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NUTRITION FOR FITNESS AND SPORTS

The correct answer for each question is indicated by a

1 The benefits of regular, moderate physical activity include


A)

reduced risk for developing obesity.

B)

fewer infections.

C)

fewer injuries.

D)

all of the above

Feedback: Regular, moderate physical activity helps maintain lean tissue and promote loss of
fat tissue thus reducing the risk for developing obesity, but this is not the only correct answer.

2 The form of energy used by cells is called:


A)
B)
C)

ADP.
phosphocreatine.
glucose.

D)

ATP.

Feedback: When ATP is broken down to yield usable energy for functions of the cells ADP +
Pi is formed.

When glucose is broken down in an environment where oxygen supply is limited, a 3-carbon
component known as _________ accumulates in the muscle.
A)
B)
C)

glycogen
lactate
phosphocreatine

D)

nitrogen

Feedback: Phosphocreatine is a high-energy compound that can be used to reform ATP from
ADP.

4 When there is plenty of oxygen available in the muscles, the condition is referred to as being:
A)
B)
C)
D)

anaerobic.
oxygenated.
aerobic.
ventilated.

Feedback: Red blood cells are oxygenated, or supplied with oxygen, in the lungs.

5 During aerobic breakdown of a molecule of glucose, six O2 molecules yield how many ATPs?
A)

B)

95

C)

26

D)

30-32

Feedback: Ninety-five percent of ATP is yielded from complete metabolism of glucose


formed aerobically in the mitochondria.

6 What is the major disadvantage of accumulating lactate in the muscles?


A)
B)

fatigue
muscle damage

C)

nausea

D)

none; it is an advantage

Feedback: The major disadvantage of accumulating lactate in the muscles is fatigue.

7 The site of greatest energy production in a muscle cell is the:


A)

cytoplasm.

B)

mitochondria.

C)

ribosomes.

D)

nucleus.

Feedback: The site of greatest energy production in a muscle cell is the mitochondria.

Athletes may take carnitine pills in order to __________. However, this is of no demonstrable
value.
A)

provide glycogen stores

B)

build muscles

C)

burn fat faster


D)

increase foot speed

Feedback: Carnitine is involved in fatty acid metabolism for energy production and therefore
would not have a role in building muscle.

9 What source of energy is mainly used in light, aerobic activity?


A)

carbohydrate

B)
C)
D)

fat
protein
all of the above

Feedback: Carbohydrate is used as the main source of energy in more intense activity.

1 Which of the foods below constitutes the best choice when one attempts carbohydrate loading
0 before endurance events?
A)

potato chips

B)

french fries

C)

all bran (high fiber) cereal

D)

rice

Feedback: The pre-event meal should contain little fat, therefore potato chips would not be a
good food choice.

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During muscle-building regimes, some experts suggest that athletes should consume how
many grams of protein per kg body weight?
A)
B)
C)
D)

0.5 to 0.7 g/kg


0.8 g/kg
1.2 to 1.6 g/kg
4 g/kg

Feedback: The RDA for protein for the general population is 0.8 g protein/kg of body weight.

1 During exercise, the needs for vitamins generally are greatly increased.
2
A)
B)

True
False

Feedback: A The statement is not true since the needs for vitamins generally are the same or
only slightly higher for athletes compared with those of sedentary adults.

1 It is a good idea, especially for adult women athletes, to have blood hemoglobin regularly
3 checked to detect for a possible deficiency of what mineral?
A)

calcium

B)
C)

potassium
copper

D)

iron

Feedback: Blood calcium levels do not vary regardless of the dietary intake of calcium or
extent of exercise.

1 There is a direct relationship between density of spinal bone and:


4
A)
B)

exercise exertion.
weight loss.

C)

regular menstruation.

D)

iron deficiency.

Feedback: Decreasing the amount of exercise often restores regular menstrual cycles and
often restores density of spinal bone.

1 A light meal is best eaten __________ before participating in a sporting event.


5
A)

1 hour

B) immediately before to give a boost of energy


C)

2 to 4 hours

D)

8 to 10 hours

Feedback: If a meal is consumed 1 hour before participating in a sporting event the meal
should be blended or liquid to promote more rapid stomach emptying.

1 Which of the following substances is considered to be a proven ergogenic aid that increases
6 athletic performance?

A)
B)

bee pollen
salt tablets

C)

coenzyme Q 10

D)

none of the above

Feedback: Bee pollen is not considered to be a proven ergogenic aid that increases athletic
performance.

1 An ergogenic aid that is used in order to control lactate build-up in muscle is:
7
A)

caffeine.

B)

bicarbonate.

C)

anabolic steroid.

D)

growth hormone.

Feedback: An ergogenic aid that is used in order to control lactate build-up in muscle is
bicarbonate.

1 Which of the answers below describes the benefit of a "sports" drink?


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A)

provides water to hydrate

B) provides electrolytes to enhance water absorption in the intestine and to maintain


blood volume
C)
D)

supplies carbohydrate to provide energy


all of the above.

Feedback: A benefit of a "sports" drink is that it provides water to hydrate, but this is not the
only correct answer.

1 The maximum volume of oxygen consumed per unit of time during exercise is termed:

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A)

O2 max.

B)

maximum CO2.

C)

100% oxygen.

D)

VO2 max.

Feedback: 100% oxygen is not part of the definition for VO2 max.

2 Which of the following activities require approximately 30% to 50% of VO2 max?
0
A)

a fast walk

B)

a fast jog

C)
D)

a 3 hour marathon
sprints

Feedback: A fast walk requires approximately 50% to 60% of VO2 max.

When carbohydrate fuel (glycogen) in muscles is used up, it is difficult to maintain the high
2
initial workload unless the blood glucose concentration is elevated by carbohydrate
1
feedings.Athletes call this condition:
A)

the training effect.

B)

the second wind.

C)

hitting the wall.

D)

hypoglycemia.

Feedback: Results of the training effect on muscles include an increased production of


capillaries and an increased blood volume.

2 A pattern of repeated weight loss and weight gain of more than 5% of body weight by
2 dehydration carries some risk of:

A)

kidney malfunction.

B)

reduced blood volume.

C)
D)

increased body temperature.


all of the above.

Feedback: A pattern of repeated weight loss and weight gain of more than 5% of body weight
by dehydration carries some risk of reduced blood volume, but this is not the only correct
answer.

2 A basic program of physical activity should include all of the following except:
3
A) a warm-up exercise to increase blood flow and warm the muscles.
B) a workout to increase muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility.
C)

a workout that reaches VO2 max.

D) a cool-down exercise to prevent injury or soreness.


Feedback: A basic program of physical activity should include a workout to increase
muscular strength.

2 What percentage of one's general energy needs are fueled by proteins?


4
A)

less than or equal to 5%

B)

10% to 15%

C)

50% to 60%

D)

65% to 75%

Feedback: 50% to 60% of energy for the average person should be provided in the form of
carbohydrates.

2 Which of the following ergogenic aids have been supported by scientific evidence:

5
A)

water.

B)

high carbohydrate diet.

C)

high protein diet.

D)

A and B.

Feedback: A high protein diet as an ergogenic aid has not been supported by scientific
evidence.