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You are on page 1of 16

P5.2- 2, 3, 6

P5.3-3, 5, 8, 15

P5.4-3, 6, 8, 16

P5.5-2, 4, 6, 11

P5.6-2, 4, 9

Find ia by simplifying the circuit (using source

transformations) to a single-loop circuit so that

you need to write only one KVL equation to find

ia.

Figure P 5.2-2

Solution:

10 + 3 ia + 4 ia

16

= 0

3

ia=

2.19 A

transformations if i = 5/2 A in the

circuit shown in Figure P 5.2-3.

Hint: Reduce the circuit to a

single mesh that contains the

voltage source labeled vo.

Answer: vo = 28 V

Figure P 5.2-3

Solution:

Equivalents for series resistors, series voltage source at left; series resistors, then source transformation at

top:

6 + i (9 + 19) 36 vo =0

i=

5 / 2 vo =

42 + 28 (5 / 2) =

28 V

(checked using LNAP 8/15/02)

the value of the voltage va in Figure P 5.2-6.

Answer: va = 7 V

Figure P 5.2-6

Solution:

A source transformation on the right side of the circuit, followed by replacing series resistors with an

equivalent resistor:

Source transformations on both the right side and the left side of the circuit:

Replacing parallel resistors with an equivalent resistor and also replacing parallel current sources with an

equivalent current source:

=

va

Finally,

50 (100 )

100

=

( 0.21) 7 V

( 0.21) =

50 + 100

3

P5.3-3

The circuit shown in Figure P5.3-3 has two inputs, vs and is, and one output io. The output is related to the

inputs by the equation

=

io a is + b vs

Given the following two facts:

The output is io = 0.45 A when the inputs are is = 0.25 A and vs = 15 V.

and

The output is io = 0.30 A when the inputs are is = 0.50 A and vs = 0 V.

Determine the values of the constants a and b and the values of the resistances are R 1 and R 2.

Answers: a = 0.6 A/A, b = 0.02 A/V, R 1 = 30 and R 2 = 20 .

Figure P5.3-3

Solution:

From the 1st fact:

=

0.45 a ( 0.25 ) + b (15 )

From the 2nd fact:

0.30

0.30 = a ( 0.50 ) + b ( 0 ) a =

= 0.60

0.50

Substituting gives

=

0.45

b

( 0.60 )( 0.25) + b (15) =

a=

i s i o1

= io

so

0.60

=

R1

R1 + R 2

R1

=

i

v s =0

R1 + R 2 s

3 R2

2 R=

1

= 0.02

15

and

so

= io =

b v=

i o2

s

i s =0

0.02 =

1

R1 + R 2

vs

R1 + R 2

R1 + R 2 =

1

= 50

0.02

Figure P5.3-5

P5.3-5 Determine v(t), the voltage across the vertical resistor in the circuit in Figure P5.3-5.

Solution;

Well use superposition. Let v1(t) the be the part of v(t) due to the voltage source acting alone. Similarly,

let v2(t) the be the part of v(t) due to the voltage source acting alone. We can use these circuits to calculate

v1(t) and v2(t).

Notice that v1(t) is the voltage across parallel resistors. Using equivalent resistance, we calculate 40||10 = 8

. Next, using voltage division we calculate

8

=

v1 ( t ) =

(12 ) 2 V

8 + 40

Similarly v2(t) is the voltage across parallel resistors Using equivalent resistance we first determine 40||40

= 20 and then calculate

20

=

(12 cos ( 5t ) ) 8cos ( 5t ) V

10 + 20

v (t ) =

v1 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) =

2 + 8cos ( 5 t ) V

=

v 2 (t )

Using superposition

the current ix in Figure P 5.3-8.

Answer: i = 3.5 mA

Figure P5.3-8

Solution:

Consider 8 V source only (open the 2 A source)

voltage source.

Apply KVL to the supermesh:

6 ( i1 ) + 3 ( i1 ) + 3 ( i1 ) 8 =

0

8 2

=

A

12 3

Let i2 be the part of ix due to the 2 A

current source.

=

i1

6 ( i 2 ) + 3 ( i 2 + 2 ) + 3 i2 =

0

i2 =

Finally,

6

1

= A

12

2

2 1 1

i x = i1 + i 2 = = A

3 2 6

three inputs: v1, i2, and v3. The output of the circuit is the

current io. The output of the circuit is related to the

inputs by

i1 = avo + bv2 + ci3

where a, b, and c are constants. Determine the values of

a, b, and c.

Figure P 5.3-15

Solution:

v1

10

10

20

io =

i2

10 + 40 20 + 12 + ( 40 10 ) 10 + 40 20 + 12 + ( 40 10 )

v3

20 + 12

+

40 + ( 20 + 12 ) 10 + 40 ( 20 + 12 )

1

1

1

io =

v1 + i 2 +

v3

200

10

62.5

So

a=

0.05, b =

0.1 and c =

0.016

(checked: LNAP 6/19/04)

P 5.4-3 The circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-3b is the Thvenin equivalent circuit of the circuit shown in

Figure P 5.4-3a. Find the value of the open-circuit voltage, voc, and Thvenin resistance, Rt.

Answer: voc = 2 V and Rt = 4

Figure P 5.4-3

Solution:

The circuit from Figure P5.4-3a can be reduced to its Thevenin equivalent circuit in five steps:

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(e)

Comparing (e) to Figure P5.4-3b shows that the Thevenin resistance is Rt = 4 and the open circuit

voltage, voc = 2 V.

(checked using LNAP 8/15/02)

for the circuit shown in Figure P 5.4-6.

Figure P 5.4-6

Solution:

Find voc:

2 va va va

=

+ 3 + 0 va = 18 V

3

6

The voltage across the right-hand 3 resistor is zero so: va = voc = 18 V

Apply KCL at the top, middle node:

Find isc:

v

2 va va va

= +3+ a

3

6

3

va =18 V

Finally:

i sc =

va 18

=

= 6 V

3

3

v

18

R t = oc = =3

i sc 6

box as shown in Figure P 5.4-8. The voltage, v,

was measured. The resistance was changed, and

the voltage was measured again. The results are

shown in the table. Determine the Thvenin

equivalent of the circuit within the box and predict

the voltage, v, when R = 8 k.

Figure P 5.4-8

Solution:

From the given data:

2000

voc

R t + 2000

voc = 1.2 V

1600

4000

Rt =

2=

voc

R t + 4000

6=

When R = 8000 ,

v=

R

voc

Rt + R

=

v

open circuit. A more realistic model of a

voltmeter is a large resistance. Figure P 5.416a shows a circuit with a voltmeter that

measures the voltage vm. In Figure P 5.4-16b

the voltmeter is replaced by the model of an

ideal voltmeter, an open circuit. The voltmeter

measures vmi, the ideal value of vm.

As Rm , the voltmeter becomes an ideal

voltmeter and vm vmi. When Rm < , the

voltmeter is not ideal and vm > vmi. The

difference between vm and vmi is a

measurement error caused by the fact that the

voltmeter is not ideal.

(a)

(b)

8000

=

(1.2 ) 1.5 V

1600 + 8000

percentage of vmi.

(c)

required to ensure that the measurement

error is smaller than 2 percent of vmi.

Figure P 5.4-16

Solution: Replace the circuit by its Thevenin equivalent circuit:

(a)

=

v mi

Rm

vm =

5

R m + 50

lim v m 5 V

=

R m

% error =

(c)

Rm

5

5

R m + 50

0.02

5

5 4.762

100 =

4.76%

5

Rm

R m + 50

0.98

R m 2450

(checked: LNAP 6/16/04)

shown in Figure P 5.5-2. Box A

contains the Thvenin equivalent of

some linear circuit, and box B

contains the Norton equivalent of the

same circuit. With access to just the

outsides of the boxes and their

terminals, how can you determine

which is which, using only one

shorting wire?

Figure P 5.5-2

Solution:

When the terminals of the boxes are open-circuited, no current flows in Box A, but the resistor in Box B

dissipates 1 watt. Box B is therefore warmer than Box A. If you short the terminals of each box, the

resistor in Box A will draw 1 amp and dissipate 1 watt. The resistor in Box B will be shorted, draw no

current, and dissipate no power. Then Box A will warm up and Box B will cool off.

P 5.5-4

Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the circuit shown in Figure P 5.5-4.

Figure P 5.5-4

Solution:

Figure P 5.5-6b is the Norton equivalent circuit

of the circuit shown in Figure P 5.5-6a. Find

the value of the short-circuit current, isc, and

Thvenin resistance, Rt.

Answer: isc = 24 A and Rt = 3

Figure P 5.5-6

Solution:

To determine the value of the short circuit current, Isc, we connect a short circuit across the terminals of

the circuit and then calculate the value of the current in that short circuit. Figure (a) shows the circuit from

Figure 4.6-5a after adding the short circuit and labeling the short circuit current. Also, the nodes have been

identified and labeled in anticipation of writing node equations. Let v1, v2 and v3 denote the node voltages

at nodes 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

In Figure (a), node voltage v1 is equal to the negative of the voltage source voltage. Consequently,

v1 = 24 V . The voltage at node 3 is equal to the voltage across a short, v3 = 0 . The controlling voltage of

the VCCS, va, is equal to the node voltage at node 2, i.e. va = v2 . The voltage at node 3 is equal to the

voltage across a short, i.e. v3 = 0 .

Apply KCL at node 2 to get

v1 v 2

3

v2 v3

=

6

2 v1 + v 3 =

3 v2

48 =

3 va

v a =16 V

v2 v3

6

4

v 2 = isc

3

9

v a = isc

6

isc =

9

( 16 ) = 24 A

6

Figure (a) Calculating the short circuit current, Isc, using mesh equations.

To determine the value of the Thevenin resistance, Rth, first replace the 24 V voltage source by a 0

V voltage source, i.e. a short circuit. Next, connect a current source circuit across the terminals of the

circuit and then label the voltage across that current source as shown in Figure (b). The Thevenin

resistance will be calculated from the current and voltage of the current source as

R th =

vT

iT

Also, the nodes have been identified and labeled in anticipation of writing node equations. Let v1, v2 and v3

denote the node voltages at nodes 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

In Figure (b), node voltage v1 is equal to the across a short circuit, i.e. v1 = 0 . The controlling

voltage of the VCCS, va, is equal to the node voltage at node 2, i.e. va = v2 . The voltage at node 3 is equal

to the voltage across the current source, i.e. v3 = vT .

Apply KCL at node 2 to get

v1 v 2 v 2 v 3

=

3

6

2 v1 + v=

3 v2

3

v=

3 va

T

v2 v3

6

4

v 2 + iT = 0 9 v 2 v3 + 6 iT = 0

3

9 v a vT + 6 iT =

0

3 v T vT + 6 iT =

6 iT

0 2 vT =

Finally,

v

R t = T =3

iT

vT

, using mesh equations.

iT

To determine the value of the open circuit voltage, voc, we connect an open circuit across the

terminals of the circuit and then calculate the value of the voltage across that open circuit. Figure (c) shows

the circuit from Figure P 4.6-5a after adding the open circuit and labeling the open circuit voltage. Also,

the nodes have been identified and labeled in anticipation of writing node equations. Let v1, v2 and v3

denote the node voltages at nodes 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

In Figure (c), node voltage v1 is equal to the negative of the voltage source voltage. Consequently,

v1 = 24 V . The controlling voltage of the VCCS, va, is equal to the node voltage at node 2, i.e. va = v2 .

The voltage at node 3 is equal to the open circuit voltage, i.e. v3 = voc .

Apply KCL at node 2 to get

Figure (b) Calculating the Thevenin resistance, R th =

v1 v 2 v 2 v 3

=

3

6

Apply KCL at node 3 to get

v2 v3

6

Combining these equations gives

2 v1 + =

v3 3 v2

48 + v=

3 va

oc

4

v 2 = 0 9 v 2 v 3 = 0 9 v a = v oc

3

3 ( 48 + voc )= 9 v a= voc

voc= 72 V

Figure (c) Calculating the open circuit voltage, voc, using node equations.

As a check, notice that

R th I sc =

( 3)( 24 ) =72 =Voc

cause the circuit shown in

Figure P 5.5-11b to be the Norton equivalent

circuit of the circuit in

Figure P 5.5-11a.

Answer: Rt = 3 and isc = 2 A

Figure P 5.5-11

Solution:

2 i a 12

ia =

ia =

3 A

6

voc = 2 i a = 6 V

12 + 6 i a =

2ia ia =

3 A

3 i sc =

2ia

Rt=

2

i sc = ( 3) =

2 A

3

6

= 3

2

that maximum power is dissipated in R and (b) calculate

the value of maximum power.

Answer: R = 60 and Pmax = 54 mW

Figure P 5.6-2

Solution:

a) For maximum power transfer, set RL equal

to the Thevenin resistance:

R L = R t = 100 + 1= 101

b) To calculate the maximum power, first replace the circuit connected to RL be its Thevenin equivalent

circuit:

101

=

(100 ) 50 V

101 + 101

2

502

vL

pmax

= = = 24.75 W

R L 101

vL

The voltage across RL is=

Then

maximum power transfer condition is met for the circuit of

Figure P 5.6-4.

Answer: max pL = 0.75 W

Figure P 5.6-4

Solution:

RL

v L = vS

R S + R L

v L2

v S2 R L

pL =

=

R L ( RS + R L )2

smallest denominator.

set RS = 0

to a variable resistor, and the power

delivered to the resistor was measured as

shown in Figure P 5.6-9. Determine the

Thvenin equivalent circuit.

Figure P 5.6-9

Solution:

From the plot, the maximum power is 5 W when R = 20 . Therefore:

Rt = 20

and

2

v

pmax = oc

4 Rt

voc =

pmax 4 Rt =

5 ( 4 ) 20 = 20 V

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