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Gravity

Still a mystery for science

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History
Isaac Newton declered in 1686 in his masterpiece Principa that gravity was an attractive force between all objects. Newtons Universal Law of Gravity is concidered to be one of the greatest science allegations of all time. Isaac Newton was a scientist, but also a life-long bibliar scholar. He wrote in his Principa: “Our most beatiful system of the sun, planets and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being”.

What kind of force is gravity ?
Gravity is one of the four fundamental forces of nature ( strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravity) but by far the weakest of them. It dominates on the scale of large space objects. Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. The force reaches an extreemely long distance, getting less and less for greater distance, but it never quite reaches zero ! (1) The relative strengt between these four forces is like this: Strong Electromagnetic Weak Gravity 1 10-2 10-6 10-43 Stability of atomic nucleus Atomic, molecular bonding Radioactive decay process Stability of space objects

Newtons theory had its greatest success when it was used to predict the existence of the planet Neptune. Although Newton’s theory has been some adjusted, it is still more used than Einsteins General relativity, beeing a much more simple theory to work with, and giving suficciently accurate results for most applications.

The equivalence principle
This principle express the idea that all objects fall in the same way. A simple way to test this priciple is to drop two objects of different masses or compositions in a vacuum, and see if they hits the ground at the same time.

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Gravity and General relativity

Einstein proposed that spacetime is curved by matter, and a free-falling object are moving along straight paths in curved spacetime. The Einstein field equation are a set of 10 simultanous, non-linear, differensial equations !

Earth’s gravity

Every planetary body, including the Earth, is surrounded by its own gravitational field, performing attractive force on all objecte. The strength of a gravitational field in numerically equal to the acceleration of objects under its influence, approximately expressed by the standard average g = 9.81 m/s2. (1)

Gravity and quantum mechanics.

Several decades after the discovery of general relativity it was realized that relativity is incompareable to quantum mechanics. It is possible to describe gravity in the framework of quantum field theory, just like other fundamental forces , such that the attractive force of gravity arises, due to exchange of “virtual gravitons”, in the same way as the electromagnetic force arises from exchange of virtual photons. But this “approach” fails at short distance due to Planck’s length. Some scientists believe that the emerge of a complete theory, like the String Theory, or perhaps the M-theory could give an independent background to solve the approach to the gravity problem.

What kind of matter is gravity ?
Could there be particles like neutrinos or photons beeing responsible, or is gravity another kind of mysterious matters like dark matter, dark energy and vacuum energy ? Let us take a little look at these possibilities: Neutrinos move straight forward with a speed close up to the light, completely unaffectet by ordinary matter, gravity- or electromagnetic forces. They come from “somewhere” and ends up “nowhere”, with one exception, a collosion with a proton, a very seldom happening. The density of neutrinos hitting your body corresponds to several 100 millions of neutrinos per second . Photons, the “light particle”, responsible for all electromagnetic radiation, goes also in stright lines with the speed of light , but strong gravimetric fields can give them a bend in their direction. Dark matter, dark energy and vacuum energy has still not found a sensible explanation. About 70 % of all matter in the universe concists of dark energy, some 26% of dark matter, and the rest of ordinary matter, including all stars and galaxies we can observe in the universe is only 5 %. (neutrinos 0.3 %).

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Dark matter has an attractive force, maybe necessary to keep the univers united, and so far comparable to the gravity force, but more than this can not be used as resemblance. Dark energy has a repulsive force, perhaps causing the expansion of our universe, keeping a balance in the size of our universe. Vacuum energy The quantum theory brought in a question about the precence of vacuum–energy in space, beeing the sourche for pairs of particles constantly popping up into existance throughout in the universe. These virtual particles, one negative and one positive, could perhaps exist for a fraction of a second.

Other explananations ?
The real truth about gravity is still a great problem for science. Some related “behaviour” can be found between gravity- and centrifugal forces. Take a look at the gyro-scope at right . If you try to disturb the gyro by making a press on the suspensions, the axis of the gyroscope will make a movement perpendicular to the moment, trying to get it’s own spinning axis parellell to the momentum. By high speed this device seems to have a mystical connection to someting quite unvisible in it’s surroundings, may be A facinating experience, which in 1990 inspired me to try to utilize this phenomena in a machinery based on two contra-spinning bicycle wheels, in the purpose to create antigravity. (3) Without regard to my “brave experiment”, both gravity- and centrifugal forces are seemingly connectet to some invisible matter in their surroundings. The atoms in a spinning wheel or in an accelerated body have something in common. They “dont like to be disturbed” in their gained condition, and either meet a disturbance with an evaside movement, or need for increased strain for acceleration. The experiments taking place by The Large Hadron Accelerator (CERN) will perhaps give the scientist’s results that means a better understanding of what mechanism nature use to produce matter from a seemingly empty space in the universe. The Higgs boson is the only Standard Model particle that has not yet been observed. Experimental detection of the Higgs boson would help explain the origin of matter in the universe, and explain the difference between the massless photon, which mediates electro-magnetism, and the massive W and Z bosons, mediating the weak force. (4)

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On the 30.mars at 13.06 this year a message came from the CERN institute in Switzerland, announcing that a successful experiment in the 27 km long LHC accelerator by colliding two contrary rotating proton beams by 7 TeV (Terra electron volt) had been completed. The detections from this happening would now be closely scrutinized. Skien, 4.april 2010 Kjell W. Tveten

References
(1) (2) (3) (4) http://wapedia.mobi/en/Gravity http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newtons_bevegelseslover http://neutrino.posterous.com Welcom to my web site/ Antigravity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_boson

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