Flight Team Handover Orbiter/SCA Orbiter/SCA SCA Engine SCA Begin SCA Arrive _ Navigation SCA Brake Climbout

FREE

FLIGHT

TIMELTNE T-Time T-240 T-210 T-195 T-160 T-125 T-120 * PDT a.m. EDT

Alt it ude**

_:00 4:30 4:45 5:20 5:55
6:00 6:22 6:53

7:00

7:3.o
7:45 8.20 8:55 9:00 9:22
9:53 9:58 10:04 10:18 10:28

Trailer

T-98
T-67 T-62 T-56 T-42 T-32 T-12

Move From MDD*** Tow to NASA Ramp Start Taxi Runway Update Release, Takeoff

6:58 7:04
7:18

7:28 7:48
7:56

10:48
10:56 II:00

T-4 T-0
T+O0

8:00

Intersect Racetrack FCS Checks*** Reach Maximum climb Thrust SCA Begin SRT Climb*** Pushover

16,905 22,705 23,605 24,705 25,905

T+I3 T+24 T+28 T+36 T+45 Separation Point

8:13 8:24

8:28
8:36

8:45

11:13 11:24 11:28 11:36 11:45

Orbiter Separation Initiate Practice Roll Left Roll Left-Lineup Turn Complete Initiate Preflare Deploy Gear Touchdown Note Events flight and and

Flare on Runway

22,800 20,600 18,000 10,500 6,400

0:00 0:26 1:41

8:46 8:46:26 8:47:41

900 200

2:53 3:54 5:05 5:20 5:41

8:48:53
8:49:54

8:51:05
8:51:20 8:51:41

11:46 11:46:26 11:47:41 11:48:53 11:49:54 11:51:05 11:51:20 11:51:41

times are preliminary and may are dependent upon atmospheric

change prior and flight

to and during conditions. to Orbiter obtain

Altitudes are Above ground aim point on altitude above Mean *** SCA MDD FCS SRT

Ground Level (AGL) and the runway. Add 2,300 Sea Level (MSL).

are referenced feet to AGL to

- Shuttle Carrier Aircraft - Mate-Demate Device - Flight - Special Control Rated System Thrust (or Forward Crew Station)

-mo re-

-9-

APPROACH

AND

LANDING

TESTS

SUMMARY

RESULTS

PHASE (Orbiter

I APPROACH unmanned

AND LANDING and systems

TESTS inactive)

TAXI

TESTS:

February

15,

1977

Three taxi tests assessed the mated capability of the Shuttle Orbiter piggyback atop the 747 in ground handling and control characteristics up to the flight takeoff speed. The tests also validated the 757 steering and braking. Weight of the mately 4OO,000 154,OO0 lbs. altitude atop 747 at the start of the taxi lbs. and the Orbiter weight The nose of the mated Orbiter the 757. tests was approxiwas approximately is at a +6 degree

The taxi tests were performed incrementally Taxi Test #1 speed was 89 mph and the 747 at 27 mph; Taxi Test #2 speed was 140 mph • applied at 23 mph; and Taxi Test #3 speed brakes applied between 57 and 56 mph. Successful the first completion of the taxi tests inert Orbiter captive flight.

at various speeds. brakes were applied with the 747 brakes was 157 mph with 757

permitted

the

"go"

for

FLIGHT Duration: Maximum Maximum

#1:

February

18,

1977

2 Hr. 5 Mins. Speed: 287 MPH Altitude: 16,OOO

Ft.

This flight obtained information on low-speed performance and handling qualities of the mated "crafts" and was accomplished almost exactly as planned. The 747 combined with the Orbiter handled much closer to the standard 757 than was anticipated. The 757 crew stated "they couldn't even tell the Orbiter was aboard." The 757 mated with the Orbiter totals a much lower gross weight than a fully-loaded commercial 757 traveling from Los Angeles to London.

-mot e-

-i0-

FLIGHT

#2:

February

22,

1977

Duration: 3 Hr. 13 Mins. Maximum Speed: 328 MPH Maximum Altitude: 22,600

Ft. of flutter and stability conthe two right engines of the The flight was termed "super."

Flight #2 accomplished a series trol tests. During this flight, 747 were reduced to idle thrust.

_: DuratiOn: Maximum Maximum 2

February Hr. 28 425

25, Mins. MPH 26,600 the

1977

Speed: Altitude:

Ft.

This flight _ concluded stability/control/flight Stability and control of the 747 to simulate At the #4 and not be completion #5 follow necessary. of the

flutter tests and concentrated on evaluation and airspeed calibration. were evaluated by idling the #4 engine an engine failure. this same flight, it successful was stated that pattern, flight if #6 flights would

FLIGHT Duration: Maximum Maximum

#4:

February 2 Hr. ii

28, Mins.

1977

Speed: 425 MPH Altitude: 28,565

Ft.

This flight simulated emergency descent of the mated vehicles and a missed landing approach, as well as maneuvers required of the 747 when the mated vehicles enter the separation flight phase.

#

-mor e -

-ll-

The emergency descent was accomplished by reducing the four _47 engines to idle thrust. The missed approach was performed by flying the mated vehicles over the runway within several feet of the ground, then returning the 747's four engines to pewer and flown around for the final approach and landing. Full braking of the 747 was used for landing in a simulated "short" runway to stop in less than 6,000 ft. the first situation. time upon 747 braked

FLIGHT

#5:

March

2,

1977

Duration: I Hr. 39 Mins. Maximum Speed: 474 MPH Maximum Altitude: 30,000

Ft.

This flight performed two simulations of the flight profiles which will be used when the Orbiter is separated from the 747 in the third and final test phase. The two simulation release flights were performed successfully. Because an altitude of 30,000 ft. was reached it was PoSsible to simulate the separation at about 25,000 ft. In addition, the short runway landing was again achieved. This simulates NASA Marshall _ Space Flight Center's 7,500 ft. runway at Huntsville, Alabama. The mated vehicle configuration will be utilized to ferry the Orbiter to the Marshall Space Flight Center next year where the Orbiter will undergo a vertical ground vibration test program with the External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters. As a result determined of the success that the sixth with flight the five was not flights, required. it was

-mor e-

%_

/

-12-

PHASE

II

APPROACH manned,

AND

LANDING

TESTS

(Orbiter

systems

active)

FL!GHT

#i:

June Brake

18,

1977 8:06 A.M. (PDT) 9:01:46 A.M. (PDT) 263,088 Kilograms 55 Mins. 46 Sees.

SCA/Orbiter

Release:

SCA/Orbiter Landir_.: SCA/Orbiter Weight. Flight Duration: Maximum Speed: Maximum Altitude:

(580,000

ibs.)

18l KEAS (208
4562 Meters (14,970 Ft.)

Spacecraft Commander Fred Haise and Pilot Gordon Fullerton were at the controls of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during this first manned captive flight. This flight was a once around a racetracklike flight path which measured approximately 125 kilometers (78 statute miles) on the "straight-a-ways" with 16 kilometer (lO statute mile) curves. The Orbiter's power units, t o take off. During tests mately the onboard hydraulic electrical power (fuel cells), auxiliary and coolant systems were activated prior

initial

climb-out, When i14,970

low-speed the mated -_-), the

flight

control

system

were erformed 4,56 p meters

craft reached approxiSCA flaps were positioned at approximately mph). 181 KEAS

to I0 degrees and (knots equivalent

speed was maintained airspeed--208 statute

After the first turn of the racetrack-like trajectory, a flutter test was performed by the actuation of the Orbiter's flight control surfaces, then the SCA flight control surfaces; the Orbiter's speedbrake was opened to 60, 80, and I00 per cent; a test of the Orbiter's gyros was performed, and the Orbiter's flight icontrol system and surface deflection were checked. This first manned captive flight was orginally scheduled 24 hours earlier; however, during pre-flight checkout, three of the onboard computers "voted out" a fourth. This "rejected" computer was replaced. There are four onboard computers which operate redundantly to provide commands to the various Orbiter systems. According to mission rules, the Orbiter may be flown with three computers operating, but program officials decided to postpone the flight one day. There is a fifth computer onboard which operates a back-up flight control system independent of the other four for additional redundancy.

-mor e-

-13-

FLIGHT

#2:

June

28,

1977 7:49:50 A.M. (PDT) 8:52 A.M. (PDT) 253,018 Kilograms (557,800 i Hr. 2 Mains. 270 KEAS (310 MPH) 6714 Meters (22,030 ft.)

SCA/Orbiter Brake Release: SCA/Orbiter Landing: SCA/Orbiter Weight : Flight Duration: Maximum Speed: Maximum Altitude :

Ibs.)

Spacecraft Commander Joe Engle and Pilot Dick Truly were at the controls of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during this second manned captive flight. This flight consisted of a modified racetracklike trajectory as well as a "Grand Prix" roadrace-like trajectory. The Orbiter's power units, to takeoff. onboard hydraulic electrical power (fuel cells), auxiliary and coolant systems were activated prior

During the initial climb-out, low-speed flight control system tests were performed. This low-speed flutter test was performed with the Orbiter's flight control surfaces activated first, then the 747 SCA's control surfaces were operated with the mated craft at a speed of approximately 225 KEAS (259 mph). Following the low-speed flutter test, the Orbiter's speedbrake was opened to a 60, 80, and lO0 per cent deployment. The SCA crew then applied Special Rated Thrust (SRT) to the 747 engines for the climb, a pushover, and acceleration of the mated craft to approximately 270 KEAS (310 mph). The Orbiter and SCA crews again applied inputs to their respective craft control surfaces for a high-speed flutter test followed again by the deployment of the Orbiter's speedbrake at a 60, 80, and lO0 per cent deployment. The low and high speed flutter tests assessed the accuracy of predicted control surface responses and structural characteristics with respect to aerodynamic vibration. The mated craft then climbed again to an altitude of approximately 6,187 meters (20,300 ft.) for a separation maneuver test. The 747 crew accomplished a pushover and acceleration of the mated craft to approximately 270 KEAS (310 mph), with a descent rate of approximately 914 meters (3,000 ft.) per minute. The Orbiter's elevons and ailerons were positioned to provide the optimum Orbiter control surface positioning for the actual release maneuver in Phase III ALT.

-mor e-

-14-

Following the separation trajectory test, the mated Orbiter/ SCA climbed again to approximately 5,882 meters (19,300 ft.), accomplished a pushover and established a 7_7 glide slope of approximately six degrees for an Orbiter AUTOLANDmade flythrough. At this time the Orbiter crew monitored the Orbiter's Horizontal Situation Indicators which operated in conjunction with the MSBLS (Microwave Scan Beam Landing System). The combined craft then established a normal approach for landing. The results of the flutter, separation tests were well within the tolerances officials. maneuver and AUTOLAND expected by program

FLIGHT

#3:

July

26, :

1977 565,000 lbs. 59 Mins. 53 Sec. 312 mph 27,992 ft. (AGL)

SCA/Orbiter Weight Duration: Maximum Speed : Maximum Altitude:

Spacecraft Commander Haise and Pilot Fullerton were at the controls of Enterprise during this third and final captive flight, a full dress rehearsal of the planned August 12 free flight. The SCA/Orbiter reached a maximum altitude of 27,992 ft. (AGL) at which time pitch over was performed. The carrier aircraft landing gear was deployed to simulate the free flight approach and landing profile. A practice separation run was normal and "abort separation" was performed one minute after pushover. Enterprise landing gear was deployed for the first time after the SCA landed on runway 22. The final approach profile was identical to that planned for the first free flight.

-more-

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-end-

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