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Canto 9 - Liberation

1. King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman

This chapter describes how Sudyumna became a woman and how the
dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu was amalgamated with the Soma-vaa, the
dynasty coming from the moon.
By the desire of Mahrja Parkit, ukadeva Gosvm told about the
dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu, who was formerly King Satyavrata, the ruler
of Dravia. While describing this dynasty, he also described how the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, while lying down in the waters of
devastation, gave birth to Lord Brahm from a lotus generated from His
navel. From the mind of Lord Brahm, Marci was generated, and his son
was Kayapa. From Kayapa, through Aditi, Vivasvn was generated, and
from Vivasvn came rddhadeva Manu, who was born from the womb of
Saj. rddhadeva's wife, raddh, gave birth to ten sons, such as
Ikvku and Nga.
rddhadeva, or Vaivasvata Manu, the father of Mahrja Ikvku, was
sonless before Ikvku's birth, but by the grace of the great sage Vasiha
he performed a yaja to satisfy Mitra and Varua. Then, although
Vaivasvata Manu wanted a son, by the desire of his wife he got a daughter
named Il. Manu, however, was not satisfied with the daughter.
Consequently, for Manu's satisfaction, the great sage Vasiha prayed for
Il to be transformed into a boy, and his prayer was fulfilled by the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus Il became a beautiful young man
named Sudyumna.
Once upon a time, Sudyumna went on tour with his ministers. At the foot
of the mountain Sumeru there is a forest named Sukumra, and as soon as
they entered that forest, they were all transformed into women. When
Mahrja Parkit inquired from ukadeva Gosvm about the reason for
this transformation, ukadeva Gosvm described how Sudyumna, being

transformed into a woman, accepted Budha, the son of the moon, as her
husband and had a son named Purrav. By the grace of Lord iva,
Sudyumna received the benediction that he would live one month as a
woman and one month as a man. Thus he regained his kingdom and had
three sons, named Utkala, Gaya and Vimala, who were all very religious.
Thereafter, he entrusted his kingdom to Purrav and took the order of
vnaprastha life.
manvantari sarvi
tvayoktni rutni me
vryy ananta-vryasya
hares tatra ktni ca
r-rj uvcaKing Parkit said; manvantariall about the periods of
the various Manus; sarviall of them; tvayby you; uktnihave
been described; rutnihave been listened to; meby me; vryi
wonderful activities; ananta-vryasyaof the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who has unlimited potency; hareof the Supreme Lord, Hari;
tatrain those manvantara periods; ktniwhich have been performed;
King Parkit said: My lord, ukadeva Gosvm, you have elaborately
described all the periods of the various Manus and, within those
periods, the wonderful activities of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who has unlimited potency. I am fortunate to have heard all
of this from you.
yo 'sau satyavrato nma
rjarir dravievara
jna yo 'tta-kalpnte
lebhe purua-sevay
sa vai vivasvata putro
manur sd iti rutam
tvattas tasya sut prokt
ikvku-pramukh np

ya asauhe who was known; satyavrataSatyavrata; nmaby the

name; rja-ithe saintly king; dravia-varathe ruler of the
Dravia countries; jnamknowledge; yaone who; atta-kalpa-ante
at the end of the period of the last Manu, or at the end of the last
millennium; lebhereceived; purua-sevayby rendering service to the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; sahe; vaiindeed; vivasvataof
Vivasvn; putrason; manu stbecame the Vaivasvata Manu; iti
thus; rutamI have already heard; tvattafrom you; tasyahis;
sutsons; prokthave been explained; ikvku-pramukhheaded
by Ikvku; npmany kings.
Satyavrata, the saintly king of Draviadea who received spiritual
knowledge at the end of the last millennium by the grace of the
Supreme, later became Vaivasvata Manu, the son of Vivasvn, in the
next manvantara [period of Manu]. I have received this knowledge from
you. I also understand that such kings as Ikvku were his sons, as you
have already explained.
te vaa pthag brahman
vanucaritni ca
krtayasva mah-bhga
nitya urat hi na
temof all those kings; vaamthe dynasties; pthakseparately;
brahmanO great brhmaa (ukadeva Gosvm); vaa-anucaritni ca
and their dynasties and characteristics; krtayasvakindly describe;
mah-bhgaO greatly fortunate one; nityameternally; uratm
who are engaged in your service; hiindeed; naof ourselves.
O greatly fortunate ukadeva Gosvm, O great brhmaa, kindly
describe to us separately the dynasties and characteristics of all those
kings, for we are always eager to hear such topics from you.
ye bht ye bhaviy ca
bhavanty adyatan ca ye
te na puya-krtn

sarve vada vikramn

yeall of whom; bhthave already appeared; yeall of whom;
bhaviywill appear in the future; caalso; bhavantiare existing;
adyatanat present; caalso; yeall of whom; temof all of them;
naunto us; puya-krtnmwho were all pious and celebrated;
sarvemof all of them; vadakindly explain; vikramnabout the
Kindly tell us about the abilities of all the celebrated kings born in the
dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu, including those who have already passed,
those who may appear in the future, and those who exist at present.
r-sta uvca
eva parkit rj
sadasi brahma-vdinm
pa provca bhagav
chuka parama-dharma-vit
r-sta uvcar Sta Gosvm said; evamin this way; parkitby
Mahrja Parkit; rjby the King; sadasiin the assembly; brahmavdinmof all the great saintly experts in Vedic knowledge; pa
having been asked; provcaanswered; bhagavnthe most powerful;
ukauka Gosvm; parama-dharma-vitthe most learned scholar in
religious principles.
Sta Gosvm said: When ukadeva Gosvm, the greatest knower of
religious principles, was thus requested by Mahrja Parkit in the
assembly of all the scholars learned in Vedic knowledge, he then
proceeded to speak.
r-uka uvca
ryat mnavo vaa
prcuryea parantapa
na akyate vistarato
vaktu vara-atair api

r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; ryatmjust hear from

me; mnava vaathe dynasty of Manu; prcuryeaas expansive as
possible; parantapaO King, who can subdue your enemies; nanot;
akyateone is able; vistaratavery broadly; vaktumto speak; varaatai apieven if he does so for hundreds of years.
ukadeva Gosvm continued: O King, subduer of your enemies, now
hear from me in great detail about the dynasty of Manu. I shall explain
as much as possible, although one could not say everything about it,
even in hundreds of years.
parvare bhtnm
tm ya purua para
sa evsd ida viva
kalpnte 'nyan na kicana
para-avaremof all living entities, in higher or lower statuses of life;
bhtnmof those who have taken material bodies (the conditioned
souls); tmthe Supersoul; yaone who is; puruathe Supreme
Person; paratranscendental; saHe; evaindeed; stwas existing;
idamthis; vivamuniverse; kalpa-anteat the end of the millennium;
anyatanything else; nanot; kicanaanything whatsoever.
The transcendental Supreme Person, the Supersoul of all living entities,
who are in different statuses of life, high and low, existed at the end of
the millennium, when neither this manifested cosmos nor anything else
but Him existed.
Taking the proper position from which to describe the dynasty of Manu,
ukadeva Gosvm begins by saying that when the entire world is
inundated, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead exists, and nothing
else. ukadeva Gosvm will now describe how the Lord creates other
things, one after another.
tasya nbhe samabhavat
padma-koo hiramaya
tasmi jaje mahrja

svayambh catur-nana
tasyaof Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); nbhefrom the
navel; samabhavatgenerated; padma-koaa lotus; hiramaya
known as Hiramaya, or golden; tasminon that golden lotus; jaje
appeared; mahrjaO King; svayambhone who is self-manifested,
who takes birth without a mother; catu-nanawith four heads.
O King Parkit, from the navel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
was generated a golden lotus, on which the four-faced Lord Brahm
took his birth.
marcir manasas tasya
jaje tasypi kayapa
dkyay tato 'dity
vivasvn abhavat suta
marcithe great saintly person known as Marci; manasa tasyafrom
the mind of Lord Brahm; jajetook birth; tasya apifrom Marci;
kayapaKayapa (took birth); dkyaymin the womb of the
daughter of Mahrja Daka; tatathereafter; aditymin the womb of
Aditi; vivasvnVivasvn; abhavattook birth; sutaa son.
From the mind of Lord Brahm, Marci took birth, and from the semen
of Marci, Kayapa appeared from the womb of the daughter of Daka
Mahrja. From Kayapa, by the womb of Aditi, Vivasvn took birth.
TEXTS 11-12
tato manu rddhadeva
sajym sa bhrata
raddhy janaym sa
daa putrn sa tmavn
nariyanta padhra ca
nabhaga ca kavi vibhu

tatafrom Vivasvn; manu rddhadevathe Manu named

rddhadeva; sajymin the womb of Saj (the wife of Vivasvn);
sawas born; bhrataO best of the Bhrata dynasty; raddhymin
the womb of raddh (the wife of rddhadeva); janaym sabegot;
daaten; putrnsons; sathat rddhadeva; tmavnhaving
conquered his senses; ikvku-nga-aryti-dia-dha-karakn
named Ikvku, Nga, aryti, Dia, Dha and Karaka; nariyantam
Nariyanta; padhram caand Padhra; nabhagam caand Nabhaga;
kavimKavi; vibhuthe great.
O King, best of the Bhrata dynasty, from Vivasvn, by the womb of
Saj, rddhadeva Manu was born. rddhadeva Manu, having
conquered his senses, begot ten sons in the womb of his wife, raddh.
The names of these sons were Ikvku, Nga, aryti, Dia, Dha,
Karaka, Nariyanta, Padhra, Nabhaga and Kavi.
aprajasya mano prva
vasiho bhagavn kila
mitr-varuayor ii
prajrtham akarod vibhu
aprajasyaof he who had no son; manoof Manu; prvamformerly;
vasihathe great saint Vasiha; bhagavnpowerful; kilaindeed;
mitr-varuayoof the demigods named Mitra and Varua; iima
sacrifice; praj-arthamfor the sake of getting sons; akarotexecuted;
vibhuthe great person.
Manu at first had no sons. Therefore, in order to get a son for him, the
great saint Vasiha, who was very powerful in spiritual knowledge,
performed a sacrifice to satisfy the demigods Mitra and Varua.
tatra raddh mano patn
hotra samaycata
duhitrartham upgamya
praipatya payovrat

tatrain that sacrifice; raddhraddh; manoof Manu; patnthe

wife; hotramto the priest performing the yaja; samaycatabegged
properly; duhit-arthamfor a daughter; upgamyacoming near;
praipatyaoffering obeisances; paya-vratwho was observing the
vow of drinking only milk.
During that sacrifice, raddh, Manu's wife, who was observing the vow
of subsisting only by drinking milk, approached the priest offering the
sacrifice, offered obeisances to him and begged for a daughter.
preito 'dhvaryu hot
vyacarat tat samhita
ghte havii vc
vaa-kra gan dvija
preitabeing told to execute the sacrifice; adhvaryuby the tvik
priest; hotthe priest in charge of offering oblations; vyacarat
executed; tatthat (sacrifice); samhitawith great attention; ghte
haviiupon taking the clarified butter for the first oblation; vcby
chanting the mantra; vaa-kramthe mantra beginning with the word
vaa; ganreciting; dvijathe brhmaa.
Told by the chief priest "Now offer oblations," the person in charge of
oblations took clarified butter to offer. He then remembered the request
of Manu's wife and performed the sacrifice while chanting the word
hotus tad-vyabhicrea
kanyel nma sbhavat
t vilokya manu prha
ntituaman gurum
hotuof the priest; tatof the yaja; vyabhicreaby that
transgression; kanya daughter; ilIl; nmaby the name; sthat
daughter; abhavatwas born; tmunto her; vilokyaseeing; manu
Manu; prhasaid; nanot; atituamanvery much satisfied;

gurumunto his guru.

Manu had begun that sacrifice for the sake of getting a son, but because
the priest was diverted by the request of Manu's wife, a daughter named
Il was born. Upon seeing the daughter, Manu was not very satisfied.
Thus he spoke to his guru, Vasiha, as follows.
Because Manu had no issue, he was pleased at the birth of the child, even
though a daughter, and gave her the name Il. Later, however, he was not
very satisfied to see the daughter instead of a son. Because he had no
issue, he was certainly very glad at the birth of Il, but his pleasure was
bhagavan kim ida jta
karma vo brahma-vdinm
viparyayam aho kaa
maiva syd brahma-vikriy
bhagavanO my lord; kim idamwhat is this; jtamborn; karma
fruitive activities; vaof all of you; brahma-vdinmof you, who are
expert in chanting the Vedic mantras; viparyayamdeviation; ahoalas;
kaampainful; m evam sytthus it should not have been; brahmavikriythis opposite action of the Vedic mantras.
My lord, all of you are expert in chanting the Vedic mantras. How then
has the result been opposite to the one desired? This is a matter for
lamentation. There should not have been such a reversal of the results
of the Vedic mantras.
In this age, the performance of yaja has been forbidden because no one
can properly chant the Vedic mantras. If Vedic mantras are chanted
properly, the desire for which a sacrifice is performed must be successful.
Therefore the Hare Ka chant is called the mah-mantra, the great,
exalted mantra above all other Vedic mantras, because simply chanting the
Hare Ka mah-mantra brings so many beneficial effects. As explained
by r Caitanya Mahprabhu (ikaka 1):
ceto-darpaa-mrjana bhava-mah-dvgni-nirvpaa
reya-kairava-candrik-vitaraa vidy-vadh-jvanam


nandmbudhi-vardhana prati-pada prmtsvdana

sarvtma-snapana para vijayate r-ka-sakrtanam
[Cc. Antya 20.12]
"Glory to the r Ka sakrtana, which cleanses the heart of all the dust
accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of
repeated birth and death. This sakrtana movement is the prime
benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the
benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It
increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste
the nectar for which we are always anxious."
Therefore, the best performance of yaja given to us is the sakrtanayaja. Yajai sakrtana-pryair yajanti hi sumedhasa (SB 11.5.32).
Those who are intelligent take advantage of the greatest yaja in this age
by chanting the Hare Ka mah-mantra in congregation. When the Hare
Ka mantra is chanted by many men together, the chanting is called
sakrtana, and as a result of such a yaja there will be clouds in the sky
(yajd bhavati parjanya [Bg. 3.14]). In these days of drought, people
can gain relief from scarcity of rain and food by the simple method of the
Hare Ka yaja. Indeed, this can relieve all of human society. At present
there are droughts throughout Europe and America, and people are
suffering, but if people take this Ka consciousness movement
seriously, if they stop their sinful activities and chant the Hare Ka
mah-mantra, all their problems will be solved without difficulty. In other
processes of yaja there are difficulties because there are no learned
scholars who can chant the mantras perfectly well, nor is it possible to
secure the ingredients to perform the yaja. Because human society is
poverty-stricken and men are devoid of Vedic knowledge and the power
to chant the Vedic mantras, the Hare Ka mah-mantra is the only
shelter. People should be intelligent enough to chant it. Yajai
sakrtana-pryair yajanti hi sumedhasa [SB 11.5.32]. Those whose
brains are dull cannot understand this chanting, nor can they take to it.
yya brahma-vido yukts
tapas dagdha-kilbi
kuta sakalpa-vaiamyam
anta vibudhev iva


yyamof all you; brahma-vidacompletely in awareness of the

Absolute Truth; yuktself-controlled and well balanced; tapasby
dint of austerity and penances; dagdha-kilbiall kinds of material
contamination having been burnt out; kutathen how; sakalpavaiamyamdiscrepancy in the matter of determination; antamfalse
promise, false statement; vibudheuin the society of the demigods; iva
You are all self-controlled, well balanced in mind, and aware of the
Absolute Truth. And because of austerities and penances you are
completely cleansed of all material contamination. Your words, like
those of the demigods, are never baffled. Then how is it possible that
your determination has failed?
We have learned from many Vedic literatures that a benediction or curse
given by the demigods never proves false. By performing austerities and
penances, by controlling the senses and mind, and by achieving full
knowledge of the Absolute Truth, one is fully cleansed of material
contamination. Then one's words and blessings, like those of the
demigods, are never a failure.
niamya tad vacas tasya
bhagavn prapitmaha
hotur vyatikrama jtv
babhe ravi-nandanam
niamyaafter hearing; tat vacathose words; tasyaof him (Manu);
bhagavnthe most powerful; prapitmahathe great-grandfather
Vasiha; hotu vyatikramamdiscrepancy on the part of the hot priest;
jtvunderstanding; babhespoke; ravi-nandanamunto Vaivasvata
Manu, son of the sun-god.
The most powerful great-grandfather Vasiha, after hearing these
words of Manu, understood the discrepancy on the part of the priest.
Thus he spoke as follows to the son of the sun-god.
etat sakalpa-vaiamya


hotus te vyabhicrata
tathpi sdhayiye te
suprajstva sva-tejas
etatthis; sakalpa-vaiamyamdiscrepancy in the objective; hotuof
the priest; teyour; vyabhicratafrom deviating from the prescribed
purpose; tath apistill; sdhayiyeI shall execute; tefor you; suprajstvama very nice son; sva-tejasby my own prowess.
This discrepancy in the objective is due to your priest's deviation from
the original purpose. However, by my own prowess I shall give you a
good son.
eva vyavasito rjan
bhagavn sa mah-ya
astaud di-puruam
ily pustva-kmyay
evamthus; vyavasitadeciding; rjanO King Parkit; bhagavn
the most powerful; saVasiha; mah-yavery famous; astaut
offered prayers; di-puruamunto the Supreme Person, Lord Viu;
ilyof Il; pustva-kmyayfor the transformation into a male.
ukadeva Gosvm said: O King Parkit, after the most famous and
powerful Vasiha made this decision, he offered prayers to the
Supreme Person, Viu, to transform Il into a male.
tasmai kma-vara tuo
bhagavn harir vara
dadv ilbhavat tena
sudyumna puruarabha
tasmaiunto him (Vasiha); kma-varamthe desired benediction;
tuabeing pleased; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality; hari
varathe supreme controller, the Lord; dadaugave; ilthe girl, Il;
abhavatbecame; tenabecause of this benediction; sudyumnaby the


name Sudyumna; purua-abhaa nice male.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, being
pleased with Vasiha, gave him the benediction he desired. Thus Il
was transformed into a very fine male named Sudyumna.
TEXTS 23-24
sa ekad mahrja
vicaran mgay vane
vta katipaymtyair
avam ruhya saindhavam
praghya rucira cpa
ar ca paramdbhutn
daito 'numga vro
jagma diam uttarm
saSudyumna; ekadonce upon a time; mahrjaO King Parkit;
vicarantouring; mgaymfor hunting; vanein the forest; vta
accompanied; katipayaa few; amtyaiby ministers or associates;
avamupon a horse; ruhyariding; saindhavamborn in the
Sindhupradea; praghyaholding in hand; rucirambeautiful; cpam
bow; arn caand arrows; parama-adbhutnvery wonderful,
uncommon; daitawearing armor; anumgambehind the animals;
vrathe hero; jagmawent toward; diam uttarmthe north.
O King Parkit, that hero Sudyumna, accompanied by a few ministers
and associates and riding on a horse brought from Sindhupradea, once
went into the forest to hunt. He wore armor and was decorated with
bows and arrows, and he was very beautiful. While following the
animals and killing them, he reached the northern part of the forest.
sukumra-vana meror
adhastt pravivea ha
yatrste bhagav charvo
ramama sahomay


sukumra-vanamthe forest known as Sukumra; mero adhasttat the

foot of Mount Meru; pravivea hahe entered; yatrawherein; ste
was; bhagavnthe most powerful (demigod); arvaLord iva;
ramamaengaged in enjoyment; saha umaywith Um, his wife.
There in the north, at the bottom of Mount Meru, is a forest known as
Sukumra where Lord iva always enjoys with Um. Sudyumna entered
that forest.
tasmin pravia evsau
sudyumna para-vra-h
apayat striyam tmnam
ava ca vaav npa
tasminin that forest; praviahaving entered; evaindeed; asauhe;
sudyumnaPrince Sudyumna; para-vra-hwho could very well
subdue his enemies; apayatobserved; striyamfemale; tmnam
himself; avam caand his horse; vaavma mare; npaO King
O King Parkit, as soon as Sudyumna, who was expert in subduing
enemies, entered the forest, he saw himself transformed into a female
and his horse transformed into a mare.
tath tad-anug sarve
dv vimanaso 'bhvan
vkam parasparam
tathsimilarly; tat-anugthe companions of Sudyumna; sarveall of
them; tma-liga-viparyayamthe transformation of their sex into the
opposite; dvseeing; vimanasamorose; abhvanthey became;
vkamlooking over; parasparamone another.
When his followers also saw their identities transformed and their sex
reversed, they were all very morose and just looked at one another.


katham eva guo dea
kena v bhagavan kta
pranam ena samcakva
para kauthala hi na
r-rj uvcaMahrja Parkit said; kathamhow; evamthis;
guaquality; deathe country; kenawhy; veither; bhagavan
O most powerful; ktait was so done; pranamquestion; enamthis;
samcakvajust deliberate; paramvery much; kauthalameagerness;
hiindeed; naour.
Mahrja Parkit said: O most powerful brhmaa, why was this place
so empowered, and who made it so powerful? Kindly answer this
question, for I am very eager to hear about this.
r-uka uvca
ekad giria draum
ayas tatra suvrat
dio vitimirbhs
kurvanta samupgaman
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; ekadonce upon a time;
giriamLord iva; draumto see; ayavery saintly persons;
tatrain that forest; su-vrathighly elevated in spiritual power;
diaall directions; vitimira-bhshaving been cleared of all
darkness whatsoever; kurvantadoing so; samupgamanarrived.
ukadeva Gosvm answered: Great saintly persons who strictly
observed the spiritual rules and regulations and whose own effulgence
dissipated all the darkness of all directions once came to see Lord iva
in that forest.
tn vilokymbik dev
vivs vrit bham


bhartur akt samutthya

nvm v atha paryadht
tnall the saintly persons; vilokyaseeing them; ambikmother
Durg; devthe goddess; vivsbecause she was naked; vrit
ashamed; bhamhighly; bhartuof her husband; aktfrom the lap;
samutthyagetting up; nvmbreast; u athavery quickly;
paryadhtcovered with cloth.
When the goddess Ambik saw the great saintly persons, she was very
much ashamed because at that time she was naked. She immediately
got up from the lap of her husband and tried to cover her breast.
ayo 'pi tayor vkya
prasaga ramamayo
nivtt prayayus tasmn
ayaall the great saintly persons; apialso; tayoof both of them;
ramamayowho were enjoying in that way; nivttdesisted from
going further; prayayuimmediately departed; tasmtfrom that place;
nara-nryaa-ramamto the rama of Nara-Nryaa.
Seeing Lord iva and Prvat engaged in sexual affairs, all the great
saintly persons immediately desisted from going further and departed
for the rama of Nara-Nryaa.
tad ida bhagavn ha
priyy priya-kmyay
sthna ya pravied etat
sa vai yoid bhaved iti
tatbecause; idamthis; bhagavnLord iva; hasaid; priyyof
his dear wife; priya-kmyayfor the pleasure; sthnamplace; ya
anyone who; pravietwill enter; etathere; sathat person; vai


indeed; yoitfemale; bhavetshall become; itithus.

Thereupon, just to please his wife, Lord iva said, "Any male entering
this place shall immediately become a female!"
tata rdhva vana tad vai
puru varjayanti hi
s cnucara-sayukt
vicacra vand vanam
tata rdhvamfrom that time onward; vanamforest; tatthat; vaiin
particular; purumales; varjayantido not enter; hiindeed; s
Sudyumna in the form of a woman; caalso; anucara-sayukt
accompanied by his companions; vicacrawalked; vant vanamwithin
the forest from one place to another.
Since that time, no male had entered that forest. But now King
Sudyumna, having been transformed into a female, began to walk with
his associates from one forest to another.
In Bhagavad-gt (2.22) it is said:
vssi jrni yath vihya
navni ghti naro 'pari
tath sarri vihya jrny
anyni sayti navni deh
"As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul accepts
new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones."
The body is just like a dress, and here this is proved. Sudyumna and his
associates were all male, which means that their souls were covered by
male dress, but now they became female, which means that their dress
was changed. The soul, however, remains the same. It is said that by
modern medical treatment a male can be transformed into a female, and a
female into a male. The body, however, has no connection with the soul.
The body can be changed, either in this life or the next. Therefore, one
who has knowledge of the soul and how the soul transmigrates from one
body to another does not pay attention to the body, which is nothing but


a covering dress. Pait sama-darina [Bg. 5.18]. Such a person sees

the soul, which is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Therefore he is a
sama-dari, a learned person.
atha tm rambhye
carant pramadottamm
strbhi parivt vkya
cakame bhagavn budha
athain this way; tmher; rama-abhyein the neighborhood of his
rama; carantmloitering; pramad-uttammthe best of beautiful
women who excite sex; strbhiby other women; parivtm
surrounded; vkyaseeing her; cakamedesired sex; bhagavnthe
most powerful; budhaBudha, the son of the moon and predominating
deity of the planet known as Budha, or Mercury.
Sudyumna had been transformed into the best of beautiful women who
excite sexual desire and was surrounded by other women. Upon seeing
this beautiful woman loitering near his rama, Budha, the son of the
moon, immediately desired to enjoy her.
spi ta cakame subhr
somarja-suta patim
sa tasy janaym sa
purravasam tmajam
sSudyumna, transformed into a woman; apialso; tamunto him
(Budha); cakamedesired sex; su-bhrvery beautiful; somarjasutamunto the son of the king of the moon; patimas her husband;
sahe (Budha); tasymin her womb; janaym sabegot;
purravasamnamed Purrav; tma-jama son.
The beautiful woman also desired to accept Budha, the son of the king
of the moon, as her husband. Thus Budha begot in her womb a son
named Purrav.


eva strtvam anuprpta
sudyumno mnavo npa
sasmra sa kulcrya
vasiham iti uruma
evamin this way; strtvamfemininity; anuprptahaving achieved in
that way; sudyumnathe male named Sudyumna; mnavathe son of
Manu; npathe king; sasmraremembered; sahe; kula-cryam
the familial spiritual master; vasihamthe most powerful Vasiha; iti
urumaI have heard it (from reliable sources).
I heard from reliable sources that King Sudyumna, the son of Manu,
having thus achieved femininity, remembered his familial spiritual
master, Vasiha.
sa tasya t da dv
kpay bha-pita
sudyumnasyayan pustvam
updhvata akaram
sahe, Vasiha; tasyaof Sudyumna; tmthat; damcondition;
dvseeing; kpayout of mercy; bha-pitabeing very much
aggrieved; sudyumnasyaof Sudyumna; ayandesiring; pustvamthe
maleness; updhvatabegan to worship; akaramLord iva.
Upon seeing Sudyumna's deplorable condition, Vasiha was very much
aggrieved. Desiring for Sudyumna to regain his maleness, Vasiha
again began to worship Lord akara [iva].
TEXTS 38-39
tuas tasmai sa bhagavn
aye priyam vahan
sv ca vcam t kurvann
idam ha vimpate
msa pumn sa bhavit


msa str tava gotraja

ittha vyavasthay kma
sudyumno 'vatu medinm
tuabeing pleased; tasmaiunto Vasiha; sahe (Lord iva);
bhagavnthe most powerful; ayeunto the great sage; priyam
vahanjust to please him; svm cahis own; vcamword; tmtrue;
kurvanand keeping; idamthis; hasaid; vimpateO King Parkit;
msamone month; pumnmale; saSudyumna; bhavitwill
become; msaman other month; strfemale; tavayour; gotra-ja
disciple born in your disciplic succession; itthamin this way;
vyavasthayby settlement; kmamaccording to desire; sudyumna
King Sudyumna; avatumay rule; medinmthe world.
O King Parkit, Lord iva was pleased with Vasiha. Therefore, to
satisfy him and to keep his own word to Prvat, Lord iva said to that
saintly person, "Your disciple Sudyumna may remain a male for one
month and a female for the next. In this way he may rule the world as
he likes."
The word gotraja is significant in this connection. Brhmaas generally
act as spiritual masters of two dynasties. One is their disciplic succession,
and the other is the dynasty born of their semen. Both descendants belong
to the same gotra, or dynasty. In the Vedic system we sometimes find that
both brhmaas and katriyas and even vaiyas come in the disciplic
succession of the same is. Because the gotra and dynasty are one, there
is no difference between the disciples and the family born of the semen.
The same system still prevails in Indian society, especially in regard to
marriage, for which the gotra is calculated. Here the word gotraja refers
to those born in the same dynasty, whether they be disciples or members
of the family.
crynugraht kma
labdhv pustva vyavasthay
playm sa jagat
nbhyanandan sma ta praj
crya-anugrahtby the mercy of the spiritual master; kmamdesired;


labdhvhaving achieved; pustvammaleness; vyavasthayby this

settlement of Lord iva; playm sahe ruled; jagatmthe whole
world; na abhyanandan smawere not satisfied with; tamto the king;
prajthe citizens.
Thus being favored by the spiritual master, according to the words of
Lord iva, Sudyumna regained his desired maleness every alternate
month and in this way ruled the kingdom, although the citizens were
not satisfied with this.
The citizens could understand that the king was transformed into a female
every alternate month and therefore could not discharge his royal duty.
Consequently they were not very satisfied.
tasyotkalo gayo rjan
vimala ca traya sut
babhvur dharma-vatsal
tasyaof Sudyumna; utkalaby the name Utkala; gayaby the name
Gaya; rjanO King Parkit; vimala caand Vimala; trayathree;
sutsons; daki-pathaof the southern part of the world; rjna
kings; babhvuthey became; dharma-vatsalvery religious.
O King, Sudyumna had three very pious sons, named Utkala, Gaya and
Vimala, who became the kings of the Daki-patha.
tata pariate kle
pratihna-pati prabhu
purravasa utsjya
g putrya gato vanam
tatathereafter; pariate klewhen the time was ripe; pratihnapatithe master of the kingdom; prabhuvery powerful; purravase
unto Purrav; utsjyadelivering; gmthe world; putryaunto his
son; gatadeparted; vanamto the forest.


Thereafter, when the time was ripe, when Sudyumna, the king of the
world, was sufficiently old, he delivered the entire kingdom to his son
Purrav and entered the forest.
According to the Vedic system, one within the institution of vara and
rama must leave his family life after he reaches fifty years of age
(pacad rdhva vana vrajet). Thus Sudyumna followed the
prescribed regulations of varrama by leaving the kingdom and going to
the forest to complete his spiritual life.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, First Chapter, of the
rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman."


2. The Dynasties of the Sons of Manu

This Second Chapter describes the dynasties of the sons of Manu, headed
by Kara.
After Sudyumna accepted the order of vnaprastha and departed for the
forest, Vaivasvata Manu, being desirous of sons, worshiped the Supreme
Personality of Godhead and consequently begot ten sons like Mahrja
Ikvku, all of whom were like their father. One of these sons, Padhra,
was engaged in the duty of protecting cows at night with a sword in his
hand. Following the order of his spiritual master, he would stand in this
way for the entire night. Once, in the darkness of night, a tiger seized a
cow from the cowshed, and when Padhra came to know this, he took a
sword in his hand and followed the tiger. Unfortunately, when he finally
approached the tiger, he could not distinguish between the cow and the
tiger in the dark, and thus he killed the cow. Because of this, his spiritual
master cursed him to take birth in a dra family, but Padhra practiced
mystic yoga, and in bhakti-yoga he worshiped the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Then he voluntarily entered a blazing forest fire, thus
relinquishing his material body and going back home, back to Godhead.
Kavi, the youngest son of Manu, was a great devotee of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead from his very childhood. From Manu's son known
as Kara, a sect of katriyas known as Kras was generated. Manu also
had a son known as Dha, from whom another sect of katriyas was
generated, but although they were born of one who had the qualities of a
katriya, they became brhmaas. From Nga, another son of Manu, came
the sons and grandsons known as Sumati, Bhtajyoti and Vasu. From
Vasu, in succession, came Pratka, and from him came Oghavn.
Descending in order from the seminal dynasty of Nariyanta, another son
of Manu, were Citrasena, ka, Mhvn, Pra, Indrasena, Vtihotra,
Satyarav, Ururav, Devadatta and Agniveya. From the katriya known
as Agniveya came the celebrated brhmaa dynasty known as
gniveyyana. From the seminal dynasty of Dia, another son of Manu,
came Nbhga, and from him in succession came Bhalandana, Vatsaprti,
Pru, Pramati, Khanitra, Ckua, Viviati, Rambha, Khannetra,


Karandhama, Avkit, Marutta, Dama, Rjyavardhana, Sudhti, Nara,

Kevala, Dhundhumn, Vegavn, Budha and Tabindu. In this way, many
sons and grandsons were born in this dynasty. From Tabindu came a
daughter named Ilavil, from whom Kuvera took birth. Tabindu also
had three sons, named Vila, nyabandhu and Dhmraketu. The son of
Vila was Hemacandra, his son was Dhmrka, and his son was
Sayama. The sons of Sayama were Devaja and Kva. Kva's son,
Somadatta, performed an Avamedha sacrifice, and by worshiping the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viu, he achieved the supreme
perfection of going back home, back to Godhead.
r-uka uvca
eva gate 'tha sudyumne
manur vaivasvata sute
putra-kmas tapas tepe
yamuny ata sam
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; evamthus; gatehad
accepted the order of vnaprastha; athathereafter; sudyumnewhen
Sudyumna; manu vaivasvataVaivasvata Manu, known as
rddhadeva; sutehis son; putra-kmadesiring to get sons; tapa
tepeexecuted severe austerities; yamunymon the bank of the
Yamun; atam samfor one hundred years.
ukadeva Gosvm said: Thereafter, when his son Sudyumna had thus
gone to the forest to accept the order of vnaprastha, Vaivasvata Manu
[rddhadeva], being desirous of getting more sons, performed severe
austerities on the bank of the Yamun for one hundred years.
tato 'yajan manur devam
apatyrtha hari prabhum
ikvku-prvajn putrn
lebhe sva-sadn daa
tatathereafter; ayajatworshiped; manuVaivasvata Manu; devam
unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; apatya-arthamwith a desire
to get sons; harimunto Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead;


prabhumthe Lord; ikvku-prva-jnof whom the eldest was named

Ikvku; putrnsons; lebhegot; sva-sadnexactly like himself;
Then, because of this desire for sons, the Manu known as rddhadeva
worshiped the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of
the demigods. Thus he got ten sons exactly like himself. Among them
all, Ikvku was the eldest.
padhras tu mano putro
go-plo guru kta
playm sa g yatto
rtry vrsana-vrata
padhra tuamong them, Padhra; manoof Manu; putrathe son;
go-plaherding cows; guruby the order of his spiritual master;
ktahaving been engaged; playm sahe protected; gcows;
yattaso engaged; rtrymat night; vrsana-vratataking the vow
of vrsana, standing with a sword.
Among these sons, Padhra, following the order of his spiritual master,
was engaged as a protector of cows. He would stand all night with a
sword to give the cows protection.
One who becomes vrsana takes the vow to stand all night with a sword
to give protection to the cows. Because Padhra was engaged in this way,
it is to be understood that he had no dynasty. We can further understand
from this vow accepted by Padhra how essential it is to protect the
cows. Some son of a katriya would take this vow to protect the cows
from ferocious animals, even at night. What then is to be said of sending
cows to slaughterhouses? This is the most sinful activity in human
ekad prviad goha
rdlo nii varati
ayn gva utthya
bhts t babhramur vraje


ekadonce upon a time; prviatentered; gohamthe land of the

cowshed; rdlaa tiger; niiat night; varatiwhile it was raining;
aynlying down; gvacows; utthyagetting up; bhtfearing;
tall of them; babhramuscattered here and there; vrajein the land
surrounding the cowshed.
Once at night, while it was raining, a tiger entered the land of the
cowshed. Upon seeing the tiger, all the cows, who were lying down, got
up in fear and scattered here and there on the land.
ek jagrha balavn
s cukroa bhaytur
tasys tu krandita rutv
padhro 'nusasra ha
khagam dya taras
pralnou-gae nii
ajnann acchinod babhro
ira rdla-akay
ekmone of the cows; jagrhaseized; balavnthe strong tiger; s
that cow; cukroabegan to cry; bhaya-turin distress and fear;
tasyof her; tubut; kranditamthe screaming; rutvhearing;
padhraPadhra; anusasra hafollowed; khagamsword; dya
taking; tarasvery hastily; pralna-uu-gaewhen the stars were
covered by clouds; niiat night; ajnanwithout knowledge; acchinot
cut off; babhroof the cow; irathe head; rdla-akay
mistaking it for the head of the tiger.
When the very strong tiger seized the cow, the cow screamed in distress
and fear, and Padhra, hearing the screaming, immediately followed
the sound. He took up his sword, but because the stars were covered by
clouds, he mistook the cow for the tiger and mistakenly cut off the
cows' head with great force.
vyghro 'pi vka-ravao


nistrigrhatas tata
nicakrma bha bhto
rakta pathi samutsjan
vyghrathe tiger; apialso; vka-ravaaits ear being cut off;
nistria-agra-hatabecause of being cut by the tip of the sword;
tatathereafter; nicakrmafled (from that place); bhamvery
much; bhtabeing afraid; raktamblood; pathion the road;
Because the tiger's ear had been cut by the edge of the sword, the tiger
was very afraid, and it fled from that place, while bleeding on the street.
manyamno hata vyghra
padhra para-vra-h
adrkt sva-hat babhru
vyuy nii dukhita
manyamnathinking that; hatamhas been killed; vyghramthe
tiger; padhraManu's son Padhra; para-vra-halthough quite able
to punish the enemy; adrktsaw; sva-hatmhad been killed by him;
babhrumthe cow; vyuym niiwhen the night had passed (in the
morning); dukhitabecame very much unhappy.
In the morning, when Padhra, who was quite able to subdue his
enemy, saw that he had killed the cow although at night he thought he
had killed the tiger, he was very unhappy.
ta apa kulcrya
ktgasam akmata
na katra-bandhu dras tva
karma bhavitmun
tamhim (Padhra); apacursed; kula-cryathe family priest,
Vasiha; kta-gasambecause of committing the great sin of killing a
cow; akmataalthough he did not want to do it; nanot; katra-


bandhuthe family member of a katriya; dra tvamyou have

behaved like a dra; karmatherefore by your fruitive reaction;
bhavityou shall become a dra; amunbecause of killing the cow.
Although Padhra had committed the sin unknowingly, his family
priest, Vasiha, cursed him, saying, "In your next life you shall not be
able to become a katriya. Instead, you shall take birth as a dra
because of killing the cow."
It appears that Vasiha was not free from tamo-gua, the mode of
ignorance. As the family priest or spiritual master of Padhra, Vasiha
should have taken Padhra's offense very lightly, but instead Vasiha
cursed him to become a dra. It is the duty of a family priest not to curse
a disciple but to give him relief through the performance of some sort of
atonement. Vasiha, however, did just the opposite. Therefore rla
Vivantha Cakravart hkura says that he was durmati; in other words,
his intelligence was not very good.
eva aptas tu guru
pratyaght ktjali
adhrayad vrata vra
rdhva-ret muni-priyam
evamin this way; aptahaving been cursed; tubut; guruby his
spiritual master; pratyaghthe (Padhra) accepted; kta-ajali
with folded hands; adhrayattook up, assumed; vratamthe vow of
brahmacarya; vrathat hero; rdhva-rethaving controlled his
senses; muni-priyamwhich is approved by the great sages.
When the hero Padhra was thus cursed by his spiritual master, he
accepted the curse with folded hands. Then, having controlled his
senses, he took the vow of brahmacarya, which is approved by all great
TEXTS 11-13
vsudeve bhagavati
sarvtmani pare 'male
ekntitva gato bhakty


sarva-bhta-suht sama
vimukta-saga nttm
sayatko 'parigraha
kalpayan vttim tmana
tmany tmnam dhya
jna-tpta samhita
vicacra mahm et
vsudeveunto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhagavatiunto the
Lord; sarva-tmaniunto the Supersoul; pareunto the Transcendence;
amaleunto the Supreme person, who is without material contamination;
ekntitvamrendering devotional service without diversion; gatabeing
situated in that position; bhaktybecause of pure devotion; sarva-bhtasuht samabecause of being a devotee, friendly and equal to everyone;
vimukta-sagawithout material contamination; nta-tma peaceful
attitude; sayataself-controlled; akathe vision of whom;
aparigrahawithout accepting any charity from anyone else; yatcchayby the grace of the Lord; upapannenaby whatever was
available for bodily necessities; kalpayanin this way arranging; vttim
the necessities of the body; tmanafor the benefit of the soul; tmani
within the mind; tmnamthe Supreme Soul, the Personality of
Godhead; dhyakeeping always; jna-tptafully satisfied in
transcendental knowledge; samhitaalways in trance; vicacra
traveled all over; mahmthe earth; etmthis; jaadumb; andha
blind; badhiradeaf; ktiappearing as if.
Thereafter, Padhra gained relief from all responsibilities, became
peaceful in mind, and established control over all his senses. Being
unaffected by material conditions, being pleased with whatever was
available by the grace of the Lord to maintain body and soul together,
and being equal toward everyone, he gave full attention to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Vsudeva, who is the transcendental
Supersoul, free from material contamination. Thus Padhra, fully
satisfied in pure knowledge, always keeping his mind on the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, achieved pure devotional service to the Lord
and began traveling all over the world, without affection for material


activities, as if he were deaf, dumb and blind.

eva vtto vana gatv
dv dvgnim utthitam
brahma prpa para muni
evam vttabeing situated in such an order of life; vanamto the forest;
gatvafter going; dvwhen he saw; dva-agnima forest fire;
utthitamexisting there; tenaby that (fire); upayukta-karaa
engaging all the senses of the body by burning; brahmatranscendence;
prpahe achieved; paramthe ultimate goal; munias a great saintly
With this attitude, Padhra became a great saint, and when he entered
the forest and saw a blazing forest fire, he took this opportunity to burn
his body in the fire. Thus he achieved the transcendental, spiritual
The Lord says in Bhagavad-gt (4.9):
janma karma ca me divyam
eva yo vetti tattvata
tyaktv deha punar janma
naiti mm eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and
activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this
material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." Padhra,
because of his karma, was cursed to take his next birth as a dra, but
because he took to saintly life, specifically concentrating his mind always
upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he became a pure devotee.
Immediately after giving up his body in the fire, he reached the spiritual
world, as mentioned in Bhagavad-gt (mm eti), as a result of his
devotional situation. Devotional service performed by thinking of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead is so powerful that although Padhra
was cursed he avoided the terrible consequence of becoming a dra and
instead returned home, back to Godhead. As stated in Brahma-sahit


yas tv indra-gopam athavendram aho sva-karmabandhnurpa-phala-bhjanam tanoti
karmi nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhj
govindam di-purua tam aha bhajmi
Those who engage in devotional service are unaffected by the results of
their material activities. Otherwise, everyone, from the smallest microbe
up to the King of heaven, Indra, is subject to the laws of karma. A pure
devotee, being always engaged in the service of the Lord, is exempt from
these laws.
kavi kanyn viayeu nispho
visjya rjya saha bandhubhir vanam
niveya citte purua sva-rocia
vivea kaiora-vay para gata
kavianother son, known as Kavi; kanynwho was the youngest;
viayeuin material enjoyments; nisphabeing without attachment;
visjyaafter giving up; rjyamhis father's property, the kingdom; saha
bandhubhiaccompanied by friends; vanamthe forest; niveya
keeping always; cittewithin the core of the heart; puruamthe
Supreme Person; sva-rociamself-effulgent; viveaentered; kaioravaya young man not fully in youth; paramthe transcendental
world; gataentered.
Being reluctant to accept material enjoyment, Manu's youngest son,
whose name was Kavi, gave up the kingdom before attaining full youth.
Accompanied by his friends, he went to the forest, always thinking of
the self-effulgent Supreme Personality of Godhead within the core of
his heart. Thus he attained perfection.
karn mnavd san
kr katra-jtaya


brahmay dharma-vatsal
kartfrom Kara; mnavtfrom the son of Manu; santhere was;
krcalled the Kras; katra-jtayaa group of katriyas;
brahmaycelebrated protectors of the brahminical culture; dharmavatsalextremely religious.
From Kara, another son of Manu, came the Kra dynasty, a family
of katriyas. The Kra katriyas were the kings of the northern
direction. They were celebrated protectors of brahminical culture and
were all firmly religious.
dhd dhram abht katra
brahma-bhya gata kitau
ngasya vaa sumatir
bhtajyotis tato vasu
dhtfrom Dha, another son of Manu; dhrama caste of the
name Dhra; abhtwas produced; katrambelonging to the katriya
group; brahma-bhyamthe position of brhmaas; gatamhad achieved;
kitauon the surface of the world; ngasyaof Nga, another son of
Manu; vaathe dynasty; sumatiof the name Sumati; bhtajyoti
of the name Bhtajyoti; tatathereafter; vasuby the name Vasu.
From the son of Manu named Dha came a katriya caste called
Dhra, whose members achieved the position of brhmaas in this
world. Then, from the son of Manu named Nga came Sumati. From
Sumati came Bhtajyoti, and from Bhtajyoti came Vasu.
Here it is said, katra brahma-bhya gata kitau: although the
Dhras belonged to the katriya caste, they were able to convert
themselves into brhmaas. This gives clear evidence supporting the
following statement by Nrada (SB 7.11.35):
yasya yal lakaa prokta
puso varbhivyajakam
yad anyatrpi dyeta


tat tenaiva vinirdiet

If the qualities of one group are found in the men of another, those men
should be recognized by their qualities, by their symptoms, not by the
caste of the family in which they were born. Birth is not at all important;
it is one's qualities that are stressed in all Vedic literature.
vaso pratkas tat-putra
oghavn oghavat-pit
kany caughavat nma
sudarana uvha tm
vasoof Vasu; pratkanamed Pratka; tat-putrahis son; oghavn
named Oghavn; oghavat-pitwho was the father of Oghavn; kany
his daughter; caalso; oghavatOghavat; nmaby the name;
sudaranaSudarana; uvhamarried; tmthat daughter (Oghavat).
The son of Vasu was Pratka, whose son was Oghavn. Oghavn's son
was also known as Oghavn, and his daughter was Oghavat. Sudarana
married that daughter.
citraseno nariyantd
kas tasya suto 'bhavat
tasya mhvs tata pra
indrasenas tu tat-suta
citrasenaone named Citrasena; nariyanttfrom Nariyanta, another
son of Manu; kaka; tasyaof Citrasena; sutathe son;
abhavatbecame; tasyaof him (ka); mhvnMhvn; tatafrom
him (Mhvn); praPra; indrasenaIndrasena; tubut; tatsutathe son of him (Pra).
From Nariyanta came a son named Citrasena and from him a son
named ka. From ka came Mhvn, from Mhvn came Pra, and
from Pra came Indrasena.


vtihotras tv indrasent
tasya satyarav abht
ururav sutas tasya
devadattas tato 'bhavat
vtihotraVtihotra; tubut; indrasentfrom Indrasena; tasyaof
Vtihotra; satyaravknown by the name Satyarav; abhtthere was;
ururavUrurav; sutawas the son; tasyaof him (Satyarav);
devadattaDevadatta; tatafrom Ururav; abhavatthere was.
From Indrasena came Vtihotra, from Vtihotra came Satyarav, from
Satyarav came the son named Ururav, and from Ururav came
tato 'gniveyo bhagavn
agni svayam abht suta
knna iti vikhyto
jtkaryo mahn i
tatafrom Devadatta; agniveyaa son named Agniveya; bhagavn
the most powerful; agnithe fire-god; svayampersonally; abht
became; sutathe son; knnaKnna; itithus; vikhytawas
celebrated; jtkaryaJtkarya; mahn ithe great saintly
From Devadatta came a son known as Agniveya, who was the fire-god
Agni himself. This son, who was a celebrated saint, was well known as
Knna and Jtkarya.
Agniveya was also known as Knna and Jtkarya.
tato brahma-kula jtam
gniveyyana npa
nariyantnvaya prokto
dia-vaam ata u


tatafrom Agniveya; brahma-kulama dynasty of brhmaas; jtam

was generated; gniveyyanamknown as gniveyyana; npaO King
Parkit; nariyantaof Nariyanta; anvayadescendants; prokta
have been explained; dia-vaamthe dynasty of Dia; ata
hereafter; uhear.
O King, from Agniveya came a brahminical dynasty known as
gniveyyana. Now that I have described the descendants of
Nariyanta, let me describe the descendants of Dia. Please hear from
TEXTS 23-24
nbhgo dia-putro 'nya
karma vaiyat gata
bhalandana sutas tasya
vatsaprtir bhalandant
vatsaprte suta prus
tat-suta pramati vidu
khanitra pramates tasmc
ckuo 'tha viviati
nbhgaby the name Nbhga; dia-putrathe son of Dia; anya
another; karmaby occupation; vaiyatmthe order of the vaiyas;
gataachieved; bhalandanaby the name Bhalandana; sutason;
tasyaof him (Nbhga); vatsaprtiby the name Vatsaprti;
bhalandantfrom Bhalandana; vatsaprtefrom Vatsaprti; sutathe
son; pruwas named Pru; tat-sutamthe son of him (Pru);
pramatimwas named Pramati; viduyou should understand;
khanitrawas named Khanitra; pramatefrom Pramati; tasmtfrom
him (Khanitra); ckuawas named Ckua; athathus (from
Ckua); viviatithe son named Viviati.
Dia had a son by the name Nbhga. This Nbhga, who was different
from the Nbhga described later, became a vaiya by occupational
duty. The son of Nbhga was known as Bhalandana, the son of
Bhalandana was Vatsaprti, and his son was Pru. Pru's son was
Pramati, Pramati's son was Khanitra, Khanitra's son was Ckua, and
his son was Viviati.


From Manu, one son became a katriya, another a brhmaa, and another
a vaiya. This confirms the statement by Nrada Muni, yasya yal lakaa
prokta puso varbhivyajakam (SB 7.11.35). One should always
remember that brhmaas, katriyas and vaiyas should never be regarded
as members of a caste by birth. A brhmaa may be changed into a
katriya, and a katriya into a brhmaa. Similarly, a brhmaa or katriya
may be changed into a vaiya, and a vaiya into a brhmaa or katriya.
This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (ctur-varya may sa guakarma-vibhgaa [Bg. 4.13]). So one is a brhmaa, katriya or vaiya
never by birth, but by quality. There is a great need of brhmaas.
Therefore, in the Ka consciousness movement, we are trying to train
some brhmaas to guide human society. Because at present there is a
scarcity of brhmaas, the brain of human society is lost. Because
practically everyone is a dra, no one at the present moment can guide
the members of society to the proper path by which to achieve perfection
in life.
viviate suto rambha
khannetro 'sya dhrmika
karandhamo mahrja
tasysd tmajo npa
viviatefrom Viviati; sutathe son; rambhanamed Rambha;
khannetranamed Khannetra; asyaof Rambha; dhrmikavery
religious; karandhamanamed Karandhama; mahrjaO King;
tasyaof him (Khannetra); stwas; tmajathe son; npaO King.
The son of Viviati was Rambha, whose son was the great and
religious King Khannetra. O King, the son of Khannetra was King
tasyvkit suto yasya
marutta cakravarty abht
savarto 'yjayad ya vai
mah-yogy agira-suta
tasyaof him (Karandhama); avkitnamed Avkit; sutathe son;


yasyaof whom (Avkit); marutta(the son) named Marutta;

ayjayatengaged in performing sacrifice; yamunto whom (Marutta);
vaiindeed; mah-yogthe great mystic; agira-sutathe son of
From Karandhama came a son named Avkit, and from Avkit a son
named Marutta, who was the emperor. The great mystic Savarta, the
son of Agir, engaged Marutta in performing a sacrifice [yaja].
maruttasya yath yajo
na tathnyo 'sti kacana
sarva hiramaya tv sd
yat kicic csya obhanam
maruttasyaof Marutta; yathas; yajaperformance of sacrifice;
nanot; tathlike that; anyaany other; astithere is; kacana
anything; sarvameverything; hira-mayammade of gold; tuindeed;
stthere was; yat kicitwhatever he had; caand; asyaof Marutta;
obhanamextremely beautiful.
The sacrificial paraphernalia of King Marutta was extremely beautiful,
for everything was made of gold. Indeed, no other sacrifice could
compare to his.
amdyad indra somena
dakibhir dvijtaya
maruta parivero
vivedev sabh-sada
amdyatbecame intoxicated; indrathe King of heaven, Lord Indra;
somenaby drinking the intoxicant soma-rasa; dakibhiby receiving
sufficient contributions; dvijtayathe brahminical group; maruta
the airs; pariveraoffering the foodstuffs; vivedevuniversal
demigods; sabh-sadamembers of the assembly.


In that sacrifice, King Indra became intoxicated by drinking a large

quantity of soma-rasa. The brhmaas received ample contributions,
and therefore they were satisfied. For that sacrifice, the various
demigods who control the winds offered foodstuffs, and the Vivedevas
were members of the assembly.
Because of the yaja performed by Marutta, everyone was pleased,
especially the brhmaas and katriyas. Brhmaas are interested in
receiving contributions as priests, and katriyas are interested in drinking.
All of them, therefore, were satisfied with their different engagements.
maruttasya dama putras
tasysd rjyavardhana
sudhtis tat-suto jaje
saudhteyo nara suta
maruttasyaof Marutta; dama(was named) Dama; putrathe son;
tasyaof him (Dama); stthere was; rjya-vardhananamed
Rjyavardhana, or one who can expand the kingdom; sudhtiwas
named Sudhti; tat-sutathe son of him (Rjyavardhana); jajewas
born; saudhteyafrom Sudhti; naranamed Nara; sutathe son.
Marutta's son was Dama, Dama's son was Rjyavardhana,
Rjyavardhana's son was Sudhti, and his son was Nara.
tat-suta kevalas tasmd
dhundhumn vegavs tata
budhas tasybhavad yasya
tabindur mahpati
tat-sutathe son of him (Nara); kevalawas named Kevala; tasmt
from him (Kevala); dhundhumna son was born named Dhundhumn;
vegavnnamed Vegavn; tatafrom him (Dhundhumn); budha
named Budha; tasyaof him (Vegavn); abhavatthere was; yasyaof
whom (Budha); tabindua son named Tabindu; mahpatithe


The son of Nara was Kevala, and his son was Dhundhumn, whose son
was Vegavn. Vegavn's son was Budha, and Budha's son was
Tabindu, who became the king of this earth.
ta bheje 'lambu dev
varpsar yata putr
kany celavilbhavat
tamhim (Tabindu); bhejeaccepted as husband; alambuthe girl
Alambu; devgoddess; bhajanyaworthy of accepting; gualayamthe reservoir of all good qualities; vara-apsarthe best of the
Apsars; yatafrom whom (Tabindu); putrsome sons; kanya
daughter; caand; ilavilnamed Ilavil; abhavatwas born.
The best of the Apsars, the highly qualified girl named Alambu,
accepted the similarly qualified Tabindu as her husband. She gave
birth to a few sons and a daughter known as Ilavil.
yasym utpdaym sa
virav dhanada sutam
prdya vidy paramm
ir yogevara pitu
yasymin whom (Ilavil); utpdaym sagave birth; virav
Virav; dhana-damKuvera, or one who gives money; sutamto a son;
prdyaafter receiving; vidymabsolute knowledge; paramm
supreme; ithe great saintly person; yoga-varamaster of mystic
yoga; pitufrom his father.
After the great saint Virav, the master of mystic yoga, received
absolute knowledge from his father, he begot in the womb of Ilavil the
greatly celebrated son known as Kuvera, the giver of money.


vila nyabandhu ca
dhmraketu ca tat-sut
vilo vaa-kd rj
vail nirmame purm
vilanamed Vila; nyabandhunamed nyabandhu; caalso;
dhmraketunamed Dhmraketu; caalso; tat-sutthe sons of
Tabindu; vilaamong the three, King Vila; vaa-ktmade a
dynasty; rjthe king; vailmby the name Vail; nirmame
constructed; purma palace.
Tabindu had three sons, named Vila, nyabandhu and
Dhmraketu. Among these three, Vila created a dynasty and
constructed a palace called Vail.
hemacandra sutas tasya
dhmrkas tasya ctmaja
tat-putrt sayamd st
kva saha-devaja
hemacandrawas named Hemacandra; sutathe son; tasyaof him
(Vila); dhmrkawas named Dhmrka; tasyaof him
(Hemacandra); caalso; tmajathe son; tat-putrtfrom the son of
him (Dhmrka); sayamtfrom he who was named Sayama; st
there was; kvaKva; sahaalong with; devajaDevaja.
The son of Vila was known as Hemacandra, his son was Dhmrka,
and his son was Sayama, whose sons were Devaja and Kva.
TEXTS 35-36
kvt somadatto 'bhd
yo 'vamedhair iaspatim
iv puruam pgry
gati yogevarritm
saumadattis tu sumatis
tat-putro janamejaya


ete vaila-bhpls
tabindor yaodhar
kvtfrom Kva; somadattaa son named Somadatta; abht
there was; yahe who (Somadatta); avamedhaiby the performance
of avamedha sacrifices; iaspatimunto Lord Viu; ivafter
worshiping; puruamLord Viu; paachieved; agrymthe best of
all; gatimthe destination; yogevara-ritmthe place occupied by
great mystic yogs; saumadattithe son of Somadatta; tubut; sumati
a son named Sumati; tat-putrathe son of him (Sumati); janamejaya
was named Janamejaya; eteall of them; vaila-bhplthe kings in
the dynasty of Vaila; tabindo yaa-dharcontinued the fame of
King Tabindu.
The son of Kva was Somadatta, who performed avamedha
sacrifices and thus satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
Viu. By worshiping the Supreme Lord, he achieved the most exalted
post, a residence on the planet to which great mystic yogs are elevated.
The son of Somadatta was Sumati, whose son was Janamejaya. All these
kings appearing in the dynasty of Vila properly maintained the
celebrated position of King Tabindu.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Second Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Dynasties of the Sons of Manu."


3. The Marriage of Sukany and Cyavana Muni

This chapter describes the dynasty of aryti, another son of Manu, and
also tells about Sukany and Revat.
Devaja aryti gave instructions about what to do in the ritualistic
ceremony observed on the second day of the yaja of the Agirasas. One
day, aryti, along with his daughter, known as Sukany, went to the
rama of Cyavana Muni. There Sukany saw two glowing substances
within a hole of earthworms, and by chance she pierced those two
glowing substances. As soon as she did this, blood began to ooze from
that hole. Consequently, King aryti and his companions suffered from
constipation and inability to pass urine. When the King asked why
circumstances had suddenly changed, he found that Sukany was the
cause of this misfortune. Then they all offered prayers to Cyavana Muni
just to satisfy him according to his own desire, and Devaja aryti
offered his daughter to Cyavana Muni, who was a very old man.
When the heavenly physicians the Avin-kumra brothers once visited
Cyavana Muni, the muni requested them to give him back his youth.
These two physicians took Cyavana Muni to a particular lake, in which
they bathed and regained full youth. After this, Sukany could not
distinguish her husband. She then surrendered unto the Avin-kumras,
who were very satisfied with her chastity and who therefore introduced
her again to her husband. Cyavana Muni then engaged King aryti in
performing the soma-yaja and gave the Avin-kumras the privilege to
drink soma-rasa. The King of heaven, Lord Indra, became very angry at
this, but he could do no harm to aryti. Henceforward, the Avinkumra physicians were able to share in the soma-rasa.
aryti later had three sons, named Uttnabarhi, narta and Bhriea.
narta had one son, whose name was Revata. Revata had one hundred
sons, of whom the eldest was Kakudm. Kakudm was advised by Lord
Brahm to offer his beautiful daughter, Revat, to Baladeva, who belongs
to the viu-tattva category. After doing this, Kakudm retired from family
life and entered the forest of Badarikrama to execute austerities and


r-uka uvca
arytir mnavo rj
brahmiha sambabhva ha
yo v agiras satre
dvityam ahar civn
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; arytithe king named
aryti; mnavathe son of Manu; rjruler; brahmiha
completely in awareness of Vedic knowledge; sambabhva haso he
became; yaone who; veither; agirasmof the descendants of
Agir; satrein the arena of sacrifice; dvityam ahathe functions to be
performed on the second day; civnnarrated.
r ukadeva Gosvm continued: O King, aryti, another son of Manu,
was a ruler completely aware of Vedic knowledge. He gave instructions
about the functions for the second day of the yaja to be performed by
the descendants of Agir.
sukany nma tasyst
kany kamala-locan
tay srdha vana-gato
hy agamac cyavanramam
sukanySukany; nmaby name; tasyaof him (aryti); stthere
was; kanya daughter; kamala-locanlotus-eyed; tay srdhamwith
her; vana-gatahaving entered the forest; hiindeed; agamathe went;
cyavana-ramamto the rama cottage of Cyavana Muni.
aryti had a beautiful lotus-eyed daughter named Sukany, with whom
he went to the forest to see the rama of Cyavana Muni.
s sakhbhi parivt
vicinvanty aghripn vane
valmka-randhre dade
khadyote iva jyoti


sthat Sukany; sakhbhiby her friends; parivtsurrounded;

vicinvantcollecting; aghripnfruits and flowers from the trees;
vanein the forest; valmka-randhrein the hole of an earthworm;
dadeobserved; khadyotetwo luminaries; ivalike; jyotitwo
shining things.
While that Sukany, surrounded by her friends, was collecting various
types of fruits from the trees in the forest, she saw within the hole of an
earthworm two things glowing like luminaries.
te daiva-codit bl
jyoti kaakena vai
avidhyan mugdha-bhvena
susrvsk tato bahi
tethose two; daiva-coditas if impelled by providence; blthat
young daughter; jyotitwo glowworms within the hole of the
earthworm; kaakenawith a thorn; vaiindeed; avidhyatpierced;
mugdha-bhvenaas if without knowledge; susrvacame out; ask
blood; tatafrom there; bahioutside.
As if induced by providence, the girl ignorantly pierced those two
glowworms with a thorn, and when they were pierced, blood began to
ooze out of them.
akn-mtra-nirodho 'bht
sainikn ca tat-kat
rjaris tam uplakya
purun vismito 'bravt
aktof stool; mtraand of urine; nirodhastoppage; abhtso
became; sainiknmof all the soldiers; caand; tat-kat
immediately; rjarithe King; tam uplakyaseeing the incident;
purunto his men; vismitabeing surprised; abravtbegan to speak.
Thereupon, all the soldiers of aryti were immediately obstructed


from passing urine and stool. Upon perceiving this, aryti spoke to his
associates in surprise.
apy abhadra na yumbhir
bhrgavasya viceitam
vyakta kenpi nas tasya
ktam rama-daam
apialas; abhadramsomething mischievous; naamong us;
yumbhiby ourselves; bhrgavasyaof Cyavana Muni; viceitam
has been attempted; vyaktamnow it is clear; kena apiby someone;
naamong ourselves; tasyaof him (Cyavana Muni); ktamhas been
done; rama-daampollution of the rama.
How strange it is that one of us has attempted to do something wrong
to Cyavana Muni, the son of Bhgu. It certainly appears that someone
among us has polluted this rama.
sukany prha pitara
bht kicit kta may
dve jyoti ajnanty
nirbhinne kaakena vai
sukanythe girl Sukany; prhasaid; pitaramunto her father;
bhtbeing afraid; kicitsomething; ktamhas been done; mayby
me; dvetwo; jyotiluminous objects; ajnantybecause of
ignorance; nirbhinnehave been pierced; kaakenawith a thorn; vai
Being very much afraid, the girl Sukany said to her father: I have done
something wrong, for I have ignorantly pierced these two luminous
substances with a thorn.
duhitus tad vaca rutv


arytir jta-sdhvasa
muni prasdaym sa
valmkntarhita anai
duhituof his daughter; tat vacathat statement; rutvafter
hearing; arytiKing aryti; jta-sdhvasabecoming afraid;
munimunto Cyavana Muni; prasdaym satried to appease; valmkaantarhitamwho was sitting within the hole of the earthworm; anai
After hearing this statement by his daughter, King aryti was very
much afraid. In various ways, he tried to appease Cyavana Muni, for it
was he who sat within the hole of the earthworm.
tad-abhipryam jya
prdd duhitara mune
kcchrn muktas tam mantrya
pura pryt samhita
understanding; prdtdelivered; duhitaramhis daughter; mune
unto Cyavana Muni; kcchrtwith great difficulty; muktareleased;
tamthe muni; mantryataking permission; puramto his own place;
prytwent away; samhitabeing very contemplative.
King aryti, being very contemplative and thus understanding Cyavana
Muni's purpose, gave his daughter in charity to the sage. Thus released
from danger with great difficulty, he took permission from Cyavana
Muni and returned home.
The King, after hearing the statement of his daughter, certainly told the
great sage Cyavana Muni everything about how his daughter had
ignorantly committed such an offense. The muni, however, inquired from
the King whether the daughter was married. In this way, the King,
understanding the purpose of the great sage Cyavana Muni (tadabhipryam jya), immediately gave the muni his daughter in charity
and escaped the danger of being cursed. Thus with the permission of the
great sage the King returned home.


sukany cyavana prpya
pati parama-kopanam
praym sa citta-j
sukanythe girl named Sukany, the daughter of King aryti;
cyavanamthe great sage Cyavana Muni; prpyaafter obtaining;
patimas her husband; parama-kopanamwho was always very angry;
praym sashe satisfied him; citta-junderstanding the mind of
her husband; apramatt anuvttibhiby executing services without being
Cyavana Muni was very irritable, but since Sukany had gotten him as
her husband, she dealt with him carefully, according to his mood.
Knowing his mind, she performed service to him without being
This is an indication of the relationship between husband and wife. A
great personality like Cyavana Muni has the temperament of always
wanting to be in a superior position. Such a person cannot submit to
anyone. Therefore, Cyavana Muni had an irritable temperament. His wife,
Sukany, could understand his attitude, and under the circumstances she
treated him accordingly. If any wife wants to be happy with her husband,
she must try to understand her husband's temperament and please him.
This is victory for a woman. Even in the dealings of Lord Ka with His
different queens, it has been seen that although the queens were the
daughters of great kings, they placed themselves before Lord Ka as His
maidservants. However great a woman may be, she must place herself
before her husband in this way; that is to say, she must be ready to carry
out her husband's orders and please him in all circumstances. Then her
life will be successful. When the wife becomes as irritable as the husband,
their life at home is sure to be disturbed or ultimately completely broken.
In the modern day, the wife is never submissive, and therefore home life
is broken even by slight incidents. Either the wife or the husband may
take advantage of the divorce laws. According to the Vedic law, however,
there is no such thing as divorce laws, and a woman must be trained to be
submissive to the will of her husband. Westerners contend that this is a
slave mentality for the wife, but factually it is not; it is the tactic by which


a woman can conquer the heart of her husband, however irritable or cruel
he may be. In this case we clearly see that although Cyavana Muni was
not young but indeed old enough to be Sukany's grandfather and was
also very irritable, Sukany, the beautiful young daughter of a king,
submitted herself to her old husband and tried to please him in all
respects. Thus she was a faithful and chaste wife.
kasyacit tv atha klasya
nsatyv ramgatau
tau pjayitv provca
vayo me dattam varau
kasyacitafter some (time); tubut; athain this way; klasyatime
having passed; nsatyauthe two Avin-kumras; ramathat place of
Cyavana Muni; gataureached; tauunto those two; pjayitv
offering respectful obeisances; provcasaid; vayayouth; meunto
me; dattamplease give; varaubecause you two are able to do so.
Thereafter, some time having passed, the Avin-kumra brothers, the
heavenly physicians, happened to come to Cyavana Muni's rama.
After offering them respectful obeisances, Cyavana Muni requested
them to give him youthful life, for they were able to do so.
The heavenly physicians like the Avin-kumras could give youthful life
even to one who was advanced in age. Indeed, great yogs, with their
mystic powers, can even bring a dead body back to life if the structure of
the body is in order. We have already discussed this in connection with
Bali Mahrja's soldiers and their treatment by ukrcrya. Modern
medical science has not yet discovered how to bring a dead body back to
life or bring youthful energy to an old body, but from these verses we can
understand that such treatment is possible if one is able to take
knowledge from the Vedic information. The Avin-kumras were expert
in yur-veda, as was Dhanvantari. In every department of material
science, there is a perfection to be achieved, and to achieve it one must
consult the Vedic literature. The highest perfection is to become a devotee
of the Lord. To attain this perfection, one must consult rmadBhgavatam, which is understood to be the ripe fruit of the Vedic desire
tree (nigama-kalpa-taror galita phalam [SB 1.1.3]).


graha grahye somasya
yaje vm apy asoma-po
kriyat me vayo-rpa
pramadn yad psitam
grahama full pot; grahyeI shall give; somasyaof soma-rasa;
yajein sacrifice; vmof both of you; apialthough; asoma-poof
you two, who are not eligible to drink soma-rasa; kriyatmjust execute;
memy; vayayoung age; rpambeauty of a young man;
pramadnmof women as a class; yatwhich is; psitamdesirable.
Cyavana Muni said: Although you are ineligible to drink soma-rasa in
sacrifices, I promise to give you a full pot of it. Kindly arrange beauty
and youth for me, because they are attractive to young women.
bham ity catur vipram
abhinandya bhiaktamau
nimajjat bhavn asmin
hrade siddha-vinirmite
bhamyes, we shall act; itithus; catuthey both replied, accepting
the proposal of Cyavana; vipramunto the brhmaa (Cyavana Muni);
abhinandyacongratulating him; bhiak-tamauthe two great physicians,
the Avin-kumras; nimajjatmjust dive; bhavnyourself; asminin
this; hradelake; siddha-vinirmitewhich is especially meant for all
kinds of perfection.
The great physicians, the Avin-kumras, very gladly accepted Cyavana
Muni's proposal. Thus they told the brhmaa, "Just dive into this lake
of successful life." [One who bathes in this lake has his desires
ity ukto jaray grastadeho dhamani-santata
hrada praveito 'vibhy


iti uktathus being addressed; jarayby old age and invalidity; grastadehathe body being so diseased; dhamani-santatawhose veins were
visible everywhere on the body; hradamthe lake; praveitaentered;
avibhymhelped by the Avin-kumras; val-palita-vigrahawhose
body had loose skin and white hair.
After saying this, the Avin-kumras caught hold of Cyavana Muni,
who was an old, diseased invalid with loose skin, white hair, and veins
visible all over his body, and all three of them entered the lake.
Cyavana Muni was so old that he could not enter the lake alone. Thus the
Avin-kumras caught hold of his body, and the three of them entered
the lake.
purus traya uttasthur
apvy vanit-priy
padma-sraja kualinas
tulya-rp suvsasa
purumen; trayathree; uttasthuarose (from the lake);
apvyextremely beautiful; vanit-priyas a man becomes very
attractive to women; padma-srajadecorated with garlands of lotuses;
kualinawith earrings; tulya-rpall of them had the same bodily
features; su-vsasavery nicely dressed.
Thereafter, three men with very beautiful bodily features emerged from
the lake. They were nicely dressed and decorated with earrings and
garlands of lotuses. All of them were of the same standard of beauty.
tn nirkya varroh
sarpn srya-varcasa
ajnat pati sdhv
avinau araa yayau
tnunto them; nirkyaafter observing; vara-rohthat beautiful


Sukany; sa-rpnall of them equally beautiful; srya-varcasawith a

bodily effulgence like the effulgence of the sun; ajnatnot knowing;
patimher husband; sdhvthat chaste woman; avinauunto the
Avin-kumras; araamshelter; yayautook.
The chaste and very beautiful Sukany could not distinguish her
husband from the two Avin-kumras, for they were equally beautiful.
Not understanding who her real husband was, she took shelter of the
Sukany could have selected any one of them as her husband, for one
could not distinguish among them, but because she was chaste, she took
shelter of the Avin-kumras so that they could inform her who her
actual husband was. A chaste woman will never accept any man other
than her husband, even if there be someone equally as handsome and
darayitv pati tasyai
pti-vratyena toitau
im mantrya yayatur
vimnena triviapam
darayitvafter showing; patimher husband; tasyaiunto Sukany;
pti-vratyenabecause of her strong faith in her husband; toitaubeing
very pleased with her; imunto Cyavana Muni; mantryataking his
permission; yayatuthey went away; vimnenataking their own
airplane; triviapamto the heavenly planets.
The Avin-kumras were very pleased to see Sukany's chastity and
faithfulness. Thus they showed her Cyavana Muni, her husband, and
after taking permission from him, they returned to the heavenly planets
in their plane.
yakyamo 'tha aryti
cyavanasyrama gata
dadara duhitu prve
purua srya-varcasam


yakyamadesiring to perform a yaja; athathus; arytiKing

aryti; cyavanasyaof Cyavana Muni; ramamto the residence;
gatahaving gone; dadarahe saw; duhituof his daughter; prve
by the side; puruama man; srya-varcasambeautiful and effulgent
like the sun.
Thereafter, King aryti, desiring to perform a sacrifice, went to the
residence of Cyavana Muni. There he saw by the side of his daughter a
very beautiful young man, as bright as the sun.
rj duhitara prha
ia cprayujno
ntiprti-man iva
rjthe King (aryti); duhitaramunto the daughter; prhasaid;
kta-pda-abhivandanmwho had already finished offering respectful
obeisances to her father; iablessings upon her; caand;
aprayujnawithout offering to the daughter; nanot; atiprtimanvery much pleased; ivalike that.
After receiving obeisances from his daughter, the King, instead of
offering blessings to her, appeared very displeased and spoke as
cikrita te kim ida patis tvay
pralambhito loka-namaskto muni
yat tva jar-grastam asaty asammata
vihya jra bhajase 'mum adhvagam
cikritamwhich you desire to do; teof you; kim idamwhat is this;
patiyour husband; tvayby you; pralambhitahas been cheated;
loka-namasktawho is honored by all people; munia great sage;
yatbecause; tvamyou; jar-grastamvery old and invalid; asatiO
unchaste daughter; asammatamnot very attractive; vihyagiving up;
jramparamour; bhajaseyou have accepted; amumthis man;


adhvagamcomparable to a street beggar.

O unchaste girl, what is this that you have desired to do? You have
cheated the most respectable husband, who is honored by everyone, for
I see that because he was old, diseased and therefore unattractive, you
have left his company to accept as your husband this young man, who
appears to be a beggar from the street.
This shows the values of Vedic culture. According to the circumstances,
Sukany had been given a husband who was too old to be compatible
with her. Because Cyavana Muni was diseased and very old, he was
certainly unfit for the beautiful daughter of King aryti. Nonetheless, her
father expected her to be faithful to her husband. When he suddenly saw
that his daughter had accepted someone else, even though the man was
young and handsome, he immediately chastised her as asat, unchaste,
because he assumed that she had accepted another man in the presence of
her husband. According to Vedic culture, even if a young woman is given
an old husband, she must respectfully serve him. This is chastity. It is not
that because she dislikes her husband she may give him up and accept
another. This is against Vedic culture. According to Vedic culture, a
woman must accept the husband given to her by her parents and remain
chaste and faithful to him. Therefore King aryti was surprised to see a
young man by the side of Sukany.
katha matis te 'vagatnyath sat
kula-praste kula-daa tv idam
bibhari jra yad apatrap kula
pitu ca bhartu ca nayasy adhas tama
kathamhow; mati teyour consciousness; avagathas gone down;
anyathotherwise; satmof the most respectable; kula-prasteO my
daughter, born in the family; kula-daamwho are the degradation of
the family; tubut; idamthis; bibhariyou are maintaining; jrama
paramour; yatas it is; apatrapwithout shame; kulamthe dynasty;
pituof your father; caand; bhartuof your husband; caand;
nayasiyou are bringing down; adha tamadownward into darkness
or hell.


O my daughter, who were born in a respectable family, how have you

degraded your consciousness in this way? How is it that you are
shamelessly maintaining a paramour? You will thus degrade the
dynasties of both your father and your husband to hellish life.
It is quite clear that according to Vedic culture a woman who accepts a
paramour or second husband in the presence of the husband she has
married is certainly responsible for the degradation of her father's family
and the family of her husband. The rules of Vedic culture in this regard
are strictly observed in the respectable families of brhmaas, katriyas
and vaiyas even today; only the dras are degraded in this matter. For a
woman of the brhmaa, katriya or vaiya class to accept another
husband in the presence of the husband she has married, or to file for
divorce or accept a boyfriend or paramour, is unacceptable in the Vedic
culture. Therefore King aryti, who did not know the real facts of
Cyavana Muni's transformation, was surprised to see the behavior of his
eva bruva pitara
smayamn uci-smit
uvca tta jmt
tavaia bhgu-nandana
evamin this way; bruvamwho was talking and chastising her;
pitaramunto her father; smayamnsmiling (because she was chaste);
uci-smitlaughingly; uvcareplied; ttaO my dear father; jmt
son-in-law; tavayour; eathis young man; bhgu-nandanais
Cyavana Muni (and no one else).
Sukany, however, being very proud of her chastity, smiled upon
hearing the rebukes of her father. She smilingly told him, "My dear
father, this young man by my side is your actual son-in-law, the great
sage Cyavana, who was born in the family of Bhgu."
Although the father chastised the daughter, assuming that she had
accepted another husband, the daughter knew that she was completely
honest and chaste, and therefore she was smiling. When she explained
that her husband, Cyavana Muni, had now been transformed into a young


man, she was very proud of her chastity, and thus she smiled as she talked
with her father.
aasa pitre tat sarva
vismita parama-prtas
tanay pariasvaje
aasashe described; pitreunto her father; tatthat; sarvam
everything; vayaof the change of age; rpaand of beauty;
abhilambhanamhow there was achievement (by her husband);
vismitabeing surprised; parama-prtawas extremely pleased;
tanaymunto his daughter; pariasvajeembraced with pleasure.
Thus Sukany explained how her husband had received the beautiful
body of a young man. When the King heard this he was very surprised,
and in great pleasure he embraced his beloved daughter.
somena yjayan vra
graha somasya cgraht
asoma-por apy avino
cyavana svena tejas
somenawith the soma; yjayancausing to perform the sacrifice;
vramthe King (aryti); grahamthe full pot; somasyaof the somarasa; caalso; agrahtdelivered; asoma-powho were not allowed to
drink the soma-rasa; apialthough; avinoof the Avin-kumras;
cyavanaCyavana Muni; svenahis own; tejasby prowess.
Cyavana Muni, by his own prowess, enabled King aryti to perform
the soma-yaja. The muni offered a full pot of soma-rasa to the Avinkumras, although they were unfit to drink it.
hantu tam dade vajra
sadyo manyur amarita


savajra stambhaym sa
bhujam indrasya bhrgava
hantumto kill; tamhim (Cyavana); dadeIndra took up; vajramhis
thunderbolt; sadyaimmediately; manyubecause of great anger,
without consideration; amaritabeing very much perturbed; savajramwith the thunderbolt; stambhaym saparalyzed; bhujamthe
arm; indrasyaof Indra; bhrgavaCyavana Muni, the descendant of
King Indra, being perturbed and angry, wanted to kill Cyavana Muni,
and therefore he impetuously took up his thunderbolt. But Cyavana
Muni, by his powers, paralyzed Indra's arm that held the thunderbolt.
anvajnas tata sarve
graha somasya cvino
bhiajv iti yat prva
somhuty bahi-ktau
anvajnanwith their permission; tatathereafter; sarveall the
demigods; grahama full pot; somasyaof soma-rasa; caalso;
avinoof the Avin-kumras; bhiajaualthough only physicians; iti
thus; yatbecause; prvambefore this; soma-hutywith a share in
the soma-yaja; bahi-ktauwho had been disallowed or excluded.
Although the Avin-kumras were only physicians and were therefore
excluded from drinking soma-rasa in sacrifices, the demigods agreed to
allow them henceforward to drink it.
uttnabarhir narto
bhriea iti traya
aryter abhavan putr
nartd revato 'bhavat
uttnabarhiUttnabarhi; nartanarta; bhrieaBhriea;
itithus; trayathree; aryteof King aryti; abhavanwere


begotten; putrsons;
abhavatwas born.




King aryti begot three sons, named Uttnabarhi, narta and

Bhriea. From narta came a son named Revata.
so 'nta-samudre nagar
vinirmya kuasthalm
sthito 'bhukta viayn
nartdn arindama
tasya putra-ata jaje
kakudmi-jyeham uttamam
saRevata; anta-samudrein the depths of the ocean; nagarma
town; vinirmyaafter constructing; kuasthalmnamed Kuasthal;
sthitalived there; abhuktaenjoyed material happiness; viayn
kingdoms; narta-dnnarta and others; arim-damaO Mahrja
Parkit, subduer of enemies; tasyahis; putra-atamone hundred sons;
jajewere born; kakudmi-jyehamof whom the eldest was Kakudm;
uttamammost powerful and opulent.
O Mahrja Parkit, subduer of enemies, this Revata constructed a
kingdom known as Kuasthal in the depths of the ocean. There he lived
and ruled such tracts of land as narta, etc. He had one hundred very
nice sons, of whom the eldest was Kakudm.
kakudm revat kany
svm dya vibhu gata
putry vara pariprau
brahmalokam apvtam
kakudmKing Kakudm; revatmnamed Revat; kanymthe daughter
of Kakudm; svmhis own; dyataking; vibhumbefore Lord
Brahm; gatahe went; putryof his daughter; varama husband;
paripraumto inquire about; brahmalokamBrahmaloka; apvtam
transcendental to the three qualities.


Taking his own daughter, Revat, Kakudm went to Lord Brahm in

Brahmaloka, which is transcendental to the three modes of material
nature, and inquired about a husband for her.
It appears that Brahmaloka, the abode of Lord Brahm, is also
transcendental, above the three modes of material nature (apvtam).
vartamne gndharve
sthito 'labdha-kaa kaam
tad-anta dyam namya
svbhiprya nyavedayat
vartamnebecause of being engaged; gndharvein hearing songs
from the Gandharvas; sthitasituated; alabdha-kaathere was no
time to talk; kaameven a moment; tat-antewhen it ended; dyam
unto the original teacher of the universe (Lord Brahm); namyaafter
offering obeisances; sva-abhipryamhis own desire; nyavedayat
Kakudm submitted.
When Kakudm arrived there, Lord Brahm was engaged in hearing
musical performances by the Gandharvas and had not a moment to talk
with him. Therefore Kakudm waited, and at the end of the musical
performances he offered his obeisances to Lord Brahm and thus
submitted his long-standing desire.
tac chrutv bhagavn brahm
prahasya tam uvca ha
aho rjan niruddhs te
klena hdi ye kt
tatthat; rutvhearing; bhagavnthe most powerful; brahmLord
Brahm; prahasyaafter laughing; tamunto King Kakudm; uvca ha
said; ahoalas; rjanO King; niruddhall gone; teall of them;
klenaby the course of time; hdiwithin the core of the heart; yeall
of them; ktwho have been decided upon for acceptance as your sonin-law.


After hearing his words, Lord Brahm, who is most powerful, laughed
loudly and said to Kakudm: O King, all those whom you may have
decided within the core of your heart to accept as your son-in-law have
passed away in the course of time.
tat putra-pautra-napt
gotri ca na mahe
klo 'bhiytas tri-avacatur-yuga-vikalpita
tatthere; putraof the sons; pautraof the grandsons; naptmand
of the descendants; gotrithe family dynasties; caalso; nanot;
mahewe do hear of; klatime; abhiytahave passed; trithree;
navanine; catur-yugafour yugas (Satya, Tret, Dvpara and Kali);
vikalpitathus measured.
Twenty-seven catur-yugas have already passed. Those upon whom you
may have decided are now gone, and so are their sons, grandsons and
other descendants. You cannot even hear about their names.
During Lord Brahm's day, fourteen Manus or one thousand mah-yugas
pass away. Brahm informed King Kakudm that twenty-seven mahyugas, each consisting of the four periods Satya, Tret, Dvpara and Kali,
had already passed. All the kings and other great personalities born in
those yugas had now departed from memory into obscurity. This is the
way of time as it moves through past, present and future.
tad gaccha deva-devo
baladevo mah-bala
kany-ratnam ida rjan
nara-ratnya dehi bho
tattherefore; gacchayou go; deva-deva-aawhose plenary portion
is Lord Viu; baladevaknown as Baladeva; mah-balathe supreme
powerful; kany-ratnamyour beautiful daughter; idamthis; rjanO
King; nara-ratnyaunto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is
always youthful; dehijust give to Him (in charity); bhoO King.


O King, leave here and offer your daughter to Lord Baladeva, who is
still present. He is most powerful. Indeed, He is the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, whose plenary portion is Lord Viu. Your
daughter is fit to be given to Him in charity.
bhuvo bhrvatrya
bhagavn bhta-bhvana
avatro nijena
bhuvaof the world; bhra-avatryato lessen the burden; bhagavn
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhta-bhvanaalways the wellwisher of all the living entities; avatranow He has descended; nijaaenawith all the paraphernalia that is part of Him; puya-ravaakrtanaHe is simply worshiped by hearing and chanting, by which one
becomes purified.
Lord Baladeva is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who hears
and chants about Him is purified. Because He is always the well-wisher
of all living entities, He has descended with all His paraphernalia to
purify the entire world and lessen its burden.
ity dio 'bhivandyja
npa sva-puram gata
tyakta puya-jana-trsd
bhrtbhir dikv avasthitai
itithus; diabeing ordered by Lord Brahm; abhivandyaafter
offering obeisances; ajamunto Lord Brahm; npathe King; svapuramto his own residence; gatareturned; tyaktamwhich was
vacant; puya-janaof higher living entities; trstbecause of their fear;
bhrtbhiby his brothers; dikuin different directions; avasthitai
who were residing.
Having received this order from Lord Brahm, Kakudm offered
obeisances unto him and returned to his own residence. He then saw


that his residence was vacant, having been abandoned by his brothers
and other relatives, who were living in all directions because of fear of
such higher living beings as the Yakas.
sut dattvnavadyg
balya bala-line
badary-khya gato rj
taptu nryaramam
sutmhis daughter; dattvafter delivering; anavadya-agmhaving a
perfect body; balyaunto Lord Baladeva; bala-lineunto the most
powerful, the supreme powerful; badar-khyamnamed Badarikrama;
gatahe went; rjthe King; taptumto perform austerities;
nryaa-ramamto the place of Nara-Nryaa.
Thereafter, the King gave his most beautiful daughter in charity to the
supremely powerful Baladeva and then retired from worldly life and
went to Badarikrama to please Nara-Nryaa.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Third Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Marriage of Sukany and Cyavana


4. Ambara Mahrja Offended by Durvs Muni

This chapter describes the history of Mahrja Nabhaga, of his son

Nbhga, and of Mahrja Ambara.
The son of Manu was Nabhaga, and his son Nbhga lived for many years
in the gurukula. In Nbhga's absence, his brothers did not consider his
share of the kingdom, but instead divided the property among themselves.
When Nbhga returned home, his brothers bestowed upon him their
father as his share, but when Nbhga went to his father and told him
about the dealings of the brothers, his father informed him that this was
cheating and advised him that for his livelihood he should go to the
sacrificial arena and describe two mantras to be chanted there. Nbhga
executed the order of his father, and thus Agir and other great saintly
persons gave him all the money collected in that sacrifice. To test
Nbhga, Lord iva challenged his claim to the wealth, but when Lord
iva was satisfied by Nbhga's behavior, Lord iva offered him all the
From Nbhga was born Ambara, the most powerful and celebrated
devotee. Mahrja Ambara was the emperor of the entire world, but he
considered his opulence temporary. Indeed, knowing that such material
opulence is the cause of downfall into conditional life, he was unattached
to this opulence. He engaged his senses and mind in the service of the
Lord. This process is called yukta-vairgya, or feasible renunciation,
which is quite suitable for worship of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Because Mahrja Ambara, as the emperor, was immensely
opulent, he performed devotional service with great opulence, and
therefore, despite his wealth, he had no attachment to his wife, children
or kingdom. He constantly engaged his senses and mind in the service of
the Lord. Therefore, to say nothing of enjoying material opulence, he
never desired even liberation.
Once Mahrja Ambara was worshiping the Supreme Personality of
Godhead in Vndvana, observing the vow of Dvda. On Dvda, the
day after Ekda, when he was about to break his Ekda fast, the great
mystic yog Durvs appeared in his house and became his guest. King


Ambara respectfully received Durvs Muni, and Durvs Muni, after

accepting his invitation to eat there, went to bathe in the Yamun River at
noontime. Because he was absorbed in samdhi, he did not come back
very soon. Mahrja Ambara, however, upon seeing that the time to
break the fast was passing, drank a little water, in accordance with the
advice of learned brhmaas, just to observe the formality of breaking the
fast. By mystic power, Durvs Muni could understand that this had
happened, and he was very angry. When he returned he began to chastise
Mahrja Ambara, but he was not satisfied, and finally he created from
his hair a demon appearing like the fire of death. The Supreme Personality
of Godhead, however, is always the protector of His devotee, and to
protect Mahrja Ambara, He sent His disc, the Sudarana cakra, which
immediately vanquished the fiery demon and then pursued Durvs, who
was so envious of Mahrja Ambara. Durvs fled to Brahmaloka,
ivaloka and all the other higher planets, but he could not protect himself
from the wrath of the Sudarana cakra. Finally he went to the spiritual
world and surrendered to Lord Nryaa, but Lord Nryaa could not
excuse a person who had offended a Vaiava. To be excused from such
an offense, one must submit to the Vaiava whom he has offended.
There is no other way to be excused. Thus Lord Nryaa advised
Durvs to return to Mahrja Ambara and beg his pardon.
r-uka uvca
nbhgo nabhagpatya
ya tata bhrtara kavim
yaviha vyabhajan dya
brahmacriam gatam
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; nbhgaNbhga;
nabhaga-apatyamwas the son of Mahrja Nabhaga; yamunto whom;
tatamthe father; bhrtarathe elder brothers; kavimthe learned;
yavihamthe youngest; vyabhajandivided; dyamthe property;
brahmacriamhaving accepted the life of a brahmacr perpetually
(naihika); gatamreturned.
ukadeva Gosvm said: The son of Nabhaga named Nbhga lived for a
long time at the place of his spiritual master. Therefore, his brothers
thought that he was not going to become a ghastha and would not


return. Consequently, without providing a share for him, they divided

the property of their father among themselves. When Nbhga returned
from the place of his spiritual master, they gave him their father as his
There are two kinds of brahmacrs. One may return home, marry and
become a householder, whereas the other, known as bhad-vrata, takes a
vow to remain a brahmacr perpetually. The bhad-vrata brahmacr does
not return from the place of the spiritual master; he stays there, and later
he directly takes sannysa. Because Nbhga did not return from the place
of his spiritual master, his brothers thought that he had taken bhadvratabrahmacarya. Therefore, they did not preserve his share, and when he
returned they gave him their father as his share.
bhrtaro 'bhkta ki mahya
bhajma pitara tava
tv mamrys tatbhkur
m putraka tad dth
bhrtaraO my brothers; abhktahave you given as the share of our
father's property; kimwhat; mahyamunto me; bhajmawe allot;
pitaramthe father himself; tavaas your share; tvmyou; mama
unto me; rymy elder brothers; tataO my father; abhkuhave
given the share; mdo not; putrakaO my dear son; tatto this
statement; dthgive any importance.
Nbhga inquired, "My dear brothers, what have you given to me as my
share of our father's property?" His elder brothers answered, "We have
kept our father as your share." But when Nbhga went to his father
and said, "My dear father, my elder brothers have given you as my
share of property," the father replied, "My dear son, do not rely upon
their cheating words. I am not your property."
ime agirasa satram
sate 'dya sumedhasa
aha aham upetyha


kave muhyanti karmai

imeall these; agirasadescendants of the dynasty of Agir; satram
sacrifice; sateare performing; adyatoday; sumedhasawho are all
very intelligent; ahamsixth; ahamsixth; upetyaafter achieving;
ahaday; kaveO best of learned men; muhyantibecome bewildered;
karmaiin discharging fruitive activities.
Nbhga's father said: All the descendants of Agir are now going to
perform a great sacrifice, but although they are very intelligent, on
every sixth day they will be bewildered in performing sacrifice and will
make mistakes in their daily duties.
Nbhga was very simple hearted. Therefore when he went to his father,
the father, in compassion for his son, suggested that as a means of
livelihood Nbhga could go to the descendants of Agir and take
advantage of their misgivings in performing yaja.
ts tva asaya skte dve
vaivadeve mahtmana
te svar yanto dhana satraparieitam tmana
dsyanti te 'tha tn arccha
tath sa ktavn yath
tasmai dattv yayu svarga
te satra-parieaam
tnto all of them; tvamyourself; asayadescribe; skteVedic
hymns; dvetwo; vaivadevein connection with Vaivadeva, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahtmanato all of those great
souls; tethey; sva yantawhile going to their respective destinations
in the heavenly planets; dhanamthe wealth; satra-parieitamwhich
remains after the end of the yaja; tmanatheir own property;
dsyantiwill deliver; teunto you; athatherefore; tnto them;
arcchago there; tathin that way (according to his father's orders);
sahe (Nbhga); ktavnexecuted; yathas advised by his father;
tasmaiunto him; dattvafter giving; yayuwent; svargamto the
heavenly planets; teall of them; satra-parieaamremnants of yaja.


Nbhga's father continued: "Go to those great souls and describe two
Vedic hymns pertaining to Vaivadeva. When the great sages have
completed the sacrifice and are going to the heavenly planets, they will
give you the remnants of the money they have received from the
sacrifice. Therefore, go there immediately." Thus Nbhga acted exactly
according to the advice of his father, and the great sages of the Agir
dynasty gave him all their wealth and then went to the heavenly
ta kacit svkariyanta
purua ka-darana
uvcottarato 'bhyetya
mameda vstuka vasu
tamunto Nbhga; kacitsomeone; svkariyantamwhile accepting
the riches given by the great sages; puruaa person; ka-darana
black-looking; uvcasaid; uttaratafrom the north; abhyetya
coming; mamamy; idamthese; vstukamremnants of the sacrifice;
vasuall the riches.
Thereafter, while Nbhga was accepting the riches, a black-looking
person from the north came to him and said, "All the wealth from this
sacrificial arena belongs to me."
mamedam ibhir dattam
iti tarhi sma mnava
syn nau te pitari prana
pavn pitara yath
mamamy; idamall these; ibhiby the great saintly persons;
dattamhave been delivered; itithus; tarhitherefore; smaindeed;
mnavaNbhga; sytlet there be; nauof ourselves; teyour;
pitariunto the father; pranaan inquiry; pavnhe also inquired;
pitaramfrom his father; yathas requested.
Nbhga then said, "These riches belong to me. The great saintly


persons have delivered them to me." When Nbhga said this, the
black-looking person replied, "Let us go to your father and ask him to
settle our disagreement." In accordance with this, Nbhga inquired
from his father.
yaja-vstu-gata sarvam
ucchiam aya kvacit
cakrur hi bhga rudrya
sa deva sarvam arhati
yaja-vstu-gatamthings belonging to the sacrificial arena; sarvam
everything; ucchiamremnants; ayathe great sages; kvacit
sometimes, in the Daka-yaja; cakrudid so; hiindeed; bhgam
share; rudryaunto Lord iva; sathat; devademigod; sarvam
everything; arhatideserves.
The father of Nbhga said: Whatever the great sages sacrificed in the
arena of the Daka-yaja, they offered to Lord iva as his share.
Therefore, everything in the sacrificial arena certainly belongs to Lord
nbhgas ta praamyha
tavea kila vstukam
ity ha me pit brahma
chiras tv prasdaye
nbhgaNbhga; tamunto him (Lord iva); praamyaoffering
obeisances; hasaid; tavayours; aO lord; kilacertainly;
vstukameverything in the arena of sacrifice; itithus; hasaid; me
my; pitfather; brahmanO brhmaa; irasbowing my head;
tvmunto you; prasdayeI am begging your mercy.
Thereupon, after offering obeisances to Lord iva, Nbhga said: O
worshipable lord, everything in this arena of sacrifice is yours. This is
the assertion of my father. Now, with great respect, I bow my head
before you, begging your mercy.


yat te pitvadad dharma
tva ca satya prabhase
dadmi te mantra-do
jna brahma santanam
yatwhatever; teyour; pitfather; avadatexplained; dharmam
truth; tvam cayou also; satyamtruth; prabhaseare speaking;
dadmiI shall give; teunto you; mantra-dawho know the science
of mantra; jnamknowledge; brahmatranscendental; santanam
Lord iva said: Whatever your father has said is the truth, and you also
are speaking the same truth. Therefore, I, who know the Vedic mantras,
shall explain transcendental knowledge to you.
gha dravia datta
ity uktvntarhito rudro
bhagavn dharma-vatsala
ghaplease take now; draviamall the wealth; dattamis given (to
you by me); mat-satra-parieitamthe remnants of the sacrifice executed
on my behalf; iti uktvafter speaking like this; antarhitadisappeared;
rudraLord iva; bhagavnthe most powerful demigod; dharmavatsalaadherent to the principles of religion.
Lord iva said, "Now you may take all the wealth remaining from the
sacrifice, for I give it to you." After saying this, Lord iva, who is most
adherent to the religious principles, disappeared from that place.
ya etat sasmaret prta
sya ca susamhita
kavir bhavati mantra-jo
gati caiva tathtmana


yaanyone who; etatabout this incident; sasmaretmay remember;

prtain the morning; syam caand in the evening; susamhita
with great attention; kavilearned; bhavatibecomes; mantra-ja
well aware of all Vedic mantras; gatimthe destination; caalso; eva
indeed; tath tmanalike that of the self-realized soul.
If one hears and chants or remembers this narration in the morning and
evening with great attention, he certainly becomes learned, experienced
in understanding the Vedic hymns, and expert in self-realization.
nbhgd ambaro 'bhn
mah-bhgavata kt
nspad brahma-po 'pi
ya na pratihata kvacit
nbhgtfrom Nbhga; ambaraMahrja Ambara; abhttook
birth; mah-bhgavatathe most exalted devotee; ktvery celebrated;
na aspatcould not touch; brahma-pa apieven the curse of a
brhmaa; yamunto whom (Ambara Mahrja); naneither;
pratihatafailed; kvacitat any time.
From Nbhga, Mahrja Ambara took birth. Mahrja Ambara was
an exalted devotee, celebrated for his great merits. Although he was
cursed by an infallible brhmaa, the curse could not touch him.
bhagava chrotum icchmi
rjares tasya dhmata
na prbhd yatra nirmukto
brahma-dao duratyaya
r-rj uvcaKing Parkit inquired; bhagavanO great brhmaa;
rotum icchmiI wish to hear (from you); rjareof the great King
Ambara; tasyaof him; dhmatawho was such a greatly sober
personality; nanot; prbhtcould act; yatraupon whom (Mahrja
Ambara); nirmuktabeing released; brahma-daathe curse of a


brhmaa; duratyayawhich is insurmountable.

King Parkit inquired: O great personality, Mahrja Ambara was
certainly most exalted and meritorious in character. I wish to hear
about him. How surprising it is that the curse of a brhmaa, which is
insurmountable, could not act upon him.
TEXTS 15-16
r-uka uvca
ambaro mah-bhga
sapta-dvpavat mahm
avyay ca riya labdhv
vibhava ctula bhuvi
mene 'tidurlabha pus
sarva tat svapna-sastutam
vidvn vibhava-nirva
tamo viati yat pumn
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; ambaraKing Ambara;
mah-bhgathe greatly fortunate king; sapta-dvpavatmconsisting of
seven islands; mahmthe whole world; avyaym caand inexhaustible;
riyambeauty; labdhvafter achieving; vibhavam caand opulences;
atulamunlimited; bhuviin this earth; menehe decided; atidurlabhamwhich is rarely obtained; pusmof many persons;
sarvameverything (he had obtained); tatthat which; svapnasastutamas if imagined in a dream; vidvncompletely
understanding; vibhava-nirvamthe annihilation of that opulence;
tamaignorance; viatifallen into; yatbecause of which; pumna
ukadeva Gosvm said: Mahrja Ambara, the most fortunate
personality, achieved the rule of the entire world, consisting of seven
islands, and achieved inexhaustible, unlimited opulence and prosperity
on earth. Although such a position is rarely obtained, Mahrja
Ambara did not care for it at all, for he knew very well that all such
opulence is material. Like that which is imagined in a dream, such
opulence will ultimately be destroyed. The King knew that any
nondevotee who attains such opulence merges increasingly into


material nature's mode of darkness.

For a devotee material opulence is insignificant, whereas for a nondevotee
material opulence is the cause of increasing bondage, for a devotee knows
that anything material is temporary, whereas a nondevotee regards the
temporary so-called happiness as everything and forgets the path of selfrealization. Thus for the nondevotee material opulence is a
disqualification for spiritual advancement.
vsudeve bhagavati
tad-bhakteu ca sdhuu
prpto bhva para viva
yeneda loravat smtam
vsudeveunto the all-pervading Supreme Personality; bhagavatiunto
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat-bhakteuunto His devotees;
caalso; sdhuuunto the saintly persons; prptaone who has
achieved; bhvamreverence and devotion; paramtranscendental;
vivamthe whole material universe; yenaby which (spiritual
consciousness); idamthis; lora-vatas insignificant as a piece of
stone; smtamis accepted (by such devotees).
Mahrja Ambara was a great devotee of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Vsudeva, and of the saintly persons who are the Lord's
devotees. Because of this devotion, he thought of the entire universe as
being as insignificant as a piece of stone.
TEXTS 18-20
sa vai mana ka-padravindayor
vacsi vaikuha-gunuvarane
karau harer mandira-mrjandiu
ruti cakrcyuta-sat-kathodaye
mukunda-liglaya-darane dau
tad-bhtya-gtra-spare 'ga-sagamam
ghra ca tat-pda-saroja-saurabhe
rmat-tulasy rasan tad-arpite


pdau hare ketra-padnusarpae

iro hkea-padbhivandane
kma ca dsye na tu kma-kmyay
yathottamaloka-janray rati
sahe (Mahrja Ambara); vaiindeed; manahis mind; kapada-aravindayo(fixed) upon the two lotus feet of Lord Ka;
vacsihis words; vaikuha-gua-anuvaranedescribing the glories
of Ka; karauhis two hands; hare mandira-mrjana-diuin
activities like cleansing the temple of Hari, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; rutimhis ear; cakraengaged; acyutaof or about Ka,
who never falls down; sat-kath-udayein hearing the transcendental
narrations; mukunda-liga-laya-daranein seeing the Deity and temples
and holy dhmas of Mukunda; dauhis two eyes; tat-bhtyaof the
servants of Ka; gtra-sparein touching the bodies; agasagamamcontact of his body; ghram caand his sense of smell; tatpdaof His lotus feet; sarojaof the lotus flower; saurabhein
(smelling) the fragrance; rmat-tulasyof the tulas leaves; rasanm
his tongue; tat-arpitein the prasda offered to the Lord; pdauhis two
legs; hareof the Personality of Godhead; ketraholy places like the
temple or Vndvana and Dvrak; pada-anusarpaewalking to those
places; irathe head; hkeaof Ka, the master of the senses;
pada-abhivandanein offering obeisances to the lotus feet; kmam ca
and his desires; dsyein being engaged as a servant; nanot; tu
indeed; kma-kmyaywith a desire for sense gratification; yathas;
uttamaloka-jana-rayif one takes shelter of a devotee such as
Prahlda; ratiattachment.
Mahrja Ambara always engaged his mind in meditating upon the
lotus feet of Ka, his words in describing the glories of the Lord, his
hands in cleansing the Lord's temple, and his ears in hearing the words
spoken by Ka or about Ka. He engaged his eyes in seeing the
Deity of Ka, Ka's temples and Ka's places like Mathur and
Vndvana, he engaged his sense of touch in touching the bodies of the
Lord's devotees, he engaged his sense of smell in smelling the fragrance
of tulas offered to the Lord, and he engaged his tongue in tasting the
Lord's prasda. He engaged his legs in walking to the holy places and
temples of the Lord, his head in bowing down before the Lord, and all
his desires in serving the Lord, twenty-four hours a day. Indeed,


Mahrja Ambara never desired anything for his own sense

gratification. He engaged all his senses in devotional service, in various
engagements related to the Lord. This is the way to increase attachment
for the Lord and be completely free from all material desires.
In Bhagavad-gt (7.1) the Lord recommends, mayy sakta-man prtha
yoga yujan mad-raya. This indicates that one must execute
devotional service under the guidance of a devotee or directly under the
guidance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is not possible,
however, to train oneself without guidance from the spiritual master.
Therefore, according to the instructions of rla Rpa Gosvm, the first
business of a devotee is to accept a bona fide spiritual master who can
train him to engage his various senses in rendering transcendental service
to the Lord. The Lord also says in Bhagavad-gt (7.1), asaaya
samagra m yath jsyasi tac chu. In other words, if one wants to
understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead in completeness, one
must follow the prescriptions given by Ka by following in the footsteps
of Mahrja Ambara. It is said, hkea hkea-sevana bhaktir ucyate:
[Cc. Madhya 19.170] bhakti means to engage the senses in the service of
the master of the senses, Ka, who is called Hkea or Acyuta. These
words are used in these verses. Acyuta-sat-kathodaye, hkeapadbhivandane. The words Acyuta and Hkea are also used in
Bhagavad-gt. Bhagavad-gt is ka-kath spoken directly by Ka, and
rmad-Bhgavatam is also ka-kath because everything described in
the Bhgavatam is in relationship with Ka.
eva sad karma-kalpam tmana
pare 'dhiyaje bhagavaty adhokaje
sarvtma-bhva vidadhan mahm im
tan-niha-viprbhihita asa ha
evamthus (living a devotional life); sadalways; karma-kalpamthe
prescribed occupational duties as a katriya king; tmanaof himself,
personally (the head of the state); pareunto the supreme transcendence;
adhiyajeunto the supreme proprietor, the supreme enjoyer;
bhagavatiunto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhokajeunto
Him who is beyond material sense perception; sarva-tma-bhvamall
different varieties of devotional service; vidadhatexecuting, offering;


mahmthe planet earth; immthis; tat-nihawho are faithful

devotees of the Lord; vipraby such brhmaas; abhihitadirected;
asaruled; hain the past.
In performing his prescribed duties as king, Mahrja Ambara always
offered the results of his royal activities to the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Ka, who is the enjoyer of everything and is beyond the
perception of material senses. He certainly took advice from brhmaas
who were faithful devotees of the Lord, and thus he ruled the planet
earth without difficulty.
As stated in Bhagavad-gt (5.29):
bhoktra yaja-tapas
suhda sarva-bhtn
jtv m ntim cchati
People are very much anxious to live in peace and prosperity in this
material world, and here in Bhagavad-gt the peace formula is given
personally by the Supreme Personality of Godhead: everyone should
understand that Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the
ultimate proprietor of all the planets and is therefore the enjoyer of all
activities, political, social, cultural, religious, economic and so on. The
Lord has given perfect advice in Bhagavad-gt, and Ambara Mahrja, as
the ideal executive head, ruled the entire world as a Vaiava, taking
advice from Vaiava brhmaas. The stras enjoin that even though a
brhmaa may be well versed in the occupational brahminical duties and
may be very learned in Vedic knowledge, he cannot give advice as a guru
until he is a Vaiava.
a-karma-nipuo vipro
avaiavo gurur na syd
vaiava va-paco guru
Therefore, as indicated here by the words tan-niha-viprbhihita,
Mahrja Ambara took advice from brhmaas who were pure devotees
of the Lord, for ordinary brhmaas who are merely learned scholars or


experts in performing ritualistic ceremonies are not competent to give

In modern times, there are legislative assemblies whose members are
authorized to make laws for the welfare of the state, but according to this
description of the kingdom of Mahrja Ambara, the country or the
world should be ruled by a chief executive whose advisors are all devotee
brhmaas. Such advisors or members of the legislative assembly should
not be professional politicians, nor should they be selected by the
ignorant public. Rather, they should be appointed by the king. When the
king, the executive head of the state, is a devotee and he follows the
instructions of devotee brhmaas in ruling the country, everyone will be
peaceful and prosperous. When the king and his advisors are perfect
devotees, nothing can be wrong in the state. All the citizens should
become devotees of the Lord, and then their good character will
automatically follow.
yasysti bhaktir bhagavaty akican
sarvair guais tatra samsate sur
harv abhaktasya kuto mahad-gu
manorathensati dhvato bahi
"One who has unflinching devotion for the Personality of Godhead has all
the good qualities of the demigods. But one who is not a devotee of the
Lord has only material qualifications that are of little value. This is
because he is hovering on the mental plane and is certain to be attracted
by the glaring material energy." (SB 5.18.12) Citizens under the guidance
of a Ka conscious king will become devotees, and then there will be no
need to enact new laws every day to reform the way of life in the state. If
the citizens are trained to become devotees, they will automatically
become peaceful and honest, and if they are guided by a devoted king
advised by devotees, the state will not be in the material world but in the
spiritual world. All the states of the world should therefore follow the
ideal of the rule or administration of Mahrja Ambara, as described
je 'vamedhair adhiyajam vara


tatair vasihsita-gautamdibhir
dhanvany abhisrotam asau sarasvatm
jeworshiped; avamedhaiby performing the horse sacrifice yajas;
adhiyajamto satisfy the master of all yajas; varamthe Supreme
Personality of Godhead; mah-vibhtywith great opulence; upacitaaga-dakiaiwith all prescribed paraphernalia and contributions of
daki to the brhmaas; tataiexecuted; vasiha-asita-gautamadibhiby such brhmaas as Vasiha, Asita and Gautama; dhanvani
in the desert; abhisrotaminundated by the water of the river; asau
Mahrja Ambara; sarasvatmon the bank of the Sarasvat.
In desert countries where there flowed the River Sarasvat, Mahrja
Ambara performed great sacrifices like the avamedha-yaja and thus
satisfied the master of all yajas, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Such sacrifices were performed with great opulence and suitable
paraphernalia and with contributions of daki to the brhmaas, who
were supervised by great personalities like Vasiha, Asita and
Gautama, representing the king, the performer of the sacrifices.
When one performs ritualistic sacrifices as prescribed in the Vedas, one
needs expert brhmaas known as yjika-brhmaas. In Kali-yuga,
however, there is a scarcity of such brhmaas. Therefore in Kali-yuga the
sacrifice recommended in stra is sakrtana-yaja (yajai sakrtanapryair yajanti hi sumedhasa [SB 11.5.32]). Instead of spending money
unnecessarily on performing yajas impossible to perform in this age of
Kali because of the scarcity of yjika-brhmaas, one who is intelligent
performs sakrtana-yaja. Without properly performed yajas to satisfy
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there will be scarcity of rain (yajd
bhavati parjanya [Bg. 3.14]). Therefore the performance of yaja is
essential. Without yaja there will be a scarcity of rain, and because of
this scarcity, no food grains will be produced, and there will be famines. It
is the duty of the king, therefore, to perform different types of yajas,
such as the avamedha-yaja, to maintain the production of food grains.
Annd bhavanti bhtni. Without food grains, both men and animals will
starve. Therefore yaja is necessary for the state to perform because by
yaja the people in general will be fed sumptuously. The brhmaas and
yjika priests should be sufficiently paid for their expert service. This
payment is called daki. Ambara Mahrja, as the head of the state,


performed all these yajas through great personalities like Vasiha,

Gautama and Asita. Personally, however, he was engaged in devotional
service, as mentioned before (sa vai mana ka-padravindayo [SB
9.4.18]). The king or head of state must see that things go on well under
proper guidance, and he must be an ideal devotee, as exemplified by
Mahrja Ambara. It is the duty of the king to see that food grains are
produced even in desert countries, what to speak of elsewhere.
yasya kratuu grvai
sadasy tvijo jan
tulya-rp cnimi
vyadyanta suvsasa
yasyaof whom (Mahrja Ambara); kratuuin sacrifices (performed
by him); grvaiwith the demigods; sadasymembers for
executing the sacrifice; tvijathe priests; janand other expert men;
tulya-rpappearing exactly like; caand; animiwith unblinking
eyes like those of the demigods; vyadyantabeing seen; su-vsasa
well dressed with valuable garments.
In the sacrifice arranged by Mahrja Ambara, the members of the
assembly and the priests [especially hot, udgt, brahm and
adhvaryu] were gorgeously dressed, and they all looked exactly like
demigods. They eagerly saw to the proper performance of the yaja.
svargo na prrthito yasya
manujair amara-priya
vadbhir upagyadbhir
svargalife in the heavenly planets; nanot; prrthitaa subject for
aspiration; yasyaof whom (Ambara Mahrja); manujaiby the
citizens; amara-priyavery dear even to the demigods; vadbhiwho
were accustomed to hear; upagyadbhiand accustomed to chant;
uttamalokaof the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ceitamabout the
glorious activities.


The citizens of the state of Mahrja Ambara were accustomed to

chanting and hearing about the glorious activities of the Personality of
Godhead. Thus they never aspired to be elevated to the heavenly
planets, which are extremely dear even to the demigods.
A pure devotee who has been trained in the practice of chanting and
hearing the holy name of the Lord and His fame, qualities, form,
paraphernalia and so on is never interested in elevation to the heavenly
planets, even though such places are extremely dear even to the
nryaa-par sarve
na kutacana bibhyati
api tulyrtha-darina
"Devotees solely engaged in the devotional service of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Nryaa, never fear any condition of life. The
heavenly planets, liberation and the hellish planets are all the same to a
devotee." (SB 6.17.28) A devotee is always situated in the spiritual world.
Therefore he does not desire anything. He is known as akma, or
desireless, because he has nothing to desire except to render
transcendental loving service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Because Mahrja Ambara was a most exalted devotee of the Lord, he
trained his subjects in such a way that the citizens in his state were not
interested in anything material, including even the happiness of the
heavenly planets.
savardhayanti yat km
durlabh npi siddhn
mukunda hdi payata
savardhayantiincrease happiness; yatbecause; kmsuch
aspirations; sv-rjyasituated in his own constitutional position of
rendering service to the Lord; paribhvitsaturated with such
aspirations; durlabhvery rarely obtained; nanot; apialso;
siddhnmof the great mystics; mukundamKa, the Supreme


Personality of Godhead; hdiwithin the core of the heart; payata

persons always accustomed to seeing Him.
Those who are saturated with the transcendental happiness of
rendering service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead are
uninterested even in the achievements of great mystics, for such
achievements do not enhance the transcendental bliss felt by a devotee
who always thinks of Ka within the core of his heart.
A pure devotee is uninterested not only in elevation to the higher
planetary systems but even in the perfections of mystic yoga. Real
perfection is devotional service. The happiness derived from merging in
the impersonal Brahman and the happiness derived from the eight
perfections of mystic yoga (aim, laghim, prpti and so on) do not give
any pleasure to the devotee. As stated by rla Prabodhnanda Sarasvat:
kaivalya narakyate tridaa-pr ka-pupyate
durdntendriya-kla-sarpa-paal protkhta-daryate
viva pra-sukhyate vidhi-mahendrdi ca kyate
yat kruya-kaka-vaibhavavat ta gauram eva stuma
(Caitanya-candrmta 5)
When a devotee has achieved the position of rendering transcendental
loving service to the Lord through the mercy of Lord Caitanya, he thinks
the impersonal Brahman to be no better than hell, and he regards material
happiness in the heavenly planets to be like a will-o'-the-wisp. As far as
the perfection of mystic powers is concerned, a devotee compares it to a
venomous snake with no teeth. A mystic yog is especially concerned with
controlling the senses, but because the senses of a devotee are engaged in
the service of the Lord (hkea hkea-sevana bhaktir ucyate [Cc.
Madhya 19.170]) there is no need for separate control of the senses. For
those who are materially engaged, control of the senses is required, but a
devotee's senses are all engaged in the service of the Lord, which means
that they are already controlled. para dv nivartate (Bg. 2.59). A
devotee's senses are not attracted by material enjoyment. And even
though the material world is full of misery, the devotee considers this
material world to be also spiritual because everything is engaged in the
service of the Lord. The difference between the spiritual world and
material world is the mentality of service. Nirbandha ka-sambandhe


yukta vairgyam ucyate. When there is no mentality of service to the

Supreme Personality of Godhead, one's activities are material.
prpaci-katay buddhy
mumukubhi paritygo
vairgya phalgu kathyate
(Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 1.2.256)
That which is not engaged in the service of the Lord is material, and
nothing thus engaged should be given up. In the construction of a high
skyscraper and the construction of a temple, there may be the same
enthusiasm, but the endeavors are different, for one is material and the
other spiritual. Spiritual activities should not be confused with material
activities and given up. Nothing connected with Hari, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, is material. A devotee who considers all this is
always situated in spiritual activities, and therefore he is no longer
attracted by material activities (para dv nivartate [Bg. 9.59]).
sa ittha bhakti-yogena
tapo-yuktena prthiva
sva-dharmea hari pran
sarvn kmn anair jahau
sahe (Ambara Mahrja); itthamin this way; bhakti-yogenaby
performing transcendental loving service to the Lord; tapa-yuktena
which is simultaneously the best process of austerity; prthivathe
King; sva-dharmeaby his constitutional activities; harimunto the
Supreme Lord; pransatisfying; sarvnall varieties of; kmn
material desires; anaigradually; jahaugave up.
The king of this planet, Mahrja Ambara, thus performed devotional
service to the Lord and in this endeavor practiced severe austerity.
Always satisfying the Supreme Personality of Godhead by his
constitutional activities, he gradually gave up all material desires.
Severe austerities in the practice of devotional service are of many
varieties. For example, in worshiping the Deity in the temple there are


certainly laborious activities. r-vigrahrdhana-nitya-nn gra-tanmandira-mrjandau **. One must decorate the Deity, cleanse the temple,
bring water from the Ganges and Yamun, continue the routine work,
perform rati many times, prepare first-class food for the Deity, prepare
dresses and so on. In this way, one must constantly be engaged in various
activities, and the hard labor involved is certainly an austerity. Similarly,
the hard labor involved in preaching, preparing literature, preaching to
atheistic men and distributing literature door to door is of course an
austerity (tapo-yuktena). Tapo divya putrak [SB 5.5.1]. Such austerity is
necessary. Yena sattva uddhyet. By such austerity in devotional service,
one is purified of material existence (kmn anair jahau). Indeed, such
austerity leads one to the constitutional position of devotional service. In
this way one can give up material desires, and as soon as one is freed from
material desires, he is free from the repetition of birth and death, old age
and disease.
gheu dreu suteu bandhuu
ananta-koev akarod asan-matim
gheuin the homes; dreuin wives; suteuin children; bandhuu
in friends and relatives; dvipa-uttamain the best of powerful elephants;
syandanain nice chariots; vjiin first-class horses; vastuuin all such
things; akayyawhose value never decreases; ratnain jewels;
bharaain ornaments; ambara-diuin such dresses and ornaments;
ananta-koeuin an inexhaustible treasury; akarotaccepted; asatmatimno attachment.
Mahrja Ambara gave up all attachment to household affairs, wives,
children, friends and relatives, to the best of powerful elephants, to
beautiful chariots, carts, horses and inexhaustible jewels, and to
ornaments, garments and an inexhaustible treasury. He gave up
attachment to all of them, regarding them as temporary and material.
Ansaktasya viayn yathrham upayujata. Material possessions can be
accepted as far as they can be used in devotional service. nuklyena
knulanam [Cc. Madhya 19.167]. nuklyasya sakalpa


prtiklyasya varjanam. In preaching, many things considered material are

needed. A devotee should not have any attachment for such material
involvements as house, wife, children, friends and cars. Mahrja
Ambara, for example, had all such things, but he was not attached to
them. This is the effect of bhakti-yoga. Bhakti parenubhavo viraktir
anyatra ca (SB 11.2.42). One who is advanced in devotional service has
no attachment for material things for sense enjoyment, but for preaching,
to spread the glories of the Lord, he accepts such things without
attachment. Ansaktasya viayn yathrham upayujata. Everything can
be used to the extent that it can be engaged in Ka's service.
tasm add dhari cakra
prto bhaktbhirakaam
tasmaiunto him (Ambara Mahrja); adtgave; harithe Supreme
Personality of Godhead; cakramHis disc; pratyanka-bhaya-vaham
the Lord's disc, which was extremely fearful to the enemies of the Lord
and His devotees; eknta-bhakti-bhvenabecause of his performing
unalloyed devotional service; prtathe Lord being so pleased; bhaktaabhirakaamfor the protection of His devotees.
Being very pleased by the unalloyed devotion of Mahrja Ambara, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead gave the King His disc, which is
fearful to enemies and which always protects the devotee from enemies
and adversities.
A devotee, being always engaged in the service of the Lord, may not be
expert in self-defense, but because a devotee fully depends on the lotus
feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he is always sure of
protection by the Lord. Prahlda Mahrja said:
naivodvije para duratyaya-vaitarays
(SB 7.9.43)
A devotee is always merged in the ocean of the transcendental bliss of
rendering service to the Lord. Therefore he is not at all afraid of any


adverse situation in the material world. The Lord also promises, kaunteya
pratijnhi na me bhakta praayati: "O Arjuna, you may declare to the
world that the devotees of the Lord are never vanquished." (Bg. 9.31) For
the protection of the devotees, Ka's disc, the Sudarana cakra, is always
ready. This disc is extremely fearful to the nondevotees (pratyankabhayvaham). Therefore although Mahrja Ambara was fully engaged
in devotional service, his kingdom was free of all fear of adversity.
rirdhayiu ka
mahiy tulya-lay
yukta svatsara vro
dadhra dvda-vratam
rirdhayiuaspiring to worship; kamthe Supreme Lord, Ka;
mahiywith his queen; tulya-laywho was equally as qualified as
Mahrja Ambara; yuktatogether; svatsaramfor one year;
vrathe King; dadhraaccepted; dvda-vratamthe vow for
observing Ekda and Dvda.
To worship Lord Ka, Mahrja Ambara, along with his queen, who
was equally qualified, observed the vow of Ekda and Dvda for one
To observe Ekda-vrata and Dvda-vrata means to please the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Those interested in advancing in Ka
consciousness must observe Ekda-vrata regularly. Mahrja Ambara's
queen was equally as qualified as the King. Therefore it was possible for
Mahrja Ambara to engage his life in household affairs. In this regard,
the word tulya-lay is very significant. Unless a wife is equally as
qualified as her husband, household affairs are very difficult to continue.
Cakya Paita advises that a person in such a situation should
immediately give up household life and become a vnaprastha or sannys:
mt yasya ghe nsti
bhry cpriya-vdin
araya tena gantavya
yathraya tath gham


A person who has no mother at home and whose wife is not agreeable
with him should immediately go away to the forest. Because human life is
meant for spiritual advancement only, one's wife must be helpful in this
endeavor. Otherwise there is no need of household life.
vratnte krtike msi
tri-rtra samupoita
snta kadcit klindy
hari madhuvane 'rcayat
vrata-anteat the end of observing the vow; krtikein the month of
Krtika (October-November); msiin that month; tri-rtramfor three
nights; samupoitaafter completely observing the fast; sntaafter
bathing; kadcitonce upon a time; klindymon the bank of the
Yamun; harimunto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; madhuvane
in that part of the Vndvana area known as Madhuvana; arcayat
worshiped the Lord.
In the month of Krtika, after observing that vow for one year, after
observing a fast for three nights and after bathing in the Yamun,
Mahrja Ambara worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
Hari, in Madhuvana.
TEXTS 31-32
pjaym sa keavam
brhma ca mah-bhgn
siddhrthn api bhaktita
mah-abhieka-vidhinby the regulative principles for bathing the Deity;
sarva-upaskara-sampadby all the paraphernalia for worshiping the
Deity; abhiicyaafter bathing; ambara-kalpaiwith nice clothing and
ornaments; gandha-mlyawith fragrant flower garlands; arhaa-


dibhiand with other paraphernalia to worship the Deity; tat-gataantara-bhvenahis mind saturated with devotional service; pjaym
sahe worshiped; keavamunto Ka; brhman caand the
brhmaas; mah-bhgnwho were greatly fortunate; siddha-arthn
self-satisfied, without waiting for any worship; apieven; bhaktita
with great devotion.
Following the regulative principles of mahbhieka, Mahrja Ambara
performed the bathing ceremony for the Deity of Lord Ka with all
paraphernalia, and then he dressed the Deity with fine clothing,
ornaments, fragrant flower garlands and other paraphernalia for
worship of the Lord. With attention and devotion, he worshiped Ka
and all the greatly fortunate brhmaas who were free from material
TEXTS 33-35
gav rukma-vin
rpyghr suvsasm
prhiot sdhu-viprebhyo
gheu nyarbudni a
bhojayitv dvijn agre
svdv anna guavattamam
labdha-kmair anujta
tasya tarhy atithi skd
durvs bhagavn abht
gavmcows; rukma-vinmwhose horns were covered with gold
plate; rpya-aghrmwhose hooves were covered with silver plate; suvsasmvery nicely decorated with garments; paya-lawith full milk
bags; vayayoung; rpabeautiful; vatsa-upaskara-sampadmwith
nice calves; prhiotgave in charity; sdhu-viprebhyaunto the
brhmaas and saintly persons; gheu(who arrived) in his house;
nyarbudniten crores (one hundred million); asix times;
bhojayitvfeeding them; dvijn agrefirst the brhmaas; svdu


annamvery tasteful eatables; guavat-tamamhighly delicious; labdhakmaiby those brhmaas, being fully satisfied; anujtaby their
permission; prayafor completing the Dvda; upacakramewas just
about to observe the final ceremony; tasyaof him (Ambara); tarhi
immediately; atithiunwanted or uncalled-for guest; sktdirectly;
durvsthe great mystic Durvs; bhagavnvery powerful; abht
appeared on the scene as a guest.
Thereafter, Mahrja Ambara satisfied all the guests who arrived at
his house, especially the brhmaas. He gave in charity sixty crores of
cows whose horns were covered with gold plate and whose hooves were
covered with silver plate. All the cows were well decorated with
garments and had full milk bags. They were mild-natured, young and
beautiful and were accompanied by their calves. After giving these
cows, the King first sumptuously fed all the brhmaas, and when they
were fully satisfied, he was about to observe the end of Ekda, with
their permission, by breaking the fast. Exactly at that time, however,
Durvs Muni, the great and powerful mystic, appeared on the scene as
an uninvited guest.
tam narctithi bhpa
yayce 'bhyavahrya
pda-mlam upgata
tamunto him (Durvs); narcaworshiped; atithimalthough an
uninvited guest; bhpathe King (Ambara); pratyutthnaby
standing up; sanaby offering a seat; arhaaiand by paraphernalia
for worship; yaycerequested; abhyavahryafor eating; pdamlamat the root of his feet; upgatafell down.
After standing up to receive Durvs Muni, King Ambara offered him
a seat and paraphernalia of worship. Then, sitting at his feet, the King
requested the great sage to eat.
pratinandya sa t yc


kartum vayaka gata

nimamajja bhad dhyyan
klind-salile ubhe
pratinandyagladly accepting; saDurvs Muni; tmthat; ycm
request; kartumto perform; vayakamthe necessary ritualistic
ceremonies; gatawent; nimamajjadipped his body in the water;
bhatthe Supreme Brahman; dhyyanmeditating on; klindof the
Yamun; salilein the water; ubhevery auspicious.
Durvs Muni gladly accepted the request of Mahrja Ambara, but to
perform the regulative ritualistic ceremonies he went to the River
Yamun. There he dipped into the water of the auspicious Yamun and
meditated upon the impersonal Brahman.
dvday praa prati
cintaym sa dharma-jo
dvijais tad-dharma-sakae
muhrta-ardha-avaiymwas remaining only for half a moment;
dvdaymwhen the Dvda day; praamthe breaking of the fast;
pratito observe; cintaym sabegan to think about; dharma-jaone
who knows the principles of religion; dvijaiby the brhmaas; tatdharmaconcerning that religious principle; sakaein such a
dangerous condition.
In the meantime, only a muhrta of the Dvda day was left on which
to break the fast. Consequently, it was imperative that the fast be
broken immediately. In this dangerous situation, the King consulted
learned brhmaas.
TEXTS 39-40
brhmatikrame doo
dvday yad aprae
yat ktv sdhu me bhyd
adharmo v na m spet


ambhas kevalentha
kariye vrata-praam
hur ab-bhakaa vipr
hy aita nita ca tat
brhmaa-atikramein surpassing the rules of respect to the brhmaas;
doathere is a fault; dvdaymon the Dvda day; yatbecause;
apraein not breaking the fast in due time; yat ktvafter doing
which action; sdhuwhat is auspicious; meunto me; bhytmay so
become; adharmawhat is irreligious; veither; nanot; mmunto
me; spetmay touch; ambhasby water; kevalenaonly; atha
therefore; kariyeI shall execute; vrata-praamthe completion of the
vow; husaid; ap-bhakaamdrinking water; viprO brhmaas;
hiindeed; aitameating; na aitam caas well as not eating; tatsuch
an action.
The King said: "To transgress the laws of respectful behavior toward
the brhmaas is certainly a great offense. On the other hand, if one
does not observe the breaking of the fast within the time of Dvda,
there is a flaw in one's observance of the vow. Therefore, O brhmaas,
if you think that it will be auspicious and not irreligious, I shall break
the fast by drinking water." In this way, after consulting with the
brhmaas, the King reached this decision, for according to brahminical
opinion, drinking water may be accepted as eating and also as not
When Mahrja Ambara, in his dilemma, consulted the brhmaas about
whether he should break the fast or wait for Durvs Muni, apparently
they could not give a definite answer about what to do. A Vaiava,
however, is the most intelligent personality. Therefore Mahrja Ambara
himself decided, in the presence of the brhmaas, that he would drink a
little water, for this would confirm that the fast was broken but would not
transgress the laws for receiving a brhmaa. In the Vedas it is said, apo
'nti tan naivita naivnaitam. This Vedic injunction declares that the
drinking of water may be accepted as eating or as not eating. Sometimes
in our practical experience we see that some political leader adhering to
satygraha will not eat but will drink water. Considering that drinking
water would not be eating, Mahrja Ambara decided to act in this way.


ity apa prya rjari
cintayan manascyutam
pratyacaa kuru-reha
dvijgamanam eva sa
itithus; apawater; pryaafter drinking; rjarithe great King
Ambara; cintayanmeditating upon; manasby the mind; acyutam
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pratyacaabegan to wait; kururehaO best of the Kuru kings; dvija-gamanamthe return of
Durvs Muni, the great mystic brhmaa; evaindeed; sathe King.
O best of the Kuru dynasty, after he drank some water, King Ambara,
meditating upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead within his heart,
waited for the return of the great mystic Durvs Muni.
durvs yamun-klt
ktvayaka gata
rjbhinanditas tasya
bubudhe ceita dhiy
durvsthe great sage; yamun-kltfrom the bank of the River
Yamun; ktahad been performed; vayakahe by whom the
necessary ritualistic ceremonies; gatareturned; rjby the King;
abhinanditabeing well received; tasyahis; bubudhecould
understand; ceitamperformance; dhiyby intelligence.
After executing the ritualistic ceremonies to be performed at noon,
Durvs returned from the bank of the Yamun. The King received him
well, offering all respects, but Durvs Muni, by his mystic power,
could understand that King Ambara had drunk water without his
manyun pracalad-gtro
bubhukita ca sutar


ktjalim abhata
manyunagitated by great anger; pracalat-gtrahis body trembling;
bhru-kuby the eyebrows; kuilacurved; nanaface; bubhukita
caand hungry at the same time; sutarmvery much; kta-ajalimto
Ambara Mahrja, who stood there with folded hands; abhatahe
Still hungry, Durvs Muni, his body trembling, his face curved and his
eyebrows crooked in a frown, angrily spoke as follows to King
Ambara, who stood before him with folded hands.
aho asya n-asasya
riyonmattasya payata
dharma-vyatikrama vior
ahoalas; asyaof this man; n-asasyawho is so cruel; riy
unmattasyapuffed up because of great opulence; payataeveryone just
see; dharma-vyatikramamthe transgression of the regulative principles
of religion; vio abhaktasyawho is not a devotee of Lord Viu; amninaconsidering himself the Supreme Lord, independent of
Alas, just see the behavior of this cruel man! He is not a devotee of Lord
Viu. Being proud of his material opulence and his position, he
considers himself God. Just see how he has transgressed the laws of
rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura has diverted the entire meaning of
this verse as spoken by Durvs Muni. Durvs Muni used the word nasasya to indicate that the King was cruel, but Vivantha Cakravart
hkura interprets it to mean that the King's character was glorified by all
the local people. He says that the word n means "by all the local people"
and that asasya means "of he (Ambara) whose character was
glorified." Similarly, one who is very rich becomes mad because of his
wealth and is therefore called riy-unmattasya, but rla Vivantha
Cakravart hkura interprets these words to mean that although


Mahrja Ambara was such an opulent king, he was not mad after
money, for he had already surpassed the madness of material opulence.
Similarly, the word a-mnina is interpreted to mean that he was so
respectful to the Supreme Personality of Godhead that he did not
transgress the laws for observing Ekda-praa, despite the thinking of
Durvs Muni, for he only took water. In this way, rla Vivantha
Cakravart hkura has supported Ambara Mahrja and all his
yo mm atithim ytam
tithyena nimantrya ca
adattv bhuktavs tasya
sadyas te daraye phalam
yathis man who; mmunto me; atithimwho, being an uninvited
guest; ytamhad come here; tithyenawith the reception of a guest;
nimantryaafter inviting me; caalso; adattvwithout giving (food);
bhuktavnhas himself eaten; tasyaof him; sadyaimmediately; te
of you; darayeI shall show; phalamthe result.
Mahrja Ambara, you have invited me to eat as a guest, but instead of
feeding me, you yourself have eaten first. Because of your misbehavior,
I shall show you something to punish you.
A devotee cannot be defeated by a so-called mystic yog. This will be
proved by the failure of Durvs Muni's endeavor to chastise Mahrja
Ambara. Harv abhaktasya kuto mahad-gu (SB 5.18.12). One who is
not a pure devotee of the Supreme Lord has no good qualifications,
however great a mystic, philosopher or fruitive worker he may be. Only a
devotee emerges victorious in all circumstances, as will be shown in this
incident involving the rivalry between Durvs and Mahrja Ambara.
eva bruva utktya
ja roa-pradpita
tay sa nirmame tasmai
kty klnalopamm
evamthus; bruvaspeaking (Durvs Muni); utktyauprooting;


jama bunch of hair; roa-pradpitabeing reddish because he was

very angry; tayby that bunch of hair from his head; saDurvs
Muni; nirmamecreated; tasmaito punish Mahrja Ambara;
ktyma demon; kla-anala-upammappearing just like the blazing
fire of devastation.
As Durvs Muni said this, his face became red with anger. Uprooting a
bunch of hair from his head, he created a demon resembling the blazing
fire of devastation to punish Mahrja Ambara.
tm patant jvalatm
asi-hast pad bhuvam
vepayant samudvkya
na cacla padn npa
tmthat (demon); patantmcoming forward to attack him; jvalatm
blazing like fire; asi-hastmwith a trident in his hand; padwith his
footstep; bhuvamthe surface of the earth; vepayantmcausing to
tremble; samudvkyaseeing him perfectly; nanot; caclamoved;
padtfrom his place; npathe King.
Taking a trident in his hand and making the surface of the earth
tremble with his footsteps, that blazing creature came before Mahrja
Ambara. But the King, upon seeing him, was not at all disturbed and
did not move even slightly from his position.
Nryaa-par sarve na kutacana bibhyati (SB 6.17.28). A pure devotee
of Nryaa is never afraid of any material danger. There are many
examples of devotees such as Prahlda Mahrja, who was tortured by his
father but was not at all afraid, although he was only a five-year-old boy.
Therefore, following the examples of Ambara Mahrja and Prahlda
Mahrja, a devotee should learn how to tolerate all such awkward
positions in this world. Devotees are often tortured by nondevotees, yet
the pure devotee, depending fully on the mercy of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, is never disturbed by such inimical activities.
prg dia bhtya-raky


puruea mahtman
dadha kty t cakra
kruddhhim iva pvaka
prk diamas previously arranged; bhtya-rakymfor the protection
of his servants; purueaby the Supreme Person; mah-tmanby the
Supersoul; dadhaburnt to ashes; ktymthat created demon; tm
him; cakramthe disc; kruddhaangry; ahima serpent; ivalike;
As fire in the forest immediately burns to ashes an angry snake, so, by
the previous order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, His disc, the
Sudarana cakra, immediately burnt to ashes the created demon to
protect the Lord's devotee.
As a pure devotee, Mahrja Ambara, although in such danger, did not
move an inch from his position, nor did he request the Supreme
Personality of Godhead to give him protection. He was fixed in
understanding, and it was certain that he was simply thinking of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead in the core of his heart. A devotee is
never fearful of his death, for he meditates on the Supreme Personality of
Godhead always, not for any material profit, but as his duty. The Lord,
however, knows how to protect His devotee. As indicated by the words
prg diam, the Lord knew everything. Therefore, before anything
happened, He had already arranged for His cakra to protect Mahrja
Ambara. This protection is offered to a devotee even from the very
beginning of his devotional service. Kaunteya pratijnhi na me bhakta
praayati (Bg. 9.31). If one simply begins devotional service, he is
immediately protected by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is
also confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (18.66): aha tv sarva-ppebhyo
mokayiymi. Protection begins immediately. The Lord is so kind and
merciful that He gives the devotee proper guidance and all protection, and
thus the devotee very peacefully makes solid progress in Ka
consciousness without outward disturbances. A serpent may be very
angry and ready to bite, but the furious snake is helpless when faced by a
blazing fire in the forest. Although an enemy of a devotee may be very
strong, he is compared to an angry serpent before the fire of devotional


tad-abhidravad udvkya
sva-praysa ca niphalam
durvs dudruve bhto
diku pra-parpsay
tatof that disc; abhidravatmoving toward him; udvkyaafter seeing;
sva-praysamhis own attempt; caand; niphalamhaving failed;
durvsDurvs Muni; dudruvebegan to run; bhtafull of fear;
dikuin every direction; pra-parpsaywith a desire to save his life.
Upon seeing that his own attempt had failed and that the Sudarana
cakra was moving toward him, Durvs Muni became very frightened
and began to run in all directions to save his life.
tam anvadhvad bhagavad-rathga
dvgnir uddhta-ikho yathhim
tathnuakta munir kamo
guh viviku prasasra mero
tamunto Durvs; anvadhvatbegan to follow; bhagavat-rathaagamthe disc appearing from the wheel of the Lord's chariot; dvaagnilike a forest fire; uddhtablazing high; ikhahaving flames;
yath ahimas it follows a snake; tathin the same way; anuaktamas
if touching Durvs Muni's back; munithe sage; kamaseeing
like that; guhma cave; vivikuwanted to enter; prasasrabegan to
move quickly; meroof Meru Mountain.
As the blazing flames of a forest fire pursue a snake, the disc of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead began following Durvs Muni.
Durvs Muni saw that the disc was almost touching his back, and thus
he ran very swiftly, desiring to enter a cave of Sumeru Mountain.
dio nabha km vivarn samudrn
lokn sapls tridiva gata sa
yato yato dhvati tatra tatra


sudarana duprasaha dadara

diaall directions; nabhain the sky; kmmon the surface of the
earth; vivarnwithin the holes; samudrnwithin the seas; loknall
places; sa-plnas well as their rulers; tridivamthe heavenly planets;
gatagone; saDurvs Muni; yata yatawheresoever; dhvatihe
went; tatra tatrathere, everywhere; sudaranamthe disc of the Lord;
duprasahamextremely fearful; dadaraDurvs Muni saw.
Just to protect himself, Durvs Muni fled everywhere, in all
directionsin the sky, on the surface of the earth, in caves, in the
ocean, on different planets of the rulers of the three worlds, and even
on the heavenly planetsbut wherever he went he immediately saw
following him the unbearable fire of the Sudarana cakra.
alabdha-ntha sa sad kutacit
santrasta-citto 'raam eama
deva virica samagd vidhtas
trhy tma-yone 'jita-tejaso mm
alabdha-nthawithout getting the shelter of a protector; saDurvs
Muni; sadalways; kutacitsomewhere; santrasta-cittawith a
fearful heart; araama person who can give shelter; eamaseeking;
devamat last to the chief demigod; viricamLord Brahm; samagt
approached; vidhtaO my lord; trhikindly protect; tma-yoneO
Lord Brahm; ajita-tejasafrom the fire released by Ajita, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; mmunto me.
With a fearful heart, Durvs Muni went here and there seeking shelter,
but when he could find no shelter, he finally approached Lord Brahm
and said, "O my lord, O Lord Brahm, kindly protect me from the
blazing Sudarana cakra sent by the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
TEXTS 53-54
sthna madya saha-vivam etat
krvasne dvi-parrdha-saje


bhr-bhaga-mtrea hi sandidhako
kltmano yasya tirobhaviyati
aha bhavo daka-bhgu-pradhn
sarve vaya yan-niyama prapann
mrdhnyrpita loka-hita vahma
r-brahm uvcaLord Brahm said; sthnamthe place where I am;
madyammy residence, Brahmaloka; sahawith; vivamthe whole
universe; etatthis; kr-avasneat the end of the period for the
pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dvi-parrdha-saje
the time known as the end of a dvi-parrdha; bhr-bhaga-mtrea
simply by the flicking of the eyebrows; hiindeed; sandidhakoof the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, when He desires to burn the whole
universe; kla-tmanaof the form of destruction; yasyaof whom;
tirobhaviyatiwill be vanquished; ahamI; bhavaLord iva; daka
Prajpati Daka; bhguthe great saint Bhgu; pradhnand others
headed by them; praj-athe controllers of the prajs; bhta-athe
controllers of the living entities; sura-athe controllers of the
demigods; mukhyheaded by them; sarveall of them; vayamwe
also; yat-niyamamwhose regulative principle; prapannare
surrendered; mrdhny arpitambowing our heads; loka-hitamfor the
benefit of all living entities; vahmacarry out the orders ruling over the
living entities.
Lord Brahm said: At the end of the dvi-parrdha, when the pastimes of
the Lord come to an end, Lord Viu, by a flick of His eyebrows,
vanquishes the entire universe, including our places of residence. Such
personalities as me and Lord iva, as well as Daka, Bhgu and similar
great saints of which they are the head, and also the rulers of the living
entities, the rulers of human society and the rulers of the demigodsall
of us surrender to that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Viu,
bowing our heads, to carry out His orders for the benefit of all living
In Bhagavad-gt (10.34) it is said, mtyu sarva-hara cham: when the
Supreme Personality of Godhead approaches as death, or the supreme
controller of time, He takes everything away. In other words, all opulence,


prestige and everything we possess is given by the Supreme Lord for some
purpose. It is the duty of the surrendered soul to execute the orders of the
Supreme. No one can disregard Him. Under the circumstances, Lord
Brahm refused to give shelter to Durvs Muni from the powerful
Sudarana cakra sent by the Lord.
pratykhyto viricena
durvs araa yta
arva kailsa-vsinam
pratykhytabeing refused; viricenaby Lord Brahm; viu-cakraupatpitabeing scorched by the blazing fire of Lord Viu's disc;
durvsthe great mystic named Durvs; araamf or shelter;
ytawent; arvamunto Lord iva; kailsa-vsinamthe resident of
the place known as Kailsa.
When Durvs, who was greatly afflicted by the blazing fire of the
Sudarana cakra, was thus refused by Lord Brahm, he tried to take
shelter of Lord iva, who always resides on his planet, known as
r-akara uvca
vaya na tta prabhavma bhmni
yasmin pare 'nye 'py aja-jva-ko
bhavanti kle na bhavanti hd
sahasrao yatra vaya bhramma
r-akara uvcaLord iva said; vayamwe; nanot; ttaO my
dear son; prabhavmasufficiently able; bhmniunto the great
Supreme Personality of Godhead; yasminin whom; parein the
Transcendence; anyeothers; apieven; ajaLord Brahm; jvaliving
entities; kothe universes; bhavantican become; klein due
course of time; nanot; bhavantican become; hiindeed; dlike
this; sahasraamany thousands and millions; yatrawherein;
vayamall of us; bhrammaare rotating.


Lord iva said: My dear son, I, Lord Brahm and the other demigods,
who rotate within this universe under the misconception of our
greatness, cannot exhibit any power to compete with the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, for innumerable universes and their
inhabitants come into existence and are annihilated by the simple
direction of the Lord.
There are innumerable universes in the material world, and there are
innumerable Lord Brahms, Lord ivas and other demigods. All of them
rotate within this material world under the supreme direction of the
Personality of Godhead. Therefore no one is able to compete with the
strength of the Lord. Lord iva also refused to protect Durvs, for Lord
iva also was under the rays of the Sudarana cakra sent by the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.
TEXTS 57-59
aha sanat-kumra ca
nrado bhagavn aja
kapilo 'pntaratamo
devalo dharma suri
marci-pramukh cnye
siddhe pra-daran
vidma na vaya sarve
yan-my myayvt
tasya vivevarasyeda
astra durviaha hi na
tam eva araa yhi
haris te a vidhsyati
ahamI; sanat-kumra caand the four Kumras (Sanaka, Santana,
Sanat-kumra and Sananda); nradathe heavenly sage Nrada;
bhagavn ajathe supreme creature of the universe, Lord Brahm;
kapilathe son of Devahti; apntaratamaVysadeva; devalathe
great sage Devala; dharmaYamarja; surithe great saint suri;
marcithe great saint Marci; pramukhheaded by; caalso; anye
others; siddha-all of them perfect in their knowledge; pradaranthey have seen the end of all knowledge; vidmacan
understand; nanot; vayamall of us; sarvetotally; yat-mymthe


illusory energy of whom; myayby that illusory energy; vtbeing

covered; tasyaHis; viva-varasyaof the Lord of the universe; idam
this; astramweapon (the disc); durviahameven intolerable; hi
indeed; naof us; tamto Him; evamtherefore; araam yhigo to
take shelter; harithe Supreme Personality of Godhead; tefor you;
amauspiciousness; vidhsyaticertainly will perform.
Past, present and future are known to me [Lord iva], Sanat-kumra,
Nrada, the most revered Lord Brahm, Kapila [the son of Devahti],
Apntaratama [Lord Vysadeva], Devala, Yamarja, suri, Marci and
many saintly persons headed by him, as well as many others who have
achieved perfection. Nonetheless, because we are covered by the
illusory energy of the Lord, we cannot understand how expansive that
illusory energy is. You should simply approach that Supreme
Personality of Godhead to get relief, for this Sudarana cakra is
intolerable even to us. Go to Lord Viu. He will certainly be kind
enough to bestow all good fortune upon you.
tato niro durvs
pada bhagavato yayau
vaikuhkhya yad adhyste
rnivsa riy saha
tatathereafter; niradisappointed; durvsthe great mystic
Durvs; padamto the place; bhagavataof the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Viu; yayauwent; vaikuha-khyamthe place known as
Vaikuha; yatwherein; adhystelives perpetually; rnivsaLord
Viu; riywith the goddess of fortune; sahawith.
Thereafter, being disappointed even in taking shelter of Lord iva,
Durvs Muni went to Vaikuha-dhma, where the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Nryaa, resides with His consort, the
goddess of fortune.
sandahyamno 'jita-astra-vahnin
tat-pda-mle patita savepathu


hcyutnanta sad-psita prabho

ktgasa mvahi viva-bhvana
sandahyamnabeing burned by the heat; ajita-astra-vahninby the
blazing fire of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's weapon; tat-pdamleat His lotus feet; patitafalling down; sa-vepathuwith
trembling of the body; hasaid; acyutaO my Lord, O infallible one;
anantaO You of unlimited prowess; sat-psitaO Lord desired by
saintly persons; prabhoO Supreme; kta-gasamthe greatest offender;
mto me; avahigive protection; viva-bhvanaO well-wisher of the
whole universe.
Durvs Muni, the great mystic, scorched by the heat of the Sudarana
cakra, fell at the lotus feet of Nryaa. His body trembling, he spoke as
follows: O infallible, unlimited Lord, protector of the entire universe,
You are the only desirable objective for all devotees. I am a great
offender, my Lord. Please give me protection.
ajnat te paramnubhva
kta maygha bhavata priym
vidhehi tasypaciti vidhtar
mucyeta yan-nmny udite nrako 'pi
ajnatwithout knowledge; teof Your Lordship; parama-anubhvam
the inconceivable prowess; ktamhas been committed; mayby me;
aghama great offense; bhavataof Your Lordship; priymat the
feet of the devotees; vidhehinow kindly do the needful; tasyaof such
an offense; apacitimcounteraction; vidhtaO supreme controller;
mucyetacan be delivered; yatof whose; nmniwhen the name;
uditeis awakened; nraka apieven a person fit for going to hell.
O my Lord, O supreme controller, without knowledge of Your
unlimited prowess I have offended Your most dear devotee. Very kindly
save me from the reaction of this offense. You can do everything, for
even if a person is fit for going to hell, You can deliver him simply by
awakening within his heart the holy name of Your Lordship.


r-bhagavn uvca
aha bhakta-pardhno
hy asvatantra iva dvija
sdhubhir grasta-hdayo
bhaktair bhakta-jana-priya
r-bhagavn uvcathe Supreme Personality of Godhead said; ahamI;
bhakta-pardhnaam dependent on the will of My devotees; hi
indeed; asvatantraam not independent; ivaexactly like that; dvija
O brhmaa; sdhubhiby pure devotees, completely free from all
material desires; grasta-hdayaMy heart is controlled; bhaktai
because they are devotees; bhakta-jana-priyaI am dependent not only
on My devotee but also on My devotee's devotee (the devotee's devotee is
extremely dear to Me).
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said to the brhmaa: I am
completely under the control of My devotees. Indeed, I am not at all
independent. Because My devotees are completely devoid of material
desires, I sit only within the cores of their hearts. What to speak of My
devotee, even those who are devotees of My devotee are very dear to
All the great stalwart personalities in the universe, including Lord Brahm
and Lord iva, are fully under the control of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is fully under the
control of His devotee. Why is this? Because the devotee is anybhilitnya; in other words, he has no material desires in his heart. His only
desire is to think always of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and how
to serve Him best. Because of this transcendental qualification, the
Supreme Lord is extremely favorable to the devoteesindeed, not only
the devotees, but also the devotees of the devotees. rla Narottama dsa
hkura says, chiy vaiava-sev nistra pyeche keb: without being a
devotee of a devotee, one cannot be released from material entanglement.
Therefore Caitanya Mahprabhu identified Himself as gop-bhartu padakamalayor dsa-dsnudsa [Cc. Madhya 13.80]. Thus he instructed us to
become not directly servants of Ka but servants of the servant of Ka.
Devotees like Brahm, Nrada, Vysadeva and ukadeva Gosvm are
directly servants of Ka, and one who becomes a servant of Nrada,


Vysadeva and ukadeva, like the six Gosvms, is still more devoted.
rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura therefore says, yasya prasdd
bhagavat-prasda: ** if one very sincerely serves the spiritual master,
Ka certainly becomes favorable to such a devotee. Following the
instructions of a devotee is more valuable than following the instructions
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead directly.
nham tmnam se
mad-bhaktai sdhubhir vin
riya ctyantik brahman
ye gatir aha par
nanot; ahamI; tmnamtranscendental bliss; sedesire; matbhaktaiwith My devotees; sdhubhiwith the saintly persons; vin
without them; riyamall My six opulences; caalso; tyantikmthe
supreme; brahmanO brhmaa; yemof whom; gatidestination;
ahamI am; parthe ultimate.
O best of the brhmaas, without saintly persons for whom I am the
only destination, I do not desire to enjoy My transcendental bliss and
My supreme opulences.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is self-sufficient, but to enjoy His
transcendental bliss He requires the cooperation of His devotees. In
Vndvana, for example, although Lord Ka is full in Himself, He wants
the cooperation of His devotees like the cowherd boys and the gops to
increase His transcendental bliss. Such pure devotees, who can increase
the pleasure potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are certainly
most dear to Him. Not only does the Supreme Personality of Godhead
enjoy the company of His devotees, but because He is unlimited He wants
to increase His devotees unlimitedly. Thus, He descends to the material
world to induce the nondevotees and rebellious living entities to return
home, back to Godhead. He requests them to surrender unto Him
because, unlimited as He is, He wants to increase His devotees
unlimitedly. The Ka consciousness movement is an attempt to increase
the number of pure devotees of the Supreme Lord more and more. It is
certain that a devotee who helps in this endeavor to satisfy the Supreme
Personality of Godhead becomes indirectly a controller of the Supreme


Lord. Although the Supreme Lord is full in six opulences, He does not feel
transcendental bliss without His devotees. An example that may be cited
in this regard is that if a very rich man does not have sons in a family he
does not feel happiness. Indeed, sometimes a rich man adopts a son to
complete his happiness. The science of transcendental bliss is known to
the pure devotee. Therefore the pure devotee is always engaged in
increasing the transcendental happiness of the Lord.
ye drgra-putrptaprn vittam ima param
hitv m araa yt
katha ts tyaktum utsahe
yethose devotees of Mine who; drawife; agrahouse; putra
children, sons; ptarelatives, society; prneven life; vittamwealth;
imamall these; paramelevation to the heavenly planets or becoming
one by merging into Brahman; hitvgiving up (all these ambitions and
paraphernalia); mmunto Me; araamshelter; ythaving taken;
kathamhow; tnsuch persons; tyaktumto give them up; utsaheI
can be enthusiastic in that way (it is not possible).
Since pure devotees give up their homes, wives, children, relatives,
riches and even their lives simply to serve Me, without any desire for
material improvement in this life or in the next, how can I give up such
devotees at any time?
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshiped by the words
brahmaya-devya go-brhmaa-hitya ca. Thus He is the well-wisher of
the brhmaas. Durvs Muni was certainly a very great brhmaa, but
because he was a nondevotee, he could not sacrifice everything in
devotional service. Great mystic yogs are actually self-interested. The
proof is that when Durvs Muni created a demon to kill Mahrja
Ambara, the King stayed fixed in his place, praying to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead and depending solely and wholly on Him,
whereas when Durvs Muni was chased by the Sudarana cakra by the
supreme will of the Lord, he was so perturbed that he fled all over the
world and tried to take shelter in every nook and corner of the universe.
At last, in fear of his life, he approached Lord Brahm, Lord iva and


ultimately the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He was so interested in

his own body that he wanted to kill the body of a Vaiava. Therefore, he
did not have very good intelligence, and how can an unintelligent person
be delivered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead? The Lord certainly
tries to give all protection to His devotees who have given up everything
for the sake of serving Him.
Another point in this verse is that attachment to drgra-putrpta
home, wife, children, friendship, society and loveis not the way to
achieve the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who is
attached to hearth and home for material pleasure cannot become a pure
devotee. Sometimes a pure devotee may have a habit or attraction for wife,
children and home but at the same time want to serve the Supreme Lord
to the best of his ability. For such a devotee, the Lord makes a special
arrangement to take away the objects of his false attachment and thus free
him from attachment to wife, home, children, friends and so on. This is
special mercy bestowed upon the devotee to bring him back home, back
to Godhead.
mayi nirbaddha-hday
sdhava sama-daran
vae kurvanti m bhakty
sat-striya sat-pati yath
mayiunto Me; nirbaddha-hdayfirmly attached in the core of the
heart; sdhavathe pure devotees; sama-daranwho are equal to
everyone; vaeunder control; kurvantithey make; mmunto Me;
bhaktyby devotional service; sat-striyachaste women; sat-patim
unto the gentle husband; yathas.
As chaste women bring their gentle husbands under control by service,
the pure devotees, who are equal to everyone and completely attached
to Me in the core of the heart, bring Me under their full control.
In this verse, the word sama-daran is significant. The pure devotee is
actually equal toward everyone, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (18.54):
brahma-bhta prasanntm na ocati na kkati/ sama sarveu bhteu.
Universal brotherhood is possible when one is a pure devotee (pait
sama-darina [Bg. 5.18]). A pure devotee is actually learned because he


knows his constitutional position, he knows the position of the Supreme

Personality of Godhead, and he knows the relationship between the living
entity and the Supreme Lord. Thus he has full spiritual knowledge and is
automatically liberated (brahma-bhta). He can therefore see everyone
on the spiritual platform. He can comprehend the happiness and distress
of all living entities. He understands that what is happiness to him is also
happiness to others and that what is distress to him is distressing for
others. Therefore he is sympathetic to everyone. As Prahlda Mahrja
oce tato vimukha-cetasa indriyrthamy-sukhya bharam udvahato vimhn
(SB 7.9.43)
People suffer from material distress because they are not attached to the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. A pure devotee's chief concern,
therefore, is to raise the ignorant mass of people to the sense of Ka
mat-sevay pratta te
necchanti sevay pr
kuto 'nyat kla-viplutam
mat-sevayby being engaged fully in My transcendental loving service;
prattamautomatically achieved; tesuch pure devotees are fully
satisfied; slokya-di-catuayamthe four different types of liberation
(slokya, srpya, smpya and sri, what to speak of syujya); nanot;
icchantidesire; sevaysimply by devotional service; prfully
complete; kutawhere is the question; anyatother things; klaviplutamwhich are finished in the course of time.
My devotees, who are always satisfied to be engaged in My loving
service, are not interested even in the four principles of liberation
[slokya, srpya, smpya and sri], although these are automatically
achieved by their service. What then is to be said of such perishable
happiness as elevation to the higher planetary systems?


rla Bilvamagala hkura has estimated the value of liberation as

mukti svaya mukulitjali sevate 'smn
dharmrtha-kma-gataya samaya-pratk
Bilvamagala hkura realized that if one develops his natural devotional
service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, mukti stands before him
with folded hands to offer all kinds of service. In other words, the devotee
is already liberated. There is no need for him to aspire for different types
of liberation. The pure devotee automatically achieves liberation, even
without desiring it.
sdhavo hdaya mahya
sdhn hdaya tv aham
mad-anyat te na jnanti
nha tebhyo mang api
sdhavathe pure devotees; hdayamin the core of the heart;
mahyamof Me; sdhnmof the pure devotees also; hdayamin the
core of the heart; tuindeed; ahamI am; mat-anyatanything else but
me; tethey; nanot; jnantiknow; nanot; ahamI; tebhyathan
them; mank apieven by a little fraction.
The pure devotee is always within the core of My heart, and I am
always in the heart of the pure devotee. My devotees do not know
anything else but Me, and I do not know anyone else but them.
Since Durvs Muni wanted to chastise Mahrja Ambara, it is to be
understood that he wanted to give pain to the heart of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, for the Lord says, sdhavo hdaya mahyam:
"The pure devotee is always within the core of My heart." The Lord's
feelings are like those of a father, who feels pain when his child is in pain.
Therefore, offenses at the lotus feet of a devotee are serious. Caitanya
Mahprabhu has very strongly recommended that one not commit any
offense at the lotus feet of a devotee. Such offenses are compared to a mad
elephant because when a mad elephant enters a garden it causes
devastation. Therefore one should be extremely careful not to commit


offenses at the lotus feet of a pure devotee. Actually Mahrja Ambara

was not at all at fault; Durvs Muni unnecessarily wanted to chastise him
on flimsy grounds. Mahrja Ambara wanted to complete the Ekdapraa as part of devotional service to please the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, and therefore he drank a little water. But although Durvs
Muni was a great mystic brhmaa, he did not know what is what. That is
the difference between a pure devotee and a so-called learned scholar of
Vedic knowledge. The devotees, being always situated in the core of the
Lord's heart, surely get all instructions directly from the Lord, as
confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gt (10.11):
tem evnukamprtham
aham ajna-ja tama
naymy tma-bhvastho
jna-dpena bhsvat
"Out of compassion for them, I, dwelling in their hearts, destroy with the
shining lamp of knowledge the darkness born of ignorance." The devotee
does not do anything not sanctioned by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. As it is said, vaiavera kriy mudr vijeha n bujhaya [Cc.
Madhya 23.39]. Even the most learned or experienced person cannot
understand the movements of a Vaiava, a pure devotee. No one,
therefore, should criticize a pure Vaiava. A Vaiava knows his own
business; whatever he does is precisely right because he is always guided
by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
upya kathayiymi
tava vipra uva tat
aya hy tmbhicras te
yatas ta yhi m ciram
sdhuu prahita teja
prahartu kurute 'ivam
upyamthe means of protection in this dangerous position;
kathayiymiI shall speak to you; tavaof your deliverance from this
danger; vipraO brhmaa; uvajust hear from me; tatwhat I say;
ayamthis action taken by you; hiindeed; tma-abhicraself-envy
or envious of yourself (your mind has become your enemy); tefor you;


yatabecause of whom; tamto him (Mahrja Ambara); yhi

immediately go; m ciramdo not wait even a moment; sdhuuunto
devotees; prahitamapplied; tejapower; prahartuof the executor;
kurutedoes; aivaminauspiciousness.
O brhmaa, let Me now advise you for your own protection. Please
hear from Me. By offending Mahrja Ambara, you have acted with
self-envy. Therefore you should go to him immediately, without a
moment's delay. One's so-called prowess, when employed against the
devotee, certainly harms he who employs it. Thus it is the subject, not
the object, who is harmed.
A Vaiava is always an object of envy for nondevotees, even when the
nondevotee happens to be his father. To give a practical example,
Hirayakaipu was envious of Prahlda Mahrja, but this envy of the
devotee was harmful to Hirayakaipu, not to Prahlda. Every action
taken by Hirayakaipu against his son Prahlda Mahrja was taken very
seriously by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and thus when
Hirayakaipu was on the verge of killing Prahlda, the Lord personally
appeared and killed Hirayakaipu. Service to a Vaiava gradually
accumulates and becomes an asset for the devotee. Similarly, harmful
activities directed against the devotee gradually become the ultimate cause
of the performer's falldown. Even such a great brhmaa and mystic yog
as Durvs was in a most dangerous situation because of his offense at the
lotus feet of Mahrja Ambara, a pure devotee.
tapo vidy ca vipr
nireyasa-kare ubhe
te eva durvintasya
kalpete kartur anyath
tapaausterities; vidyknowledge; caalso; viprmof the
brhmaas; nireyasaof what is certainly very auspicious for
upliftment; kareare causes; ubheboth of them; tesuch austerity and
knowledge; evaindeed; durvintasyawhen such a person is an upstart;
kalpetebecome; kartuof the performer; anyathjust the opposite.
For a brhmaa, austerity and learning are certainly auspicious, but


when acquired by a person who is not gentle, such austerity and

learning are most dangerous.
It is said that a jewel is very valuable, but when it is on the hood of a
serpent, it is dangerous despite its value. Similarly, when a materialistic
nondevotee achieves great success in learning and austerity, that success
is dangerous for all of society. So-called learned scientists, for example,
invented atomic weapons that are dangerous for all humanity. It is
therefore said, main bhita sarpa kim asau na bhayakara. A serpent
with a jewel on its hood is as dangerous as a serpent without such a jewel.
Durvs Muni was a very learned brhmaa equipped with mystic power,
but because he was not a gentleman, he did not know how to use his
power. He was therefore extremely dangerous. The Supreme Personality
of Godhead is never inclined toward a dangerous person who uses his
mystic power for some personal design. By the laws of nature, therefore,
such misuse of power is ultimately dangerous not for society but for the
person who misuses it.
brahmas tad gaccha bhadra te
nbhga-tanaya npam
kampaya mah-bhga
tata ntir bhaviyati
brahmanO brhmaa; tattherefore; gacchayou go; bhadramall
auspiciousness; teunto you; nbhga-tanayamto the son of Mahrja
Nbhga; npamthe King (Ambara); kampayajust try to pacify
him; mah-bhgama great personality, a pure devotee; tatathereafter;
ntipeace; bhaviyatithere will be.
O best of the brhmaas, you should therefore go immediately to King
Ambara, the son of Mahrja Nbhga. I wish you all good fortune. If
you can satisfy Mahrja Ambara, then there will be peace for you.
In this regard, Madhva Muni quotes from the Garua Pura:
ao naivmbarake
naivanyasya cakrasypi
tathpi harir vara


te yaasa dir
brahmdaya ca tat-krti
vyajaym sur uttamm
mohanya ca daityn
brahmde nindanya ca
anyrtha ca svaya viur
brahmdy ca niria
mnuettamtvc ca
te bhaktydibhir guai
brahmder viv-adhnatvajpanya ca kevalam
durvs ca svaya rudras
tathpy anyym uktavn
tasypy anugrahrthya
darpa-nrtham eva ca
The lesson to be derived from this narration concerning Mahrja
Ambara and Durvs Muni is that all the demigods, including Lord
Brahm and Lord iva, are under the control of Lord Viu. Therefore,
when a Vaiava is offended, the offender is punished by Viu, the
Supreme Lord. No one can protect such a person, even Lord Brahm or
Lord iva.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Fourth Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "Ambara Mahrja Offended by Durvs


5. Durvs Muni's Life Spared

In this chapter we find Mahrja Ambara offering prayers to the

Sudarana cakra and we find how the Sudarana cakra became merciful to
Durvs Muni.
By the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viu, Durvs
Muni immediately went to Mahrja Ambara and fell at his lotus feet.
Mahrja Ambara, being naturally very humble and meek, felt shy and
ashamed because Durvs Muni had fallen at his feet, and thus he began
to offer prayers to the Sudarana cakra just to save Durvs. What is this
Sudarana cakra? The Sudarana cakra is the glance of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead by which He creates the entire material world. Sa
aikata, sa asjata. This is the Vedic version. The Sudarana cakra, which
is the origin of creation and is most dear to the Lord, has thousands of
spokes. This Sudarana cakra is the killer of the prowess of all other
weapons, the killer of darkness, and the manifester of the prowess of
devotional service; it is the means of establishing religious principles, and
it is the killer of all irreligious activities. Without his mercy, the universe
cannot be maintained, and therefore the Sudarana cakra is employed by
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When Mahrja Ambara thus
prayed that the Sudarana cakra be merciful, the Sudarana cakra, being
appeased, refrained from killing Durvs Muni, who thus achieved the
Sudarana cakra's mercy. Durvs Muni thus learned to give up the nasty
idea of considering a Vaiava an ordinary person (vaiave jti-buddhi).
Mahrja Ambara belonged to the katriya group, and therefore Durvs
Muni considered him lower than the brhmaas and wanted to exercise
brahminical power against him. By this incident, everyone should learn
how to stop mischievous ideas of neglecting Vaiavas. After this
incident, Mahrja Ambara gave Durvs Muni sumptuous food to eat,
and then the King, who had been standing in the same place for one year
without eating anything, also took prasda. Mahrja Ambara later
divided his property among his sons and went to the bank of the Mnasasarovara to execute devotional meditation.


r-uka uvca
eva bhagavatdio
durvs cakra-tpita
ambaram upvtya
tat-pdau dukhito 'graht
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; evamin this way;
bhagavat diabeing ordered by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; durvsthe great mystic yog named Durvs; cakratpitabeing very much harassed by the Sudarana cakra; ambaram
unto Mahrja Ambara; upvtyaapproaching; tat-pdauat his lotus
feet; dukhitabeing very much aggrieved; agrahthe caught.
ukadeva Gosvm said: When thus advised by Lord Viu, Durvs
Muni, who was very much harassed by the Sudarana cakra,
immediately approached Mahrja Ambara. Being very much
aggrieved, the muni fell down and clasped the King's lotus feet.
tasya sodyamam vkya
astvt tad dharer astra
kpay pito bham
tasyaof Durvs; sahe, Mahrja Ambara; udyamamthe
endeavor; vkyaafter seeing; pda-spara-vilajjitabeing ashamed
because Durvs was touching his lotus feet; astvtoffered prayers;
tatto that; hare astramweapon of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; kpaywith mercy; pitaaggrieved; bhamvery much.
When Durvs touched his lotus feet, Mahrja Ambara was very
much ashamed, and when he saw Durvs attempting to offer prayers,
because of mercy he was aggrieved even more. Thus he immediately
began offering prayers to the great weapon of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead.


ambara uvca
tvam agnir bhagavn sryas
tva somo jyoti pati
tvam pas tva kitir vyoma
vyur mtrendriyi ca
ambaraMahrja Ambara; uvcasaid; tvamyou (are); agni
the fire; bhagavnthe most powerful; sryathe sun; tvamyou (are);
somathe moon; jyotimof all the luminaries; patithe master;
tvamyou (are); pawater; tvamyou (are); kitiearth; vyoma
sky; vyuthe air; mtrathe objects of the senses; indriyiand the
senses; caalso.
Mahrja Ambara said: O Sudarana cakra, you are fire, you are the
most powerful sun, and you are the moon, the master of all luminaries.
You are water, earth and sky, you are the air, you are the five sense
objects [sound, touch, form, taste and smell], and you are the senses
sudarana namas tubhya
sarvstra-ghtin viprya
svasti bhy iaspate
sudaranaO original vision of the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
namarespectful obeisances; tubhyamunto you; sahasra-araO you
who have thousands of spokes; acyuta-priyaO most favorite of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Acyuta; sarva-astra-ghtinO destroyer
of all weapons; vipryaunto this brhmaa; svastivery auspicious;
bhyjust become; iaspateO master of the material world.
O most favorite of Acyuta, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, you
have thousands of spokes. O master of the material world, destroyer of
all weapons, original vision of the Personality of Godhead, I offer my
respectful obeisances unto you. Kindly give shelter and be auspicious to
this brhmaa.


tva dharmas tvam ta satya
tva yajo 'khila-yaja-bhuk
tva loka-pla sarvtm
tva teja paurua param
statements; satyamthe ultimate truth; tvamyou; yajasacrifice;
akhilauniversal; yaja-bhukthe enjoyer of the fruits resulting from
sacrifice; tvamyou; loka-plathe maintainer of the various planets;
sarva-tmall-pervading; tvamyou; tejaprowess; pauruamof the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; paramtranscendental.
O Sudarana wheel, you are religion, you are truth, you are encouraging
statements, you are sacrifice, and you are the enjoyer of the fruits of
sacrifice. You are the maintainer of the entire universe, and you are the
supreme transcendental prowess in the hands of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. You are the original vision of the Lord, and
therefore you are known as Sudarana. Everything has been created by
your activities, and therefore you are all-pervading.
The word sudarana means "auspicious vision." From Vedic instructions
we understand that this material world is created by the glance of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead (sa aikata, sa asjata). The Supreme
Personality of Godhead glanced over the mahat-tattva, or the total
material energy, and when it was agitated, everything came into existence.
Western philosophers sometimes think that the original cause of creation
was a chunk that exploded. If one thinks of this chunk as the total
material energy, the mahat-tattva, one can understand that the chunk was
agitated by the glance of the Lord, and thus the Lord's glance is the
original cause of material creation.
nama sunbhkhila-dharma-setave
hy adharma-lsura-dhma-ketave
trailokya-gopya viuddha-varcase
mano-javydbhuta-karmae ge
namaall respectful obeisances unto you; su-nbhaO you who have


an auspicious hub; akhila-dharma-setavewhose spokes are considered to

be a breech of the entire universe; hiindeed; adharma-lawho are
irreligious; asurafor the demons; dhma-ketaveunto you who are like
fire or an inauspicious comet; trailokyaof the three material worlds;
gopyathe maintainer; viuddhatranscendental; varcasewhose
effulgence; mana-javyaas speedy as the mind; adbhutawonderful;
karmaeso active; geI simply utter.
O Sudarana, you have a very auspicious hub, and therefore you are the
upholder of all religion. You are just like an inauspicious comet for the
irreligious demons. Indeed, you are the maintainer of the three worlds,
you are full of transcendental effulgence, you are as quick as the mind,
and you are able to work wonders. I can simply utter the word nama,
offering all obeisances unto you.
The disc of the Lord is called Sudarana because he does not discriminate
between high and low criminals or demons. Durvs Muni was certainly a
powerful brhmaa, but his acts against the pure devotee Mahrja
Ambara were no better than the activities of asuras. As stated in the
stras, dharma tu skd bhagavat-pratam: [SB 6.3.19] the word
dharma refers to the orders or laws given by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Sarva-dharmn parityajya mm eka araa vraja: [Bg. 18.66]
real dharma is surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Therefore real dharma means bhakti, or devotional service to the Lord.
The Sudarana cakra is here addressed as dharma-setave, the protector of
dharma. Mahrja Ambara was a truly religious person, and
consequently for his protection the Sudarana cakra was ready to punish
even such a strict brhmaa as Durvs Muni because he had acted like a
demon. There are demons even in the form of brhmaas. Therefore the
Sudarana cakra does not discriminate between brhmaa demons and
dra demons. Anyone against the Supreme Personality of Godhead and
His devotees is called a demon. In the stras we find many brhmaas
and katriyas who acted as demons and have been described as demons.
According to the verdict of the stras, one has to be understood
according to his symptoms. If one is born of a brhmaa father but his
symptoms are demoniac, he is regarded as a demon. The Sudarana cakra
is always concerned with annihilating the demons. Therefore he is
described as adharma-lsura-dhma-ketave. Those who are not devotees
are called adharma-la. The Sudarana cakra is just like an inauspicious


comet for all such demons.

tvat-tejas dharma-mayena sahta
tama praka ca do mahtmanm
duratyayas te mahim gir pate
tvad-rpam etat sad-asat parvaram
tvat-tejasby your effulgence; dharma-mayenawhich is full of
religious principles; sahtamdissipated; tamadarkness; praka
caillumination also; daof all directions; mah-tmanmof great,
learned personalities; duratyayainsurmountable; teyour; mahim
glories; girm pateO master of speech; tvat-rpamyour manifestation;
etatthis; sat-asatmanifested and unmanifested; para-avaram
superior and inferior.
O master of speech, by your effulgence, full of religious principles, the
darkness of the world is dissipated, and the knowledge of learned
persons or great souls is manifested. Indeed, no one can surpass your
effulgence, for all things, manifested and unmanifested, gross and
subtle, superior and inferior, are but various forms of you that are
manifested by your effulgence.
Without illumination, nothing can be seen, especially in this material
world. The illumination in this world emanates from the effulgence of
Sudarana, the original vision of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The illuminating principles of the sun, the moon and fire emanate from
Sudarana. Similarly, illumination by knowledge also comes from
Sudarana because with the illumination of Sudarana one can distinguish
one thing from another, the superior from the inferior. Generally people
accept a powerful yogi like Durvs Muni as wonderfully superior, but if
such a person is chased by the Sudarana cakra, we can see his real
identity and understand how inferior he is because of his dealings with
yad visas tvam anajanena vai
bala pravio 'jita daitya-dnavam


vcann ajasra pradhane virjase

yadwhen; visasent; tvamyour good self; anajanenaby the
transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead; vaiindeed; balamthe
soldiers; praviaentering among; ajitaO indefatigable and
unconquerable one; daitya-dnavamof the Daityas and Dnavas, the
demons; bhuarms; udarabellies; ruthighs; aghrilegs; iradharinecks; vcanseparating; ajasramincessantly; pradhanein
the battlefield; virjaseyou stay.
O indefatigable one, when you are sent by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead to enter among the soldiers of the Daityas and the Dnavas,
you stay on the battlefield and unendingly separate their arms, bellies,
thighs, legs and heads.
sa tva jagat-tra khala-prahaye
nirpita sarva-saho gad-bht
viprasya csmat-kula-daiva-hetave
vidhehi bhadra tad anugraho hi na
sathat person; tvamyour good self; jagat-traO protector of the
whole universe; khala-prahayein killing the envious enemies;
nirpitaare engaged; sarva-sahaall-powerful; gad-bhtby the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; viprasyaof this brhmaa; caalso;
asmatour; kula-daiva-hetavefor the good fortune of the dynasty;
vidhehikindly do; bhadramall-good; tatthat; anugrahafavor; hi
indeed; naour.
O protector of the universe, you are engaged by the Supreme
Personality of Godhead as His all-powerful weapon in killing the
envious enemies. For the benefit of our entire dynasty, kindly favor this
poor brhmaa. This will certainly be a favor for all of us.
yady asti dattam ia v
sva-dharmo v svanuhita
kula no vipra-daiva ced


dvijo bhavatu vijvara

yadiif; astithere is; dattamcharity; iamworshiping the Deity;
veither; sva-dharmaoccupational duty; veither; su-anuhita
perfectly performed; kulamdynasty; naour; vipra-daivamfavored
by the brhmaas; cetif so; dvijathis brhmaa; bhavatumay
become; vijvarawithout a burning (from the Sudarana cakra).
If our family has given charity to the proper persons, if we have
performed ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices, if we have properly
carried out our occupational duties, and if we have been guided by
learned brhmaas, I wish, in exchange, that this brhmaa be freed
from the burning caused by the Sudarana cakra.
yadi no bhagavn prta
eka sarva-guraya
dvijo bhavatu vijvara
yadiif; naunto us; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of Godhead;
prtais satisfied; ekawithout any duplicate; sarva-gua-raya
the reservoir of all transcendental qualities; sarva-bhta-tma-bhvenaby
a merciful attitude toward all living entities; dvijathis brhmaa;
bhavatumay become; vijvarafreed from all burning.
If the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is one without a second,
who is the reservoir of all transcendental qualities, and who is the life
and soul of all living entities, is pleased with us, we wish that this
brhmaa, Durvs Muni, be freed from the pain of being burned.
r-uka uvca
iti sastuvato rjo
viu-cakra sudaranam
amyat sarvato vipra
pradahad rja-ycay


r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; itithus; sastuvata

being prayed to; rjaby the King; viu-cakramthe disc weapon of
Lord Viu; sudaranamof the name Sudarana cakra; amyatbecame
no longer disturbing; sarvatain every respect; vipramunto the
brhmaa; pradahatcausing to burn; rjaof the King; ycayby the
ukadeva Gosvm continued: When the King offered prayers to the
Sudarana cakra and Lord Viu, because of his prayers the Sudarana
cakra became peaceful and stopped burning the brhmaa known as
Durvs Muni.
sa mukto 'strgni-tpena
durvs svastims tata
praaasa tam urva
yujna paramia
sahe, Durvs Muni; muktabeing freed; astra-agni-tpenafrom
the heat of the fire of the Sudarana cakra; durvsthe great mystic
Durvs; svastimnfully satisfied, relieved of the burning; tatathen;
praaasaoffered praise; tamunto him; urv-amthe King;
yujnaperforming; parama-iathe highest benedictions.
Durvs Muni, the greatly powerful mystic, was indeed satisfied when
freed from the fire of the Sudarana cakra. Thus he praised the qualities
of Mahrja Ambara and offered him the highest benedictions.
durvs uvca
aho ananta-dsn
mahattva dam adya me
ktgaso 'pi yad rjan
magalni samhase
durvs uvcaDurvs Muni said; ahoalas; ananta-dsnmof the
servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahattvamgreatness;
damseen; adyatoday; meby me; kta-gasa apialthough I was


an offender; yatstill; rjanO King; magalnigood fortune;

samhaseyou are praying for.
Durvs Muni said: My dear King, today I have experienced the
greatness of devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for
although I have committed an offense, you have prayed for my good
dukara ko nu sdhn
dustyajo v mahtmanm
yai saghto bhagavn
stvatm abho hari
dukaradifficult to do; kawhat; nuindeed; sdhnmof the
devotees; dustyajaimpossible to give up; veither; mah-tmanm
of the great persons; yaiby which persons; saghtaachieved (by
devotional service); bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of Godhead;
stvatmof the pure devotees; abhathe leader; harithe Lord.
For those who have achieved the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
master of the pure devotees, what is impossible to do, and what is
impossible to give up?
pumn bhavati nirmala
tasya trtha-pada ki v
dsnm avaiyate
yat-nmathe holy name of the Lord; ruti-mtreasimply by hearing;
pumna person; bhavatibecomes; nirmalapurified; tasyaof Him;
trtha-padathe Lord, at whose feet are the holy places; kim vwhat;
dsnmby the servants; avaiyateremains to be done.
What is impossible for the servants of the Lord? By the very hearing of
His holy name one is purified.


rjann anughto 'ha
mad-agha phata ktv
pr yan me 'bhirakit
rjanO King; anughtavery much favored; ahamI (am); tvayby
you; ati-karua-tmanbecause of your being extremely merciful; mataghammy offenses; phatato the back; ktvdoing so; pr
life; yatthat; memy; abhirakitsaved.
O King, overlooking my offenses, you have saved my life. Thus I am
very much obliged to you because you are so merciful.
rj tam akthra
carav upasaghya
prasdya samabhojayat
rjthe King; tamunto him, Durvs Muni; akta-hrawho
refrained from taking food; pratygamanareturning; kkay
desiring; caraauthe feet; upasaghyaapproaching; prasdya
pleasing in all respects; samabhojayatfed sumptuously.
Expecting the return of Durvs Muni, the King had not taken his food.
Therefore, when the sage returned, the King fell at his lotus feet,
pleasing him in all respects, and fed him sumptuously.
so 'itvdtam ntam
tithya srva-kmikam
tpttm npati prha
bhujyatm iti sdaram
sahe (Durvs); aitvafter eating sumptuously; dtamwith great
respect; ntamreceived; tithyamoffered different varieties of food;
srva-kmikamfulfilling all kinds of tastes; tpta-tmthus being fully


satisfied; npatimunto the King; prhasaid; bhujyatmmy dear

King, you eat also; itiin this way; sa-daramwith great respect.
Thus the King respectfully received Durvs Muni, who after eating
varieties of palatable food was so satisfied that with great affection he
requested the King to eat also, saying, "Please take your meal."
prto 'smy anughto 'smi
tava bhgavatasya vai
prtavery much satisfied; asmiI am; anughtavery much favored;
asmiI am; tavayour; bhgavatasyabecause of your being a pure
devotee; vaiindeed; daranaby seeing you; sparanaand touching
your feet; lpaiby talking with you; tithyenaby your hospitality;
tma-medhasby my own intelligence.
Durvs Muni said: I am very pleased with you, my dear King. At first I
thought of you as an ordinary human being and accepted your
hospitality, but later I could understand, by my own intelligence, that
you are the most exalted devotee of the Lord. Therefore, simply by
seeing you, touching your feet and talking with you, I have been pleased
and have become obliged to you.
It is said, vaiavera kriy mudr vijeha n bujhaya: [Cc. Madhya 23.39]
even a very intelligent man cannot understand the activities of a pure
Vaiava. Therefore, because Durvs Muni was a great mystic yog, he
first mistook Mahrja Ambara for an ordinary human being and wanted
to punish him. Such is the mistaken observation of a Vaiava. When
Durvs Muni was persecuted by the Sudarana cakra, however, his
intelligence developed. Therefore the word tma-medhas is used to
indicate that by his personal experience he would understand how great a
Vaiava the King was. When Durvs Muni was chased by the Sudarana
cakra, he wanted to take shelter of Lord Brahm and Lord iva, and he
was even able to go to the spiritual world, meet the Personality of
Godhead and talk with Him face to face, yet he was unable to be rescued
from the attack of the Sudarana cakra. Thus he could understand the


influence of a Vaiava by personal experience. Durvs Muni was

certainly a great yog and a very learned brhmaa, but despite his being a
real yog he was unable to understand the influence of a Vaiava.
Therefore it is said, vaiavera kriy mudr vijeha n bujhaya: even the
most learned person cannot understand the value of a Vaiava. There is
always a possibility for so-called jns and yogs to be mistaken when
studying the character of a Vaiava. A Vaiava can be understood by
how much he is favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in terms
of his inconceivable activities.
karmvadtam etat te
gyanti sva-striyo muhu
krti parama-puy ca
krtayiyati bhr iyam
karmaactivity; avadtamwithout any tinge; etatall this; teyour;
gyantiwill sing; sva-striyawomen from the heavenly planets;
muhualways; krtimglories; parama-puymhighly glorified and
pious; caalso; krtayiyatiwill continuously chant; bhthe whole
world; iyamthis.
All the blessed women in the heavenly planets will continuously chant
about your spotless character at every moment, and the people of this
world will also chant your glories continuously.
r-uka uvca
eva sakrtya rjna
durvs paritoita
yayau vihyasmantrya
brahmalokam ahaitukam
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; evamthus; sakrtya
glorifying; rjnamthe King; durvsthe great mystic yog Durvs
Muni; paritoitabeing satisfied in all respects; yayauleft that place;
brahmalokamto the topmost planet of this universe; ahaitukamwhere
there is no dry philosophical speculation.


r ukadeva Gosvm continued: Thus being satisfied in all respects,

the great mystic yog Durvs took permission and left, continuously
glorifying the King. Through the skyways, he went to Brahmaloka,
which is devoid of agnostics and dry philosophical speculators.
Although Durvs Muni went back to Brahmaloka through the spaceways,
he did not need an airplane, for great mystic yogs can transport
themselves from any planet to any other without any machine. There is a
planet named Siddhaloka whose inhabitants can go to any other planet
because they naturally have all the perfection of yoga practice. Thus
Durvs Muni, the great mystic yog, could go through the skyways to any
planet, even to Brahmaloka. In Brahmaloka, everyone is self-realized, and
thus there is no need of philosophical speculation to come to the
conclusion of the Absolute Truth. Durvs Muni's purpose in going to
Brahmaloka was apparently to speak to the residents of Brahmaloka about
how powerful a devotee is and how a devotee can surpass every living
entity within this material world. The so-called jns and yogs cannot
compare to a devotee.
savatsaro 'tyagt tvad
yvat ngato gata
munis tad-darankko
rjb-bhako babhva ha
savatsaraone complete year; atyagtpassed; tvatas long as;
yvatso long; nanot; gatareturned; gataDurvs Muni, who
had left that place; munithe great sage; tat-darana-kkadesiring
to see him again; rjthe King; ap-bhakataking only water;
babhvaremained; haindeed.
Durvs Muni had left the place of Mahrja Ambara, and as long as
he had not returnedfor one complete yearthe King had fasted,
maintaining himself simply by drinking water.
gate 'tha durvsasi so 'mbaro
dvijopayogtipavitram harat


er vimoka vyasana ca vkya

mene sva-vrya ca parnubhvam
gateon his return; athathen; durvsasithe great mystic yog
Durvs; sahe, the King; ambaraMahrja Ambara; dvijaupayogamost suitable for a pure brhmaa; ati-pavitramvery pure
food; haratgave him to eat and he also ate; eof the great sage;
vimokamrelease; vyasanamfrom the great danger of being burned by
the Sudarana cakra; caand; vkyaseeing; meneconsidered; svavryamabout his own power; caalso; para-anubhvambecause of his
pure devotion to the Supreme Lord.
After one year, when Durvs Muni had returned, King Ambara
sumptuously fed him all varieties of pure food, and then he himself also
ate. When the King saw that the brhmaa Durvs had been released
from the great danger of being burned, he could understand that by the
grace of the Lord he himself was also powerful, but he did not take any
credit, for everything had been done by the Lord.
A devotee like Mahrja Ambara is certainly always busy in many
activities. Of course, this material world is full of dangers that one has to
meet, but a devotee, because of his full dependence on the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, is never disturbed. The vivid example is Mahrja
Ambara. He was the emperor of the entire world and had many duties to
perform, and in the course of these duties there were many disturbances
created by persons like Durvs Muni, but the King tolerated everything,
patiently depending fully on the mercy of the Lord. The Lord, however, is
situated in everyone's heart (sarvasya cha hdi sannivia [Bg. 15.15]),
and He manages things as He desires. Thus although Mahrja Ambara
was faced with many disturbances, the Lord, being merciful to him,
managed things so nicely that in the end Durvs Muni and Mahrja
Ambara became great friends and parted cordially on the basis of bhaktiyoga. After all, Durvs Muni was convinced of the power of bhakti-yoga,
although he himself was a great mystic yog. Therefore, as stated by Lord
Ka in Bhagavad-gt (6.47):
yoginm api sarve
raddhvn bhajate yo m


sa me yuktatamo mata
"Of all yogs, he who always abides in Me with great faith, worshiping Me
in transcendental loving service, is most intimately united with Me in
yoga and is the highest of all." Thus it is a fact that a devotee is the
topmost yog, as proved in the dealings of Mahrja Ambara with
Durvs Muni.
eva vidhneka-gua sa rj
partmani brahmai vsudeve
kriy-kalpai samuvha bhakti
yayviricyn niray cakra
evamin this way; vidh-aneka-guaendowed with varieties of good
qualities; sahe, Mahrja Ambara; rjthe King; para-tmani
unto the Supersoul; brahmaiunto Brahman; vsudeveunto the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ka, Vsudeva; kriy-kalpaiby
practical activities; samuvhaexecuted; bhaktimdevotional service;
yayby such activities; viricynbeginning from the topmost planet;
nirayndown to the hellish planets; cakrahe experienced that there
is danger everywhere.
In this way, because of devotional service, Mahrja Ambara, who was
endowed with varieties of transcendental qualities, was completely
aware of Brahman, Paramtm and the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, and thus he executed devotional service perfectly. Because of
his devotion, he thought even the topmost planet of this material world
no better than the hellish planets.
An exalted and pure devotee like Mahrja Ambara is in full awareness
of Brahman, Paramtm and Bhagavn; in other words, a devotee of
Vsudeva, Ka, is in full knowledge of the other features of the Absolute
Truth. The Absolute Truth is realized in three featuresBrahman,
Paramtm and Bhagavn (brahmeti paramtmeti bhagavn iti abdyate [SB
1.2.11]). A devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vsudeva,
knows everything (vsudeva sarvam iti [Bg. 7.19]) because Vsudeva,
Ka, includes both Paramtm and Brahman. One does not have to
realize Paramtm by the yoga system, for the devotee always thinking of


Vsudeva is the topmost yog (yoginm api sarvem [Bg. 6.47]). And as
far as jna is concerned, if one is a perfect devotee of Vsudeva, he is the
greatest mahtm (vsudeva sarvam iti sa mahtm sudurlabha). A
mahtm is one who has full knowledge of the Absolute Truth. Thus
Mahrja Ambara, being a devotee of the Personality of Godhead, was in
full awareness of Paramtm, Brahman, my, the material world, the
spiritual world, and how things are going on everywhere. Everything was
known to him. Yasmin vijte sarvam eva vijta bhavati (Muaka
Upaniad 1.3). Because the devotee knows Vsudeva, he knows everything
within the creation of Vsudeva (vsudeva sarvam iti sa mahtm
sudurlabha). Such a devotee does not give much value to the highest
standard of happiness within this material world.
nryaa-par sarve
na kutacana bibhyati
api tulyrtha-darina
(SB 6.17.28)
Because he is fixed in devotional service, a devotee does not regard any
position in the material world as important. rla Prabodhnanda Sarasvat
has therefore written (Caitanya-candrmta 5):
kaivalya narakyate tri-daa-pr ka-pupyate
durdntendriya-kla-sarpa-paal protkhta-daryate
viva pra-sukhyate vidhi-mahendrdi ca kyate
yat-kruya-katka-vaibhavavat ta gauram eva stuma
For one who becomes a pure devotee through devotional service to great
personalities like Caitanya Mahprabhu, kaivalya, or merging into
Brahman, appears no better than hell. As far as the heavenly planets are
concerned, to a devotee they are like a phantasmagoria or will-o'-the-wisp,
and as far as yogic perfection is concerned, a devotee does not care a fig
for such perfection, since the purpose of yogic perfection is achieved
automatically by the devotee. This is all possible when one becomes a
devotee of the Lord through the medium of Caitanya Mahprabhu's


r-uka uvca
athmbaras tanayeu rjya
samna-leu visjya dhra
vana vivetmani vsudeve
mano dadhad dhvasta-gua-pravha
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; athain this way;
ambaraKing Ambara; tanayeuunto his sons; rjyamthe
kingdom; samna-leuwho were equally as qualified as their father;
visjyadividing; dhrathe most learned person, Mahrja Ambara;
vanaminto the forest; viveaentered; tmaniunto the Supreme Lord;
vsudeveLord Ka, who is known as Vsudeva; manamind;
dadhatconcentrating; dhvastavanquished; gua-pravhathe waves
of the material modes of nature.
rla ukadeva Gosvm continued: Thereafter, because of his advanced
position in devotional life, Mahrja Ambara, who no longer desired
to live with material things, retired from active family life. He divided
his property among his sons, who were equally as qualified, and he
himself took the order of vnaprastha and went to the forest to
concentrate his mind fully upon Lord Vsudeva.
As a pure devotee, Mahrja Ambara was liberated in any condition of
life because, as enunciated by rla Rpa Gosvm, a devotee is always
h yasya harer dsye
karma manas gir
nikhilsv apy avasthsu
jvan-mukta sa ucyate
In Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, rla Rpa Gosvm thus instructs that if one's
only desire is service to the Lord, he is liberated in any condition of life.
Mahrja Ambara was undoubtedly liberated in any condition, but as an
ideal king he accepted the vnaprastha order of retirement from family
life. It is essential for one to renounce family responsibilities and fully
concentrate on the lotus feet of Vsudeva. Therefore Mahrja Ambara
divided the kingdom among his sons and retired from family life.


ity etat puyam khynam
ambarasya bhpate
sakrtayann anudhyyan
bhakto bhagavato bhavet
itithus; etatthis; puyam khynammost pious activity in history;
ambarasyaof Mahrja Ambara; bhpateO King (Mahrja
Parkit); sakrtayanby chanting, repeating; anudhyyanor by
meditating upon; bhaktaa devotee; bhagavataof the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; bhavetone can become.
Anyone who chants this narration or even thinks of this narration about
the activities of Mahrja Ambara certainly becomes a pure devotee of
the Lord.
rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura herein gives a very good example.
When one is very eager for more and more money, he is not satisfied even
when he is a millionaire or a multimillionaire, but wants to earn more and
more money by any means. The same mentality is present in a devotee.
The devotee is never satisfied, thinking, "This is the limit of my
devotional service." The more he engages in the service of the Lord, the
more service he wants to give. This is the position of a devotee. Mahrja
Ambara, in his family life, was certainly a pure devotee, complete in
every respect, because his mind and all his senses were engaged in
devotional service (sa vai mana ka-padravindayor vacsi vaikuhagunuvarane [SB 9.4.18]). Mahrja Ambara was self-satisfied because
all of his senses were engaged in devotional service (sarvopdhivinirmukta tat-paratvena nirmalam/ hkea hkea-sevana bhaktir
ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170]). Nonetheless, although Mahrja Ambara
had engaged all his senses in devotional service, he left his home and
went to the forest to concentrate his mind fully at the lotus feet of Ka,
exactly as a mercantile man, even though complete in wealth, tries to earn
more and more. This mentality of getting more and more engaged in
devotional service puts one in the most exalted position. Whereas on the
karma platform the mercantile man who wants more and more money
becomes increasingly bound and entangled, the devotee becomes
increasingly liberated.


ambarasya carita
ye vanti mahtmana
mukti praynti te sarve
bhakty vio prasdata
ambarasyaof Mahrja Ambara; caritamcharacter; yepersons
who; vantihear; mah-tmanaof the great personality, the great
devotee; muktimliberation; praynticertainly they attain; tesuch
persons; sarveall of them; bhaktysimply by devotional service;
vioof Lord Viu; prasdataby the mercy.
By the grace of the Lord, those who hear about the activities of
Mahrja Ambara, the great devotee, certainly become liberated or
become devotees without delay.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Fifth Chapter, of the
rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "Durvs Muni's Life Spared."


6. The Downfall of Saubhari Muni

After describing the descendants of Mahrja Ambara, ukadeva

Gosvm described all the kings from ada to Mndht, and in this
connection he also described how the great sage Saubhari married the
daughters of Mndht.
Mahrja Ambara had three sons, named Virpa, Ketumn and ambhu.
The son of Virpa was Padava, and his son was Rathtara. Rathtara had
no sons, but when he requested the favor of the great sage Agir, the
sage begot several sons in the womb of Rathtara's wife. When the sons
were born, they became the dynasty of Agir i and of Rathtara.
The son of Manu was Ikvku, who had one hundred sons, of whom
Vikuki, Nimi and Daak were the eldest. The sons of Mahrja
Ikvku became kings of different parts of the world. Because of violating
sacrificial rules and regulations, one of these sons, Vikuki, was banished
from the kingdom. By the mercy of Vasiha and the power of mystic
yoga, Mahrja Ikvku attained liberation after giving up his material
body. When Mahrja Ikvku expired, his son Vikuki returned and took
charge of the kingdom. He performed various types of sacrifices, and thus
he pleased the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This Vikuki later
became celebrated as Sada.
Vikuki's son fought with the demons for the sake of the demigods, and
because of his valuable service he became famous as Purajaya, Indravha
and Kakutstha. The son of Purajaya was Anen, the son of Anen was
Pthu, and the son of Pthu was Vivagandhi. The son of Vivagandhi was
Candra, the son of Candra was Yuvanva, and his son was rvasta, who
constructed rvast Pur. The son of rvasta was Bhadava. Bhadava's
son Kuvalayva killed a demon named Dhundhu, and thus he became
celebrated as Dhundhumra, "the killer of Dhundhu." The sons of the
killer of Dhundhu were Dhva, Kapilva and Bhadrva. He also had
thousands of other sons, but they burned to ashes in the fire emanating
from Dhundhu. The son of Dhva was Haryava, the son of Haryava
was Nikumbha, the son of Nikumbha was Bahulva, and the son of
Bahulva was Kva. The son of Kva was Senajit, and his son was


Yuvanva married one hundred wives, but he had no sons, and therefore
he entered the forest. In the forest, the sages performed a sacrifice known
as Indra-yaja on his behalf. Once, however, the King became so thirsty
in the forest that he drank the water kept for performing yaja.
Consequently, after some time, a son came forth from the right side of his
abdomen. The son, who was very beautiful, was crying to drink breast
milk, and Indra gave the child his index finger to suck. Thus the son
became known as Mndht. In due course of time, Yuvanva achieved
perfection by performing austerities.
Thereafter, Mndht became the emperor and ruled the earth, which
consists of seven islands. Thieves and rogues were very much afraid of
this powerful king, and therefore the king was known as Trasaddasyu,
meaning "one who is very fearful to rogues and thieves." Mndht begot
sons in the womb of his wife, Bindumat. These sons were Purukutsa,
Ambara and Mucukunda. These three sons had fifty sisters, all of whom
became wives of the great sage known as Saubhari.
In this connection, ukadeva Gosvm described the history of Saubhari
Muni, who, because of sensual agitation caused by fish, fell from his yoga
and wanted to marry all the daughters of Mndht for sexual pleasure.
Later, Saubhari Muni became very regretful. Thus he accepted the order
of vnaprastha, performed very severe austerities, and thus attained
perfection. In this regard, ukadeva Gosvm described how Saubhari
Muni's wives also became perfect.
r-uka uvca
virpa ketum chambhur
ambara-suts traya
virpt padavo 'bht
tat-putras tu rathtara
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; virpaby the name
Virpa; ketumnby the name Ketumn; ambhuby the name
ambhu; ambaraof Ambara Mahrja; sut trayathe three sons;
virptfrom Virpa; padavaof the name Padava; abhtthere
was; tat-putrahis son; tuand; rathtaraof the name Rathtara.
ukadeva Gosvm said: O Mahrja Parkit, Ambara had three sons,


named Virpa, Ketumn and ambhu. From Virpa came a son named
Padava, and from Padava came a son named Rathtara.
bhryy tantave 'rthita
agir janaym sa
brahma-varcasvina sutn
rathtarasyaof Rathtara; aprajasyawho had no sons; bhryym
unto his wife; tantavefor increasing offspring; arthitabeing
requested; agirthe great sage Agir; janaym sacaused to take
birth; brahma-varcasvinawho had brahminical qualities; sutnsons.
Rathtara had no sons, and therefore he requested the great sage Agir
to beget sons for him. Because of this request, Agir begot sons in the
womb of Rathtara's wife. All these sons were born with brahminical
In the Vedic age a man was sometimes called upon to beget sons in the
womb of a lesser man's wife for the sake of better progeny. In such an
instance, the woman is compared to an agricultural field. A person
possessing an agricultural field may employ another person to produce
food grains from it, but because the grains are produced from the land,
they are considered the property of the owner of the land. Similarly, a
woman was sometimes allowed to be impregnated by someone other than
her husband, but the sons born of her would then become her husband's
sons. Such sons were called ketra jta. Because Rathtara had no sons, he
took advantage of this method.
ete ketra-prast vai
punas tv giras smt
rathtar pravar
ketropet dvi-jtaya
etethe sons begotten by Agir; ketra-prastbecame the children
of Rathtara and belonged to his family (because they were born from the
womb of his wife); vaiindeed; punaagain; tubut; girasof the


dynasty of Agir; smtthey were called; rathtarmof all the

sons of Rathtara; pravarthe chief; ketra-upetbecause of being
born of the ketra (field); dvi-jtayacalled brhmaa (being a mixture
of brhmaa and katriya).
Having been born from the womb of Rathtara's wife, all these sons
were known as the dynasty of Rathtara, but because they were born
from the semen of Agir, they were also known as the dynasty of
Agir. Among all the progeny of Rathtara, these sons were the most
prominent because, owing to their birth, they were considered
rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura gives the meaning of dvi jtaya as
"mixed caste," indicating a mixture of brhmaa and katriya.
kuvatas tu manor jaje
ikvkur ghrata suta
tasya putra-ata-jyeh
kuvatawhile sneezing; tubut; manoof Manu; jajewas born;
ikvkuby the name Ikvku; ghratafrom the nostrils; sutathe
son; tasyaof Ikvku; putra-ataone hundred sons; jyeh
prominent; vikukiof the name Vikuki; nimiby the name Nimi;
daakby the name Daak.
The son of Manu was Ikvku. When Manu was sneezing, Ikvku was
born from Manu's nostrils. King Ikvku had one hundred sons, of
whom Vikuki, Nimi and Daak were the most prominent.
According to rdhara Svm, although the Bhgavatam (9.1.11-12) has
previously included Ikvku among the ten sons begotten by Manu in his
wife raddh, this was a generalization. It is here specifically explained
that Ikvku was born simply from the sneezing of Manu.
te purastd abhavann
ryvarte np npa
paca-viati pacc ca


trayo madhye 'pare 'nyata

temamong all of those sons; purastton the eastern side; abhavan
they became; ryvartein the place within the Himalaya and Vindhya
mountains known as ryvarta; npkings; npaO King (Mahrja
Parkit); paca-viatitwenty-five; pacton the western side; ca
also; trayathree of them; madhyein the middle (between east and
west); apareothers; anyatain other places.
Of the one hundred sons, twenty-five became kings in the western side
of ryvarta, a place between the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains.
Another twenty-five sons became kings in the east of ryvarta, and the
three principal sons became kings in the middle. The other sons became
kings in various other places.
sa ekadak-rddhe
ikvku sutam diat
msam nyat medhya
vikuke gaccha m ciram
sathat king (Mahrja Ikvku); ekadonce upon a time; aakrddheduring January, February and March, when offerings are made
to the forefathers; ikvkuKing Ikvku; sutamto his son; diat
ordered; msamflesh; nyatmbring here; medhyampure
(obtained by hunting); vikukeO Vikuki; gacchaimmediately go; m
ciramwithout delay.
During the months of January, February and March, oblations offered to
the forefathers are called aak-rddha. The rddha ceremony is held
during the dark fortnight of the month. When Mahrja Ikvku was
performing his oblations in this ceremony, he ordered his son Vikuki
to go immediately to the forest to bring some pure flesh.
tatheti sa vana gatv
mgn hatv kriyrhan
rnto bubhukito vra


aa cdad apasmti
tathaccording to the direction; itithus; saVikuki; vanamto the
forest; gatvgoing; mgnanimals; hatvkilling; kriy-arhan
suitable for offering to the yaja in the rddha ceremony; rntawhen
he was fatigued; bubhukitaand hungry; vrathe hero; aama
rabbit; caalso; dathe ate; apasmtiforgetting (that the flesh was
meant for offering in the rddha).
Thereafter, Ikvku's son Vikuki went to the forest and killed many
animals suitable for being offered as oblations. But when fatigued and
hungry he became forgetful and ate a rabbit he had killed.
It is evident that katriyas killed animals in the forest because the flesh of
the animals was suitable to be offered at a particular type of yaja.
Offering oblations to the forefathers in the ceremony known as rddha is
also a kind of yaja. In this yaja, flesh obtained from the forest by
hunting could be offered. However, in the present age, Kali-yuga, this
kind of offering is forbidden. Quoting from the Brahma-vaivarta Pura,
r Caitanya Mahprabhu said:
avamedha gavlambha
sannysa pala-paitkam
devarea sutotpatti
kalau paca vivarjayet
[Cc. di 17.164]
"In this age of Kali, five acts are forbidden: the offering of a horse in
sacrifice, the offering of a cow in sacrifice, the acceptance of the order of
sannysa, the offering of oblations of flesh to the forefathers, and a man's
begetting children in his brother's wife." The word pala-paitkam refers to
an offering of flesh in oblations to forefathers. Formerly, such an offering
was allowed, but in this age it is forbidden. In this age, Kali-yuga,
everyone is expert in hunting animals, but most of the people are dras,
not katriyas. According to Vedic injunctions, however, only katriyas are
allowed to hunt, whereas dras are allowed to eat flesh after offering
goats or other insignificant animals before the deity of goddess Kl or
similar demigods. On the whole, meat-eating is not completely forbidden;
a particular class of men is allowed to eat meat according to various


circumstances and injunctions. As far as eating beef is concerned,

however, it is strictly prohibited to everyone. Thus in Bhagavad-gt Ka
personally speaks of go-rakyam, cow protection. Meat-eaters, according
to their different positions and the directions of the stra, are allowed to
eat flesh, but never the flesh of cows. Cows must be given all protection.
ea nivedaym sa
pitre tena ca tad-guru
codita prokayha
duam etad akarmakam
eamthe remnants; nivedaym sahe offered; pitreto his father;
tenaby him; caalso; tat-gurutheir priest or spiritual master;
coditabeing requested; prokayafor purifying; hasaid; duam
polluted; etatall this flesh; akarmakamnot fit to be used for offering in
Vikuki offered the remnants of the flesh to King Ikvku, who gave it
to Vasiha for purification. But Vasiha could immediately understand
that part of the flesh had already been taken by Vikuki, and therefore
he said that it was unfit to be used in the rddha ceremony.
That which is meant to be offered in yaja cannot be tasted by anyone
before being offered to the Deity. In our temples, this regulation is in
effect. One cannot eat food from the kitchen unless it is offered to the
Deity. If something is taken before being offered to the Deity, the entire
preparation is polluted and can no longer be offered. Those engaged in
Deity worship must know this very well so that they may be saved from
committing offenses in Deity worship.
jtv putrasya tat karma
gurubhihita npa
den nisraym sa
suta tyakta-vidhi ru
jtvknowing; putrasyaof his son; tatthat; karmaaction;
guruby the spiritual master (Vasiha); abhihitaminformed; npa


the King (Ikvku); detfrom the country; nisraym sadrove

away; sutamhis son; tyakta-vidhimbecause he violated the regulative
principles; ruout of anger.
When King Ikvku, thus informed by Vasiha, understood what his
son Vikuki had done, he was extremely angry. Thus he ordered
Vikuki to leave the country because Vikuki had violated the regulative
sa tu viprea savda
jpakena samcaran
tyaktv kalevara yog
sa tenvpa yat param
saMahrja Ikvku; tuindeed; vipreawith the brhmaa
(Vasiha); savdamdiscussion; jpakenawith the informer;
samcarandoing accordingly; tyaktvgiving up; kalevaramthis
body; yogbeing a bhakti-yog in the order of renunciation; sathe
King; tenaby such instruction; avpaachieved; yatthat position
which; paramsupreme.
Having been instructed by the great and learned brhmaa Vasiha,
who discoursed about the Absolute Truth, Mahrja Ikvku became
renounced. By following the principles for a yog, he certainly achieved
the supreme perfection after giving up his material body.
pitary uparate 'bhyetya
vikuki pthivm imm
sad je hari yajai
ada iti viruta
pitariwhen his father; uparateupon being relieved of the kingdom;
abhyetyahaving come back; vikukithe son named Vikuki;
pthivmthe planet earth; immthis; satruling; jeworshiped;
harimthe Supreme Personality of Godhead; yajaiby performing
various sacrifices; aa-adaSada ("the eater of a rabbit"); itithus;


After his father's disappearance, Vikuki returned to the country and
thus became the king, ruling the planet earth and performing various
sacrifices to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Vikuki later
became celebrated as Sada.
purajayas tasya suta
indravha itrita
kakutstha iti cpy ukta
u nmni karmabhi
puram-jayaPurajaya ("the conqueror of the residence"); tasyahis
(Vikuki's); sutason; indra-vhaIndravha ("he whose carrier is
Indra"); itithus; ritaknown as such; kakutsthaKakutstha
("situated on the hump of a bull"); itithus; caalso; apiindeed;
uktaknown as such; ujust hear; nmniall the names;
karmabhiaccording to one's work.
The son of Sada was Purajaya, who is also known as Indravha and
sometimes as Kakutstha. Please hear from me how he received different
names for different activities.
ktnta st samaro
devn saha dnavai
prigrho vto vro
devair daitya-parjitai
kta-antaa devastating war; stthere was; samaraa fight;
devnmof the demigods; sahawith; dnavaithe demons;
prigrhaa very good assistant; vtaaccepted; vraa hero;
devaiby the demigods; daityaby the demons; parjitaiwho had
been conquered.
Formerly, there was a devastating war between the demigods and the
demons. The demigods, having been defeated, accepted Purajaya as


their assistant and then conquered the demons. Therefore this hero is
known as Purajaya, "he who conquered the residence of the demons."
vacand deva-devasya
vior vivtmana prabho
vhanatve vtas tasya
babhvendro mah-va
vacantby the order or the words; deva-devasyaof the Supreme Lord
of all demigods; vioLord Viu; viva-tmanathe Supersoul of the
entire creation; prabhothe Lord, the controller; vhanatvebecause of
becoming the carrier; vtaengaged; tasyain the service of Purajaya;
babhvahe became; indrathe King of heaven; mah-vaa great
Purajaya agreed to kill all the demons, on the condition that Indra
would be his carrier. Because of pride, Indra could not accept this
proposal, but later, by the order of the Supreme Lord, Viu, Indra did
accept it and became a great bull carrier for Purajaya.
TEXTS 15-16
sa sannaddho dhanur divyam
dya viikh chitn
styamnas tam ruhya
yuyutsu kakudi sthita
tejaspyyito vio
puruasya mahtmana
pratcy dii daityn
nyaruat tridaai puram
sahe, Purajaya; sannaddhabeing well equipped; dhanu divyama
first-class or transcendental bow; dyataking; viikhnarrows;
itnvery sharp; styamnabeing praised very much; tamhim (the
bull); ruhyagetting on; yuyutsuprepared to fight; kakudion the
hump of the bull; sthitabeing situated; tejasby the power;
pyyitabeing favored; vioof Lord Viu; puruasyathe


Supreme Person; mah-tmanathe Supersoul; pratcymon the

western; diidirection; daitynmof the demons; nyaruatcaptured;
tridaaisurrounded by the demigods; puramthe residence.
Well protected by armor and desiring to fight, Purajaya took up a
transcendental bow and very sharp arrows, and, while being highly
praised by the demigods, he got up on the back of the bull [Indra] and
sat on its hump. Thus he is known as Kakutstha. Being empowered by
Lord Viu, who is the Supersoul and the Supreme Person, Purajaya
sat on the great bull and is therefore known as Indravha. Surrounded
by the demigods, he attacked the residence of the demons in the west.
tais tasya cbht pradhana
tumula loma-haraam
yamya bhallair anayad
daityn abhiyayur mdhe
taiwith the demons; tasyaof him, Purajaya; caalso; abhtthere
was; pradhanama fight; tumulamvery fierce; loma-haraamthe
hearing of which makes one's hairs stand on end; yamyato the
residence of Yamarja; bhallaiby arrows; anayatsent; daitynthe
demons; abhiyayuwho came toward him; mdhein that fight.
There was a fierce battle between the demons and Purajaya. Indeed, it
was so fierce that when one hears about it one's hairs stand on end. All
the demons bold enough to come before Purajaya were immediately
sent to the residence of Yamarja by his arrows.
yugntgnim ivolbaam
visjya dudruvur daity
hanyamn svam layam
tasyahis (Purajaya's); iu-ptathe throwing of the arrows;
abhimukhamin front of; yuga-antaat the end of the millennium;
agnimthe flames; ivaexactly like; ulbaamfierce; visjyagiving up


the attack; dudruvuran away; daityall the demons; hanyamn

being killed (by Purajaya); svamown; layamto the residence.
To save themselves from the blazing arrows of Indravha, which
resembled the flames of devastation at the end of the millennium, the
demons who remained when the rest of their army was killed fled very
quickly to their respective homes.
jitv para dhana sarva
sastrka vajra-paye
pratyayacchat sa rjarir
iti nmabhir hta
everything; sa-strkamwith their wives; vajra-payeunto Indra, who
carries the thunderbolt; pratyayacchatreturned and delivered; sa
that; rja-isaintly king (Purajaya); itithus; nmabhiby names;
htawas called.
After conquering the enemy, the saintly king Purajaya gave everything,
including the enemy's riches and wives, to Indra, who carries a
thunderbolt. For this he is celebrated as Purajaya. Thus Purajaya is
known by different names because of his different activities.
purajayasya putro 'bhd
anens tat-suta pthu
vivagandhis tata candro
yuvanvas tu tat-suta
purajayasyaof Purajaya; putrason; abhtwas born; anenby
the name Anen; tat-sutahis son; pthuof the name Pthu;
vivagandhiof the name Vivagandhi; tatahis son; candraby the
name Candra; yuvanvaof the name Yuvanva; tuindeed; tatsutahis son.
The son of Purajaya was known as Anen, Anen's son was Pthu, and


Pthu's son was Vivagandhi. Vivagandhi's son was Candra, and

Candra's son was Yuvanva.
rvastas tat-suto yena
rvast nirmame pur
bhadavas tu rvastis
tata kuvalayvaka
rvastaby the name rvasta; tat-sutathe son of Yuvanva; yena
by whom; rvastof the name rvast; nirmamewas constructed;
purthe great township; bhadavaBhadava; tuhowever;
rvastibegotten by rvasta; tatafrom him; kuvalayvakaof the
name Kuvalayva.
The son of Yuvanva was rvasta, who constructed a township known
as rvast Pur. The son of rvasta was Bhadava, and his son was
Kuvalayva. In this way the dynasty increased.
ya priyrtham utakasya
dhundhu-nmsura bal
sutnm eka-viaty
sahasrair ahanad vta
yahe who; priya-arthamfor the satisfaction; utakasyaof the great
sage Utaka; dhundhu-nmaof the name Dhundhu; asurama demon;
balvery powerful (Kuvalayva); sutnmof sons; eka-viatyby
twenty-one; sahasraithousands; ahanatkilled; vtasurrounded.
To satisfy the sage Utaka, the greatly powerful Kuvalayva killed a
demon named Dhundhu. He did this with the assistance of his twentyone thousand sons.
TEXTS 23-24
dhundhumra iti khytas
tat-suts te ca jajvalu


dhundhor mukhgnin sarve

traya evvaeit
dhva kapilva ca
bhadrva iti bhrata
dhva-putro haryavo
nikumbhas tat-suta smta
dhundhu-mrathe killer of Dhundhu; itithus; khytacelebrated;
tat-suthis sons; teall of them; caalso; jajvaluburned;
dhundhoof Dhundhu; mukha-agninby the fire emanating from the
mouth; sarveall of them; trayathree; evaonly; avaeit
remained alive; dhvaDhva; kapilvaKapilva; caand;
bhadrvaBhadrva; itithus; bhrataO Mahrja Parkit;
dhva-putrathe son of Dhva; haryavanamed Haryava;
nikumbhaNikumbha; tat-sutahis son; smtawell known.
O Mahrja Parkit, for this reason Kuvalayva is celebrated as
Dhundhumra ["the killer of Dhundhu"]. All but three of his sons,
however, were burned to ashes by the fire emanating from Dhundhu's
mouth. The remaining sons were Dhva, Kapilva and Bhadrva.
From Dhva came a son named Haryava, whose son is celebrated as
bahulvo nikumbhasya
kvo 'thsya senajit
yuvanvo 'bhavat tasya
so 'napatyo vana gata
bahulvaof the name Bahulva; nikumbhasyaof Nikumbha;
kvaof the name Kva; athathereafter; asyaof Kva;
senajitSenajit; yuvanvaof the name Yuvanva; abhavatwas born;
tasyaof Senajit; sahe; anapatyawithout any sons; vanam gata
retired to the forest as a vnaprastha.
The son of Nikumbha was Bahulva, the son of Bahulva was Kva,
the son of Kva was Senajit, and the son of Senajit was Yuvanva.
Yuvanva had no sons, and thus he retired from family life and went to


the forest.
bhry-atena nirvia
ayo 'sya kplava
ii sma vartay cakrur
aindr te susamhit
bhry-atenawith one hundred wives; nirviavery morose;
ayathe sages (in the forest); asyaupon him; kplavavery
merciful; iima ritualistic ceremony; smain the past; vartaym
cakrubegan to execute; aindrmknown as an Indra-yaja; teall of
them; su-samhitbeing very careful and attentive.
Although Yuvanva went into the forest with his one hundred wives,
all of them were very morose. The sages in the forest, however, being
very kind to the King, began very carefully and attentively performing
an Indra-yaja so that the King might have a son.
One may enter the vnaprastha order of life with his wife, but the
vnaprastha order means complete retirement from household life.
Although King Yuvanva retired from family life, he and his wives were
always morose because he had no son.
rj tad-yaja-sadana
pravio nii tarita
dv aynn viprs tn
papau mantra-jala svayam
rjthe King (Yuvanva); tat-yaja-sadanamthe arena of sacrifice;
praviaentered; niiat night; taritabeing thirsty; dvseeing;
aynnlying down; viprnall the brhmaas; tnall of them;
papaudrank; mantra-jalamwater sanctified by mantras; svayam
Being thirsty one night, the King entered the arena of sacrifice, and
when he saw all the brhmaas lying down, he personally drank the
sanctified water meant to be drunk by his wife.


Yajas performed by brhmaas according to Vedic ritualistic ceremonies

are so potent that the sanctifying of water by Vedic mantras can bring
about the desired result. In this instance, the brhmaas sanctified the
water so that the King's wife might drink it in the yaja, but by
providence the King himself went there at night and, being thirsty, drank
the water.
utthits te niamytha
vyudaka kalaa prabho
papracchu kasya karmeda
pta pusavana jalam
utthitafter awakening; teall of them; niamyaseeing; atha
thereafter; vyudakamempty; kalaamthe waterpot; prabhoO King
Parkit; papracchuinquired; kasyawhose; karmaact; idamthis;
ptamdrunk; pusavanamwhich was to cause the birth of a child;
When the brhmaas got up from bed and saw the waterpot empty,
they inquired who had done this work of drinking the water meant for
begetting a child.
rj pta viditv vai
vara-prahitena te
varya nama cakrur
aho daiva-bala balam
rjby the King; ptamdrunk; viditvunderstanding this; vai
indeed; vara-prahitenainspired by providence; teall of them;
varyaunto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme
controller; nama cakruoffered respectful obeisances; ahoalas; daivabalamprovidential power; balamis actual power.
When the brhmaas came to understand that the King, inspired by the
supreme controller, had drunk the water, they all exclaimed "Alas! The
power of providence is real power. No one can counteract the power of
the Supreme." In this way they offered their respectful obeisances unto


the Lord.
tata kla upvtte
kuki nirbhidya dakiam
yuvanvasya tanaya
cakravart jajna ha
tatathereafter; kletime; upvttebeing mature; kukimthe lower
part of the abdomen; nirbhidyapiercing; dakiamthe right side;
yuvanvasyaof King Yuvanva; tanayaa son; cakravartwith all
the good symptoms of a king; jajnagenerated; hain the past.
Thereafter, in due course of time, a son with all the good symptoms of a
powerful king came forth from the lower right side of King Yuvanva's
ka dhsyati kumro 'ya
stanye roryate bham
m dht vatsa m rodr
itndro deinm adt
kamby whom; dhsyatiwill he be cared for by being supplied breast
milk; kumrachild; ayamthis; stanyefor drinking breast milk;
roryateis crying; bhamso much; mm dhtjust drink me;
vatsamy dear child; m roddo not cry; itithus; indraKing
Indra; deinmthe index finger; adtgave him to suck.
The baby cried so much for breast milk that all the brhmaas were
very unhappy. "Who will take care of this baby?" they said. Then Indra,
who was worshiped in that yaja, came and solaced the baby. "Do not
cry," Indra said. Then Indra put his index finger in the baby's mouth
and said, "You may drink me."
na mamra pit tasya


yuvanvo 'tha tatraiva
tapas siddhim anvagt
nanot; mamradied; pitthe father; tasyaof the baby; vipra-devaprasdatabecause of the mercy and blessings of the brhmaas;
yuvanvaKing Yuvanva; athathereafter; tatra evain that very
place; tapasby executing austerity; siddhimperfection; anvagt
Because Yuvanva, the father of the baby, was blessed by the
brhmaas, he did not fall a victim to death. After this incident, he
performed severe austerities and achieved perfection in that very spot.
TEXTS 33-34
trasaddasyur itndro 'ga
vidadhe nma yasya vai
yasmt trasanti hy udvign
dasyavo rvadaya
yauvanvo 'tha mndht
cakravarty avan prabhu
sapta-dvpavatm eka
trasat-dasyuof the name Trasaddasyu ("one who threatens thieves and
rogues"); itithus; indrathe King of heaven; agamy dear King;
vidadhegave; nmathe name; yasyawhom; vaiindeed; yasmt
from whom; trasantiare afraid; hiindeed; udvignthe cause of
anxiety; dasyavathieves and rogues; rvaa-dayaheaded by great
Rkasas like Rvaa; yauvanvathe son of Yuvanva; athathus;
mndhtknown as Mndht; cakravartthe emperor of the world;
avanmthis surface of the world; prabhuthe master; sapta-dvpavatmconsisting of seven islands; ekaone alone; asaruled;
acyuta-tejasbeing powerful by the favor of the Supreme Personality of
Mndht, the son of Yuvanva, was the cause of fear for Rvaa and
other thieves and rogues who caused anxiety. O King Parkit, because


they feared him, the son of Yuvanva was known as Trasaddasyu. This
name was given by King Indra. By the mercy of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, the son of Yuvanva was so powerful that when he
became emperor he ruled the entire world, consisting of seven islands,
without any second ruler.
TEXTS 35-36
je ca yaja kratubhir
tma-vid bhri-dakiai
sarva-devamaya deva
sarvtmakam atndriyam
dravya mantro vidhir yajo
yajamnas tathartvija
dharmo dea ca kla ca
sarvam etad yad tmakam
jehe worshiped; caalso; yajamthe Lord of sacrifices; kratubhi
by great ritualistic performances; tma-vitfully conscious by selfrealization; bhri-dakiaiby giving large contributions to the
brhmaas; sarva-deva-mayamconsisting of all the demigods; devam
the Lord; sarva-tmakamthe Supersoul of everyone; ati-indriyam
transcendentally situated; dravyamingredients; mantrachanting of
the Vedic hymns; vidhiregulative principles; yajaworshiping;
yajamnathe performer; tathwith; tvijathe priests; dharma
religious principles; deathe country; caand; klathe time; ca
also; sarvameverything; etatall these; yatthat which is; tmakam
favorable for self-realization.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from the
auspicious aspects of great sacrifices, such as the ingredients of the
sacrifice, the chanting of Vedic hymns, the regulative principles, the
performer, the priests, the result of the sacrifice, the arena of sacrifice,
and the time of sacrifice. Knowing the principles of self-realization,
Mndht worshiped that transcendentally situated Supreme Soul, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Viu, who comprises all the
demigods. He also gave immense charity to the brhmaas, and thus he
performed yaja to worship the Lord.


yvat srya udeti sma
yvac ca pratitihati
tat sarva yauvanvasya
mndhtu ketram ucyate
yvatas long as; sryathe sun; udetihas risen on the horizon;
smain the past; yvatas long as; caalso; pratitihaticontinues to
stay; tatall those things mentioned above; sarvameverything;
yauvanvasyaof the son of Yuvanva; mndhtucalled Mndht;
ketramlocation; ucyateis said to be.
All places, from where the sun rises on the horizon, shining brilliantly,
to where the sun sets, are known as the possession of the celebrated
Mndht, the son of Yuvanva.
aabindor duhitari
bindumatym adhn npa
purukutsam ambara
mucukunda ca yoginam
te svasra pacat
saubhari vavrire patim
aabindoof a king known as aabindu; duhitariunto the daughter;
bindumatymwhose name was Bindumat; adhtbegot; npathe
King (Mndht); purukutsamPurukutsa; ambaramAmbara;
mucukundamMucukunda; caand; yoginama highly elevated mystic;
temof them; svasrathe sisters; pacatfifty; saubharimunto
the great sage Saubhari; vavrireaccepted; patimas husband.
Mndht begot three sons in the womb of Bindumat, the daughter of
aabindu. These sons were Purukutsa, Ambara, and Mucukunda, a
great mystic yog. These three brothers had fifty sisters, who all
accepted the great sage Saubhari as their husband.
TEXTS 39-40
yamunntar-jale magnas


tapyamna para tapa

nirvti mna-rjasya
dv maithuna-dharmia
jta-spho npa vipra
kanym ekm aycata
so 'py ha ghyat brahman
kma kany svayavare
yamun-anta-jalein the deep water of the River Yamun; magna
merged completely; tapyamnaexecuting austerities; param
uncommon; tapaausterity; nirvtimpleasure; mna-rjasyaof a big
fish; dvseeing; maithuna-dharmiaengaged in sexual affairs; jtasphabecame sexually inclined; npamunto the King (Mndht);
viprathe brhmaa (Saubhari i); kanym ekmone daughter;
aycatabegged for; sahe, the King; apialso; hasaid; ghyatm
you can take; brahmanO brhmaa; kmamas she desires; kany
daughter; svayavarea personal selection.
Saubhari i was engaged in austerity, deep in the water of the River
Yamun, when he saw a pair of fish engaged in sexual affairs. Thus he
perceived the pleasure of sex life, and induced by this desire he went to
King Mndht and begged for one of the King's daughters. In response
to this request, the King said, "O brhmaa, any of my daughters may
accept any husband according to her personal selection."
This is the beginning of the story of Saubhari i. According to
Vivantha Cakravart hkura, Mndht was the king of Mathur, and
Saubhari i was engaged in austerity while submerged deep within the
River Yamun. When the i felt sexual desire, he emerged from the water
and went to King Mndht to ask that one of the King's daughters
become his wife.
TEXTS 41-42
sa vicintypriya str
jaraho 'ham asan-mata
val-palita ejat-ka
ity aha pratyudhta
sdhayiye tathtmna


sura-strm abhpsitam
ki punar manujendrm
iti vyavasita prabhu
sahe, Saubhari Muni; vicintyathinking to himself; apriyamnot
liked; strmby the women; jarahabeing infirm because of old age;
ahamI; asat-matanot desired by them; valwrinkled; palita
grey-haired; ejat-kawith the head always trembling; itiin this way;
ahamI; pratyudhtarejected (by them); sdhayiyeI shall act in
such a way; tathas; tmnammy body; sura-strmto the celestial
women of the heavenly planets; abhpsitamdesirable; kimwhat to
speak of; punayet; manuja-indrmof the daughters of worldly
kings; itiin this way; vyavasitadetermined; prabhuSaubhari, the
greatly powerful mystic.
Saubhari Muni thought: I am now feeble because of old age. My hair has
become grey, my skin is slack, and my head always trembles. Besides, I
am a yog. Therefore women do not like me. Since the King has thus
rejected me, I shall reform my body in such a way as to be desirable
even to celestial women, what to speak of the daughters of worldly
muni praveita katr
kanyntapuram ddhimat
vta sa rja-kanybhir
eka pacat vara
muniSaubhari Muni; praveitaadmitted; katrby the palace
messenger; kany-antapuraminto the residential quarters of the
princesses; ddhi-matextremely opulent in all respects; vtaaccepted;
sahe; rja-kanybhiby all the princesses; ekamhe alone;
pacatby all fifty; varathe husband.
Thereafter, when Saubhari Muni became quite a young and beautiful
person, the messenger of the palace took him inside the residential
quarters of the princesses, which were extremely opulent. All fifty
princesses then accepted him as their husband, although he was only
one man.


ts kalir abhd bhys
tad-arthe 'pohya sauhdam
mamnurpo nya va
iti tad-gata-cetasm
tsmof all the princesses; kalidisagreement and quarrel; abht
there was; bhynvery much; tat-arthefor the sake of Saubhari Muni;
apohyagiving up; sauhdama good relationship; mamamine;
anurpathe fit person; nanot; ayamthis; vayours; itiin this
way; tat-gata-cetasmbeing attracted by him.
Thereafter, the princesses, being attracted by Saubhari Muni, gave up
their sisterly relationship and quarreled among themselves, each one of
them contending, "This man is just suitable for me, and not for you." In
this way there ensued a great disagreement.
TEXTS 45-46
sa bahv-cas tbhir aprayatapa-riynarghya-paricchadeu
gheu nnopavanmalmbhasarasu saugandhika-knaneu
svalakta-str-purueu nityad
reme 'nugyad-dvija-bhga-vandiu
sahe, Saubhari i; bahu-caquite expert in utilizing Vedic mantras;
tbhiwith his wives; aprayaunlimited; tapathe result of
austerity; riyby opulences; anarghyaparaphernalia for enjoyment;
paricchadeuequipped with different garments and dresses; gheuin
the house and rooms; nnvarieties of; upavanaparks; amalaclean;
ambhawater; sarasuin lakes; saugandhikavery fragrant;
knaneuin gardens; mah-arhavery costly; ayybedding; sana
sitting places; vastraclothing; bhaaornaments; snnabathing
mlyakaiand with garlands; su-alaktaproperly dressed and
decorated; strwomen; purueuwith men also; nityadconstantly;


remeenjoyed; anugyatfollowed by the singing of; dvijabirds;

bhgabumblebees; vandiuand professional singers.
Because Saubhari Muni was expert in chanting mantras perfectly, his
severe austerities resulted in an opulent home, with garments,
ornaments, properly dressed and decorated maidservants and
manservants, and varieties of parks with clear-water lakes and gardens.
In the gardens, fragrant with varieties of flowers, birds chirped and
bees hummed, surrounded by professional singers. Saubhari Muni's
home was amply provided with valuable beds, seats, ornaments, and
arrangements for bathing, and there were varieties of sandalwood
creams, flower garlands, and palatable dishes. Thus surrounded by
opulent paraphernalia, the muni engaged in family affairs with his
numerous wives.
Saubhari i was a great yog. Yogic perfection makes available eight
material opulencesaim, laghim, mahim, prpti, prkmya, itva,
vaitva and kmvasyit. Saubhari Muni exhibited super-excellence in
material enjoyment by dint of his yogic perfection. The word bahv-ca
means "expert in chanting mantras." As material opulence can be
achieved by ordinary material means, it can also be achieved by subtle
means through mantras. By chanting mantras, Saubhari Muni arranged for
material opulence, but this was not perfection in life. As will be seen,
Saubhari Muni became very dissatisfied with material opulence and thus
left everything and reentered the forest in the vnaprastha order and
achieved final success. Those who are not tma-tattva-vit, who do not
know the spiritual value of life, can be satisfied with external material
opulences, but those who are tma-tattva-vit are not inspired by material
opulence. This is the instruction we can derive from the life and activities
of Saubhari Muni.
yad-grhasthya tu savkya
vismita stambham ajaht
yathe whose; grhasthyamfamily life, householder life; tubut;
savkyaobserving; sapta-dvpa-vat-patiMndht, who was the


King of the entire world, consisting of seven islands; vismitawas struck

with wonder; stambhampride due to a prestigious position; ajahthe
gave up; srva-bhaumathe emperor of the entire world; riy-anvitam
blessed with all kinds of opulence.
Mndht, the King of the entire world, consisting of seven islands, was
struck with wonder when he saw the household opulence of Saubhari
Muni. Thus he gave up his false prestige in his position as emperor of
the world.
Everyone is proud of his own position, but here was an astounding
experience, in which the emperor of the entire world felt himself defeated
in all details of material happiness by the opulence of Saubhari Muni.
eva ghev abhirato
viayn vividhai sukhai
sevamno na ctuyad
jya-stokair ivnala
evamin this way; gheuin household affairs; abhiratabeing always
engaged; viaynmaterial paraphernalia; vividhaiwith varieties of;
sukhaihappiness; sevamnaenjoying; nanot; caalso; atuyat
satisfied him; jya-stokaiby drops of fat; ivalike; analaa fire.
In this way, Saubhari Muni enjoyed sense gratification in the material
world, but he was not at all satisfied, just as a fire never ceases blazing
if constantly supplied with drops of fat.
Material desire is just like a blazing fire. If a fire is continually supplied
with drops of fat, the fire will increase more and more and never be
extinguished. Therefore the policy of trying to satisfy material desires by
catering to one's material demands will never be successful. In modern
civilization, everyone is engaged in economic development, which is
another way of constantly dropping fat into the material fire. The Western
countries have reached the summit of material civilization, but people are
still dissatisfied. Real satisfaction is Ka consciousness. This is
confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (5.29), where Ka says:
bhoktra yaja-tapas


suhda sarva-bhtn
jtv m ntim cchati
"The sages, knowing Me as the ultimate purpose of all sacrifices and
austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods and the
benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attains peace from the
pangs of material miseries." One must therefore take to Ka
consciousness and advance in Ka consciousness by properly following
the regulative principles. Then one can attain an eternal, blissful life in
peace and knowledge.
sa kadcid upsna
tmpahnavam tmana
dadara bahv-ccryo
sahe, Saubhari Muni; kadcitone day; upsnasitting down; tmaapahnavamdegrading oneself from the platform of tapasya; tmana
self-caused; dadaraobserved; bahu-ca-cryaSaubhari Muni, who
was expert in chanting mantras; mna-sagathe sexual affairs of fish;
samutthitamcaused by this incident.
Thereafter, one day while Saubhari Muni, who was expert in chanting
mantras, was sitting in a secluded place, he thought to himself about
the cause of his falldown, which was simply that he had associated
himself with the sexual affairs of the fish.
Vivantha Cakravart hkura remarks that Saubhari Muni had fallen
from his austerity because of a vaiava-apardha. The history is that
when Garua wanted to eat fish, Saubhari Muni unnecessarily gave the
fish shelter under his care. Because Garua's plans for eating were
disappointed, Saubhari Muni certainly committed a great offense to a
Vaiava. Because of this vaiava-apardha, an offense at the lotus feet of
a Vaiava, Saubhari Muni fell from his exalted position of mystic tapasya.
One should not, therefore, impede the activities of a Vaiava. This is the
lesson we must learn from this incident concerning Saubhari Muni.


aho ima payata me vina
tapasvina sac-carita-vratasya
antarjale vri-cara-prasagt
pracyvita brahma cira dhta yat
ahoalas; imamthis; payatajust see; meof me; vinamfalldown;
tapasvinawho was such a great mystic performing austerity; satcaritaof very good character, observing all necessary rules and
regulations; vratasyaof one who has taken a vow strictly; anta-jalein
the depths of the water; vri-cara-prasagtbecause of the affairs of the
aquatics; pracyvitamfallen; brahmafrom the activities of Brahman
realization or austerity; ciramfor a long time; dhtamexecuted; yat
Alas! While practicing austerity, even within the depths of the water,
and while observing all the rules and regulations practiced by saintly
persons, I lost the results of my long austerities simply by association
with the sexual affairs of fish. Everyone should observe this falldown
and learn from it.
saga tyajeta mithuna-vratn mumuku
sarvtman na visjed bahir-indriyi
eka caran rahasi cittam ananta e
yujta tad-vratiu sdhuu cet prasaga
sagamassociation; tyajetamust give up; mithuna-vratnmof a
person engaged in sexual affairs, legal or illegal; mumukupersons who
desire liberation; sarva-tmanin all respects; nado not; visjet
employ; bahi-indriyiexternal senses; ekaalone; caranmoving;
rahasiin a secluded place; cittamthe heart; anante efixed at the
lotus feet of the unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead; yujtaone
can engage himself; tat-vratiuwith persons of the same category
(desiring liberation from material bondage); sdhuusuch saintly
persons; cetif; prasagaone wants association.
A person desiring liberation from material bondage must give up the
association of persons interested in sex life and should not employ his


senses externally [in seeing, hearing, talking, walking and so on]. One
should always stay in a secluded place, completely fixing his mind at
the lotus feet of the unlimited Personality of Godhead, and if one wants
any association at all, he should associate with persons similarly
Saubhari Muni, giving conclusions derived from his practical experience,
instructs us that persons interested in crossing to the other side of the
material ocean must give up the association of persons interested in sex
life and accumulating money. This is also advised by r Caitanya
nikicanasya bhagavad-bhajanonmukasya
pra para jigamior bhava-sgarasya
sandarana viayim atha yoit ca
h hanta hanta via-bhakaato 'py asdhu
[Cc. Madhya 11.8]
(Caitanya-candrodaya-naka 8.27)
"Alas, for a person seriously desiring to cross the material ocean and
engage in the transcendental loving service of the Lord without material
motives, seeing a materialist engaged in sense gratification and seeing a
woman who is similarly interested is more abominable than drinking
poison willingly."
One who desires complete freedom from material bondage can engage
himself in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. He must not
associate with viaymaterialistic persons or those interested in sex life.
Every materialist is interested in sex. Thus in plain language it is advised
that an exalted saintly person avoid the association of those who are
materially inclined. rla Narottama dsa hkura also recommends that
one engage in the service of the cryas, and if one wants to live in
association, he must live in the association of devotees (tdera caraa
sevi bhakta-sane vsa). The Ka consciousness movement is creating
many centers just to create devotees so that by associating with the
members of such a center people will automatically become uninterested
in material affairs. Although this is an ambitious proposal, this association
is proving effective by the mercy of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. By
gradually associating with the members of the Ka consciousness


movement, simply by taking prasda and taking part in chanting of the

Hare Ka mantra, ordinary persons are being considerably elevated.
Saubhari Muni regrets that he had bad association even in the deepest part
of the water. Because of the bad association of the sexually engaged fish,
he fell down. A secluded place is also not secure unless there is good
ekas tapasvy aham athmbhasi matsya-sagt
pacad sam uta paca-sahasra-sarga
nnta vrajmy ubhaya-ktya-manorathn
my-guair hta-matir viaye 'rtha-bhva
ekaone only; tapasvgreat sage; ahamI; athathus; ambhasiin
the deep water; matsya-sagtby associating with the fish; pacat
fifty; samgot wives; utaand what to speak of begetting one hundred
sons in each of them; paca-sahasra-sargaprocreation of five thousand;
na antamno end; vrajmiI can find; ubhaya-ktyaduties of this life
and the next; manorathnmmental concoctions; my-guai
influenced by the modes of material nature; htalost; mati viaye
great attraction for material things; artha-bhvamatters of self-interest.
In the beginning I was alone and engaged in performing the austerities
of mystic yoga, but later, because of the association of fish engaged in
sex, I desired to marry. Then I became the husband of fifty wives, and
in each of them I begot one hundred sons, and thus my family increased
to five thousand members. By the influence of the modes of material
nature, I became fallen and thought that I would be happy in material
life. Thus there is no end to my material desires for enjoyment, in this
life and the next.
eva vasan ghe kla
virakto nysam sthita
vana jagmnuyayus
tat-patnya pati-devat
evamin this way; vasanliving; gheat home; klampassing away
time; viraktabecame detached; nysamin the renounced order of life;


sthitabecame situated; vanamin the forest; jagmahe went;

anuyayuwas followed by; tat-patnyaall his wives; pati-devat
because their only worshipable object was their husband.
In this way he passed his life in household affairs for some time, but
then he became detached from material enjoyment. To renounce
material association, he accepted the vnaprastha order and went to the
forest. His devoted wives followed him, for they had no shelter other
than their husband.
tatra taptv tapas tkam
tma-daranam tmavn
sahaivgnibhir tmna
yuyoja paramtmani
tatrain the forest; taptvexecuting austerity; tapathe regulative
principles of austerity; tkamvery severely; tma-daranamwhich
helps self-realization; tmavnconversant with the self; sahawith;
evacertainly; agnibhifires; tmnamthe personal self; yuyojahe
engaged; parama-tmanidealing with the Supreme Soul.
When Saubhari Muni, who was quite conversant with the self, went to
the forest, he performed severe penances. In this way, in the fire at the
time of death, he ultimately engaged himself in the service of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
At the time of death, fire burns the gross body, and if there is no more
desire for material enjoyment the subtle body is also ended, and in this
way a pure soul remains. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (tyaktv
deha punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9]). If one is free from the bondage of both
the gross and subtle material bodies and remains a pure soul, he returns
home, back to Godhead, to be engaged in the service of the Lord. Tyaktv
deha punar janma naiti mm eti: he goes back home, back to Godhead.
Thus it appears that Saubhari Muni attained that perfect stage.
t sva-patyur mahrja
nirkydhytmik gatim


anvyus tat-prabhvea
agni ntam ivrcia
tall the wives of Saubhari; sva-patyuwith their own husband;
mahrjaO King Parkit; nirkyaobserving; adhytmikmspiritual;
gatimprogress; anvyufollowed; tat-prabhveaby the influence of
their husband (although they were unfit, by the influence of their
husband they also could go to the spiritual world); agnimthe fire;
ntamcompletely merged; ivalike; arciathe flames.
O Mahrja Parkit, by observing their husband progressing in
spiritual existence, Saubhari Muni's wives were also able to enter the
spiritual world by his spiritual power, just as the flames of a fire cease
when the fire is extinguished.
As stated in Bhagavad-gt (9.32), striyo vaiys tath drs te 'pi ynti
par gatim. Women are not considered very powerful in following
spiritual principles, but if a woman is fortunate enough to get a suitable
husband who is spiritually advanced and if she always engages in his
service, she also gets the same benefit as her husband. Here it is clearly
said that the wives of Saubhari Muni also entered the spiritual world by
the influence of their husband. They were unfit, but because they were
faithful followers of their husband, they also entered the spiritual world
with him. Thus a woman should be a faithful servant of her husband, and
if the husband is spiritually advanced, the woman will automatically get
the opportunity to enter the spiritual world.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Sixth Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Downfall of Saubhari Muni."


7. The Descendants of King Mndht

In this chapter the descendants of King Mndht are described, and in

this connection the histories of Purukutsa and Haricandra are also given.
The most prominent son of Mndht was Ambara, his son was
Yauvanva, and Yauvanva's son was Hrta. These three personalities
were the best in the dynasty of Mndht. Purukutsa, another son of
Mndht, married the sister of the snakes (sarpa-gaa) named Narmad.
The son of Purukutsa was Trasaddasyu, whose son was Anaraya.
Anaraya's son was Haryava, Haryava's son was Prrua, Prrua's son
was Tribandhana, and Tribandhana's son was Satyavrata, also known as
Triaku. When Triaku kidnapped the daughter of a brhmaa, his
father cursed him for this sinful act, and Triaku became a cala,
worse than a dra. Later, by the influence of Vivmitra, he was brought
to the heavenly planets, but by the influence of the demigods he fell back
downward. He was stopped in his fall, however, by the influence of
Vivmitra. The son of Triaku was Haricandra. Haricandra once
performed a Rjasya-yaja, but Vivmitra cunningly took all of
Haricandra's possessions as a dakia contribution and chastised
Haricandra in various ways. Because of this, a quarrel arose between
Vivmitra and Vasiha. Haricandra had no sons, but on the advice of
Nrada he worshiped Varua and in this way got a son named Rohita.
Haricandra promised that Rohita would be used to perform a Varuayaja. Varua reminded Haricandra repeatedly about this yaja, but the
King, because of affection for his son, gave various arguments to avoid
sacrificing him. Thus time passed, and gradually the son grew up. To
safeguard his life, the boy then took bow and arrows in hand and went to
the forest. Meanwhile, at home, Haricandra suffered from dropsy because
of an attack from Varua. When Rohita received the news that his father
was suffering, he wanted to return to the capital, but King Indra
prevented him from doing so. Following the instructions of Indra, Rohita
lived in the forest for six years and then returned home. Rohita purchased
unaepha, the second son of Ajgarta, and gave him to his father,
Haricandra, as the sacrificial animal. In this way, the sacrifice was


performed, Varua and the other demigods were pacified, and

Haricandra was freed from disease. In this sacrifice, Vivmitra was the
hot priest, Jamadagni was the adhvaryu, Vasiha was the brahm, and
Aysya was the udgt. King Indra, being very satisfied by the sacrifice,
gave Haricandra a golden chariot, and Vivmitra gave him
transcendental knowledge. Thus ukadeva Gosvm describes how
Haricandra achieved perfection.
r-uka uvca
mndhtu putra-pravaro
yo 'mbara prakrtita
pitmahena pravto
yauvanvas tu tat-suta
hrtas tasya putro 'bhn
mndht-pravar ime
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; mndhtuof Mndht;
putra-pravarathe prominent son; yathe one who; ambaraby
the name Ambara; prakrtitacelebrated; pitmahenaby his
grandfather Yuvanva; pravtaaccepted; yauvanvanamed
Yauvanva; tuand; tat-sutathe son of Ambara; hrtaby the
name Hrta; tasyaof Yauvanva; putrathe son; abhtbecame;
mndhtin the dynasty of Mndht; pravarmost prominent;
imeall of them.
ukadeva Gosvm said: The most prominent among the sons of
Mndht was he who is celebrated as Ambara. Ambara was
accepted as son by his grandfather Yuvanva. Ambara's son was
Yauvanva, and Yauvanva's son was Hrta. In Mndht's dynasty,
Ambara, Hrta and Yauvanva were very prominent.
narmad bhrtbhir datt
purukutsya yoragai
tay rastala nto
narmadby the name Narmad; bhrtbhiby her brothers; datt


was given in charity; purukutsyaunto Purukutsa; yshe who;

uragaiby the serpents (sarpa-gaa); tayby her; rastalamto the
lower region of the universe; ntawas brought; bhujaga-indraprayuktayengaged by Vsuki, the King of the serpents.
The serpent brothers of Narmad gave Narmad to Purukutsa. Being
sent by Vsuki, she took Purukutsa to the lower region of the universe.
Before describing the descendants of Purukutsa, the son of Mndht,
ukadeva Gosvm first describes how Purukutsa was married to
Narmad, who was induced to take him to the lower region of the
gandharvn avadht tatra
vadhyn vai viu-akti-dhk
ngl labdha-vara sarpd
abhaya smaratm idam
gandharvnthe inhabitants of Gandharvaloka; avadhthe killed;
tatrathere (in the lower region of the universe); vadhynwho
deserved to be killed; vaiindeed; viu-akti-dhkbeing empowered by
Lord Viu; ngtfrom the Ngas; labdha-varahaving received a
benediction; sarptfrom the snakes; abhayamassurances; smaratm
of those who remember; idamthis incident.
There in Rastala, the lower region of the universe, Purukutsa, being
empowered by Lord Viu, was able to kill all the Gandharvas who
deserved to be killed. Purukutsa received the benediction from the
serpents that anyone who remembers this history of his being brought
by Narmad to the lower region of the universe will be assured of safety
from the attack of snakes.
trasaddasyu paurukutso
yo 'narayasya deha-kt
haryavas tat-sutas tasmt
prruo 'tha tribandhana


trasaddasyuby the name Trasaddasyu; paurukutsathe son of

Purukutsa; yawho; anarayasyaof Anaraya; deha-ktthe father;
haryavaby the name Haryava; tat-sutathe son of Anaraya;
tasmtfrom him (Haryava); prruaby the name Prrua; atha
then, from Prrua; tribandhanahis son, Tribandhana.
The son of Purukutsa was Trasaddasyu, who was the father of
Anaraya. Anaraya's son was Haryava, the father of Prrua. Prrua
was the father of Tribandhana.
tasya satyavrata putras
triakur iti viruta
prpta clat pd
guro kauika-tejas
saarro gata svargam
adypi divi dyate
ptito 'vk-ir devais
tenaiva stambhito balt
tasyaof Tribandhana; satyavrataby the name Satyavrata; putrathe
son; triakuby the name Triaku; itithus; virutacelebrated;
prptahad obtained; clatmthe quality of a cala, lower than
a dra; ptfrom the curse; guroof his father; kauika-tejasby
the prowess of Kauika (Vivmitra); saarrawhile in this body;
gatawent; svargamto the heavenly planet; adya apiuntil today;
diviin the sky; dyatecan be seen; ptitahaving fallen down; avkirwith his head hanging downward; devaiby the prowess of the
demigods; tenaby Vivmitra; evaindeed; stambhitafixed; balt
by superior power.
The son of Tribandhana was Satyavrata, who is celebrated by the name
Triaku. Because he kidnapped the daughter of a brhmaa when she
was being married, his father cursed him to become a cala, lower
than a dra. Thereafter, by the influence of Vivmitra, he went to the
higher planetary system, the heavenly planets, in his material body, but
because of the prowess of the demigods he fell back downward.
Nonetheless, by the power of Vivmitra, he did not fall all the way


down; even today he can still be seen hanging in the sky, head
traiakavo haricandro
yan-nimittam abhd yuddha
pakior bahu-vrikam
traiakavathe son of Triaku; haricandraby the name
Haricandra; vivmitra-vasihayobetween Vivmitra and Vasiha;
yat-nimittambecause of Haricandra; abhtthere was; yuddhama
great fight; pakioboth of whom had been converted into birds; bahuvrikamfor many years.
The son of Triaku was Haricandra. Because of Haricandra there was
a quarrel between Vivmitra and Vasiha, who for many years fought
one another, having been transformed into birds.
Vivmitra and Vasiha were always inimical. Formerly, Vivmitra was a
katriya, and by undergoing severe austerities he wanted to become a
brhmaa, but Vasiha would not agree to accept him. In this way there
was always disagreement between the two. Later, however, Vasiha
accepted him because of Vivmitra's quality of forgiveness. Once
Haricandra performed a yaja for which Vivmitra was the priest, but
Vivmitra, being angry at Haricandra, took away all his possessions,
claiming them as a contribution of daki. Vasiha, however, did not
like this, and therefore a fight arose between Vasiha and Vivmitra. The
fighting became so severe that each of them cursed the other. One of them
said, "May you become a bird," and the other said, "May you become a
duck." Thus both of them became birds and continued fighting for many
years because of Haricandra. We can see that such a great mystic yog as
Saubhari became a victim of sense gratification, and such great sages as
Vasiha and Vivmitra became birds. This is the material world.
brahma-bhuvanl lok punar vartino 'rjuna [Bg. 8.16]. Within this
material world, or within this universe, however elevated one may be in
material qualities, one must suffer the conditions of birth, death, old age
and disease (janma-mtyu jar-vydhi [Bg. 13.9]). Therefore Ka says


that this material world is simply miserable (dukhlayam avatam [Bg.

8.15]). The Bhgavatam says, pada pada yad vipadm: [SB 10.14.58] at
every step here there is danger. Therefore, because the Ka
consciousness movement provides the opportunity for the human being
to get out of this material world simply by chanting the Hare Ka
mantra, this movement is the greatest benediction in human society.
so 'napatyo viatm
varua araa yta
putro me jyat prabho
sathat Haricandra; anapatyabeing without a son; viaa-tm
therefore very morose; nradasyaof Nrada; upadeataby the advice;
varuamunto Varua; araam ytatook shelter; putraa son;
meof me; jyatmlet there be born; prabhoO my lord.
Haricandra had no son and was therefore extremely morose. Once,
therefore, following the advice of Nrada, he took shelter of Varua and
said to him "My lord I have no son. Would you kindly give me one?"
yadi vro mahrja
tenaiva tv yaje iti
tatheti varuensya
putro jtas tu rohita
yadiif; vrathere is a son; mahrjaO Mahrja Parkit; tena eva
even by that son; tvmunto you; yajeI shall offer sacrifice; itithus;
tathas you desire; itithus accepted; varuenaby Varua; asyaof
Mahrja Haricandra; putraa son; jtawas born; tuindeed;
rohitaby the name Rohita.
O King Parkit, Haricandra begged Varua, "My lord, if a son is born
to me, with that son I shall perform a sacrifice for your satisfaction."
When Haricandra said this, Varua replied, "Let it be so." Because of
Varua's benediction, Haricandra begot a son named Rohita.


jta suto hy anenga
m yajasveti so 'bravt
yad paur nirdaa syd
atha medhyo bhaved iti
jtahas been born; sutaa son; hiindeed; anenaby this son;
agaO Haricandra; mmunto me; yajasvaoffer sacrifice; itithus;
sahe, Varua; abravtsaid; yadwhen; pauan animal;
nirdaahas passed ten days; sytshould become; athathen;
medhyasuitable for offering in sacrifice; bhavetbecomes; itithus
(Haricandra said).
Thereafter, when the child was born, Varua approached Haricandra
and said, "Now you have a son. With this son you can offer me a
sacrifice." In answer to this, Haricandra said, "After ten days have
passed since an animal's birth, the animal becomes fit to be sacrificed."
nirdae ca sa gatya
yajasvety ha so 'bravt
dant paor yaj jyerann
atha medhyo bhaved iti
nirdaeafter ten days; caalso; sahe, Varua; gatyacoming there;
yajasvanow sacrifice; itithus; hasaid; sahe, Haricandra;
abravtreplied; dantthe teeth; paoof the animal; yatwhen;
jyeranhave appeared; athathen; medhyafit for being sacrificed;
bhavetwill become; itithus.
After ten days, Varua came again and said to Haricandra, "Now you
can perform the sacrifice." Haricandra replied, "When an animal grows
teeth, then it becomes pure enough to be sacrificed."
dant jt yajasveti
sa pratyhtha so 'bravt
yad patanty asya dant


atha medhyo bhaved iti

dantthe teeth; jthave grown; yajasvanow sacrifice; itithus;
sahe, Varua; pratyhasaid; athathereupon; sahe, Haricandra;
abravtreplied; yadwhen; patantifall out; asyahis; dantteeth;
athathen; medhyafit for sacrifice; bhavetwill become; itithus.
When the teeth grew, Varua came and said to Haricandra, "Now the
animal has grown teeth, and you can perform the sacrifice."
Haricandra replied, "When all its teeth have fallen out, then it will be
fit for sacrifice."
paor nipatit dant
yajasvety ha so 'bravt
yad pao punar dant
jyante 'tha pau uci
paoof the animal; nipatithave fallen out; dantthe teeth;
yajasvanow sacrifice him; itithus; hasaid (Varua); sahe,
Haricandra; abravtreplied; yadwhen; paoof the animal;
punaagain; dantthe teeth; jyantegrow; athathen; pauthe
animal; uciis purified for being sacrificed.
When the teeth had fallen out, Varua returned and said to
Haricandra, "Now the animal's teeth have fallen out, and you can
perform the sacrifice." But Haricandra replied, "When the animal's
teeth grow in again, then he will be pure enough to be sacrificed."
punar jt yajasveti
sa pratyhtha so 'bravt
snnhiko yad rjan
rjanyo 'tha pau uci
punaagain; jthave grown; yajasvanow you offer the sacrifice;
itithus; sahe, Varua; pratyhareplied; athathereafter; sahe,
Haricandra; abravtsaid; snnhikaable to equip himself with a


shield; yadwhen; rjanO King Varua; rjanyathe katriya;

athathen; pauthe sacrificial animal; ucibecomes purified.
When the teeth grew in again, Varua came and said to Haricandra,
"Now you can perform the sacrifice." But Haricandra then said, "O
King, when the sacrificial animal becomes a katriya and is able to
shield himself to fight with the enemy, then he will be purified."
iti putrnurgea
kla vacayat ta tam
ukto devas tam aikata
itiin this way; putra-anurgeabecause of affection for the son; snehayantrita-cetashis mind being controlled by such affection; klam
time; vacayatcheating; tamunto him; tamthat; uktasaid;
devathe demigod Varua; tamunto him, Haricandra; aikata
waited for the fulfillment of his promise.
Haricandra was certainly very much attached to his son. Because of
this affection, he asked the demigod Varua to wait. Thus Varua
waited and waited for the time to come.
rohitas tad abhijya
pitu karma cikritam
pra-prepsur dhanu-pir
araya pratyapadyata
rohitathe son of Haricandra; tatthis fact; abhijyahaving
thoroughly understood; pituof his father; karmaaction; cikritam
which he was practically doing; pra-prepsuwishing to save his life;
dhanu-pitaking his bow and arrows; arayamto the forest;
Rohita could understand that his father intended to offer him as the
animal for sacrifice. Therefore, just to save himself from death, he


equipped himself with bow and arrows and went to the forest.
pitara varua-grasta
rutv jta-mahodaram
rohito grmam eyya
tam indra pratyaedhata
pitaramabout his father; varua-grastamhaving been attacked with
dropsy by Varua; rutvafter hearing; jtahad grown; mahudaraminflated abdomen; rohitahis son Rohita; grmam eyya
wanted to come back to the capital; tamunto him (Rohita); indra
King Indra; pratyaedhataforbade to go there.
When Rohita heard that his father had been attacked by dropsy due to
Varua and that his abdomen had grown very large, he wanted to return
to the capital, but King Indra forbade him to do so.
bhme paryaana puya
rohitydiac chakra
so 'py araye 'vasat samm
bhmeof the surface of the world; paryaanamtraveling; puyam
holy places; trtha-ketraplaces of pilgrimage; nievaaiby serving or
going to and coming from such places; rohityaunto Rohita; diat
ordered; akraKing Indra; sahe, Rohita; apialso; arayein the
forest; avasatlived; sammfor one year.
King Indra advised Rohita to travel to different pilgrimage sites and
holy places, for such activities are pious indeed. Following this
instruction, Rohita went to the forest for one year.
eva dvitye ttye
caturthe pacame tath


abhyetybhyetya sthaviro
vipro bhtvha vtra-h
evamin this way; dvityeon the second year; ttyeon the third year;
caturtheon the fourth year; pacameon the fifth year; tathas well
as; abhyetyacoming before him; abhyetyaagain coming before him;
sthaviraa very old man; vipraa brhmaa; bhtvbecoming so;
hasaid; vtra-hIndra.
In this way, at the end of the second, third, fourth and fifth years, when
Rohita wanted to return to his capital, the King of heaven, Indra,
approached him as an old brhmaa and forbade him to return,
repeating the same words as in the previous year.
aha savatsara tatra
caritv rohita purm
upavrajann ajgartd
akrn madhyama sutam
unaepha pau pitre
pradya samavandata
ahamthe sixth; savatsaramyear; tatrain the forest; caritv
wandering; rohitathe son of Haricandra; purmin his capital;
upavrajanwent there; ajgarttfrom Ajgarta; akrtpurchased;
madhyamamthe second; sutamson; unaephamwhose name was
unaepha; paumto use as the sacrificial animal; pitreunto his
father; pradyaoffering; samavandatarespectfully offered his
Thereafter, in the sixth year, after wandering in the forest, Rohita
returned to the capital of his father. He purchased from Ajgarta his
second son, named unaepha. Then he offered unaepha to his
father, Haricandra, to be used as the sacrificial animal and offered
Haricandra his respectful obeisances.
It appears that in those days a man could be purchased for any purpose.
Haricandra was in need of a person to sacrifice as the animal in a yaja
and thus fulfill his promise to Varua, and a man was purchased from


another man for this purpose. Millions of years ago, animal sacrifice and
slave trade both existed. Indeed, they have existed since time immemorial.
tata purua-medhena
haricandro mah-ya
muktodaro 'yajad devn
varudn mahat-katha
tatathereafter; purua-medhenaby sacrificing a man in the yaja;
haricandraKing Haricandra; mah-yavery famous; muktaudarabecame free from dropsy; ayajatoffered sacrifices; devnunto
the demigods; varua-dnheaded by Varua and others; mahatkathafamous in history with other exalted personalities.
Thereafter, the famous King Haricandra, one of the exalted persons in
history, performed grand sacrifices by sacrificing a man and pleased all
the demigods. In this way his dropsy created by Varua was cured.
vivmitro 'bhavat tasmin
hot cdhvaryur tmavn
jamadagnir abhd brahm
vasiho 'ysya sma-ga
vivmitrathe great sage and mystic Vivmitra; abhavatbecame;
tasminin that great sacrifice; hotthe chief priest to offer oblations;
caalso; adhvaryua person who recites hymns from the Yajur Veda
and performs ritualistic ceremonies; tmavnfully self-realized;
jamadagniJamadagni; abhtbecame; brahmacting as the chief
brhmaa; vasihathe great sage; aysyaanother great sage; smagaengaged as the reciter of the Sma Veda mantras.
In that great human sacrifice, Vivmitra was the chief priest to offer
oblations, the perfectly self-realized Jamadagni had the responsibility
for chanting the mantras from the Yajur Veda, Vasiha was the chief
brahminical priest, and the sage Aysya was the reciter of the hymns of
the Sma Veda.


tasmai tuo dadv indra
takaumbhamaya ratham
unaephasya mhtmyam
uparit pracakyate
tasmaiunto him, King Haricandra; tuabeing very pleased; dadau
delivered; indrathe King of heaven; takaumbha-mayammade of
mhtmyamglories; uparitin the course of describing the sons of
Vivmitra; pracakyatewill be narrated.
King Indra, being very pleased with Haricandra, offered him a gift of a
golden chariot. unaepha's glories will be presented along with the
description of the son of Vivmitra.
satya sra dhti dv
sabhryasya ca bhpate
vivmitro bha prto
dadv avihat gatim
satyamtruthfulness; sramfirmness; dhtimforbearance; dvby
seeing; sa-bhryasyawith his wife; caand; bhpateof Mahrja
Haricandra; vivmitrathe great sage Vivmitra; bhamvery much;
prtabeing pleased; dadaugave him; avihatm gatimimperishable
The great sage Vivmitra saw that Mahrja Haricandra, along with
his wife, was truthful, forbearing and concerned with the essence. Thus
he gave them imperishable knowledge for fulfillment of the human
TEXTS 25-26
mana pthivy tm adbhis
tejaspo 'nilena tat
khe vyu dhrayas tac ca
bhtdau ta mahtmani


tasmi jna-kal dhytv

tayjna vinirdahan
hitv t svena bhvena
tasthau vidhvasta-bandhana
manathe mind (full of material desires for eating, sleeping, mating and
defending); pthivymin the earth; tmthat; adbhiwith water;
tejasand with fire; apathe water; anilenain the fire; tatthat;
khein the sky; vyumthe air; dhrayanamalgamating; tatthat;
caalso; bhta-dauin the false ego, the origin of material existence;
tamthat (false ego); mah-tmaniin the mahat-tattva, the total
material energy; tasminin the total material energy; jna-kalm
spiritual knowledge and its different branches; dhytvby meditating;
tayby this process; ajnamignorance; vinirdahanspecifically
subdued; hitvgiving up; tmmaterial ambition; svenaby selfrealization; bhvenain devotional service; nirva-sukha-savidby
transcendental bliss, putting an end to material existence; anirdeya
vidhvastacompletely freed from; bandhanamaterial bondage.
Mahrja Haricandra first purified his mind, which was full of material
enjoyment, by amalgamating it with the earth. Then he amalgamated
the earth with water, the water with fire, the fire with the air, and the
air with the sky. Thereafter, he amalgamated the sky with the total
material energy, and the total material energy with spiritual knowledge.
This spiritual knowledge is realization of one's self as part of the
Supreme Lord. When the self-realized spiritual soul is engaged in
service to the Lord, he is eternally imperceptible and inconceivable.
Thus established in spiritual knowledge, he is completely freed from
material bondage.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Seventh Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Descendants of King Mndht."


8. The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva

In this Eighth Chapter the descendants of Rohita are described. In the

dynasty of Rohita there was a king named Sagara, whose history is
described in relation to Kapiladeva and the destruction of the sons of
The son of Rohita was known as Harita, and the son of Harita was Campa,
who constructed a township known as Camppur. The son of Campa was
Sudeva, the son of Sudeva was Vijaya, the son of Vijaya was Bharuka, and
the son of Bharuka was Vka. Bhuka, the son of Vka, was greatly
disturbed by his enemies, and therefore he left home with his wife and
went to the forest. When he died there, his wife wanted to accept the
principles of sat, dying with her husband, but when she was about to die
a sage named Aurva found that she was pregnant and forbade her to do
so. The co-wives of this wife of Bhuka gave her poison with her food, but
still her son was born with the poison. The son was therefore named
Sagara (sa means "with," and gara means "poison"). Following the
instructions of the great sage Aurva, King Sagara reformed many clans,
including the Yavanas, akas, Haihayas and Barbaras. The king did not
kill them, but reformed them. Then, again following the instructions of
Aurva, King Sagara performed avamedha sacrifices, but the horse needed
for such a sacrifice was stolen by Indra, the King of heaven. King Sagara
had two wives, named Sumati and Kein. While searching for the horse,
the sons of Sumati extensively dug up the surface of the earth and in this
way dug a trench, which later became known as the Sgara Ocean. In the
course of this search, they came upon the great personality Kapiladeva
and thought Him to have stolen the horse. With this offensive
understanding, they attacked Him and were all burned to ashes. Kein,
the second wife of King Sagara, had a son named Asamajasa, whose son
Aumn later searched for the horse and delivered his uncles. Upon
approaching Kapiladeva, Aumn saw both the horse meant for sacrifice
and a pile of ashes. Aumn offered prayers to Kapiladeva, who was very
pleased by his prayers and who returned the horse. After getting back the
horse, however, Aumn still stood before Kapiladeva, and Kapiladeva


could understand that Aumn was praying for the deliverance of his
forefathers. Thus Kapiladeva offered the instruction that they could be
delivered by water from the Ganges. Aumn then offered respectful
obeisances to Kapiladeva, circumambulated Him, and left that place with
the horse for sacrifice. When King Sagara finished his yaja, he handed
over the kingdom to Aumn and, following the advice of Aurva,
attained salvation.
r-uka uvca
harito rohita-suta
campas tasmd vinirmit
camppur sudevo 'to
vijayo yasya ctmaja
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; haritathe king named
Harita; rohita-sutathe son of King Rohita; campaby the name
Campa; tasmtfrom Harita; vinirmitwas constructed; camp-pur
the township known as Camppur; sudevaby the name Sudeva; ata
thereafter (from Campa); vijayaby the name Vijaya; yasyaof whom
(Sudeva); caalso; tma-jathe son.
ukadeva Gosvm continued: The son of Rohita was Harita, and
Harita's son was Campa, who constructed the town of Camppur. The
son of Campa was Sudeva, and his son was Vijaya.
bharukas tat-sutas tasmd
vkas tasypi bhuka
so 'ribhir hta-bh rj
sabhryo vanam viat
bharukaby the name Bharuka; tat-sutathe son of Vijaya; tasmt
from him (Bharuka); vkaby the name Vka; tasyahis; apialso;
bhukaby the name Bhuka; sahe, the King; aribhiby his
enemies; hta-bhhis land having been taken away; rjthe King
(Bhuka); sa-bhryawith his wife; vanamthe forest; viatentered.
The son of Vijaya was Bharuka, Bharuka's son was Vka, and Vka's son


was Bhuka. The enemies of King Bhuka took away all his possessions,
and therefore the King entered the order of vnaprastha and went to the
forest with his wife.
vddha ta pacat prpta
mahiy anumariyat
aurvea jnattmna
prajvanta nivrit
vddhamwhen he was old; tamhim; pacatmdeath; prptamwho
had obtained; mahithe queen; anumariyatwho wanted to die with
him and become sat; aurveaby the great sage Aurva; jnat
understanding that; tmnamthe body of the queen; praj-vantam
bore a son within the womb; nivritwas forbidden.
Bhuka died when he was old, and one of his wives wanted to die with
him, following the sat rite. At that time, however, Aurva Muni,
knowing her to be pregnant, forbade her to die.
jysyai sapatnbhir
garo datto 'ndhas saha
saha tenaiva sajta
sagarkhyo mah-ya
sagara cakravarty st
sgaro yat-sutai kta
jyaknowing (this); asyaiunto that pregnant queen; sapatnbhi
by the co-wives of the wife of Bhuka; garapoison; dattawas given;
andhas sahawith her food; saha tenawith that poison; evaalso;
sajtawas born; sagara-khyaby the name Sagara; mah-ya
having a great reputation; sagaraKing Sagara; cakravartthe
emperor; stbecame; sgarathe place known as Gagsgara; yatsutaiby the sons of whom; ktawas excavated.
Knowing that she was pregnant, the co-wives of the wife of Bhuka
conspired to give her poison with her food, but it did not act. Instead,


the son was born along with the poison. Therefore he became famous as
Sagara ["one who is born with poison"]. Sagara later became the
emperor. The place known as Gagsgara was excavated by his sons.
yas tlajaghn yavan
chakn haihaya-barbarn
nvadhd guru-vkyena
cakre vikta-veia
mu chmaru-dharn kcin
anantar-vsasa kcid
abahir-vsaso 'parn
yaMahrja Sagara who; tlajaghnthe uncivilized clan named
Tlajagha; yavannpersons averse to the Vedic literature; akn
another class of atheist; haihayathe uncivilized; barbarnand the
Barbaras; nanot; avadhtdid kill; guru-vkyenaby the order of his
spiritual master; cakremade them; vikta-veiadressed awkwardly;
munshaved clean; maru-dharnwearing mustaches; kcit
some of them; mukta-kealoose hair; ardha-muitnhalf-shaven;
ananta-vsasawithout underwear; kcitsome of them; abahivsasawithout covering garments; aparnothers.
Sagara Mahrja, following the order of his spiritual master, Aurva, did
not kill the uncivilized men like the Tlajaghas, Yavanas, akas,
Haihayas and Barbaras. Instead, some of them he made dress
awkwardly, some of them he shaved clean but allowed to wear
mustaches, some of them he left wearing loose hair, some he half
shaved, some he left without underwear, and some without external
garments. Thus these different clans were made to dress differently, but
King Sagara did not kill them.
so 'vamedhair ayajata


harim tmnam varam

tasyotsa pau yaje
jahrva purandara
sahe, Mahrja Sagara; avamedhaiby performing avamedhayajas; ayajataworshiped; sarva-vedaof all Vedic knowledge; sura
and of all learned sages; tmakamthe Supersoul; aurva-upadiayogenaby the mystic yoga practice advised by Aurva; harimunto the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; tmnamunto the Supersoul;
varamunto the supreme controller; tasyaof him (Sagara Mahrja);
utsamwhich was meant for offering; paumthe sacrificial animal;
yajein the sacrifice; jahrastole; avamthe horse; purandarathe
King of heaven, Indra.
Following the instructions of the great sage Aurva, Sagara Mahrja
performed avamedha sacrifices and thus satisfied the Supreme Lord,
who is the supreme controller, the Supersoul of all learned scholars,
and the knower of all Vedic knowledge, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. But Indra, the King of heaven, stole the horse meant to be
offered at the sacrifice.
sumatys tanay dpt
pitur dea-kria
hayam anveams te
samantn nyakhanan mahm
sumaty tanaythe sons born of Queen Sumati; dptvery proud
of their prowess and influence; pituof their father (Mahrja Sagara);
dea-kriafollowing the order; hayamthe horse (stolen by Indra);
anveamwhile seeking; teall of them; samantteverywhere;
nyakhanandug; mahmthe earth.
[King Sagara had two wives, Sumati and Kein.] The sons of Sumati,
who were very proud of their prowess and influence, following the
order of their father, searched for the lost horse. While doing so, they
dug into the earth very extensively.


TEXTS 9-10
prg-udcy dii haya
dadu kapilntike
ea vji-hara caura
ste mlita-locana
hanyat hanyat ppa
iti ai-sahasria
udyudh abhiyayur
unmimea tad muni
prk-udcymin the northeastern; diidirection; hayamthe horse;
daduthey saw; kapila-antikenear the rama of Kapila; eahere
is; vji-harathe horse thief; caurathe thief; steexisting; mlitalocanawith closed eyes; hanyatm hanyatmkill him, kill him;
ppaa most sinful person; itiin this way; ai-sahasriathe sixty
thousand sons of Sagara; udyudhraising their respective weapons;
abhiyayuthey approached; unmimeaopened His eyes; tadat that
time; muniKapila Muni.
Thereafter, in the northeastern direction, they saw the horse near the
rama of Kapila Muni. "Here is the man who has stolen the horse,"
they said. "He is staying there with closed eyes. Certainly he is very
sinful. Kill him! Kill him!" Shouting like this, the sons of Sagara, sixty
thousand all together, raised their weapons. When they approached the
sage, the sage opened His eyes.
sva-arrgnin tvan
bhasmasd abhavan kat
sva-arra-agninby the fire emanating from their own bodies; tvat
immediately; mahendraby the tricks of Indra, the King of heaven; htacetasatheir consciousness having been taken away; mahata great
personality; vyatikrama-hatdefeated by the fault of insulting;
bhasmastturned to ashes; abhavanbecame; katimmediately.


By the influence of Indra, the King of heaven, the sons of Sagara had
lost their intelligence and disrespected a great personality.
Consequently, fire emanated from their own bodies, and they were
immediately burned to ashes.
The material body is a combination of earth, water, fire, air and ether.
There is already fire within the body, and our practical experience is that
the heat of this fire sometimes increases and sometimes decreases. The
fire within the bodies of the sons of Sagara Mahrja became so much
hotter that all of them burned to ashes. The fire's increased heat was due
to their misbehavior toward a great personality. Such misbehavior is
called mahad-vyatikrama. They were killed by the fire of their own bodies
because of insulting a great personality.
na sdhu-vdo muni-kopa-bharjit
npendra-putr iti sattva-dhmani
katha tamo roamaya vibhvyate
jagat-pavitrtmani khe rajo bhuva
nanot; sdhu-vdathe opinion of learned persons; muni-kopaby
the anger of Kapila Muni; bharjitwere burned to ashes; npendraputrall the sons of Sagara Mahrja; itithus; sattva-dhmaniin
Kapila Muni, in whom the mode of goodness was predominant; katham
how; tamathe mode of ignorance; roa-mayammanifested in the
form of anger; vibhvyatecan be manifested; jagat-pavitra-tmaniin
He whose body can purify the whole world; khein the sky; rajadust;
It is sometimes argued that the sons of King Sagara were burned to
ashes by the fire emanating from the eyes of Kapila Muni. This
statement, however, is not approved by great learned persons, for
Kapila Muni's body is completely in the mode of goodness and therefore
cannot manifest the mode of ignorance in the form of anger, just as the
pure sky cannot be polluted by the dust of the earth.
yasyerit skhyamay dheha naur


yay mumukus tarate duratyayam

bhavrava mtyu-patha vipacita
partma-bhtasya katha ptha-mati
yasyaby whom; rithad been explained; skhya-mayhaving the
form of the philosophy analyzing the material world (Skhya
philosophy); dhvery strong (to deliver people from this material
world); ihain this material world; naua boat; yayby which;
mumukua person desiring to be liberated; taratecan cross over;
duratyayamvery difficult to cross; bhava-aravamthe ocean of
nescience; mtyu-pathama material life of repeated birth and death;
vipacitaof a learned person; partma-bhtasyawho has been
elevated to the transcendental platform; kathamhow; pthak-matia
sense of distinction (between enemy and friend).
Kapila Muni enunciated in this material world the Skhya philosophy,
which is a strong boat with which to cross over the ocean of nescience.
Indeed, a person eager to cross the ocean of the material world may
take shelter of this philosophy. In such a greatly learned person,
situated on the elevated platform of transcendence, how can there be
any distinction between enemy and friend?
One who is promoted to the transcendental position (brahma-bhta [SB
4.30.20]) is always jubilant (prasanntm). He is unaffected by the false
distinctions between good and bad in the material world. Therefore, such
an exalted person is sama sarveu bhteu; that is to say, he is equal
toward everyone, not distinguishing between friend and enemy. Because
he is on the absolute platform, free from material contamination, he is
called partma-bhta or brahma-bhta. Kapila Muni, therefore, was not at
all angry at the sons of Sagara Mahrja; rather, they were burnt to ashes
by the heat of their own bodies.
yo 'samajasa ity ukta
sa keiny nptmaja
tasya putro 'umn nma
pitmaha-hite rata
yaone of the sons of Sagara Mahrja; asamajasawhose name was


Asamajasa; itias such; uktaknown; sahe; keinyin the

womb of Kein, the other queen of Sagara Mahrja; npa-tmajathe
son of the King; tasyaof him (Asamajasa); putrathe son; aumn
nmawas known as Aumn; pitmaha-hitein doing good for his
grandfather, Sagara Mahrja; rataalways engaged.
Among the sons of Sagara Mahrja was one named Asamajasa, who
was born from the King's second wife, Kein. The son of Asamajasa
was known as Aumn, and he was always engaged in working for the
good of Sagara Mahrja, his grandfather.
TEXTS 15-16
asamajasa tmna
darayann asamajasam
jti-smara pur sagd
yog yogd viclita
caran garhita loke
jtn karma vipriyam
sarayv krato bln
prsyad udvejaya janam
asamajasathe son of Sagara Mahrja; tmnampersonally;
darayanexhibiting; asamajasamvery disturbing; jti-smaraable
to remember his past life; purformerly; sagtfrom bad association;
yogalthough he was a great mystic yog; yogtfrom the path of
executing mystic yoga; viclitafell down; caranbehaving;
garhitamvery badly; lokein the society; jtnmof his relatives;
karmaactivities; vipriyamnot very favorable; sarayvmin the River
Saray; kratawhile engaged in sports; blnall the boys; prsyat
would throw; udvejayangiving trouble; janamto people in general.
Formerly, in his previous birth, Asamajasa had been a great mystic
yogi, but by bad association he had fallen from his exalted position.
Now, in this life, he was born in a royal family and was a jti-smara;
that is, he had the special advantage of being able to remember his past
birth. Nonetheless, he wanted to display himself as a miscreant, and
therefore he would do things that were abominable in the eyes of the
public and unfavorable to his relatives. He would disturb the boys


sporting in the River Saray by throwing them into the depths of the
eva vtta parityakta
pitr sneham apohya vai
yogaivaryea bls tn
darayitv tato yayau
evam vttathus engaged (in abominable activities); parityakta
condemned; pitrby his father; snehamaffection; apohyagiving up;
vaiindeed; yoga-aivaryeaby mystic power; bln tnall those boys
(thrown in the water and killed); darayitvafter again showing them all
to their parents; tata yayauhe left that place.
Because Asamajasa engaged in such abominable activities, his father
gave up affection for him and had him exiled. Then Asamajasa
exhibited his mystic power by reviving the boys and showing them to
the King and their parents. After this, Asamajasa left Ayodhy.
Asamajasa was a jti-smara; because of his mystic power, he did not
forget his previous consciousness. Thus he could give life to the dead. By
exhibiting wonderful activities in relation to the dead children, he
certainly attracted the attention of the King and the people in general.
Then he left that place immediately.
ayodhy-vsina sarve
blakn punar gatn
dv visismire rjan
rj cpy anvatapyata
ayodhy-vsinathe inhabitants of Ayodhy; sarveall of them;
blakntheir sons; punaagain; gatnhaving come back to life;
dvafter seeing this; visismirebecame astounded; rjanO King
Parkit; rjKing Sagara; caalso; apiindeed; anvatapyatavery
much lamented (the absence of his son).
O King Parkit, when all the inhabitants of Ayodhy saw that their


boys had come back to life, they were astounded, and King Sagara
greatly lamented the absence of his son.
aum codito rj
turagnveae yayau
bhasmnti dade hayam
aumnthe son of Asamajasa; coditabeing ordered; rjby the
King; turagathe horse; anveaeto search for; yayauwent out;
pitvya-khtaas described by his father's brothers; anupatham
following that path; bhasma-antinear the stack of ashes; dadehe saw;
hayamthe horse.
Thereafter, Aumn, the grandson of Mahrja Sagara, was ordered by
the King to search for the horse. Following the same path traversed by
his uncles, Aumn gradually reached the stack of ashes and found
the horse nearby.
tatrsna muni vkya
kapilkhyam adhokajam
astaut samhita-man
prjali praato mahn
tatrathere; snamseated; munimthe great sage; vkyaseeing;
kapila-khyamknown as Kapila Muni; adhokajamthe incarnation of
Viu; astautoffered prayers; samhita-manwith great attention;
prjaliwith folded hands; praatafalling down, offered obeisances;
mahnAumn, the great personality.
The great Aumn saw the sage named Kapila, the saint who is an
incarnation of Viu, sitting there by the horse. Aumn offered Him
respectful obeisances, folded his hands and offered Him prayers with
great attention.


aumn uvca
na payati tv param tmano 'jano
na budhyate 'dypi samdhi-yuktibhi
kuto 'pare tasya mana-arra-dhvisarga-s vayam aprak
aumn uvcaAumn said; nanot; payatican see; tvmYour
Lordship; paramtranscendental; tmanaof us living beings; ajana
Lord Brahm; nanot; budhyatecan understand; adya apieven today;
samdhiby meditation; yuktibhior by mental speculation; kuta
how; apareothers; tasyahis; mana-arra-dhwho consider the
body or mind to be the self; visarga-screated beings within the
material world; vayamwe; aprakwithout transcendental
Aumn said: My Lord, even Lord Brahm is to this very day unable
to understand Your position, which is far beyond himself, either by
meditation or by mental speculation. So what to speak of others like us,
who have been created by Brahm in various forms as demigods,
animals, human beings, birds and beasts? We are completely in
ignorance. Therefore, how can we know You, who are the
dvandva-mohena bhrata
sarva-bhtni sammoha
sarge ynti parantapa
"O scion of Bharata [Arjuna], O conqueror of the foe, all living entities are
born into delusion, overcome by the dualities of desire and hate." (Bg.
7.27) All living beings in the material world are influenced by the three
modes of material nature. Even Lord Brahm is in the mode of goodness.
Similarly, the demigods are generally in the mode of passion, and living
entities lower than the demigods, such as human beings and animals, are
in the mode of ignorance, or in mixed goodness, passion and ignorance.
Therefore Aumn wanted to explain that because his uncles, who had
burnt to ashes, were under the modes of material nature, they could not


understand Lord Kapiladeva. "Because You are beyond even the direct
and indirect intelligence of Lord Brahm," he prayed, "unless we are
enlightened by Your Lordship it will not be possible for us to understand
athpi te deva padmbuja-dvayaprasda-lenughta eva hi
jnti tattva bhagavan-mahimno
na cnya eko 'pi cira vicinvan
"My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your
lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those
who speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are
unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for
many years." (SB 10.14.29) The Lord, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, can be understood by one who is favored by the Lord; the Lord
cannot be understood by others.
ye deha-bhjas tri-gua-pradhn
gun vipayanty uta v tama ca
yan-myay mohita-cetasas tv
vidu sva-sastha na bahi-prak
yethose persons who; deha-bhjahave accepted the material body;
tri-gua-pradhninfluenced by the three modes of material nature;
gunthe manifestation of the three modes of material nature;
vipayantican see only; utait is so said; veither; tamathe mode
of ignorance; caand; yat-myayby the illusory energy of whom;
mohitahas been bewildered; cetasathe core of whose heart; tvm
Your Lordship; viduknow; sva-sasthamsituated in one's own body;
nanot; bahi-prakthose who can see only the products of
external energy.
My Lord, You are fully situated in everyone's heart, but the living
entities, covered by the material body, cannot see You, for they are
influenced by the external energy, conducted by the three modes of
material nature. Their intelligence being covered by sattva-gua, rajogua and tamo-gua, they can see only the actions and reactions of


these three modes of material nature. Because of the actions and

reactions of the mode of ignorance, whether the living entities are
awake or sleeping, they can see only the workings of material nature;
they cannot see Your Lordship.
Unless one is situated in the transcendental loving service of the Lord,
one is unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The
Lord is situated in everyone's heart. However, because the conditioned
souls are influenced by material nature, they can see only the actions and
reactions of material nature, but not the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
One therefore must purify himself internally and externally:
apavitra pavitro v
sarvvasth gato 'pi v
ya smaret puarkka
sa bhybhyantara uci
To keep ourselves externally clean we should bathe three times daily, and
for internal cleanliness we must cleanse the heart by chanting the Hare
Ka mantra. The members of the Ka consciousness movement must
always follow this principle (bhybhyantara uci). Then it will one day
be possible to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead face to face.
ta tv aha jna-ghana svabhvapradhvasta-my-gua-bheda-mohai
sanandandyair munibhir vibhvya
katha vimha paribhvaymi
tamthat personality; tvmunto You; ahamI; jna-ghanamYour
Lordship, who are concentrated knowledge; svabhvaby spiritual
nature; pradhvastafree from contamination; my-guacaused by the
three modes of material nature; bheda-mohaiby exhibition of the
bewilderment of differentiation; sanandana-dyaiby such personalities
as the four Kumras (Sanat-kumra, Sanaka, Sanandana and Santana);
munibhiby such great sages; vibhvyamworshipable; kathamhow;
vimhabeing fooled by the material nature; paribhvaymican I
think of You.


O my Lord, sages freed from the influence of the three modes of

material naturesages such as the four Kumras [Sanat, Sanaka,
Sanandana and Santana]are able to think of You, who are
concentrated knowledge. But how can an ignorant person like me think
of You?
The word svabhva refers to one's own spiritual nature or original
constitutional position. When situated in this original position, the living
entity is unaffected by the modes of material nature. Sa gun
samattyaitn brahma-bhyya kalpate (Bg. 14.26). As soon as one is freed
from the influence of the three modes of material nature, he is situated on
the Brahman platform. Vivid examples of personalities thus situated are
the four Kumras and Nrada. Such authorities can by nature understand
the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but a conditioned
soul not freed from the influence of material nature is unable to realize
the Supreme. In Bhagavad-gt (2.45), therefore, Ka advises Arjuna,
traiguya-viay ved nistraiguyo bhavrjuna: one must rise above the
influence of the three modes of material nature. One who stays within the
influence of the three material modes is unable to understand the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
pranta my-gua-karma-ligam
anma-rpa sad-asad-vimuktam
jnopadeya ghta-deha
nammahe tv purua puram
prantaO completely peaceful one; my-guathe modes of material
nature; karma-ligamsymptomized by fruitive activities; anmarpamone who has no material name or form; sat-asat-vimuktam
transcendental to the manifested and nonmanifested modes of material
nature; jna-upadeyafor distributing transcendental knowledge (as
in Bhagavad-gt); ghta-dehamhas assumed a form like a material
body; nammaheI offer my respectful obeisances; tvmunto You;
puruamthe Supreme Person; puramthe original.
O completely peaceful Lord, although material nature, fruitive activities
and their consequent material names and forms are Your creation, You
are unaffected by them. Therefore, Your transcendental name is


different from material names, and Your form is different from material
forms. You assume a form resembling a material body just to give us
instructions like those of Bhagavad-gt, but actually You are the
supreme original person. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances
unto You.
rla Ymuncrya has recited this verse in his Stotra-ratna (43):
bhavantam evnucaran nirantara
kadham aikntika-nitya-kikara
praharayiymi santha-jvitam
"By serving You constantly, one is freed from all material desires and is
completely pacified. When shall I engage as Your permanent eternal
servant and always feel joyful to have such a fitting master?"
Manorathensati dhvato bahi: [SB 5.18.12] one who acts on the mental
platform must descend to material activities. Material contamination,
however, is completely absent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead
and His pure devotee. Therefore the Lord is addressed as pranta,
completely peaceful, free from the disturbances of material existence. The
Supreme Lord has no material name or form; only the foolish think that
the Lord's name and form are material (avajnanti m mh mnu
tanum ritam [Bg. 9.11]). The identity of the Supreme Lord is that He is
the original person. Nonetheless, those who have but a poor fund of
knowledge think that the Lord is formless. The Lord is formless in the
material sense, but He has His transcendental form (sac-cid-nandavigraha [Bs. 5.1]).
tvan-my-racite loke
vastu-buddhy ghdiu
bhramanti kma-lobherymoha-vibhrnta-cetasa
tvat-mythrough Your material energy; racitewhich is manufactured;
lokein this world; vastu-buddhyaccepting as factual; gha-diuin
hearth and home, etc.; bhramantiwander; kmaby lusty desires;
lobhaby greed; ryby envy; mohaand by illusion; vibhrntais


bewildered; cetasathe cores of whose hearts.

O my Lord, those whose hearts are bewildered by the influence of lust,
greed, envy and illusion are interested only in false hearth and home in
this world created by Your my. Attached to home, wife and children,
they wander in this material world perpetually.
adya na sarva-bhttman
moha-po dha chinno
bhagavas tava darant
adyatoday; naour; sarva-bhta-tmanO You, who are the
Supersoul; kma-karma-indriya-ayabeing under the influence of
lusty desires and fruitive activities; moha-pathis hard knot of
illusion; dhavery strong; chinnabroken; bhagavanO my Lord;
tava darantsimply by seeing You.
O Supersoul of all living entities, O Personality of Godhead, simply by
seeing You I have now been freed from all lusty desires, which are the
root cause of insurmountable illusion and bondage in the material
r-uka uvca
ittha gtnubhvas ta
bhagavn kapilo muni
aumantam uvcedam
anugrhya dhiy npa
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; itthamin this way; gtaanubhvawhose glories are described; tamunto Him; bhagavnthe
Personality of Godhead; kapilanamed Kapila Muni; munithe great
anugrhyabeing very merciful; dhiywith the path of knowledge;
npaO King Parkit.


O King Parkit, when Aumn had glorified the Lord in this way, the
great sage Kapila, the powerful incarnation of Viu, being very
merciful to him, explained to him the path of knowledge.
r-bhagavn uvca
avo 'ya nyat vatsa
pitmaha-paus tava
ime ca pitaro dagdh
gagmbho 'rhanti netarat
r-bhagavn uvcathe great personality Kapila Muni said; avahorse;
ayamthis; nyatmtake; vatsaO My son; pitmahaof your
grandfather; pauthis animal; tavayour; imeall these; caalso;
pitarabodies of forefathers; dagdhburnt to ashes; gag-ambha
the water of the Ganges; arhantican be saved; nanot; itaratany
other means.
The Personality of Godhead said: My dear Aumn, here is the animal
sought by your grandfather for sacrifice. Please take it. As for your
forefathers, who have been burnt to ashes, they can be delivered only
by Ganges water, and not by any other means.
ta parikramya iras
prasdya hayam nayat
sagaras tena paun
yaja-ea sampayat
tamthat great sage; parikramyaafter circumambulating; iras(by
bowing down) with his head; prasdyamaking Him fully satisfied;
hayamthe horse; nayatbrought back; sagaraKing Sagara; tena
by that; paunanimal; yaja-eamthe last ritualistic ceremony of the
sacrifice; sampayatexecuted.
Thereafter, Aumn circumambulated Kapila Muni and offered Him
respectful obeisances, bowing his head. After fully satisfying Him in
this way, Aumn brought back the horse meant for sacrifice, and


with this horse Mahrja Sagara performed the remaining ritualistic

rjyam aumate nyasya
nispho mukta-bandhana
lebhe gatim anuttamm
rjyamhis kingdom; aumateunto Aumn; nyasyaafter
delivering; nisphawithout further material desires; muktabandhanacompletely freed from material bondage; aurva-upadia
instructed by the great sage Aurva; mrgeaby following that path;
lebheachieved; gatimdestination; anuttammsupreme.
After delivering charge of his kingdom to Aumn and thus being
freed from all material anxiety and bondage, Sagara Mahrja, following
the means instructed by Aurva Muni, achieved the supreme destination.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Eighth Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord


9. The Dynasty of Aumn

This chapter describes the history of the dynasty of Aumn, up to

Khavga, and it also describes how Bhagratha brought the water of the
Ganges to this earth.
The son of Mahrja Aumn was Dilpa, who tried to bring the Ganges
to this world but who died without success. Bhagratha, the son of Dilpa,
was determined to bring the Ganges to the material world, and for this
purpose he underwent severe austerities. Mother Ganges, being fully
satisfied by his austerities, made herself visible to him, wanting to give
him a benediction. Bhagratha then asked her to deliver his forefathers.
Although mother Ganges agreed to come down to earth, she made two
conditions: first, she wanted some suitable male to be able to control her
waves; second, although all sinful men would be freed from sinful
reactions by bathing in the Ganges, mother Ganges did not want to keep
all these sinful reactions. These two conditions were subject matters for
consideration. Bhagratha replied to mother Ganges, "The Personality of
Godhead Lord iva will be completely able to control the waves of your
water, and when pure devotees bathe in your water, the sinful reactions
left by sinful men will be counteracted." Bhagratha then performed
austerities to satisfy Lord iva, who is called utoa because he is
naturally satisfied very easily. Lord iva agreed to Bhagratha's proposal to
check the force of the Ganges. In this way, simply by the touch of the
Ganges, Bhagratha's forefathers were delivered and allowed to go to the
heavenly planets.
The son of Bhagratha was ruta, the son of ruta was Nbha, and Nbha's
son was Sindhudvpa. The son of Sindhudvpa was Ayutyu, and the son
of Ayutyu was tpara, who was a friend of Nala. tpara gave Nala
the art of gambling and learned from him the art of ava-vidy. The son of
tpara was known as Sarvakma, the son of Sarvakma was Sudsa,
and his son was Saudsa. The wife of Saudsa was named Damayant or
Madayant, and Saudsa was also known as Kalmapda. Because of some
defect in his fruitive activities, Saudsa was cursed by Vasiha to become
a Rkasa. While walking through the forest, he saw a brhmaa engaged


in sex with his wife, and because he had become a Rkasa he wanted to
devour the brhmaa. Although the brhmaa's wife pleaded with him in
many ways, Saudsa devoured the brhmaa, and the wife therefore
cursed him, saying, "As soon as you engage in sex you will die." After
twelve years, therefore, even though Saudsa was released from the curse
of Vasiha Muni, he remained sonless. At that time, with Saudsa's
permission, Vasiha impregnated Saudsa's wife, Madayant. Because
Madayant bore the child for many years but still could not give birth,
Vasiha struck her abdomen with a stone, and thus a son was born. The
son was named Amaka.
The son of Amaka was known as Blika. He was protected from the curse
of Paraurma because of being surrounded by many women, and
therefore he is also known as Nrkavaca. When the entire world was
devoid of katriyas, he became the original father of more katriyas. He is
therefore sometimes called Mlaka. From Blika, Daaratha was born,
from Daaratha came Aiavii, and from Aiavii came Vivasaha. The
son of Vivasaha was Mahrja Khavga. Mahrja Khavga joined the
demigods in fighting the demons and was victorious, and the demigods
therefore wanted to give him a benediction. But when the King inquired
how long he would live and understood that his life would last only a few
seconds more, he immediately left the heavenly planets and returned to
his own abode by airplane. He could understand that everything in this
material world is insignificant, and thus he fully engaged in worshiping
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari.
r-uka uvca
aum ca tapas tepe
kla mahnta naknot
tata klena sasthita
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; aumnthe king named
Aumn; caalso; tapa tepeexecuted austerity; gagthe Ganges;
nayana-kmyaywith a desire to bring the Ganges to this material
world to deliver his forefathers; klamtime; mahntamfor a long
duration; nanot; aaknotwas successful; tatathereafter; klenain
due course of time; sasthitadied.


ukadeva Gosvm continued: King Aumn, like his grandfather,

performed austerities for a very long time. Nonetheless, he could not
bring the Ganges to this material world, and thereafter, in due course of
time, he died.
dilpas tat-sutas tadvad
aakta klam eyivn
bhagrathas tasya sutas
tepe sa sumahat tapa
dilpanamed Dilpa; tat-sutathe son of Aumn; tat-vatlike his
father; aaktabeing unable to bring the Ganges to the material world;
klam eyivnbecame a victim of time and died; bhagratha tasya
sutahis son Bhagratha; tepeexecuted penance; sahe; su-mahat
very great; tapaausterity.
Like Aumn himself, Dilpa, his son, was unable to bring the Ganges
to this material world, and he also became a victim of death in due
course of time. Then Dilpa's son, Bhagratha, performed very severe
austerities to bring the Ganges to this material world.
daraym sa ta dev
prasann varadsmi te
ity ukta svam abhiprya
aasvanato npa
daraym saappeared; tamunto him, King Bhagratha; devmother
Ganges; prasannbeing very much satisfied; varad asmiI shall bless
with my benediction; teunto you; iti uktathus being addressed;
svamhis own; abhipryamdesire; aasaexplained; avanatavery
respectfully bowing down; npathe King (Bhagratha).
Thereafter, mother Ganges appeared before King Bhagratha and said,
"I am very much satisfied with your austerities and am now prepared to
give you benedictions as you desire." Being thus addressed by
Gagdev, mother Ganges, the King bowed his head before her and


explained his desire.

The King's desire was to deliver his forefathers, who had been burnt to
ashes because of disrespecting Kapila Muni.
ko 'pi dhrayit vega
patanty me mah-tale
anyath bh-tala bhittv
npa ysye rastalam
kawho is that person; apiindeed; dhrayitwho can sustain;
vegamthe force of the waves; patantywhile falling down; meof
me; mah-taleupon this earth; anyathotherwise; bh-talamthe
surface of the earth; bhittvpiercing; npaO King; ysyeI shall go
down; rastalamto Ptla, the lower part of the universe.
Mother Ganges replied: When I fall from the sky to the surface of the
planet earth, the water will certainly be very forceful. Who will sustain
that force? If I am not sustained, I shall pierce the surface of the earth
and go down to Rastala, the Ptla area of the universe.
ki cha na bhuva ysye
nar mayy mjanty agham
mjmi tad agha kvha
rjas tatra vicintyatm
kim caalso; ahamI; nanot; bhuvamto the planet earth; ysye
shall go; narthe people in general; mayiin me, in my water;
mjanticleanse; aghamthe reactions of their sinful activity; mjmi
I shall wash; tatthat; aghamaccumulation of sinful reactions; kva
unto whom; ahamI; rjanO King; tatraon this fact; vicintyatm
please consider carefully and decide.
O King, I do not wish to go down to the planet earth, for there the
people in general will bathe in my water to cleanse themselves of the
reactions of their sinful deeds. When all these sinful reactions
accumulate in me, how shall I become free from them? You must


consider this very carefully.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead says:
sarva-dharmn parityajya
mm eka araa vraja
aha tv sarva-ppebhyo
mokayiymi m uca
"Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall
deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." (Bg. 18.66) The
Supreme Personality of Godhead can accept the reactions of anyone's
sinful deeds and neutralize them because He is pavitra, pure, like the sun,
which is never contaminated by any worldly infection. Tejyas na
doya vahne sama-bhujo yath (SB 10.33.29). One who is very powerful
is not affected by any sinful activity. But here we see that mother Ganges
fears being burdened with the sins of the people in general who would
bathe in her waters. This indicates that no one but the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is able to neutralize the reactions of sinful deeds,
whether one's own or those of others. Sometimes the spiritual master,
after accepting a disciple, must take charge of that disciple's past sinful
activities and, being overloaded, must sometimes sufferif not fully, then
partiallyfor the sinful acts of the disciple. Every disciple, therefore,
must be very careful not to commit sinful activities after initiation. The
poor spiritual master is kind and merciful enough to accept a disciple and
partially suffer for that disciple's sinful activities, but Ka, being
merciful to His servant, neutralizes the reactions of sinful deeds for the
servant who engages in preaching His glories. Even mother Ganges feared
the sinful reactions of the people in general and was anxious about how
she would counteract the burden of these sins.
r-bhagratha uvca
sdhavo nysina nt
brahmih loka-pvan
haranty agha te 'ga-sagt
tev ste hy agha-bhid dhari






nysinasannyss; ntpeaceful, free from material disturbances;

brahmihexpert in following the regulative principles of Vedic
scripture; loka-pvanwho are engaged in delivering the entire world
from a fallen condition; harantishall remove; aghamthe reactions of
sinful life; teof you (mother Ganges); aga-sagtby bathing in the
Ganges water; teuwithin themselves; stethere is; hiindeed; aghabhitthe Supreme Personality, who can vanquish all sinful activities;
harithe Lord.
Bhagratha said: Those who are saintly because of devotional service
and are therefore in the renounced order, free from material desires,
and who are pure devotees, expert in following the regulative principles
mentioned in the Vedas, are always glorious and pure in behavior and
are able to deliver all fallen souls. When such pure devotees bathe in
your water, the sinful reactions accumulated from other people will
certainly be counteracted, for such devotees always keep in the core of
their hearts the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can vanquish all
sinful reactions.
Mother Ganges is available to everyone for bathing. Therefore, not only
will sinful persons bathe in the Ganges water, but in Hardwar and other
holy places where the Ganges flows, saintly persons and devotees will also
bathe in the waters of the Ganges. Devotees and saintly persons advanced
in the renounced order can deliver even the Ganges. Trth-kurvanti
trthni svnta-sthena gadbht (SB 1.13.10). Because saintly devotees
always keep the Lord within the core of their hearts, they can perfectly
cleanse the holy places of all sinful reactions. Therefore, people in general
must always respectfully honor saintly persons. It is ordered that as soon
as one sees a Vaiava, or even a sannys, one should immediately offer
respects to such a holy man. If one forgets to show respect in this way,
one must observe a fast for that day. This is a Vedic injunction. One must
be extremely careful to refrain from committing offenses at the lotus feet
of a devotee or saintly person.
There are methods of pryacitta, or atonement, but they are inadequate
to cleanse one of sinful reactions. One can be cleansed of sinful reactions
only by devotional service, as stated in regard to the history of Ajmila:
kecit kevalay bhakty


agha dhunvanti krtsnyena

nhram iva bhskara
"Only a rare person who has adopted complete, unalloyed devotional
service to Ka can uproot the weeds of sinful actions with no possibility
that they will revive. He can do this simply by discharging devotional
service, just as the sun can immediately dissipate fog by its rays." (SB
6.1.15) If one is under the protection of a devotee and sincerely renders
service unto him, by this process of bhakti-yoga one is certainly able to
counteract all sinful reactions.
dhrayiyati te vega
rudras tv tm arrim
yasminn otam ida prota
viva va tantuu
dhrayiyatiwill sustain; teyour; vegamforce of the waves; rudra
Lord iva; tuindeed; tmthe Supersoul; arrimof all embodied
souls; yasminin whom; otamis situated in its longitude; idamthis
whole universe; protamlatitude; vivamthe whole universe; a
cloth; ivaas; tantuuin threads.
Like a cloth woven of threads extending for its length and breadth, this
entire universe, in all its latitude and longitude, is situated under
different potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord iva is
the incarnation of the Lord, and thus he represents the Supersoul in the
embodied soul. He can sustain your forceful waves on his head.
The water of the Ganges is supposed to rest on the head of Lord iva.
Lord iva is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who
sustains the entire universe by different potencies. Lord iva is described
in the Brahma-sahit (5.45):
kra yath dadhi vikra-viea-yogt
sajyate na hi tata pthag asti heto
ya ambhutm api tath samupaiti kryd
govindam di-purua tam aha bhajmi


"Milk changes into yogurt when mixed with a yogurt culture, but actually
yogurt is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, assumes the form of Lord iva for the
special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at Lord
Govinda's lotus feet." Lord iva is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in
the same sense that yogurt is also milk although at the same time it is not
milk. For the maintenance of the material world there are three
incarnationsBrahm, Viu and Mahevara (Lord iva). Lord iva is
Viu in an incarnation for the mode of ignorance. The material world
exists predominantly in the mode of ignorance. Therefore Lord iva is
compared here to the longitude and latitude of the entire universe, which
resembles a cloth woven of threads extending for both its length and
ity uktv sa npo deva
tapastoayac chivam
klenlpyas rjas
tasyea cv atuyata
iti uktvafter saying this; sahe; npathe King (Bhagratha);
devamunto Lord iva; tapasby executing austerities; atoayat
pleased; ivamLord iva, the all-auspicious; klenaby time; alpyas
which was not very long; rjanO King; tasyaupon him (Bhagratha);
aLord iva; caindeed; uvery soon; atuyatabecame satisfied.
After saying this, Bhagratha satisfied Lord iva by performing
austerities. O King Parkit, Lord iva was very quickly satisfied with
The words v atuyata indicate that Lord iva was satisfied very soon.
Therefore another name for Lord iva is utoa. Materialistic persons
become attached to Lord iva because Lord iva bestows benedictions
upon anyone and everyone very quickly, not caring to know how his
devotees prosper or suffer. Although materialistic persons know that
material happiness is nothing but another side of suffering, they want it,
and to get it very quickly they worship Lord iva. We find that
materialists are generally devotees of many demigods, especially Lord iva
and mother Durg. They do not actually want spiritual happiness, for it is


almost unknown to them. But if one is serious about being happy

spiritually, he must take shelter of Lord Viu, as the Lord personally
sarva-dharmn parityajya
mm eka araa vraja
aha tv sarva-ppebhyo
mokayiymi m uca
"Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall
deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." (Bg. 18.66)
tatheti rjbhihita
sarva-loka-hita iva
dadhrvahito gag
pda-pta-jal hare
tath(let it be) so; itithus; rj abhihitamhaving been addressed by
the King (Bhagratha); sarva-loka-hitathe Personality of Godhead, who
is always auspicious to everyone; ivaLord iva; dadhrasustained;
avahitawith great attention; gagmthe Ganges; pda-pta-jalm
harewhose water is transcendentally pure because of emanating from
the toes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viu.
When King Bhagratha approached Lord iva and requested him to
sustain the forceful waves of the Ganges, Lord iva accepted the
proposal by saying, "Let it be so." Then, with great attention, he
sustained the Ganges on his head, for the water of the Ganges is
purifying, having emanated from the toes of Lord Viu.
bhagratha sa rjarir
ninye bhuvana-pvanm
yatra sva-pit deh
bhasmbht sma erate
bhagrathaKing Bhagratha; sahe; rja-ithe great saintly king;
ninyecarried or brought; bhuvana-pvanmmother Ganges, who can


deliver the whole universe; yatrain that place where; sva-pitmof

his forefathers; dehthe bodies; bhasmbhthaving been burnt to
ashes; sma eratewere lying.
The great and saintly king Bhagratha brought the Ganges, which can
deliver all the fallen souls, to that place on earth where the bodies of his
forefathers lay burnt to ashes.
rathena vyu-vegena
prayntam anudhvat
den punant nirdagdhn
sicat sagartmajn
rathenaon a chariot; vyu-vegenadriving at the speed of the wind;
prayntamMahrja Bhagratha, who was going in front; anudhvat
running after; denall the countries; punantsanctifying;
nirdagdhnwho had been burnt to ashes; sicatsprinkled over;
sagara-tmajnthe sons of Sagara.
Bhagratha mounted a swift chariot and drove before mother Ganges,
who followed him, purifying many countries, until they reached the
ashes of Bhagratha's forefathers, the sons of Sagara, who were thus
sprinkled with water from the Ganges.
brahma-daa-hat api
sagartmaj diva jagmu
kevala deha-bhasmabhi
yat-jalawhose water; spara-mtreasimply by touching; brahmadaa-hatthose who were condemned for offending brahma, the self;
apialthough; sagara-tmajthe sons of Sagara; divamto the
heavenly planets; jagmuwent; kevalamonly; deha-bhasmabhiby
the remaining ashes of their burnt bodies.
Because the sons of Sagara Mahrja had offended a great personality,


the heat of their bodies had increased, and they were burnt to ashes.
But simply by being sprinkled with water from the Ganges, all of them
became eligible to go to the heavenly planets. What then is to be said of
those who use the water of mother Ganges to worship her?
Mother Ganges is worshiped by the water of the Ganges: a devotee takes a
little water from the Ganges and offers it back to the Ganges. When the
devotee takes the water, mother Ganges does not lose anything, and when
the water is offered back, mother Ganges does not increase, but in this
way the worshiper of the Ganges is benefited. Similarly, a devotee of the
Lord offers the Lord patra pupa phala toyam [Bg. 9.26]a leaf,
flower, fruit or waterin great devotion, but everything, including the
leaf, flower, fruit and water, belongs to the Lord, and therefore there is
nothing to renounce or to accept. One must simply take advantage of the
bhakti process because by following this process one does not lose
anything but one gains the favor of the Supreme Person.
svar yt sagartmaj
ki puna raddhay dev
sevante ye dhta-vrat
bhasmbhta-agaby the body which had been burnt to ashes;
sagenaby contacting the water of the Ganges; sva ytwent to the
heavenly planets; sagara-tmajthe sons of Sagara; kimwhat to speak
of; punaagain; raddhaywith faith and devotion; devmunto
mother Ganges; sevanteworship; yethose persons who; dhta-vrat
with vows of determination.
Simply by having water from the Ganges come in contact with the ashes
of their burnt bodies, the sons of Sagara Mahrja were elevated to the
heavenly planets. Therefore, what is to be said of a devotee who
worships mother Ganges faithfully with a determined vow? One can
only imagine the benefit that accrues to such a devotee.
na hy etat param carya


svardhuny yad ihoditam

ananta-carambhojaprasty bhava-cchida
nanot; hiindeed; etatthis; paramultimate; caryamwonderful
thing; svardhunyof the water of the Ganges; yatwhich; iha
herewith; uditamhas been described; anantaof the Supreme Lord;
caraa-ambhojafrom the lotus of the feet; prastyof that which
emanates; bhava-chidawhich can liberate from material bondage.
Because mother Ganges emanates from the lotus toe of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Anantadeva, she is able to liberate one from
material bondage. Therefore whatever is described herewith about her
is not at all wonderful.
It has actually been seen that anyone who regularly worships mother
Ganges simply by bathing in her water keeps very good health and
gradually becomes a devotee of the Lord. This is the effect of bathing in
the water of the Ganges. Bathing in the Ganges is recommended in all
Vedic stras, and one who takes to this path will certainly be completely
freed from all sinful reactions. The practical example of this is that the
sons of Mahrja Sagara went to the heavenly planets when water from
the Ganges merely touched the ashes of their burnt bodies.
sanniveya mano yasmi
chraddhay munayo 'mal
traiguya dustyaja hitv
sadyo yts tad-tmatm
sanniveyagiving full attention; manathe mind; yasminunto
whom; raddhaywith faith and devotion; munayagreat saintly
persons; amalfreed from all contamination of sins; traiguyamthe
three modes of material nature; dustyajamvery difficult to give up;
hitvthey can nonetheless give up; sadyaimmediately; yt
achieved; tat-tmatmthe spiritual quality of the Supreme.
Great sages, completely freed from material lusty desires, devote their
minds fully to the service of the Lord. Such persons are liberated from
material bondage without difficulty, and they become transcendentally


situated, acquiring the spiritual quality of the Lord. This is the glory of
the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TEXTS 16-17
ruto bhagrathj jaje
tasya nbho 'paro 'bhavat
sindhudvpas tatas tasmd
ayutyus tato 'bhavat
tparo nala-sakho
yo 'va-vidym ayn nalt
dattvka-hdaya csmai
sarvakmas tu tat-sutam
rutaa son named ruta; bhagrathtfrom Bhagratha; jajewas
born; tasyaof ruta; nbhaby the name Nbha; aparadifferent
from the Nbha previously described; abhavatwas born; sindhudvpa
by the name Sindhudvpa; tatafrom Nbha; tasmtfrom
Sindhudvpa; ayutyua son named Ayutyu; tatathereafter;
abhavatwas born; tparaa son named tpara; nala-sakha
who was a friend of Nala; yaone who; ava-vidymthe art of
controlling horses; aytachieved; naltfrom Nala; dattvafter giving
in exchange; aka-hdayamthe secrets of the art of gambling; caand;
asmaiunto Nala; sarvakmaby the name Sarvakma; tuindeed; tatsutamhis son (the son of tpara).
Bhagratha had a son named ruta, whose son was Nbha. This son was
different from the Nbha previously described. Nbha had a son named
Sindhudvpa, from Sindhudvpa came Ayutyu, and from Ayutyu came
tpara, who became a friend of Nalarja. tpara taught Nalarja
the art of gambling, and Nalarja gave tpara lessons in controlling
and maintaining horses. The son of tpara was Sarvakma.
Gambling is also an art. Katriyas are allowed to exhibit talent in this art
of gambling. By the grace of Ka, the Pavas lost everything by
gambling and were deprived of their kingdom, wife, family and home
because they were not expert in the gambling art. In other words, a
devotee may not be expert in materialistic activities. It is therefore advised
in the stra that materialistic activities are not at all suitable for the living


entities, especially the devotees. A devotee should therefore be satisfied to

eat whatever is sent as prasda by the Supreme Lord. A devotee remains
pure because he does not take to sinful activities such as gambling,
intoxication, meat-eating and illicit sex.
tata sudsas tat-putro
damayant-patir npa
hur mitrasaha ya vai
kalmghrim uta kvacit
vasiha-pd rako 'bhd
anapatya sva-karma
tatafrom Sarvakma; sudsaSudsa was born; tat-putrathe son
of Sudsa; damayant-patithe husband of Damayant; npahe
became king; huit is said; mitrasahamMitrasaha; yam vaialso;
kalmghrimby Kalmapda; utaknown; kvacitsometimes;
vasiha-ptbeing cursed by Vasiha; rakaa man-eater; abht
became; anapatyawithout any son; sva-karmaby his own sinful
Sarvakma had a son named Sudsa, whose son, known as Saudsa, was
the husband of Damayant. Saudsa is sometimes known as Mitrasaha
or Kalmapda. Because of his own misdeed, Mitrasaha was sonless
and was cursed by Vasiha to become a man-eater [Rkasa].
ki nimitto guro pa
saudsasya mahtmana
etad veditum icchma
kathyat na raho yadi
r-rj uvcaKing Parkit said; kim nimittafor what reason; guro
of the spiritual master; pacurse; saudsasyaof Saudsa; mahtmanaof the great soul; etatthis; veditumto know; icchmaI
wish; kathyatmplease tell me; nanot; rahaconfidential; yadiif.
King Parkit said: O ukadeva Gosvm, why did Vasiha, the spiritual


master of Saudsa, curse that great soul? I wish to know of this. If it is

not a confidential matter, please describe it to me.
TEXTS 20-21
r-uka uvca
saudso mgay kicic
caran rako jaghna ha
mumoca bhrtara so 'tha
gata praticikray
sacintayann agha rja
sda-rpa-dharo ghe
gurave bhoktu-kmya
paktv ninye narmiam
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; saudsaKing Saudsa;
mgaymin hunting; kicitsometimes; caranwandering; rakaa
Rkasa, or man-eater; jaghnakilled; hain the past; mumoca
released; bhrtaramthe brother of that Rkasa; sathat brother;
athathereafter; gatawent; praticikrayfor taking revenge;
sacintayanhe thought; aghamto do some harm; rjaof the King;
sda-rpa-dharadisguised himself as a cook; ghein the house;
guraveunto the King's spiritual master; bhoktu-kmyawho came
there to take dinner; paktvafter cooking; ninyegave him; naramiamthe flesh of a human being.
ukadeva Gosvm said: Once Saudsa went to live in the forest, where
he killed a man-eater [Rkasa] but forgave and released the man-eater's
brother. That brother, however, decided to take revenge. Thinking to
harm the King, he became the cook at the King's house. One day, the
King's spiritual master, Vasiha Muni, was invited for dinner, and the
Rkasa cook served him human flesh.
parivekyama bhagavn
vilokybhakyam ajas
rjnam aapat kruddho
rako hy eva bhaviyasi


parivekyamamwhile examining the eatables; bhagavnthe most

powerful; vilokyawhen he saw; abhakyamunfit for consumption;
ajasvery easily by his mystic power; rjnamunto the King;
aapatcursed; kruddhabeing very angry; rakaa man-eater; hi
indeed; evamin this way; bhaviyasiyou shall become.
While examining the food given to him, Vasiha Muni, by his mystic
power, could understand that it was unfit to eat, being the flesh of a
human being. He was very angry at this and immediately cursed
Saudsa to become a man-eater.
TEXTS 23-24
raka-kta tad viditv
cakre dvdaa-vrikam
so 'py apo-'jalim dya
guru aptu samudyata
vrito madayantypo
ruat pdayor jahau
dia kham avan sarva
paya jvamaya npa
raka-ktamhaving been done by the Rkasa only; tatthat serving of
human flesh; viditvafter understanding; cakre(Vasiha) performed;
dvdaa-vrikamtwelve years of penance for atonement; sathat
Saudsa; apialso; apa-ajalima palmful of water; dyataking;
gurumhis spiritual master, Vasiha; aptumto curse; samudyata
was preparing; vritabeing forbidden; madayantyby his wife, who
was also known as Madayant; apawater; ruatstrong by chanting
of a mantra; pdayo jahauthrew on his legs; diaall directions;
khamin the sky; avanmon the surface of the world; sarvam
everywhere; payanseeing; jva-mayamfull of living entities; npa
the King.
When Vasiha understood that the human flesh had been served by the
Rkasa, not by the King, he undertook twelve years of austerity to
cleanse himself for having cursed the faultless King. Meanwhile, King
Saudsa took water and chanted the apa-mantra, preparing to curse
Vasiha, but his wife, Madayant, forbade him to do so. Then the King


saw that the ten directions, the sky and the surface of the globe were
full of living entities everywhere.
rkasa bhvam panna
pde kalmat gata
vyavya-kle dade
vanauko-dampat dvijau
rkasamman-eating; bhvampropensity; pannahaving gotten;
pdeon the leg; kalmatma black spot; gataobtained; vyavyakleat the time of sexual intercourse; dadehe saw; vana-oka
living in the forest; dam-pata husband and wife; dvijauwho were
Saudsa thus acquired the propensity of a man-eater and received on
his leg a black spot, for which he was known as Kalmapda. Once
King Kalmapda saw a brhmaa couple engaged in sexual
intercourse in the forest.
TEXTS 26-27
kudhrto jaghe vipra
tat-patny hktrthavat
na bhavn rkasa skd
ikvk mah-ratha
madayanty patir vra
ndharma kartum arhasi
dehi me 'patya-kmy
aktrtha pati dvijam
kudh-rtabeing aggrieved by hunger; jaghecaught; vipramthe
brhmaa; tat-patnhis wife; hasaid; akta-artha-vatbeing
unsatisfied, poor and hungry; nanot; bhavnyourself; rkasaa
man-eater; sktdirectly or factually; ikvkmamong the
descendants of Mahrja Ikvku; mah-rathaa great fighter;
madayantyof Madayant; patithe husband; vraO hero; nanot;
adharmamirreligious act; kartumto do; arhasiyou deserve; dehi


please deliver; memy; apatya-kmydesiring to get a son; aktaarthamwhose desire has not been fulfilled; patimhusband; dvijam
who is a brhmaa.
Being influenced by the propensity of a Rkasa and being very hungry,
King Saudsa seized the brhmaa. Then the poor woman, the
brhmaa's wife, said to the King: O hero, you are not actually a maneater; rather, you are among the descendants of Mahrja Ikvku.
Indeed, you are a great fighter, the husband of Madayant. You should
not act irreligiously in this way. I desire to have a son. Please, therefore,
return my husband, who has not yet impregnated me.
deho 'ya mnuo rjan
tasmd asya vadho vra
sarvrtha-vadha ucyate
dehabody; ayamthis; mnuahuman; rjanO King; puruasya
of the living being; akhilauniversal; artha-dabeneficial; tasmt
therefore; asyaof the body of my husband; vadhathe killing; vraO
hero; sarva-artha-vadhakilling all beneficial opportunities; ucyateit
is said.
O King, O hero, this human body is meant for universal benefits. If you
kill this body untimely, you will kill all the benefits of human life.
rla Narottama dsa hkura has sung:
hari hari viphale janama goinu
manuya-janama piy, rdh-ka n bhajiy,
jniy uniy via khinu
The body of a human being is extremely valuable because in this body
one can understand the instructions of Ka and attain the ultimate
destination of the living entity. The living entity is within the material
world to fulfill the mission of going back home, back to Godhead. In the
material world, one hankers for happiness, but because one does not
know the ultimate destination, one changes bodies one after another.
However, if one gets the opportunity to possess a human form of body, in


this body he can fulfill the four principles of dharma, artha, kma and
moka, and if one is properly regulated he makes further progress, after
liberation, to engage in the service of Rdh and Ka. This is the success
of life: to stop the process of repeated birth and death and go back home,
back to Godhead (mm eti), to be engaged in the service of Rdh and
Ka. Therefore, taking a human body is meant for completing one's
progress in life. Throughout human society, killing of a human being is
taken very seriously. Hundreds and thousands of animals are killed in
slaughterhouses, and no one cares about them, but the killing of even one
human being is taken very seriously. Why? Because the human form of
body is extremely important in executing the mission of life.
ea hi brhmao vidvs
rirdhayiur brahma
bhtev antarhita guai
eathis; hiindeed; brhmaaa qualified brhmaa; vidvn
learned in Vedic knowledge; tapaausterity; lagood behavior; guaanvitaendowed with all good qualities; rirdhayiudesiring to be
engaged in worshiping; brahmathe Supreme Brahman; mah-purua
the Supreme Person, Ka; sajitamknown as; sarva-bhtaof all
living entities; tma-bhvenaas the Supersoul; bhteuin every living
entity; antarhitamwithin the core of the heart; guaiby qualities.
Here is a learned, highly qualified brhmaa, engaged in performing
austerity and eagerly desiring to worship the Supreme Lord, the
Supersoul who lives within the core of the heart in all living entities.
The wife of the brhmaa did not regard her husband as a superficial
brhmaa who was called a brhmaa merely because he was born of a
brhmaa family. Rather, this brhmaa was actually qualified with the
brahminical symptoms. Yasya yal lakaa proktam (SB 7.11.35). The
symptoms of a brhmaa are stated in the stra:
amo damas tapa auca


kntir rjavam eva ca

jna vijnam stikya
brahma-karma svabhvajam
"Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty, wisdom,
knowledge, and religiousness-these are the qualities by which the
brhmaas work." (Bg. 18.42) Not only must a brhmaa be qualified, but
he must also engage in actual brahminical activities. Simply to be
qualified is not enough; one must engage in a brhmaa's duties. The duty
of a brhmaa is to know the para brahma, Ka (para brahma para
dhma pavitra parama bhavn [Bg. 10.12]). Because this brhmaa was
actually qualified and was also engaged in brahminical activities (brahmakarma [Bg. 18.42]), killing him would be a greatly sinful act, and the
brhmaa's wife requested that he not be killed.
so 'ya brahmari-varyas te
rjari-pravard vibho
katham arhati dharma-ja
vadha pitur ivtmaja
sahe, the brhmaa; ayamthis; brahma-i-varyanot only a
brhmaa but the best of great sages, or brahmaris; tealso from you;
rja-i-pravartwho are the best of all saintly kings, or rjaris; vibho
O master of the state; kathamhow; arhatihe deserves; dharma-jaO
you, who are quite aware of religious principles; vadhamkilling; pitu
from the father; ivalike; tmajathe son.
My lord, you are completely aware of the religious principles. As a son
never deserves to be killed by his father, here is a brhmaa who
should be protected by the king, and never killed. How does he deserve
to be killed by a rjari like you?
The word rjari refers to a king who behaves like a i, or sage. Such a
king is also called naradeva because he is considered a representative of
the Supreme Lord. Because his duty is to rule the kingdom to maintain
brahminical culture, he never desires to kill a brhmaa. Generally, a
brhmaa, woman, child, old man or cow is never regarded as punishable.
Thus the wife of the brhmaa requested the King to refrain from this


sinful act.
tasya sdhor appasya
bhrasya brahma-vdina
katha vadha yath babhror
manyate san-mato bhavn
tasyaof him; sdhoof the great saintly person; appasyaof one who
has no sinful life; bhrasyaof the embryo; brahma-vdinaof one
who is well versed in Vedic knowledge; kathamhow; vadhamthe
killing; yathas; babhroof a cow; manyateyou are thinking; satmatawell recognized by higher circles; bhavnyour good self.
You are well known and worshiped in learned circles. How dare you kill
this brhmaa, who is a saintly, sinless person, well versed in Vedic
knowledge? Killing him would be like destroying the embryo within the
womb or killing a cow.
As stated in the Amara-koa dictionary, bhro 'rbhake bla-garbhe: the
word bhra refers either to the cow or to the living entity in embryo.
According to Vedic culture, destroying the undeveloped embryo of the
soul in the womb is as sinful as killing a cow or a brhmaa. In the
embryo, the living entity is present in an undeveloped stage. The modern
scientific theory that life is a combination of chemicals is nonsense;
scientists cannot manufacture living beings, even like those born from
eggs. The idea that scientists can develop a chemical situation resembling
that of an egg and bring life from it is nonsensical. Their theory that a
chemical combination can have life may be accepted, but these rascals
cannot create such a combination. This verse refers to bhrasya
vadhamthe killing of a bhra or destruction of the embryo. Here is a
challenge from the Vedic literature. The crude, atheistic understanding
that the living entity is a combination of matter belongs to the grossest
yady aya kriyate bhakyas
tarhi m khda prvata
na jviye vin yena


kaa ca mtaka yath

yadiif; ayamthis brhmaa; kriyateis accepted; bhakyaas
eatable; tarhithen; mmme; khdaeat; prvatabefore that; na
not; jviyeI shall live; vinwithout; yenawhom (my husband);
kaam caeven for a moment; mtakama dead body; yathlike.
Without my husband, I cannot live for a moment. If you want to eat my
husband, it would be better to eat me first, for without my husband I
am as good as a dead body.
In the Vedic culture there is a system known as sat or saha-maraa, in
which a woman dies with her husband. According to this system, if the
husband dies, the wife will voluntarily die by falling in the blazing funeral
pyre of her husband. Here, in this verse, the feelings inherent in this
culture are expressed by the wife of the brhmaa. A woman without a
husband is like a dead body. Therefore according to Vedic culture a girl
must be married. This is the responsibility of her father. A girl may be
given in charity, and a husband may have more than one wife, but a girl
must be married. This is Vedic culture. A woman is supposed to be always
dependentin her childhood she is dependent on her father, in youth on
her husband, and in old age on her elderly sons. According to Manusahit, she is never independent. Independence for a woman means
miserable life. In this age, so many girls are unmarried and falsely
imagining themselves free, but their life is miserable. Here is an instance
in which a woman felt that without her husband she was nothing but a
dead body.
eva karua-bhiy
vilapanty anthavat
vyghra paum ivkhdat
saudsa pa-mohita
evamin this way; karua-bhiywhile the brhmaa's wife was
speaking very pitiably; vilapantylamenting severely; antha-vat
exactly like a woman who has no protector; vyghraa tiger; paum
prey animal; ivalike; akhdatate up; saudsaKing Saudsa; pa
by the curse; mohitabecause of being condemned.


Being condemned by the curse of Vasiha, King Saudsa devoured the

brhmaa, exactly as a tiger eats its prey. Even though the brhmaa's
wife spoke so pitiably, Saudsa was unmoved by her lamentation.
This is an example of destiny. King Saudsa was condemned by the curse
of Vasiha, and therefore even though he was well qualified he could not
restrain himself from becoming a tigerlike Rkasa, for this was his
destiny. Tal labhyate dukhavad anyata sukham (SB 1.5.18). As one is put
into distress by destiny, destiny can also put one in a happy situation.
Destiny is extremely strong, but one can change destiny if one comes to
the platform of Ka consciousness. Karmi nirdahati kintu ca bhaktibhjm (Bs. 5.54).
brhma vkya didhiu
purudena bhakitam
ocanty tmnam urvam
aapat kupit sat
brhmathe wife of the brhmaa; vkyaafter seeing; didhiumher
husband, who was about to give the seed of a child; purua-adenaby the
man-eater (Rkasa); bhakitamhaving been eaten up; ocant
lamenting very much; tmnamfor her body or her self; urvamunto
the King; aapatcursed; kupitbeing angry; satthe chaste woman.
When the chaste wife of the brhmaa saw that her husband, who was
about to discharge semen, had been eaten by the man-eater, she was
overwhelmed with grief and lamentation. Thus she angrily cursed the
yasmn me bhakita ppa
kmrty patis tvay
tavpi mtyur dhnd
akta-praja darita
yasmtbecause; memy; bhakitawas eaten up; ppaO sinful one;
kma-rtyof a woman very much bereaved because of sexual desire;
patihusband; tvayby you; tavayour; apialso; mtyudeath;


dhntwhen you try to discharge semen in your wife; akta-prajaO

foolish rascal; daritathis curse is placed upon you.
O foolish, sinful person, because you have eaten my husband when I
was sexually inclined and desiring to have the seed of a child, I shall
also see you die when you attempt to discharge semen in your wife. In
other words, whenever you attempt to sexually unite with your wife,
you shall die.
eva mitrasaha aptv
tad-asthni samiddhe 'gnau
prsya bhartur gati gat
evamin this way; mitrasahamKing Saudsa; aptvafter cursing;
pati-loka-paryabecause of being inclined to go with her husband;
tat-asthniher husband's bones; samiddhe agnauin the burning fire;
prsyaafter placing; bhartuof her husband; gatimto the
destination; gatshe also went.
Thus the wife of the brhmaa cursed King Saudsa, known as
Mitrasaha. Then, being inclined to go with her husband, she set fire to
her husband's bones, fell into the fire herself, and went with him to the
same destination.
vipo dvdabdnte
maithunya samudyata
vijpya brhma-pa
mahiy sa nivrita
vipabeing released from the period of the curse; dvdaa-abda-ante
after twelve years; maithunyafor sexual intercourse with his wife;
samudyatawhen Saudsa was prepared to do it; vijpyareminding
him about; brhma-pamthe curse given by the brhma; mahiy
by the Queen; sahe (the King); nivritachecked.


After twelve years, when King Saudsa was released from the curse by
Vasiha, he wanted to have sexual intercourse with his wife. But the
Queen reminded him about the curse by the brhma, and thus he was
checked from sexual intercourse.
ata rdhva sa tatyja
str-sukha karmapraj
vasihas tad-anujto
madayanty prajm adht
atain this way; rdhvamin the near future; sahe, the King;
tatyjagave up; str-sukhamthe happiness of sexual intercourse;
karmaby destiny; aprajremained sonless; vasihathe great
saint Vasiha; tat-anujtabeing permitted by the King to beget a son;
madayantymin the womb of Madayant, King Saudsa's wife; prajm
a child; adhtbegot.
After being thus instructed, the King gave up the future happiness of
sexual intercourse and by destiny remained sonless. Later, with the
King's permission, the great saint Vasiha begot a child in the womb of
s vai sapta sam garbham
abibhran na vyajyata
jaghne 'manodara tasy
so 'makas tena kathyate
sshe, Queen Madayant; vaiindeed; saptaseven; samyears;
garbhamthe child within the womb; abibhratcontinued to bear; na
not; vyajyatagave delivery; jaghnestruck; amanby a stone;
udaramabdomen; tasyof her; saa son; amakaby the name
Amaka; tenabecause of this; kathyatewas called.
Madayant bore the child within the womb for seven years and did not
give birth. Therefore Vasiha struck her abdomen with a stone, and
then the child was born. Consequently, the child was known as Amaka


["the child born of a stone"].

amakd bliko jaje
ya strbhi parirakita
nr-kavaca ity ukto
nikatre mlako 'bhavat
amaktfrom that son named Amaka; blikaa son named Blika;
jajewas born; yathis child Blika; strbhiby women;
parirakitawas protected; nr-kavacahaving a shield of women; iti
uktawas known as such; nikatrewhen there were no katriyas (all
katriyas having been vanquished by Paraurma); mlakaMlaka, the
progenitor of the katriyas; abhavathe became.
From Amaka, Blika took birth. Because Blika was surrounded by
women and was therefore saved from the anger of Paraurma, he was
known as Nrkavaca ["one who is protected by women"]. When
Paraurma vanquished all the katriyas, Blika became the progenitor
of more katriyas. Therefore he was known as Mlaka, the root of the
katriya dynasty.
tato daarathas tasmt
putra aiaviis tata
rj vivasaho yasya
khavga cakravarty abht
tatafrom Blika; daarathaa son named Daaratha; tasmtfrom
him; putraa son; aiaviinamed Aiavii; tatafrom him; rj
vivasahathe famous King Vivasaha was born; yasyaof whom;
khavgathe king named Khavga; cakravartemperor; abht
From Blika came a son named Daaratha, from Daaratha came a son
named Aiavii, and from Aiavii came King Vivasaha. The son of
King Vivasaha was the famous Mahrja Khavga.


yo devair arthito daityn
avadhd yudhi durjaya
muhrtam yur jtvaitya
sva-pura sandadhe mana
yaKing Khavga who; devaiby the demigods; arthitabeing
requested; daitynthe demons; avadhtkilled; yudhiin a fight;
durjayavery fierce; muhrtamfor a second only; yuduration of
life; jtvknowing; etyaapproached; sva-puramhis own abode;
sandadhefixed; manathe mind.
King Khavga was unconquerable in any fight. Requested by the
demigods to join them in fighting the demons, he won victory, and the
demigods, being very pleased, wanted to give him a benediction. The
King inquired from them about the duration of his life and was
informed that he had only one moment more. Thus he immediately left
his palace and went to his own residence, where he engaged his mind
fully on the lotus feet of the Lord.
The example of Mahrja Khavga in performing devotional service is
brilliant. Mahrja Khavga engaged himself for only a moment in
devotional service to the Lord, but he was promoted back to Godhead.
Therefore, if one practices devotional service from the beginning of his
life, surely he will return home, back to Godhead, without a doubt
In Bhagavad-gt the word asaaya is used to describe the devotee. There
the Lord Himself gives this instruction:
mayy sakta-man prtha
yoga yujan mad-raya
asaaya samagra m
yath jsyasi tac chu
"Now hear, O son of Pth [Arjuna], how by practicing yoga in full
consciousness of Me, with mind attached to Me, you can know Me in full,
free from doubt." (Bg. 7.1)
The Lord also instructs:


janma karma ca me divyam

eva yo vetti tattvata
tyaktv deha punar janma
naiti mm eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and
activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this
material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." (Bg. 4.9)
Therefore, from the very beginning of one's life one should practice
bhakti-yoga, which increases one's attachment for Ka. If one daily sees
the Deity in the temple, makes offerings by worshiping the Deity, chants
the holy name of the Personality of Godhead, and preaches about the
glorious activities of the Lord as much as possible, he thus becomes
attached to Ka. This attachment is called sakti. When one's mind is
attached to Ka (mayy sakta-man), one can fulfill the mission of life
in one human birth. If one misses this opportunity, one does not know
where he is going, how long he will remain in the cycle of birth and
death, and when he will again achieve the human form of life and the
chance to return home, back to Godhead. The most intelligent person,
therefore, uses every moment of his life to render loving service to the
na me brahma-kult pr
kula-daivn na ctmaj
na riyo na mah rjya
na dr ctivallabh
nanot; memy; brahma-kultthan the groups of brhmaas;
prlife; kula-daivtthan the personalities worshipable for my
family; nanot; caalso; tmajsons and daughters; nanor;
riyaopulence; nanor; mahthe earth; rjyamkingdom; nanor;
drwife; caalso; ati-vallabhextremely dear.
Mahrja Khavga thought: Not even my life is dearer to me than the
brahminical culture and the brhmaas, who are worshiped by my
family. What then is to be said of my kingdom, land, wife, children and
opulence? Nothing is dearer to me than the brhmaas.


Mahrja Khavga, being in favor of the brahminical culture, wanted to

utilize one moment's time by fully surrendering unto the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. The Lord is worshiped with this prayer:
namo brhmaya-devya
go brhmaa-hitya ca
jagad-dhitya kya
govindya namo nama
"I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Absolute Truth, Ka,
who is the well-wisher of the cows and the brhmaas as well as the living
entities in general. I offer my repeated obeisances to Govinda, who is the
pleasure reservoir for all the senses." A devotee of Ka is very much
attached to brahminical culture. Indeed, an expert personality who knows
who Ka is and what He wants is a real brhmaa. Brahma jntti
brhmaa. Ka is the Parabrahman, and therefore all Ka conscious
persons, or devotees of Ka, are exalted brhmaas. Khavga Mahrja
regarded the devotees of Ka as the real brhmaas and the real light for
human society. One who desires to advance in Ka consciousness and
spiritual understanding must give the utmost importance to brahminical
culture and must understand Ka (kya govindya). Then his life will
be successful.
na blye 'pi matir mahyam
adharme ramate kvacit
npayam uttamalokd
anyat kicana vastv aham
nanot; blyein childhood; apiindeed; matiattraction; mahyam
of me; adharmein irreligious principles; ramateenjoys; kvacitat any
time; nanor; apayamI saw; uttamaloktthan the Personality of
Godhead; anyatanything else; kicanaanything; vastusubstance;
I was never attracted, even in my childhood, by insignificant things or
irreligious principles. I did not find anything more substantial than the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.


Mahrja Khavga provides a typical example of a Ka conscious

person. A Ka conscious person does not see anything to be important
but the Supreme Personality of Godhead, nor does he accept anything
within this material world as being unconnected to the Supreme Lord. As
stated in Caitanya-caritmta (Madhya 8.274):
sthvara-jagama dekhe, n dekhe tra mrti
sarvatra haya nija ia-deva-sphrti
"The mah-bhgavata, the advanced devotee, certainly sees everything
mobile and immobile, but he does not exactly see their forms. Rather,
everywhere he immediately sees manifest the form of the Supreme Lord."
Although a devotee is within the material world, he has no connection
with it. Nirbandha ka-sambandhe. He accepts this material world in
relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A devotee may be
engaged in earning money, but he uses that money for propagating the
Ka consciousness movement by constructing large temples and
establishing worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Khavga
Mahrja, therefore, was not a materialist. A materialist is always attached
to wife, children, home, property and many other things for sense
gratification, but, as stated above, Khavga Mahrja was not attached
to such things, nor could he think of anything existing without the
purpose of the Supreme Lord. vsyam ida sarvam: [o mantra 1]
everything is related to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Of course,
this consciousness is not for the ordinary person, but if one takes to the
path of devotional service, as prescribed in The Nectar of Devotion, he can
be trained in this consciousness and attain perfect understanding. For a
Ka conscious person, nothing is palatable without a relationship with
devai kma-varo datto
mahya tri-bhuvanevarai
na ve tam aha kma
devaiby the demigods; kma-varathe benediction to have whatever
he wanted; dattawas given; mahyamunto me; tri-bhuvana-varai
by the demigods, the protectors of the three worlds (who can do whatever


they like within this material world); na vedid not accept; tamthat;
ahamI; kmameverything desirable within this material world;
bhtabhvana-bhvanabeing fully absorbed in the Supreme Personality
of Godhead (and therefore not interested in anything material).
The demigods, the directors of the three worlds, wanted to give me
whatever benediction I desired. I did not want their benedictions,
however, because I am interested in the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who created everything in this material world. I am more
interested in the Supreme Personality of Godhead than in all material
A devotee is always transcendentally situated. para dv nivartate: [Bg.
9.59] one who has seen the Supreme Personality of Godhead is no longer
interested in material sense enjoyment. Even such an exalted devotee as
Dhruva Mahrja went to the forest for the sake of material benefit, but
when he actually saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he refused to
accept any material benediction. He said, svmin ktrtho 'smi vara na
yce: [Cc. Madhya 22.42] "My dear Lord, I am fully satisfied with
whatever You have given me or not given me. I have nothing to ask from
You, for I am fully satisfied to be engaged in Your service." This is the
mentality of a pure devotee, who does not want anything, material or
spiritual, from the Personality of Godhead. Our Ka consciousness
movement is therefore called ka-bhvanmta-sagha, the association
of persons who are simply satisfied in thoughts of Ka. Being absorbed
in thoughts of Ka is neither expensive nor troublesome. Ka says,
man-man bhava mad-bhakto mad-yj m namaskuru: [Bg. 18.65]
"Engage your mind always in thinking of Me, offer obeisances and
worship Me." (Bg. 9.34) Anyone can always think of Ka, without
difficulties or obstacles. This is called ka-bhvanmta. One who is
absorbed in ka-bhvanmta has no material benefits to ask from
Ka. Instead, such a person prays to the Lord for the benediction of
being able to spread His glories all over the world. Mama janmani
janmanvare bhavatd bhaktir ahaituk tvayi [Cc. Antya 20.29, ikaka
4]. A Ka conscious person does not even want to stop his cycle of birth
and death. He simply prays, "I may take birth as You like, but my only
prayer is that I may be engaged in Your service."


ye vikiptendriya-dhiyo
devs te sva-hdi sthitam
na vindanti priya avad
tmna kim utpare
yewhich personalities; vikipta-indriya-dhiyawhose senses, mind and
intelligence are always agitated because of material conditions; dev
like the demigods; tesuch persons; sva-hdiin the core of the heart;
sthitamsituated; nanot; vindantiknow; priyamthe dearmost
Personality of Godhead; avatconstantly, eternally; tmnamthe
Supreme Personality of Godhead; kim utawhat to speak of; apare
others (like human beings).
Even though the demigods have the advantages of being situated in the
higher planetary system, their minds, senses and intelligence are
agitated by material conditions. Therefore, even such elevated persons
fail to realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternally
situated in the core of the heart. What then is to be said of others, such
as human beings, who have fewer advantages?
It is a fact that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is always situated in
everyone's heart (vara sarva-bhtn hd-dee 'rjuna tihati [Bg.
18.61]). But because of our material anxieties, which are inevitable in this
material world, we cannot understand the Supreme Lord, although He is
situated so near to us. For those always agitated by material conditions,
the yogic process is recommended so that one may concentrate his mind
upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead within the heart.
Dhynvasthita-tad-gatena manas payanti ya yogina [SB 12.13.1].
Because in material conditions the mind and senses are always agitated,
by the yogic procedures like dhra, sana and dhyna one must quiet
the mind and concentrate it upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In
other words, the yogic process is a material attempt to realize the Lord,
whereas bhakti, devotional service, is the spiritual process by which to
realize Him. Mahrja Khavga accepted the spiritual path, and
therefore he was no longer interested in anything material. Ka says in
Bhagavad-gt (18.55), bhakty mm abhijnti: "Only by devotional
service can I be understood." One can understand Ka, the
Parabrahman, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only through
devotional service. The Lord never says that one can understand Him by


performing mystic yoga or by philosophically speculating. Bhakti is above

all such material attempts. Anybhilit-nya jna-karmdy-anvtam
[Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 11.1.11]. Bhakti is uncontaminated, being
unalloyed even by jna or pious activities.
athea-my-raciteu saga
gueu gandharva-puropameu
rha praktytmani viva-kartur
bhvena hitv tam aha prapadye
athatherefore; a-myby the external potency of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; raciteuin things manufactured; sagam
attachment; gueuin the modes of material nature; gandharva-puraupameuwhich are compared to the illusion of a gandharva-pura, a town
or houses seen in the forest or on a hill; rhamvery powerful;
praktyby material nature; tmaniunto the Supersoul; viva-kartu
of the creator of the whole universe; bhvenaby devotional service;
hitvgiving up; tamunto Him (the Lord); ahamI; prapadye
Therefore I should now give up my attachment for things created by the
external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I should engage
in thought of the Lord and should thus surrender unto Him. This
material creation, having been created by the external energy of the
Lord, is like an imaginary town visualized on a hill or in a forest. Every
conditioned soul has a natural attraction and attachment for material
things, but one must simply give up this attachment and surrender unto

nuklyena knulana bhaktir uttam

"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord

Ka favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through
fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure
devotional service." Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu 1.1.11


the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

When passing through a mountainous region in an airplane, one may
sometimes see a city in the sky with towers and palaces, or one may see
similar things in a big forest. This is called a gandharva-pura, a
phantasmagoria. This entire world resembles such a phantasmagoria, and
every materially situated person has attachment for it. But Khavga
Mahrja, because of his advanced Ka consciousness, was not
interested in such things. Even though a devotee may engage in
apparently materialistic activities, he knows his position very well.
Nirbandha ka-sambandhe yukta vairgyam ucyate. If one engages all
material things in relation with the loving service of the Lord, one is
situated in yukta-vairgya, proper renunciation. In this material world,
nothing should be accepted for one's sense gratification: everything
should be accepted for the service of the Lord. This is the mentality of the
spiritual world. Mahrja Khavga advises that one give up material
attachments and surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Thus one achieves success in life. This is pure bhakti-yoga, which involves
vairgya-vidyrenunciation and knowledge.
vairgya-vidy-nija-bhakti-yogaikrtham eka purua pura
kpmbudhir yas tam aha prapadye
[Cc. Madhya 6.254]
"Let me surrender unto the Personality of Godhead who has appeared
now as Lord r Caitanya Mahprabhu. He is the ocean of all mercy and
has come down to teach us material detachment, learning and devotional
service to Himself." (Caitanya-candrodaya-naka 6.74) r Ka Caitanya
Mahprabhu inaugurated this movement of vairgya-vidy, by which one
detaches himself from material existence and engages in loving devotional
service. The Ka consciousness movement of devotional service is the
only process by which to counteract our false prestige in this material
iti vyavasito buddhy


hitvnya-bhvam ajna
tata sva bhvam sthita
itithus; vyavasitahaving firmly decided; buddhyby proper
intelligence; nryaa-ghtaycompletely controlled by the mercy of
Nryaa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hitvgiving up; anyabhvamconsciousness other than Ka consciousness; ajnam
which is nothing but constant ignorance and darkness; tatathereafter;
svamhis original position as an eternal servant of Ka; bhvam
devotional service; sthitasituated.
Thus Mahrja Khavga, by his advanced intelligence in rendering
service to the Lord, gave up false identification with the body full of
ignorance. In his original position of eternal servitorship, he engaged
himself in rendering service to the Lord.
When one actually becomes purely Ka conscious, no one has any right
to rule over him. When situated in Ka consciousness, one is no longer
in the darkness of ignorance, and when freed from all such darkness, one
is situated in his original position. Jvera 'svarpa' haya-kera 'nityadsa.' [Cc. Madhya 20.108]. The living entity is eternally the servant of
the Lord, and thus when he engages himself in the service of the Lord in
all respects, he enjoys the perfection of life.
yat tad brahma para skmam
anya nya-kalpitam
bhagavn vsudeveti
ya ganti hi stvat
yatthat which; tatsuch; brahma paramParabrahman, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Ka; skmamspiritual, beyond all material
conceptions; anyamnot impersonal or void; nya-kalpitam
imagined to be void by less intelligent men; bhagavnthe Supreme
Personality of Godhead; vsudevaKa; itithus; yamwhom;
gantising about; hiindeed; stvatpure devotees.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vsudeva, Ka, is extremely
difficult to understand for unintelligent men who accept Him as
impersonal or void, which He is not. The Lord is therefore understood


and sung about by pure devotees.

As stated in rmad-Bhgavatam (1.2.11):
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattva yaj jnam advayam
brahmeti paramtmeti
bhagavn iti abdyate
The Absolute Truth is realized in three phases-as Brahman, Paramtm
and Bhagavn. Bhagavn is the origin of everything. Brahman is a partial
representation of Bhagavn, and Vsudeva, the Supersoul living
everywhere and in everyone's heart, is also an advanced realization of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. But when one comes to understand the
Supreme Personality of Godhead (vsudeva sarvam iti), when one
realizes that Vsudeva is both Paramtm and the impersonal Brahman,
he is then in perfect knowledge. Ka is therefore described by Arjuna as
para brahma para dhma pavitra parama bhavn [Bg. 10.12]. The
words para brahma refer to the shelter of the impersonal Brahman and
also of the all-pervading Supersoul. When Ka says tyaktv deha punar
janma naiti mm eti [Bg. 4.9], this means that the perfect devotee, after
perfect realization, returns home, back to Godhead. Mahrja Khavga
accepted the shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and because
of his full surrender he achieved perfection.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Ninth Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Dynasty of Aumn."


10. The Pastimes of the Supreme Lord, Rmacandra

This Tenth Chapter describes how Lord Rmacandra appeared in the

dynasty of Mahrja Khavga. It also describes the Lord's activities,
telling how He killed Rvaa and returned to Ayodhy, the capital of His
The son of Mahrja Khavga was Drghabhu, and his son was Raghu.
The son of Raghu was Aja, the son of Aja was Daaratha, and the son of
Daaratha was Lord Rmacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
When the Lord descended into this world in His full quadruple
expansion-as Lord Rmacandra, Lakmaa, Bharata and atrughna-great
sages like Vlmki who were actually in knowledge of the Absolute Truth
described His transcendental pastimes. rla ukadeva Gosvm describes
these pastimes in brief.
Lord Rmacandra went with Vivmitra and killed Rkasas like Mrca.
After breaking the stout and strong bow known as Haradhanu, the Lord
married mother St and cut down the prestige of Paraurma. To obey
the order of His father, He entered the forest, accompanied by Lakmaa
and St. There He cut off the nose of rpaakh and killed the
associates of Rvaa, headed by Khara and Daa. Rvaa's kidnapping
of Stdev was the beginning of this demon's misfortune. When Mrca
assumed the form of a golden deer, Lord Rmacandra went to bring the
deer to please Stdev, but in the meantime Rvaa took advantage of the
Lord's absence to kidnap her. When Stdev was kidnapped, Lord
Rmacandra, accompanied by Lakmaa, searched for her throughout the
forest. In the course of this search, They met Jayu. Then the Lord killed
the demon Kabandha and the commander Vli and established a friendly
relationship with Sugrva. After organizing the military strength of the
monkeys and going with them to the shore of the sea, the Lord awaited
the arrival of Samudra, the ocean personified, but when Samudra did not
come, the Lord, the master of Samudra, became angry. Then Samudra
came to the Lord with great haste and surrendered to Him, wanting to
help Him in every way. The Lord then attempted to bridge the ocean, and,
with the help of advice from Vibhaa, He attacked Rvaa's capital,


Lak. Previously, Hanumn, the eternal servant of the Lord, had set fire
to Lak, and now, with the help of Lakmaa, the forces of Lord
Rmacandra killed all the Rkasa soldiers. Then Lord Rmacandra
personally killed Rvaa. Mandodar and other wives lamented for
Rvaa, and in accordance with Lord Rmacandra's order, Vibhaa
performed the funeral ceremonies for all the dead in the family. Lord
Rmacandra then gave Vibhaa the right to rule Lak and also granted
him a long duration of life. The Lord delivered Stdev from the Aoka
forest and carried her in a flower airplane to His capital Ayodhy, where
He was received by His brother Bharata. When Lord Rmacandra entered
Ayodhy, Bharata brought His wooden shoes, Vibhaa and Sugrva held
a whisk and fan, Hanumn carried an umbrella, atrughna carried the
Lord's bow and two quivers, and Stdev carried a waterpot containing
water from holy places. Agada carried a sword, and Jmbavn (karja)
carried a shield. After Lord Rmacandra, accompanied by Lord Lakmaa
and mother Stdev, met all His relatives, the great sage Vasiha
enthroned Him as King. The chapter ends with a short description of Lord
Rmacandra's rule in Ayodhy.
r-uka uvca
khavgd drghabhu ca
raghus tasmt pthu-rav
ajas tato mah-rjas
tasmd daaratho 'bhavat
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; khavgtfrom Mahrja
Khavga; drghabhuthe son named Drghabhu; caand; raghu
tasmtfrom him Raghu was born; pthu-ravsaintly and celebrated;
ajathe son named Aja; tatafrom him; mah-rjathe great king
called Mahrja Daaratha; tasmtfrom Aja; daarathaby the name
Daaratha; abhavatwas born.
ukadeva Gosvm said: The son of Mahrja Khavga was
Drghabhu, and his son was the celebrated Mahrja Raghu. From
Mahrja Raghu came Aja, and from Aja was born the great personality
Mahrja Daaratha.


tasypi bhagavn ea
skd brahmamayo hari
aena caturdhgt
putratva prrthita surai
rma-lakmaa-bharataatrughn iti sajay
tasyaof him, Mahrja Daaratha; apialso; bhagavnthe Supreme
Personality of Godhead; eaall of them; sktdirectly; brahmamayathe Supreme Parabrahman, the Absolute Truth; harithe
Supreme Personality of Godhead; aa-aenaby an expansion of a
plenary portion; caturdhby fourfold expansions; agtaccepted;
putratvamsonhood; prrthitabeing prayed for; suraiby the
demigods; rmaLord Rmacandra; lakmaaLord Lakmaa;
bharataLord Bharata; atrughnand Lord atrughna; itithus;
sajayby different names.
Being prayed for by the demigods, the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
the Absolute Truth Himself, directly appeared with His expansion and
expansions of the expansion. Their holy names were Rma, Lakmaa,
Bharata and atrughna. These celebrated incarnations thus appeared in
four forms as the sons of Mahrja Daaratha.
Lord Rmacandra and His brothers, Lakmaa, Bharata and atrughna,
are all viu-tattva, not jva-tattva. The Supreme Personality of Godhead
expands into many, many forms. Advaitam acyutam andim ananta-rpam
[Bs. 5.33]. Although they are one and the same, viu-tattva has many
forms and incarnations. As confirmed in the Brahma-sahit (5.39),
rmdi-mrtiu kal-niyamena tihan. The Lord is situated in many forms,
such as Rma, Lakmaa, Bharata and atrughna, and these forms may
exist in any part of His creation. All these forms exist permanently,
eternally, as individual Personalities of Godhead, and they resemble many
candles, all equally powerful. Lord Rmacandra, Lakmaa, Bharata and
atrughna, who, being viu-tattva, are all equally powerful, became the
sons of Mahrja Daaratha in response to prayers by the demigods.
tasynucarita rjann


ibhis tattva-daribhi
ruta hi varita bhri
tvay st-pater muhu
tasyaof Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Rmacandra
and His brothers; anucaritamtranscendental activities; rjanO King
(Mahrja Parkit); ibhiby great sages or saintly persons; tattvadaribhiby persons who know the Absolute Truth; rutamhave all
been heard; hiindeed; varitamas they have been so nicely described;
bhrimany; tvayby you; st-pateof Lord Rmacandra, the
husband of mother St; muhumore than often.
O King Parkit, the transcendental activities of Lord Rmacandra have
been described by great saintly persons who have seen the truth.
Because you have heard again and again about Lord Rmacandra, the
husband of mother St, I shall describe these activities only in brief.
Please listen.
Modern Rkasas, posing as educationally advanced merely because they
have doctorates, have tried to prove that Lord Rmacandra is not the
Supreme Personality of Godhead but an ordinary person. But those who
are learned and spiritually advanced will never accept such notions; they
will accept the descriptions of Lord Rmacandra and His activities only as
presented by tattva-dars, those who know the Absolute Truth. In
Bhagavad-gt (4.34) the Supreme Personality of Godhead advises:
tad viddhi praiptena
paripranena sevay
upadekyanti te jna
jninas tattva-darina
"Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from
him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can
impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth." Unless one is
tattva-dar, in complete knowledge of the Absolute Truth, one cannot
describe the activities of the Personality of Godhead. Therefore although
there are many so-called Rmyaas, or histories of Lord Rmacandra's
activities, some of them are not actually authoritative. Sometimes Lord
Rmacandra's activities are described in terms of one's own imaginations,


speculations or material sentiments. But the characteristics of Lord

Rmacandra should not be handled as something imaginary. While
describing the history of Lord Rmacandra, ukadeva Gosvm told
Mahrja Parkit, "You have already heard about the activities of Lord
Rmacandra." Apparently, therefore, five thousand years ago there were
many Rmyaas, or histories of Lord Rmacandra's activities, and there
are many still. But we must select only those books written by tattvadars (jninas tattva-darina [Bg. 4.34]), not the books of so-called
scholars who claim knowledge only on the basis of a doctorate. This is a
warning by ukadeva Gosvm. ibhis tattva-daribhi. Although the
Rmyaa composed by Vlmki is a huge literature, the same activities
are summarized here by ukadeva Gosvm in a few verses.
gurv-arthe tyakta-rjyo vyacarad anuvana padma-padbhy priyy
pi-sparkambhy mjita-patha-rujo yo harndrnujbhym
vairpyc chrpaakhy priya-viraha-ruropita-bhr-vijmbhatrastbdhir baddha-setu khala-dava-dahana kosalendro 'vatn na
guru-arthefor the sake of keeping the promise of His father; tyaktarjyagiving up the position of king; vyacaratwandered; anuvanam
from one forest to another; padma-padbhymby His two lotus feet;
priyywith His very dear wife, mother St; pi-sparaakambhymwhich were so delicate that they were unable to bear even
the touch of St's palm; mjita-patha-rujawhose fatigue due to walking
on the street was diminished; yathe Lord who; harndra-anujbhym
accompanied by the king of the monkeys, Hanumn, and His younger
rpaakhyof the Rkas (demoness) named rpaakh; priyavirahabeing aggrieved by separation from His very dear wife; ru
ropita-bhr-vijmbhaby flickering of His raised eyebrows in anger;
trastafearing; abdhithe ocean; baddha-setuone who constructed a
bridge over the ocean; khala-dava-dahanakiller of envious persons like
Rvaa, like a fire devouring a forest; kosala-indrathe King of
Ayodhy; avattbe pleased to protect; naus.
To keep the promise of His father intact, Lord Rmacandra immediately
gave up the position of king and, accompanied by His wife, mother St,
wandered from one forest to another on His lotus feet, which were so


delicate that they were unable to bear even the touch of St's palms.
The Lord was also accompanied by Hanumn [or by another monkey,
Sugrva], king of the monkeys, and by His own younger brother Lord
Lakmaa, both of whom gave Him relief from the fatigue of wandering
in the forest. Having cut off the nose and ears of rpaakh, thus
disfiguring her, the Lord was separated from mother St. He therefore
became angry, moving His eyebrows and thus frightening the ocean,
who then allowed the Lord to construct a bridge to cross the ocean.
Subsequently, the Lord entered the kingdom of Rvaa to kill him, like
a fire devouring a forest. May that Supreme Lord, Rmacandra, give us
all protection.
vivmitrdhvare yena
mrcdy ni-car
payato lakmaasyaiva
hat nairta-pugav
vivmitra-adhvarein the sacrificial arena of the great sage Vivmitra;
yenaby whom (Lord Rmacandra); mrca-dyheaded by Mrca;
ni-carthe uncivilized persons wandering at night in the darkness of
ignorance; payata lakmaasyabeing seen by Lakmaa; evaindeed;
hatwere killed; nairta-pugavthe great chiefs of the Rkasas.
In the arena of the sacrifice performed by Vivmitra, Lord
Rmacandra, the King of Ayodhy, killed many demons, Rkasas and
uncivilized men who wandered at night in the mode of darkness. May
Lord Rmacandra, who killed these demons in the presence of
Lakmaa, be kind enough to give us protection.
yo loka-vra-samitau dhanur aiam ugra
st-svayavara-ghe triatopantam
dya bla-gaja-lla iveku-yai
sajjy-kta npa vikya babhaja madhye
jitvnurpa-gua-la-vayo 'ga-rp
stbhidh riyam urasy abhilabdhamnm


mrge vrajan bhgupater vyanayat prarha

darpa mahm akta yas trir arja-bjm
yaLord Rmacandra who; loka-vra-samitauin the society or in the
midst of many heroes of this world; dhanuthe bow; aiamof Lord
iva; ugramvery fierce; st-svayavara-ghein the hall where mother
St stood to select her husband; triata-upantamthe bow carried by
three hundred men; dyataking (that bow); bla-gaja-llaacting
like a baby elephant in a forest of sugarcane; ivalike that; iku-yaima
stick of sugarcane; sajjy-ktamfastened the string of the bow; npaO
King; vikyaby bending; babhajabroke it; madhyein the middle;
jitvgaining by victory; anurpajust befitting His position and beauty;
guaqualities; labehavior; vayaage; agabody; rpmbeauty;
st-abhidhmthe girl named St; riyamthe goddess of fortune;
urasion the chest; abhilabdhamnmhad gotten her previously;
mrgeon the way; vrajanwhile walking; bhgupateof Bhgupati;
vyanayatdestroyed; prarhamrooted very deep; darpampride;
mahmthe earth; aktafinished; yaone who; trithree times
(seven); arjawithout a royal dynasty; bjmseed.
O King, the pastimes of Lord Rmacandra were wonderful, like those of
a baby elephant. In the assembly where mother St was to choose her
husband, in the midst of the heroes of this world, He broke the bow
belonging to Lord iva. This bow was so heavy that it was carried by
three hundred men, but Lord Rmacandra bent and strung it and broke
it in the middle, just as a baby elephant breaks a stick of sugarcane.
Thus the Lord achieved the hand of mother St, who was equally as
endowed with transcendental qualities of form, beauty, behavior, age
and nature. Indeed, she was the goddess of fortune who constantly rests
on the chest of the Lord. While returning from St's home after gaining
her at the assembly of competitors, Lord Rmacandra met Paraurma.
Although Paraurma was very proud, having rid the earth of the royal
order twenty-one times, he was defeated by the Lord, who appeared to
be a katriya of the royal order.
ya satya-pa-parivta-pitur nidea
straiasya cpi iras jaghe sabhrya


rjya riya praayina suhdo nivsa

tyaktv yayau vanam asn iva mukta-saga
yaLord Rmacandra who; satya-pa-parivta-pituof His father,
who was bound by the promise to his wife; nideamthe order;
straiasyaof the father who was very much attached to his wife; ca
also; apiindeed; irason His head; jagheaccepted; sa-bhrya
with His wife; rjyamthe kingdom; riyamopulence; praayina
relatives; suhdafriends; nivsamresidence; tyaktvgiving up;
yayauwent; vanamto the forest; asnlife; ivalike; mukta-saga
a liberated soul.
Carrying out the order of His father, who was bound by a promise to
his wife, Lord Rmacandra left behind His kingdom, opulence, friends,
well-wishers, residence and everything else, just as a liberated soul
gives up his life, and went to the forest with St.
Mahrja Daaratha had three wives. One of them, Kaikey, served him
very pleasingly, and he therefore wanted to give her a benediction.
Kaikey, however, said that she would ask for the benediction when it was
necessary. At the time of the coronation of Prince Rmacandra, Kaikey
requested her husband to enthrone her son Bharata and send Rmacandra
to the forest. Mahrja Daaratha, being bound by his promise, ordered
Rmacandra to go to the forest, according to the dictation of his beloved.
And the Lord, as an obedient son, accepted the order immediately. He left
everything without hesitation, just as a liberated soul or great yog gives
up his life without material attraction.
raka-svasur vyakta rpam auddha-buddhes
tasy khara-triira-daa-mukhya-bandhn
jaghne caturdaa-sahasram aprayakodaa-pir aamna uvsa kcchram
raka-svasuof rpaakh, the sister of the Rkasa (Rvaa);
vyakta(Lord Rma) deformed; rpamthe form; auddha-buddhe
because her intelligence was polluted by lusty desires; tasyof her;
khara-triira-daa-mukhya-bandhnmany friends, headed by Khara,
Triira and Daa; jaghneHe (Lord Rmacandra) killed; caturdaa-


sahasramfourteen thousand; aprayainvincible; kodaabows

and arrows; piin His hand; aamnawandering in the forest;
uvsalived there; kcchramwith great difficulties.
While wandering in the forest, where He accepted a life of hardship,
carrying His invincible bow and arrows in His hand, Lord Rmacandra
deformed Rvaa's sister, who was polluted with lusty desires, by
cutting off her nose and ears. He also killed her fourteen thousand
Rkasa friends, headed by Khara, Triira and Daa.
sa vilokya npate daa-kandharea
jaghne 'dbhutaia-vapuramato 'pako
mrcam u viikhena yath kam ugra
st-kathtopics about Stdev; ravaaby hearing; dpitaagitated;
ht-ayenalusty desires within the mind of Rvaa; samcreated;
vilokyaseeing that; npateO King Parkit; daa-kandhareaby
Rvaa, who had ten heads; jaghnethe Lord killed; adbhuta-eavapuby a deer made of gold; ramatafrom His residence;
apakadistracted to a distance; mrcamthe demon Mrca, who
assumed the form of a golden deer; uimmediately; viikhenaby a
sharp arrow; yathas; kamDaka; ugraLord iva.
O King Parkit, when Rvaa, who had ten heads on his shoulders,
heard about the beautiful and attractive features of St, his mind was
agitated by lusty desires, and he went to kidnap her. To distract Lord
Rmacandra from His rama, Rvaa sent Mrca in the form of a
golden deer, and when Lord Rmacandra saw that wonderful deer, He
left His residence and followed it and finally killed it with a sharp
arrow, just as Lord iva killed Daka.
rako-'dhamena vkavad vipine 'samaka
vaideha-rja-duhitary apaypitym
bhrtr vane kpaavat priyay viyukta
str-sagin gatim iti prathaya cacra


raka-adhamenaby the most wicked among Rkasas, Rvaa; vkavatlike a tiger; vipinein the forest; asamakamunprotected; vaideharja-duhitariby this condition of mother St, the daughter of the King
of Videha; apaypitymhaving been kidnapped; bhrtrwith His
brother; vanein the forest; kpaa-vatas if a very distressed person;
priyayby his dear wife; viyuktaseparated; str-saginmof persons
attracted to or connected with women; gatimdestination; itithus;
prathayangiving an example; cacrawandered.
When Rmacandra entered the forest and Lakmaa was also absent,
the worst of the Rkasas, Rvaa, kidnapped Stdev, the daughter of
the King of Videha, just as a tiger seizes unprotected sheep when the
shepherd is absent. Then Lord Rmacandra wandered in the forest with
His brother Lakmaa as if very much distressed due to separation from
His wife. Thus He showed by His personal example the condition of a
person attached to women.
In this verse the words str-sagin gatim iti indicate that the condition
of a person attached to women was shown by the Lord Himself.
According to moral instructions, ghe nr vivarjayet: when one goes on
a tour, one should not bring his wife. Formerly men used to travel
without conveyances, but still, as far as possible, when one leaves home
one should not take his wife with him, especially if one is in such a
condition as Lord Rmacandra when banished by the order of His father.
Whether in the forest or at home, if one is attached to women this
attachment is always troublesome, as shown by the Supreme Personality
of Godhead by His personal example.
Of course, this is the material side of str-sag, but the situation of Lord
Rmacandra is spiritual, for He does not belong to the material world.
Nryaa paro 'vyaktt: Nryaa is beyond the material creation.
Because He is the creator of the material world, He is not subject to the
conditions of the material world. The separation of Lord Rmacandra
from St is spiritually understood as vipralambha, which is an activity of
the hldin potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead belonging to
the gra-rasa, the mellow of conjugal love in the spiritual world. In the
spiritual world the Supreme Personality of Godhead has all the dealings of
love, displaying the symptoms called sttvika, sacr, vilpa, mrcch and
unmda. Thus when Lord Rmacandra was separated from St, all these
spiritual symptoms were manifested. The Lord is neither impersonal nor


impotent. Rather, He is sac-cid-nanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1], the eternal form

of knowledge and bliss. Thus He has all the symptoms of spiritual bliss.
Feeling separation from one's beloved is also an item of spiritual bliss. As
explained by rla Svarpa Dmodara Gosvm, rdh-ka-praayaviktir hldin-akti: the dealings of love between Rdh and Ka are
displayed as the pleasure potency of the Lord. The Lord is the original
source of all pleasure, the reservoir of all pleasure. Lord Rmacandra,
therefore, manifested the truth both spiritually and materially. Materially
those who are attached to women suffer, but spiritually when there are
feelings of separation between the Lord and His pleasure potency the
spiritual bliss of the Lord increases. This is further explained in Bhagavadgt (9.11):
avajnanti m mh
mnu tanum ritam
para bhvam ajnanto
mama bhta-mahevaram
One who does not know the spiritual potency of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead thinks of the Lord as an ordinary human being. But the Lord's
mind, intelligence and senses can never be affected by material
conditions. This fact is further explained in the Skanda Pura, as quoted
by Madhvcrya:
nitya-pra-sukha-jnasvarpo 'sau yato vibhu
ato 'sya rma ity khy
tasya dukha kuto 'v api
tathpi loka-ikrtham
adukho dukha-vartivat
antarhit loka-dy
stm st smarann iva
jpanrtha punar nityasambandha svtmana riy
ayodhyy vinirgacchan
sarva-lokasya cevara


pratyaka tu riy srdha

jagmndir avyaya
brahmaloka-sama cakre
samasta kiti-maalam
rmo rmo rma iti
sarvem abhavat tad
sarvoramamayo loko
yad rmas tv aplayat
It was actually impossible for Rvaa to take away St. The form of St
taken by Rvaa was an illusory representation of mother Stmaya-st.
When St was tested in the fire, this my-st was burnt, and the real
St came out of the fire.
A further understanding to be derived from this example is that a woman,
however powerful she may be in the material world, must be given
protection, for as soon as she is unprotected she will be exploited by
Rkasas like Rvaa. Here the words vaideha-rja-duhitari indicate that
before mother St was married to Lord Rmacandra she was protected by
her father, Vaideha-rja. And when she was married she was protected by
her husband. Therefore the conclusion is that a woman should always be
protected. According to the Vedic rule, there is no scope for a woman's
being independent (asamakam), for a woman cannot protect herself
dagdhvtma-ktya-hata-ktyam ahan kabandha
sakhya vidhya kapibhir dayit-gati tai
buddhvtha vlini hate plavagendra-sainyair
velm agt sa manujo 'ja-bhavrcitghri
dagdhvby burning; tma-ktya-hata-ktyamafter performing religious
rituals required after the death of Jayu, who died for the Lord's cause;
ahankilled; kabandhamthe demon Kabandha; sakhyamfriendship;
vidhyaafter creating; kapibhiwith the monkey chiefs; dayit-


gatimthe arrangement for delivering St; taiby them; buddhv

knowing; athathereafter; vlini hatewhen Vli had been killed;
plavaga-indra-sainyaiwith the help of the soldiers of the monkeys;
velmto the beach of the ocean; agtwent; saHe, Lord
Rmacandra; manu-jaappearing as a human being; ajaby Lord
Brahm; bhavaand by Lord iva; arcita-aghriwhose lotus feet are
Lord Rmacandra, whose lotus feet are worshiped by Lord Brahm and
Lord iva, had assumed the form of a human being. Thus He performed
the funeral ceremony of Jayu, who was killed by Rvaa. The Lord
then killed the demon named Kabandha, and after making friends with
the monkey chiefs, killing Vli and arranging for the deliverance of
mother St, He went to the beach of the ocean.
When Rvaa kidnapped St, he was obstructed on the way by Jayu, a
large bird. But the powerful Rvaa defeated Jayu in the fight and cut
his wing. When Rmacandra was searching for St, He found Jayu
almost dead and was informed that St has been carried off by Rvaa.
When Jayu died, Lord Rmacandra did the duty of a son by performing
the funeral ceremony, and then He made friends with the monkeys to
deliver Stdev.
yad-roa-vibhrama-vivtta-kaka-ptasambhrnta-nakra-makaro bhaya-gra-ghoa
sindhu irasy arhaa parighya rp
pdravindam upagamya babha etat
yat-roawhose anger; vibhramainduced by; vivttaturned; kakaptaby the glance; sambhrntaagitated; nakracrocodiles; makara
and sharks; bhaya-gra-ghoawhose loud sound was silenced through
fear; sindhuthe ocean; irasion his head; arhaamall paraphernalia
for worshiping the Lord; parighyacarrying; rptaking form; pdaaravindamthe lotus feet of the Lord; upagamyareaching; babha
said; etatthe following.
After reaching the beach, Lord Rmacandra fasted for three days,
awaiting the arrival of the ocean personified. When the ocean did not


come, the Lord exhibited His pastimes of anger, and simply by His
glancing over the ocean, all the living entities within it, including the
crocodiles and sharks, were agitated by fear. Then the personified ocean
fearfully approached Lord Rmacandra, taking all paraphernalia to
worship Him. Falling at the Lord's lotus feet, the personified ocean
spoke as follows.
na tv vaya jaa-dhiyo nu vidma bhman
ka-stham di-purua jagatm adham
yat-sattvata sura-ga rajasa praje
manyo ca bhta-pataya sa bhavn guea
nanot; tvmYour Lordship; vayamwe; jaa-dhiyadull-minded,
possessing blunt intelligence; nuindeed; vidmacan know; bhman
O Supreme; ka-sthamwithin the core of the heart; di-puruamthe
original Personality of Godhead; jagatmof the universes, which
progressively go on; adhamthe supreme master; yatfixed under
Your direction; sattvatainfatuated with sattva-gua; sura-gasuch
demigods; rajasainfatuated with rajo-gua; praj-the Prajpatis;
manyoinfluenced by tamo-gua; caand; bhta-patayarulers of
ghosts; sasuch a personality; bhavnYour Lordship; gua-athe
master of all three modes of material nature.
O all-pervading Supreme Person, we are dull-minded and did not
understand who You are, but now we understand that You are the
Supreme Person, the master of the entire universe, the unchanging and
original Personality of Godhead. The demigods are infatuated with the
mode of goodness, the Prajpatis with the mode of passion, and the lord
of ghosts with the mode of ignorance, but You are the master of all
these qualities.
The word jaa-dhiya refers to intelligence like that of an animal. A
person with such intelligence cannot understand the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. Without being beaten, an animal cannot understand the
purpose of a man. Similarly, those who are dull-minded cannot
understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but when punished
severely by the modes of material nature, they begin to understand Him.


A Hindi poet has said:

dukha se saba hari bhaje
sukha se bhaje ko
sukha se agar hari bhaje
dukha kth se haya
When one is distressed he goes to the church or temple to worship the
Lord, but when opulent he forgets the Lord. Therefore, punishment by
the Lord through material nature is necessary in human society, for
without it men forget the supremacy of the Lord due to their dull, blunt
kma prayhi jahi viravaso 'vameha
trailokya-rvaam avpnuhi vra patnm
badhnhi setum iha te yaaso vitatyai
gyanti dig-vijayino yam upetya bhp
kmamas You like; prayhiYou may go over my water; jahijust
conquer; viravasaof Virav Muni; avamehampollution, like urine;
trailokyafor the three worlds; rvaamthe person known as Rvaa,
the cause of weeping; avpnuhiregain; vraO great hero; patnm
Your wife; badhnhijust construct; setuma bridge; ihahere (on this
water); teof Your good self; yaasafame; vitatyaito expand;
gyantiwill glorify; dik-vijayinagreat heroes who have conquered all
directions; yamwhich (bridge); upetyacoming near; bhpgreat
My Lord, You may use my water as You like. Indeed, You may cross it
and go to the abode of Rvaa, who is the great source of disturbance
and crying for the three worlds. He is the son of Virav, but is
condemned like urine. Please go kill him and thus regain Your wife,
Stdev. O great hero, although my water presents no impediment to
Your going to Lak, please construct a bridge over it to spread Your
transcendental fame. Upon seeing this wonderfully uncommon deed of
Your Lordship, all the great heroes and kings in the future will glorify


It is said that a son and urine emanate from the same sourcethe
genitals. When a son is a devotee or a great learned person, the seminal
discharge for begetting a son is successful, but if the son is unqualified
and brings no glory to his family, he is no better than urine. Here Rvaa
is compared to urine because he was a cause of disturbances to the three
worlds. Thus the ocean personified wanted him killed by Lord
One feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Rmacandra is
omnipotence. The Lord can act without regard to material impediments
or inconveniences, but to prove that He is the Supreme Personality of
Godhead and was not merely advertised as Godhead or elected by popular
vote, He constructed a wonderful bridge over the ocean. Nowadays it has
become fashionable to create some artificial God who performs no
uncommon activities; a little magic will bewilder a foolish person into
selecting an artificial God because he does not understand how powerful
God is. Lord Rmacandra, however, constructed a bridge over the water
with stone by making the stone float. This is proof of God's uncommonly
wonderful power. Why should someone be accepted as God without
displaying extraordinary potency by doing something never to be done by
any common man? We accept Lord Rmacandra as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead because He constructed this bridge, and we accept
Lord Ka as the Supreme Personality of Godhead because He lifted
Govardhana Hill when He was only seven years old. We should not accept
any rascal as God or an incarnation of God, for God displays special
features in His various activities. Therefore, the Lord Himself says in
Bhagavad-gt (4.9):
janma karma ca me divyam
eva yo vetti tattvata
tyaktv deha punar janma
naiti mm eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and
activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this
material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." The activities of
the Lord are not common; they are all transcendentally wonderful and not
able to be performed by any other living being. The symptoms of the
Lord's activities are all mentioned in the stras, and after one
understands them one can accept the Lord as He is.


baddhvodadhau raghu-patir vividhdri-kai
setu kapndra-kara-kampita-bhruhgai
sugrva-nla-hanumat-pramukhair ankair
lak vibhaa-dviad agra-dagdhm
baddhvafter constructing; udadhauin the water of the ocean; raghupatiLord Rmacandra; vividhavarieties of; adri-kaiwith peaks
of great mountains; setuma bridge; kapi-indraof powerful monkeys;
kara-kampitamoved by the great hands; bhruha-agaiwith the trees
and plants; sugrvaSugrva; nlaNla; hanumatHanumn;
pramukhailed by; ankaiwith such soldiers; lakmLak, the
kingdom of Rvaa; vibhaa-dby the direction of Vibhaa, the
brother of Rvaa; viatentered; agra-dagdhmwhich was previously
burnt (by the monkey soldier Hanumn).
ukadeva Gosvm said: After constructing a bridge over the ocean by
throwing into the water the peaks of mountains whose trees and other
vegetation had been shaken by the hands of great monkeys, Lord
Rmacandra went to Lak to release Stdev from the clutches of
Rvaa. With the direction and help of Vibhaa, Rvaa's brother, the
Lord, along with the monkey soldiers, headed by Sugrva, Nla and
Hanumn, entered Rvaa's kingdom, Lak, which had previously
been burnt by Hanumn.
Great mountain peaks covered with trees and plants were thrown into the
sea by the monkey soldiers and began to float by the supreme will of the
Lord. By the supreme will of the Lord, many great planets float
weightlessly in space like swabs of cotton. If this is possible, why should
great mountain peaks not be able to float on water? This is the
omnipotence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He can do anything
and everything He likes, because He is not under the control of the
material nature; indeed, material nature is controlled by Him.
Maydhyakea prakti syate sacarcaram: [Bg. 9.10] only under His
direction does prakti, or material nature, work. Similar information is
given in the Brahma-sahit (5.52):
yasyjay bhramati sambhta-kla-cakro
govindam di-purua tam aha bhajmi


Describing how material nature works, the Brahma-sahit says that the
sun moves as desired by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Consequently, for Lord Rmacandra to construct a bridge over the Indian
Ocean with the help of monkey soldiers who threw great mountain peaks
into the water is not at all wonderful; it is wonderful only in the sense that
it has kept the name and fame of Lord Rmacandra eternally celebrated.
s vnarendra-bala-ruddha-vihra-kohar-dvra-gopura-sado-valabh-viak
nirbhajyamna-dhiaa-dhvaja-hema-kumbhagak gaja-kulair hradinva ghr
sthe place known as Lak; vnara-indraof the great chiefs of the
monkeys; balaby the strength; ruddhastopped, encircled; vihra
pleasure houses; kohathe places where food grains were stocked; r
the treasury houses; dvrathe doors of palaces; gopurathe gates of the
city; sadathe assembly houses; valabhthe frontage of great palaces;
viakthe rest houses for the pigeons; nirbhajyamnain the process
of being dismantled; dhiaaplatforms; dhvajathe flags; hemakumbhagolden waterpots on the domes; gakand the crossroads;
gaja-kulaiby herds of elephants; hradina river; ivalike; ghr
After entering Lak, the monkey soldiers, led by chiefs like Sugrva,
Nla and Hanumn, occupied all the sporting houses, granaries,
treasuries, palace doorways, city gates, assembly houses, palace
frontages and even the resting houses of the pigeons. When the city's
crossroads, platforms, flags and golden waterpots on its domes were all
destroyed, the entire city of Lak appeared like a river disturbed by a
herd of elephants.
raka-patis tad avalokya nikumbha-kumbhadhmrka-durmukha-surntaka-narntakdn
putra prahastam atikya-vikampandn
sarvnugn samahinod atha kumbhakaram


raka-patithe master of the Rkasas (Rvaa); tatsuch

disturbances; avalokyaafter seeing; nikumbhaNikumbha; kumbha
Kumbha; dhmrkaDhmrka; durmukhaDurmukha; surntaka
Surntaka; narntakaNarntaka; dnall of them together; putram
his son, Indrajit; prahastamPrahasta; atikyaAtikya; vikampana
Vikampana; dnall of them together; sarva-anugnall followers of
Rvaa; samahinotordered (to fight with the enemies); athaat last;
kumbhakaramKumbhakara, the most important brother.
When Rvaa, the master of the Rkasas, saw the disturbances created
by the monkey soldiers, he called for Nikumbha, Kumbha, Dhmrka,
Durmukha, Surntaka, Narntaka and other Rkasas and also his son
Indrajit. Thereafter he called for Prahasta, Atikya, Vikampana and
finally Kumbhakara. Then he induced all his followers to fight against
the enemies.
t ytudhna-ptanm asi-la-cpaprsari-aktiara-tomara-khaga-durgm
sugrva-lakmaa-marutsuta-gandhamdanlgadarka-panasdibhir anvito 'gt
tmall of them; ytudhna-ptanmthe soldiers of the Rkasas; asi
by swords; laby lances; cpaby bows; prsa-iprsa weapons
and i weapons; akti-araakti arrows; tomaratomara weapons;
khagaby a type of sword; durgmall invincible; sugrvaby the
monkey named Sugrva; lakmaaby Lord Rmacandra's younger
brother; marut-sutaby Hanumn; gandhamdaby Gandhamda,
another monkey; nlaby the monkey named Nla; agadaAgada;
kaka; panasaPanasa; dibhiand by other soldiers; anvita
being surrounded, Lord Rmacandra; agtcame in front of (for the sake
of fighting).
Lord Rmacandra, surrounded by Lakmaa and monkey soldiers like
Sugrva, Hanumn, Gandhamda, Nla, Agada, Jmbavn and Panasa,
attacked the soldiers of the Rkasas, who were fully equipped with
various invincible weapons like swords, lances, bows, prsas, is,
akti arrows, khagas and tomaras.


te 'nkap raghupater abhipatya sarve
dvandva vartham ibha-patti-rathva-yodhai
jaghnur drumair giri-gadeubhir agaddy
teall of them; anka-pthe commanders of the soldiers; raghupate
of Lord r Rmacandra; abhipatyachasing the enemy; sarveall of
them; dvandvamfighting; varthamthe soldiers of Rvaa; ibhaby
elephants; pattiby infantry; rathaby chariots; avaby horses;
yodhaiby such warriors; jaghnukilled them; drumaiby throwing
big trees; giriby peaks of mountains; gadby clubs; iubhiby
arrows; agada-dyall the soldiers of Lord Rmacandra, headed by
Agada and others; stof mother St; abhimaraby the anger; hata
had been condemned; magalawhose auspiciousness; rvaa-nthe
followers or dependents of Rvaa.
Agada and the other commanders of the soldiers of Rmacandra faced
the elephants, infantry, horses and chariots of the enemy and hurled
against them big trees, mountain peaks, clubs and arrows. Thus the
soldiers of Lord Rmacandra killed Rvaa's soldiers, who had lost all
good fortune because Rvaa had been condemned by the anger of
mother St.
The soldiers Lord Rmacandra recruited in the jungle were all monkeys
and did not have proper equipment with which to fight the soldiers of
Rvaa, for Rvaa's soldiers were equipped with weapons of modern
warfare whereas the monkeys could only throw stones, mountain peaks
and trees. It was only Lord Rmacandra and Lakmaa who shot some
arrows. But because the soldiers of Rvaa were condemned by the curse
of mother St, the monkeys were able to kill them simply by throwing
stones and trees. There are two kinds of strengthdaiva and purukra.
Daiva refers to the strength achieved from the Transcendence, and
purukra refers to the strength organized by one's own intelligence and
power. Transcendental power is always superior to the power of the
materialist. Depending on the mercy of the Supreme Lord, one must fight
one's enemies even though one may not be equipped with modern
weapons. Therefore Ka instructed Arjuna, mm anusmara yudhya ca:
[Bg. 8.7] "Think of Me and fight." We should fight our enemy to the best


of our ability, but for victory we must depend on the mercy of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
raka-pati sva-bala-naim avekya rua
ruhya ynakam athbhisasra rmam
sva-syandane dyumati mtalinopante
vibhrjamnam ahanan niitai kuraprai
raka-patithe leader of the Rkasas, Rvaa; sva-bala-naimthe
destruction of his own soldiers; avekyaafter observing; ruabecame
very angry; ruhyariding on; ynakamhis beautiful airplane decorated
with flowers; athathereafter; abhisasraproceeded toward; rmam
Lord Rmacandra; sva-syandanein the celestial chariot of Indra;
dyumatiglittering; mtalinby Mtali, the chariot driver of Indra;
upantehaving been brought; vibhrjamnamLord Rmacandra, as if
brilliantly illuminating; ahanatRvaa struck him; niitaivery sharp;
kurapraiwith arrows.
Thereafter, when Rvaa, the king of the Rkasas, observed that his
soldiers had been lost, he was extremely angry. Thus he mounted his
airplane, which was decorated with flowers, and proceeded toward
Lord Rmacandra, who sat on the effulgent chariot brought by Mtali,
the chariot driver of Indra. Then Rvaa struck Lord Rmacandra with
sharp arrows.
rmas tam ha puruda-pura yan na
kntsamakam asatpaht vavat te
tyakta-trapasya phalam adya jugupsitasya
yacchmi kla iva kartur alaghya-vrya
rmaLord Rmacandra; tamunto him, Rvaa; hasaid; puruaada-purayou are the stool of the man-eaters (Rkasas); yatbecause;
naMy; kntwife; asamakamhelpless because of My absence;
asatby you, the most sinful; apahtwas kidnapped; va-vatlike a
dog who takes food from the kitchen in the absence of the proprietor; te
of you; tyakta-trapasyabecause you are shameless; phalam adyaI shall
give you the result today; jugupsitasyaof you, the most abominable;


yacchmiI shall punish you; kla ivalike death; kartuof you, who
are the performer of all sinful activities; alaghya-vryabut I, being
omnipotent, never fail in My attempt.
Lord Rmacandra said to Rvaa: You are the most abominable of the
man-eaters. Indeed, you are like their stool. You resemble a dog, for as a
dog steals eatables from the kitchen in the absence of the householder,
in My absence you kidnapped My wife, Stdev. Therefore as Yamarja
punishes sinful men, I shall also punish you. You are most abominable,
sinful and shameless. Today, therefore, I, whose attempt never fails,
shall punish you.
Na ca daivt para balam: no one can surpass the strength of the
Transcendence. Rvaa was so sinful and shameless that he did not know
what the result would be of kidnapping mother St, the pleasure potency
of Rmacandra. This is the disqualification of the Rkasas. Asatyam
apratiha te jagad hur anvaram [Bg. 16.8]. The Rkasas are unaware
that the Supreme Lord is the ruler of the creation. They think that
everything has come about by chance or accident and that there is no
ruler, king or controller. Therefore the Rkasas act independently, as
they like, going even so far as to kidnap the goddess of fortune. This
policy of Rvaa's is extremely dangerous for the materialist; indeed, it
brings ruin to the materialistic civilization. Nonetheless, because atheists
are Rkasas, they dare to do things that are most abominable, and thus
they are punished without fail. Religion consists of the orders of the
Supreme Lord, and one who carries out these orders is religious. One who
fails to carry out the Lord's orders is irreligious, and he is to be punished.
eva kipan dhanui sandhitam utsasarja
ba sa vajram iva tad-dhdaya bibheda
so 'sg vaman daa-mukhair nyapatad vimnd
dhheti jalpati jane suktva rikta
evamin this way; kipanchastising (Rvaa); dhanuion the bow;
sandhitamfixed an arrow; utsasarjareleased (toward him); bam
the arrow; sathat arrow; vajram ivalike a thunderbolt; tathdayamthe heart of Rvaa; bibhedapierced; sahe, Rvaa; ask
blood; vamanvomiting; daa-mukhaithrough the ten mouths;


nyapatatfell down; vimntfrom his airplane; hhalas, what

happened; itithus; jalpatiroaring; janewhen all the people present
there; sukt ivalike a pious man; riktawhen the results of his pious
activities are finished.
After thus rebuking Rvaa, Lord Rmacandra fixed an arrow to His
bow, aimed at Rvaa, and released the arrow, which pierced Rvaa's
heart like a thunderbolt. Upon seeing this, Rvaa's followers raised a
tumultuous sound, crying, "Alas! Alas! What has happened? What has
happened?" as Rvaa, vomiting blood from his ten mouths, fell from
his airplane, just as a pious man falls to earth from the heavenly planets
when the results of his pious activities are exhausted.
In Bhagavad-gt (9.21) it is said, ke puye martya-loka vianti: "When
the results of their pious activities are exhausted, those who have enjoyed
in the heavenly planets fall again to earth." The fruitive activities of this
material world are such that whether one acts piously or impiously one
must remain within the material world according to different conditions,
for neither pious nor impious actions can relieve one from my's
clutches of repeated birth and death. Somehow or other, Rvaa was
raised to an exalted position as the king of a great kingdom with all
material opulences, but because of his sinful act of kidnapping mother
St, all the results of his pious activities were destroyed. If one offends an
exalted personality, especially the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one
certainly becomes most abominable; bereft of the results of pious
activities, one must fall down like Rvaa and other demons. It is
therefore advised that one transcend both pious and impious activities
and remain in the pure state of freedom from all designations (sarvopdhivinirmukta tat-paratvena nirmalam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]). When one is
fixed in devotional service, he is above the material platform. On the
material platform there are higher and lower positions, but when one is
above the material platform he is always fixed in a spiritual position (sa
gun samattyaitn brahma-bhyya kalpate [Bg. 14.26]). Rvaa or those
like him may be very powerful and opulent in this material world, but
theirs is not a secure position, because, after all, they are bound by the
results of their karma (karma daiva-netrea [SB 3.31.1]). We should not
forget that we are completely dependent on the laws of nature.
prakte kriyamni


guai karmi sarvaa

kartham iti manyate
"The bewildered spirit soul, under the influence of the three modes of
material nature, thinks himself the doer of activities that are in actuality
carried out by nature." (Bg. 3.27) One should not be proud of one's
exalted position and act like Rvaa, thinking oneself independent of
material nature's laws.
tato nikramya laky
ytudhnya sahasraa
mandodary sama tatra
prarudantya updravan
tatathereafter; nikramyacoming out; lakyfrom Lak;
ytudhnyathe wives of the Rkasas; sahasraaby thousands and
thousands; mandodaryheaded by Mandodar, the wife of Rvaa;
samamwith; tatrathere; prarudantyacrying in lamentation;
updravancame near (their dead husbands).
Thereafter, all the women whose husbands had fallen in the battle,
headed by Mandodar, the wife of Rvaa, came out of Lak.
Continuously crying, they approached the dead bodies of Rvaa and
the other Rkasas.
svn svn bandhn parivajya
lakmaeubhir arditn
rurudu susvara dn
ghnantya tmnam tman
svn svntheir own respective husbands; bandhnfriends;
parivajyaembracing; lakmaa-iubhiby the arrows of Lakmaa;
arditnwho were killed; ruruduall the wives cried piteously; susvaramit was very sweet to hear; dnvery poor; ghnantya
striking; tmnamtheir breasts; tmanby themselves.


Striking their breasts in affliction because their husbands had been

killed by the arrows of Lakmaa, the women embraced their respective
husbands and cried piteously in voices appealing to everyone.
h hat sma vaya ntha
loka-rvaa rvaa
ka yyc charaa lak
tvad-vihn parrdit
halas; hatkilled; smain the past; vayamall of us; nthaO
protector; loka-rvaaO husband, who created the crying of so many
other people; rvaaO Rvaa, one who can cause crying of others;
kamunto whom; yytwill go; araamshelter; lakthe state of
Lak; tvat-vihnbeing bereft of your good self; para-arditbeing
defeated by the enemies.
O my lord, O master! You epitomized trouble for others, and therefore
you were called Rvaa. But now that you have been defeated, we also
are defeated, for without you the state of Lak has been conquered by
the enemy. To whom will it go for shelter?
Rvaa's wife Mandodar and the other wives knew very well how cruel a
person Rvaa was. The very word "Rvaa" means "one who causes
crying for others." Rvaa continuously caused trouble for others, but
when his sinful activities culminated in giving trouble to Stdev, he was
killed by Lord Rmacandra.
na vai veda mah-bhga
bhavn kma-vaa gata
tejo 'nubhva sty
yena nto dam imm
nanot; vaiindeed; vedadid know; mah-bhgaO greatly fortunate
one; bhavnyourself; kma-vaaminfluenced by lusty desires; gata
having become; tejaby influence; anubhvamas a result of such
influence; styof mother St; yenaby which; ntabrought into;
damcondition; immlike this (destruction).


O greatly fortunate one, you came under the influence of lusty desires,
and therefore you could not understand the influence of mother St.
Now, because of her curse, you have been reduced to this state, having
been killed by Lord Rmacandra.
Not only was mother St powerful, but any woman who follows in the
footsteps of mother St can also become similarly powerful. There are
many instances of this in the history of Vedic literature. Whenever we
find a description of ideal chaste women, mother St is among them.
Mandodar, the wife of Rvaa, was also very chaste. Similarly, Draupad
was one of five exalted chaste women. As a man must follow great
personalities like Brahm and Nrada, a woman must follow the path of
such ideal women as St, Mandodar and Draupad. By staying chaste and
faithful to her husband, a woman enriches herself with supernatural
power. It is a moral principle that one should not be influenced by lusty
desires for another's wife. Mtvat para-dreu: an intelligent person must
look upon another's wife as being like his mother. This is a moral
injunction from Cakya-loka (10).
mtvat para-dreu
para-dravyeu loravat
tmavat sarva-bhteu
ya payati sa paita
"One who considers another's wife as his mother, another's possessions as
a lump of dirt and treats all other living beings as he would himself, is
considered to be learned." Thus Rvaa was condemned not only by Lord
Rmacandra but even by his own wife, Mandodar. Because she was a
chaste woman, she knew the power of another chaste woman, especially
such a wife as mother Stdev.
ktai vidhav lak
vaya ca kula-nandana
deha kto 'nna gdhrm
tm naraka-hetave
ktmade by you; eall of this; vidhavwithout a protector;
lakthe state of Lak; vayam caand us; kula-nandanaO pleasure


of the Rkasas; dehathe body; ktamade by you; annameatable;

gdhrmof the vultures; tmand your soul; naraka-hetavefor
going to hell.
O pleasure of the Rkasa dynasty, because of you the state of Lak
and also we ourselves now have no protector. By your deeds you have
made your body fit to be eaten by vultures and your soul fit to go to
One who follows the path of Rvaa is condemned in two ways: his body
is fit to be eaten by dogs and vultures, and the soul goes to hell. As stated
by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gt (16.19):
tn aha dviata krrn
sasreu nardhamn
kipmy ajasram aubhn
surv eva yoniu
"Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among
men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various
demoniac species of life." Thus the destination of godless atheists such as
Rvaa, Hirayakaipu, Kasa and Dantavakra is a hellish condition of
life. Mandodar, the wife of Rvaa, could understand all this because she
was a chaste woman. Although lamenting for the death of her husband,
she knew what would happen to his body and soul, for although one
cannot see directly with one's material eyes, one can see with eyes of
knowledge (payanti jna-cakua). In Vedic history there are many
instances of how one becomes godless and is condemned by the laws of
r-uka uvca
svn vibhaa cakre
yad ukta smparyikam
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; svnmof his own family
members; vibhaaVibhaa, the brother of Rvaa and devotee of


Lord Rmacandra; cakreexecuted; kosala-indra-anumoditaapproved

by the King of Kosala, Lord Rmacandra; pit-medha-vidhnenaby the
funeral ceremony performed by the son after the death of his father or
some family member; yat uktamwhich have been prescribed;
smparyikamduties to be performed after a person's death to save him
from the path to hell.
r ukadeva Gosvm said: Vibhaa, the pious brother of Rvaa and
devotee of Lord Rmacandra, received approval from Lord Rmacandra,
the King of Kosala. Then he performed the prescribed funeral
ceremonies for his family members to save them from the path to hell.
After giving up the body, one is transferred to another body, but
sometimes, if one is too sinful, he is checked from transmigrating to
another body, and thus he becomes a ghost. To save a diseased person
from ghostly life, the funeral ceremony, or rddha ceremony, as
prescribed in authorized stra, must be performed. Rvaa was killed by
Lord Rmacandra and was destined for hellish life, but by Lord
Rmacandra's advice, Vibhaa, Rvaa's brother, performed all the
duties prescribed in relation to the dead. Thus Lord Rmacandra was kind
to Rvaa even after Rvaa's death.
tato dadara bhagavn
km sva-viraha-vydhi
tatathereafter; dadarasaw; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of
Godhead; aoka-vanika-ramein a small cottage in the forest of Aoka
trees; kmmvery lean and thin; sva-viraha-vydhimsuffering from
the disease of separation from Lord Rmacandra; iapof the tree
known as Siap; mlamthe root; ritmtaking shelter of.
Thereafter, Lord Rmacandra found Stdev sitting in a small cottage
beneath the tree named Siap in a forest of Aoka trees. She was lean
and thin, being aggrieved because of separation from Him.


rma priyatam bhry

dn vkynvakampata
rmaLord Rmacandra; priya-tammupon His dearmost; bhrym
wife; dnmso poorly situated; vkyalooking; anvakampatabecame
very compassionate; tma-sandaranawhen one sees his beloved;
hldaan ecstasy of joyful life; vikasatmanifesting; mukhamouth;
pakajmlike a lotus.
Seeing His wife in that condition, Lord Rmacandra was very
compassionate. When Rmacandra came before her, she was
exceedingly happy to see her beloved, and her lotuslike mouth showed
her joy.
ropyruruhe yna
bhrtbhy hanumad-yuta
vibhaya bhagavn
dattv rako-gaeatm
lakm yu ca kalpnta
yayau cra-vrata purm
ropyakeeping or placing; ruruhegot up; ynamon the airplane;
bhrtbhymwith His brother Lakmaa and the commander Sugrva;
Vibhaa, the brother of Rvaa; bhagavnthe Lord; dattvgave
charge; raka-gaa-atmthe power to rule over the Rkasa
population of Lak; lakmthe state of Lak; yu caand the
duration of life; kalpa-antamfor many, many years, until the end of one
kalpa; yayaureturned home; cra-vratafinishing the duration of
time living in the forest; purmto Ayodhy-pur.
After giving Vibhaa the power to rule the Rkasa population of
Lak for the duration of one kalpa, Lord Rmacandra, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead [Bhagavn], placed Stdev on an airplane
decorated with flowers and then got on the plane Himself. The period
for His living in the forest having ended, the Lord returned to Ayodhy,


accompanied by Hanumn, Sugrva and His brother Lakmaa.

avakryama sukusumair
lokaplrpitai pathi
atadhty-dibhir mud
avakryamabeing overflooded; su-kusumaiby fragrant and
beautiful flowers; loka-pla-arpitaioffered by the princely order;
pathion the road; upagyamna-caritabeing glorified for His
uncommon activities; atadhti-dibhiby personalities like Lord
Brahm and other demigods; mudwith great jubilation.
When Lord Rmacandra returned to His capital, Ayodhy, He was
greeted on the road by the princely order, who showered His body with
beautiful, fragrant flowers, while great personalities like Lord Brahm
and other demigods glorified the activities of the Lord in great
go-mtra-yvaka rutv
bhrtara valkalmbaram
mah-kruiko 'tapyaj
jaila sthaile-ayam
go-mtra-yvakameating barley boiled in the urine of a cow; rutv
hearing; bhrtaramHis brother Bharata; valkala-ambaramcovered
with the bark of trees; mah-kruikathe supremely merciful Lord
Rmacandra; atapyatlamented very much; jailamwearing matted
locks of hair; sthaile-ayamlying down on a grass mattress, or
Upon reaching Ayodhy, Lord Rmacandra heard that in His absence
His brother Bharata was eating barley cooked in the urine of a cow,
covering His body with the bark of trees, wearing matted locks of hair,
and lying on a mattress of kua. The most merciful Lord very much
lamented this.


TEXTS 35-38
bharata prptam karya
pduke irasi nyasya
rma pratyudyato 'grajam
nandigrmt sva-ibird
brahma-ghoea ca muhu
pahadbhir brahmavdibhi
haimai citra-dhvajai rathai
sad-avai rukma-sannhair
bhaai puraa-varmabhi
rebhir vra-mukhybhir
bhtyai caiva padnugai
pramehyny updya
payny uccvacni ca
pdayor nyapatat prem
bharataLord Bharata; prptamcoming back home; karya
hearing; pauraall kinds of citizens; amtyaall the ministers;
purohitaiaccompanied by all the priests; pdukethe two wooden
shoes; irasion the head; nyasyakeeping; rmamunto Lord
Rmacandra; pratyudyatagoing forward to receive; agrajamHis
eldest brother; nandigrmtfrom His residence, known as Nandigrma;
sva-ibirtfrom His own camp; gta-vditrasongs and vibrations of
drums and other musical instruments; nisvanaiaccompanied by such
sounds; brahma-ghoeaby the sound of chanting of Vedic mantras;
caand; muhualways; pahadbhireciting from the Vedas; brahmavdibhiby first-class brhmaas; svara-kaka-patkbhidecorated
with flags with golden embroidery; haimaigolden; citra-dhvajaiwith
decorated flags; rathaiwith chariots; sat-avaihaving very beautiful
horses; rukmagolden; sannhaiwith harnesses; bhaaiby soldiers;
puraa-varmabhicovered with armor made of gold; rebhiby such
a line or procession; vra-mukhybhiaccompanied by beautiful, welldressed prostitutes; bhtyaiby servants; caalso; evaindeed; pada-


anugaiby infantry; pramehyniother paraphernalia befitting a

royal reception; updyataking all together; paynivaluable jewels,
etc.; ucca-avacniof different values; caalso; pdayoat the lotus
feet of the Lord; nyapatatfell down; premin ecstatic love;
praklinnasoftened, moistened; hdayathe core of the heart; kaa
whose eyes.
When Lord Bharata understood that Lord Rmacandra was returning to
the capital, Ayodhy, He immediately took upon His own head Lord
Rmacandra's wooden shoes and came out from His camp at
Nandigrma. Lord Bharata was accompanied by ministers, priests and
other respectable citizens, by professional musicians vibrating pleasing
musical sounds, and by learned brhmaas loudly chanting Vedic
hymns. Following in the procession were chariots drawn by beautiful
horses with harnesses of golden rope. These chariots were decorated by
flags with golden embroidery and by other flags of various sizes and
patterns. There were soldiers bedecked with golden armor, servants
bearing betel nut, and many well-known and beautiful prostitutes.
Many servants followed on foot, bearing an umbrella, whisks, different
grades of precious jewels, and other paraphernalia befitting a royal
reception. Accompanied in this way, Lord Bharata, His heart softened in
ecstasy and His eyes full of tears, approached Lord Rmacandra and fell
at His lotus feet with great ecstatic love.
TEXTS 39-40
pduke nyasya purata
prjalir bpa-locana
tam liya cira dorbhy
snpayan netrajair jalai
rmo lakmaa-stbhy
viprebhyo ye 'rha-sattam
tebhya svaya namacakre
prajbhi ca namaskta
pdukethe two wooden shoes; nyasyaafter placing; puratabefore
Lord Rmacandra; prjaliwith folded hands; bpa-locanawith
tears in the eyes; tamunto Him, Bharata; liyaembracing; ciram
for a long time; dorbhymwith His two arms; snpayanbathing; netra-


jaicoming from His eyes; jalaiwith the water; rmaLord

Rmacandra; lakmaa-stbhymwith Lakmaa and mother St;
viprebhyaunto the learned brhmaas; yealso others who; arhasattamworthy of being worshiped; tebhyaunto them; svayam
personally; nama-cakreoffered respectful obeisances; prajbhiby the
citizens; caand; nama-ktawas offered obeisances.
After offering the wooden shoes before Lord Rmacandra, Lord Bharata
stood with folded hands, His eyes full of tears, and Lord Rmacandra
bathed Bharata with tears while embracing Him with both arms for a
long time. Accompanied by mother St and Lakmaa, Lord
Rmacandra then offered His respectful obeisances unto the learned
brhmaas and the elderly persons in the family, and all the citizens of
Ayodhy offered their respectful obeisances unto the Lord.
dhunvanta uttarsagn
pati vkya cirgatam
uttar kosal mlyai
kiranto nantur mud
dhunvantawaving; uttara-sagnthe upper cloths covering the
body; patimthe Lord; vkyaseeing; cira-gatamreturned after many
years of banishment; uttar kosalthe citizens of Ayodhy; mlyai
kirantaoffering Him garlands; nantubegan to dance; mudin
great jubilation.
The citizens of Ayodhy, upon seeing their King return after a long
absence, offered Him flower garlands, waved their upper cloths, and
danced in great jubilation.
TEXTS 42-43
pduke bharato 'ghc
vibhaa sasugrva
veta-cchatra marut-suta
dhanur-niag chatrughna


st trtha-kamaalum
abibhrad agada khaga
haima carmarka-r npa
pdukethe two wooden shoes; bharataLord Bharata; aght
vibhaathe brother of Rvaa; sa-sugrvawith Sugrva; vetachatrama white umbrella; marut-sutaHanumn, the son of the windgod; dhanuthe bow; niagnwith two quivers; atrughnaone of
the brothers of Lord Rmacandra; stmother St; trtha-kamaalum
the waterpot filled with water from holy places; abibhratcarried;
agadathe monkey commander named Agada; khagamthe sword;
haimammade of gold; carmashield; ka-rthe King of the kas,
Jmbavn; npaO King.
O King, Lord Bharata carried Lord Rmacandra's wooden shoes, Sugrva
and Vibhaa carried a whisk and an excellent fan, Hanumn carried a
white umbrella, atrughna carried a bow and two quivers, and Stdev
carried a waterpot filled with water from holy places. Agada carried a
sword, and Jmbavn, King of the kas, carried a golden shield.
pupaka-stho nuta strbhi
styamna ca vandibhi
vireje bhagavn rjan
grahai candra ivodita
pupaka-sthaseated on the airplane made of flowers; nuta
worshiped; strbhiby the women; styamnabeing offered prayers;
caand; vandibhiby the reciters; virejebeautified; bhagavnthe
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Rmacandra; rjanO King
Parkit; grahaiamong the planets; candrathe moon; ivalike;
O King Parkit, as the Lord sat on His airplane of flowers, with women
offering Him prayers and reciters chanting about His characteristics, He
appeared like the moon with the stars and planets.


TEXTS 45-46
bhrtrbhinandita so 'tha
sotsav prviat purm
praviya rja-bhavana
guru-patn sva-mtaram
gurn vayasyvarajn
pjita pratyapjayat
vaideh lakmaa caiva
yathvat samupeyatu
bhrtrby His brother (Bharata); abhinanditabeing welcomed
properly; saHe, Lord Rmacandra; athathereafter; sa-utsavmin
the midst of a festival; prviatentered; purmthe city of Ayodhy;
praviyaafter entering; rja-bhavanamthe royal palace; guru-patn
Kaikey and other stepmothers; sva-mtaramHis own mother
(Kaualy); gurnthe spiritual masters (r Vasiha and others);
vayasyaunto friends of the same age; avara-jnand those who were
younger than He; pjitabeing worshiped by them; pratyapjayatHe
returned the obeisances; vaidehmother St; lakmaaLakmaa; ca
evaand; yath-vatin a befitting way; samupeyatubeing welcomed,
entered the palace.
Thereafter, having been welcomed by His brother Bharata, Lord
Rmacandra entered the city of Ayodhy in the midst of a festival.
When He entered the palace, He offered obeisances to all the mothers,
including Kaikey and the other wives of Mahrja Daaratha, and
especially His own mother, Kaualy. He also offered obeisances to the
spiritual preceptors, such as Vasiha. Friends of His own age and
younger friends worshiped Him, and He returned their respectful
obeisances, as did Lakmaa and mother St. In this way they all
entered the palace.
putrn sva-mtaras ts tu
prs tanva ivotthit
ropyke 'bhiicantyo
bpaughair vijahu uca


putrnthe sons; sva-mtaraTheir mothers; tthey, headed by

Kaualy and Kaikey; tubut; prnlife; tanvabodies; ivalike;
utthitarisen; ropyakeeping; akeon the lap; abhiicantya
moistening (the bodies of their sons); bpaby tears; oghai
continuously pouring; vijahugave up; ucalamentation due to
separation from their sons.
Upon seeing their sons, the mothers of Rma, Lakmaa, Bharata and
atrughna immediately arose, like unconscious bodies returning to
consciousness. The mothers placed their sons on their laps and bathed
Them with tears, thus relieving themselves of the grief of long
ja nirmucya vidhivat
kula-vddhai sama guru
abhyaicad yathaivendra
jathe matted locks of hair on the head; nirmucyashaving clean;
vidhi-vataccording to regulative principles; kula-vddhaithe elderly
persons in the family; samamwith; guruthe family priest or spiritual
master, Vasiha; abhyaicatperformed the abhieka ceremony of Lord
Rmacandra; yathas; evalike; indramunto King Indra; catusindhu-jalawith the water of the four oceans; dibhiand with other
paraphernalia for bathing.
The family priest or spiritual master, Vasiha, had Lord Rmacandra
cleanly shaved, freeing Him from His matted locks of hair. Then, with
the cooperation of the elderly members of the family, he performed the
bathing ceremony [abhieka] for Lord Rmacandra with the water of the
four seas and with other substances, just as it was performed for King
eva kta-ira-snna
suvs sragvy-alakta
svalaktai suvsobhir


bhrtbhir bhryay babhau

evamthus; kta-ira-snnahaving completely bathed, washing the
head; su-vsbeing nicely dressed; sragvi-alaktabeing decorated
with a garland; su-alaktaidecorated nicely; su-vsobhidressed
nicely; bhrtbhiwith His brothers; bhryayand with His wife, St;
babhauthe Lord became very brilliant.
Lord Rmacandra, fully bathed and His head clean-shaven, dressed
Himself very nicely and was decorated with a garland and ornaments.
Thus He shone brightly, surrounded by His brothers and wife, who
were similarly dressed and ornamented.
agrahd sana bhrtr
praipatya prasdita
praj sva-dharma-nirat
jugopa pitvad rmo
menire pitara ca tam
agrahtaccepted; sanamthe throne of the state; bhrtrby His
brother (Bharata); praipatyaafter fully surrendering unto Him;
prasditahaving been pleased; prajand the citizens; sva-dharmaniratfully engaged in their respective occupational duties;
varramaaccording to the system of vara and rama; guaanvitall of them being qualified in that process; jugopathe Lord
protected them; pit-vatexactly like a father; rmaLord Rmacandra;
menirethey considered; pitaramexactly like a father; caalso; tam
Him, Lord Rmacandra.
Being pleased by the full surrender and submission of Lord Bharata,
Lord Rmacandra then accepted the throne of the state. He cared for the
citizens exactly like a father, and the citizens, being fully engaged in
their occupational duties of vara and rama, accepted Him as their
People are very fond of the pattern of Rma-rjya, and even today
politicians sometimes form a party called Rma-rjya, but unfortunately


they have no obedience to Lord Rma. It is sometimes said that people

want the kingdom of God without God. Such an aspiration, however, is
never to be fulfilled. Good government can exist when the relationship
between the citizens and the government is like that exemplified by Lord
Rmacandra and His citizens. Lord Rmacandra ruled His kingdom
exactly as a father takes care of his children, and the citizens, being
obliged to the good government of Lord Rmacandra, accepted the Lord
as their father. Thus the relationship between the citizens and the
government should be exactly like that between father and son. When the
sons in a family are well trained, they are obedient to the father and
mother, and when the father is well qualified, he takes good care of the
children. As indicated here by the words sva-dharma-nirat varramagun-vit, the people were good citizens because they accepted the
institution of vara and rama, which arranges society in the vara
divisions of brhmaa, katriya, vaiya and dra and the rama divisions
of brahmacarya, ghastha, vnaprastha and sannysa. This is actual human
civilization. People must be trained according to the different varrama
occupational duties. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (4.13), ctur-varya
may sa gua-karma-vibhgaa: the four varas must be established
according to varying qualities and work. The first principle for good
government is that it must institute this varrama system. The purpose
of varrama is to enable people to become God conscious.
Varramcravat puruea para pumn viur rdhyate [Cc. Madhya
8.58]. The entire varrama scheme is intended to enable people to
become Vaiavas. Viur asya devat. When people worship Lord Viu
as the Supreme Lord, they become Vaiavas. Thus people should be
trained to become Vaiavas through the system of vara and rama, as
they were during the reign of Lord Rmacandra, when everyone was fully
trained to follow the varrama principles.
Simply enforcing laws and ordinances cannot make the citizens obedient
and lawful. That is impossible. Throughout the entire world there are so
many states, legislative assemblies and parliaments, but still the citizens
are rogues and thieves. Good citizenship, therefore, cannot be enforced;
the citizens must be trained. As there are schools and colleges to train
students to become chemical engineers, lawyers or specialists in many
other departments of knowledge, there must be schools and colleges to
train students to become brhmaas, katriyas, vaiyas, dras,
brahmacrs, ghasthas, vnaprasthas and sannyss. This will provide the


preliminary condition for good citizenship (varrama-gun-vit).

Generally speaking, if the king or president is a rjari, the relationship
between the citizens and the chief executive will be clear, and there will
be no possibility of disruption in the state, because the number of thieves
and rogues will decrease. In Kali-yuga, however, because the varrama
system is neglected, people are generally thieves and rogues. In the system
of democracy, such thieves and rogues naturally collect money from other
thieves and rogues, and thus there is chaos in every government, and no
one is happy. But here the example of good government is to be found in
the reign of Lord Rmacandra. If people follow this example, there will be
good government all over the world.
trety vartamny
kla kta-samo 'bhavat
rme rjani dharma-je
tretymin the Tret-yuga; vartamnymalthough situated in that
period; klathe period; ktawith Satya-yuga; samaequal;
abhavatit so became; rmebecause of Lord Rmacandra's being
present; rjanias the ruling king; dharma-jebecause He was fully
religious; sarva-bhtaof all living entities; sukha-vahegiving full
Lord Rmacandra became King during Tret-yuga, but because of His
good government, the age was like Satya-yuga. Everyone was religious
and completely happy.
Among the four yugas-Satya, Tret, Dvpara and Kali-the Kali-yuga is the
worst, but if the process of varrama-dharma is introduced, even in this
age of Kali, the situation of Satya-yuga can be invoked. The Hare Ka
movement, or Ka consciousness movement, is meant for this purpose.
kaler doa-nidhe rjann
asti hy eko mahn gua
krtand eva kasya
mukta-saga para vrajet
"My dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good


quality about this age: simply by chanting the Hare Ka mah-mantra,

one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the
transcendental kingdom." (SB 12.3.51) If people take to this sakrtana
movement of chanting Hare Ka, Hare Rma, they will certainly be
freed from the contamination of Kali-yuga, and the people of this age will
be happy, as people were in Satya-yuga, the golden age. Anyone,
anywhere, can easily take to this Hare Ka movement; one need only
chant the Hare Ka mah-mantra, observe the rules and regulations, and
stay free from the contamination of sinful life. Even if one is sinful and
cannot give up sinful life immediately, if he chants the Hare Ka mahmantra with devotion and faith he will certainly be freed from all sinful
activities, and his life will be successful. Para vijayate r-kasakrtanam. This is the blessing of Lord Rmacandra, who has appeared
in this age of Kali as Lord Gaurasundara.
vanni nadyo girayo
vari dvpa-sindhava
sarve kma-dugh san
prajn bharatarabha
vannithe forests; nadyathe rivers; girayathe hills and
mountains; varivarious parts of the states or divisions on the surface
of the earth; dvpaislands; sindhavathe oceans and seas; sarveall of
them; kma-dughfull of their respective opulences; sanexisted like
that; prajnmof all the living beings; bharata-abhaO Mahrja
Parkit, best of the Bharata dynasty.
O Mahrja Parkit, best of the Bharata dynasty, during the reign of
Lord Rmacandra the forests, the rivers, the hills and mountains, the
states, the seven islands and the seven seas were all favorable in
supplying the necessities of life for all living beings.
mtyu cnicchat nsd
rme rjany adhokaje


nanot; dhiadhytmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika sufferings (that

is, sufferings from the body and mind, from other living entities and from
nature); vydhidiseases; jarold age; glnibereavement; dukha
grief; okalamentation; bhayafear; klamand fatigue; mtyu
death; caalso; anicchatmof those who did not like it; na stthere
was not; rmeduring the rule of Lord Rmacandra; rjanibecause of
His being the king; adhokajethe Supreme Personality of Godhead, who
is beyond this material world.
When Lord Rmacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, was the
King of this world, all bodily and mental suffering, disease, old age,
bereavement, lamentation, distress, fear and fatigue were completely
absent. There was even no death for those who did not want it.
All these facilities existed because of Lord Rmacandra's presence as the
King of the entire world. A similar situation could be introduced
immediately, even in this age called Kali, the worst of all ages. It is said,
kali-kle nma-rpe ka-avatra: Ka descends in this Kali-yuga in the
form of His holy nameHare Ka, Hare Rma. If we chant
offenselessly, Rma and Ka are still present in this age. The kingdom of
Rma was immensely popular and beneficial, and the spreading of this
Hare Ka movement can immediately introduce a similar situation, even
in this Kali-yuga.
rjari-carita uci
sva-dharma gha-medhya
ikayan svayam carat
eka-patn-vrata-dharataking a vow not to accept a second wife or to
have any connection with any other woman; rja-ilike a saintly king;
caritawhose character; ucipure; sva-dharmamone's own
occupational duty; gha-medhyamespecially of persons situated in
household life; ikayanteaching (by personal behavior); svayam
personally; caratexecuted His duty.
Lord Rmacandra took a vow to accept only one wife and have no
connection with any other women. He was a saintly king, and


everything in His character was good, untinged by qualities like anger.

He taught good behavior for everyone, especially for householders, in
terms of varrama-dharma. Thus He taught the general public by His
personal activities.
Eka-patn-vrata, accepting only one wife, was the glorious example set by
Lord Rmacandra. One should not accept more than one wife. In those
days, of course, people did marry more than one wife. Even Lord
Rmacandra's father accepted more wives than one. But Lord
Rmacandra, as an ideal king, accepted only one wife, mother St. When
mother St was kidnapped by Rvaa and the Rkasas, Lord
Rmacandra, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, could have married
hundreds and thousands of Sts, but to teach us how faithful He was to
His wife, He fought with Rvaa and finally killed him. The Lord
punished Rvaa and rescued His wife to instruct men to have only one
wife. Lord Rmacandra accepted only one wife and manifested sublime
character, thus setting an example for householders. A householder
should live according to the ideal of Lord Rmacandra, who showed how
to be a perfect person. Being a householder or living with a wife and
children is never condemned, provided one lives according to the
regulative principles of varrama-dharma. Those who live in accordance
with these principles, whether as householders, brahmacrs or
vnaprasthas, are all equally important.
premnuvtty lena
prarayvanat sat
bhiy hriy ca bhva-j
bhartu stharan mana
prem anuvttybecause of service rendered to the husband with love
and faith; lenaby such good character; praraya-avanatalways very
submissive and ready to satisfy the husband; satchaste; bhiyby
being afraid; hriyby shyness; caalso; bhva-junderstanding the
attitude (of the husband); bhartuof her husband, Lord Rmacandra;
stmother St; aharatsimply captivated; manathe mind.
Mother St was very submissive, faithful, shy and chaste, always
understanding the attitude of her husband. Thus by her character and


her love and service she completely attracted the mind of the Lord.
As Lord Rmacandra is the ideal husband (eka-patn-vrata), mother St is
the ideal wife. Such a combination makes family life very happy. Yad yad
carati rehas tat tad evetaro jana: whatever example a great man sets,
common people follow. If the kings, the leaders, and the brhmaas, the
teachers, would set forth the examples we receive from Vedic literature,
the entire world would be heaven; indeed, there would no longer be
hellish conditions within this material world.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Tenth Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Pastimes of the Supreme Lord,


11. Lord Rmacandra Rules the World

This chapter describes how Lord Rmacandra resided in Ayodhy with

His younger brothers and performed various sacrifices.
Lord Rmacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, performed
various sacrifices by which to worship Himself, and at the end of these
sacrifices He gave land to the hot, adhvaryu, udgt and brahm priests.
He gave them the eastern, western, northern and southern directions
respectively, and the balance He gave to the crya. Lord Rmacandra's
faith in the brhmaas and affection for His servants was observed by all
the brhmaas, who then offered their prayers to the Lord and returned
whatever they had taken from Him. They regarded the enlightenment
given to them by the Lord within the core of their hearts as a sufficient
contribution. Lord Rmacandra subsequently dressed Himself like an
ordinary person and began wandering within the capital to understand
what impression the citizens had of Him. By chance, one night He heard a
man talking to his wife, who had gone to another man's house. In the
course of rebuking his wife, the man spoke suspiciously of the character
of Stdev. The Lord immediately returned home, and, fearing such
rumors, He superficially decided to give up Stdev's company. Thus He
banished Stdev, who was pregnant, to the shelter of Vlmki Muni,
where she gave birth to twin sons, named Lava and Kua. In Ayodhy,
Lakmaa begot two sons named Agada and Citraketu, Bharata begot
two sons named Taka and Pukala, and atrughna begot two sons named
Subhu and rutasena. When Bharata went out to conquer various lands
on behalf of the emperor, Lord Rmacandra, He fought many millions of
Gandharvas. By killing them in the fight, He acquired immense wealth,
which He then brought home. atrughna killed a demon named Lavaa at
Madhuvana and thus established the capital of Mathur. Meanwhile,
Stdev placed her two sons in the care of Vlmki Muni and then entered
into the earth. Upon hearing of this, Lord Rmacandra was very much
aggrieved, and thus He performed sacrifices for thirteen thousand years.
After describing the pastimes of Lord Rmacandra's disappearance and
establishing that the Lord appears for His pastimes only, ukadeva


Gosvm ends this chapter by describing the results of hearing about the
activities of Lord Rmacandra and by describing how the Lord protected
His citizens and displayed affection for His brothers.
r-uka uvca
bhagavn tmantmna
rma uttama-kalpakai
sarva-devamaya devam
je 'thcryavn makhai
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; bhagavnthe Supreme
Personality of Godhead; tmanby Himself; tmnamHimself;
rmaLord Rmacandra; uttama-kalpakaiwith very opulent
paraphernalia; sarva-deva-mayamthe heart and soul of all the demigods;
devamthe Supreme Lord Himself; jeworshiped; athathus;
cryavnunder the guidance of an crya; makhaiby performing
ukadeva Gosvm said: Thereafter, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Lord Rmacandra, accepted an crya and performed
sacrifices [yajas] with opulent paraphernalia. Thus He Himself
worshiped Himself, for He is the Supreme Lord of all demigods.
Sarvrhaam acyutejy. If Acyuta, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is
worshiped, then everyone is worshiped. As stated in rmad-Bhgavatam
yath taror mla-niecanena
tpyanti tat-skandha-bhujopakh
propahrc ca yathendriy
tathaiva sarvrhaam acyutejy
"As pouring water on the root of a tree nourishes the trunk, branches,
twigs and leaves, and as supplying food to the stomach enlivens the senses
and limbs of the body, worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead
satisfies the demigods, who are part of that Supreme Personality."
Performing yaja involves worshiping the Supreme Lord. Here the
Supreme Lord worshiped the Supreme Lord. Therefore it is said, bhagavn
tmantmnam je: the Lord worshiped Himself by Himself. This does not,


of course, justify the Myvda philosophy, by which one thinks himself

the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The jva, the living entity, is always
different from the Supreme Lord. The living entities (vibhinna) never
become one with the Lord, although Myvds sometimes imitate the
Lord's worship of Himself. Lord Ka meditated upon Himself every
morning as a ghastha, and similarly Lord Rmacandra performed yajas
to satisfy Himself, but this does not mean that an ordinary living being
should imitate the Lord by accepting the process of ahagraha-upsan.
Such unauthorized worship is not recommended herein.
hotre 'dadd dia prc
brahmae daki prabhu
adhvaryave pratc v
uttar smagya sa
hotreunto the hot priest, who offers oblations; adadtgave; diam
direction; prcmthe whole eastern side; brahmaeunto the brahm
priest, who supervises what is done in the sacrificial arena; dakimthe
southern side; prabhuLord Rmacandra; adhvaryaveunto the
adhvaryu priest; pratcmthe whole western side; valso; uttarmthe
northern side; sma-gyaunto the udgt priest, who sings the Sma
Veda; saHe (Lord Rmacandra).
Lord Rmacandra gave the entire east to the hot priest, the entire
south to the brahm priest, the west to the adhvaryu priest, and the
north to the udgt priest, the reciter of the Sma Veda. In this way, He
donated His kingdom.
cryya dadau e
yvat bhs tad-antar
manyamna ida ktsna
brhmao 'rhati nispha
cryyaunto the crya, the spiritual master; dadaugave; emthe
balance; yvatwhatever; bhland; tat-antarexisting between the
east, west, north and south; manyamnathinking; idamall this;


ktsnamwholly; brhmaathe brhmaas; arhatideserve to possess;

nisphahaving no desire.
Thereafter, thinking that because the brhmaas have no material
desires they should possess the entire world, Lord Rmacandra
delivered the land between the east, west, north and south to the
ity aya tad-alakravsobhym avaeita
tath rjy api vaideh
itiin this way (after giving everything to the brhmaas); ayamLord
Rmacandra; tatHis; alakra-vsobhymwith personal ornaments
and garments; avaeitaremained; tathas well as; rjthe Queen
(mother St); apialso; vaidehthe daughter of the King of Videha;
saumagalywith only the nose ring; avaeitremained.
After thus giving everything in charity to the brhmaas, Lord
Rmacandra retained only His personal garments and ornaments, and
similarly the Queen, mother St, was left with only her nose ring, and
nothing else.
te tu brhmaa-devasya
vtsalya vkya sastutam
prt klinna-dhiyas tasmai
pratyarpyeda babhire
tethe hot, brahm and other priests; tubut; brhmaa-devasyaof
Lord Rmacandra, who loved the brhmaas so much; vtsalyamthe
paternal affection; vkyaafter seeing; sastutamworshiped with
prayers; prtbeing very pleased; klinna-dhiyawith melted hearts;
tasmaiunto Him (Lord Rmacandra); pratyarpyareturning; idam
this (all the land given to them); babhirespoke.


All the brhmaas who were engaged in the various activities of the
sacrifice were very pleased with Lord Rmacandra, who was greatly
affectionate and favorable to the brhmaas. Thus with melted hearts
they returned all the property received from Him and spoke as follows.
In the previous chapter it was said that the prajs, the citizens, strictly
followed the system of varrama-dharma. The brhmaas acted exactly
like brhmaas, the katriyas exactly like katriyas, and so on. Therefore,
when Lord Rmacandra gave everything in charity to the brhmaas, the
brhmaas, being qualified, wisely considered that brhmaas are not
meant to possess property to make a profit from it. The qualifications of a
brhmaa are given in Bhagavad-gt (18.42):
amo damas tapa auca
kntir rjavam eva ca
jna vijnam stikya
brahma-karma svabhvajam
"Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty, wisdom,
knowledge, and religiousnessthese are the qualities by which the
brhmaas work." The brahminical character offers no scope for
possessing land and ruling citizens; these are the duties of a katriya.
Therefore, although the brhmaas did not refuse Lord Rmacandra's gift,
after accepting it they returned it to the King. The brhmaas were so
pleased with Lord Rmacandra's affection toward them that their hearts
melted. They saw that Lord Rmacandra, aside from being the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, was fully qualified as a katriya and was
exemplary in character. One of the qualifications of a katriya is to be
charitable. A katriya, or ruler, levies taxes upon the citizens not for his
personal sense gratification but to give charity in suitable cases. Dnam
vara-bhva. On one hand, katriyas have the propensity to rule, but on
the other they are very liberal with charity. When Mahrja Yudhihira
gave charity, he engaged Kara to take charge of distributing it. Kara was
very famous as Dt Kara. The word dt refers to one who gives charity
very liberally. The kings always kept a large quantity of food grains in
stock, and whenever there was any scarcity of grains, they would
distribute grains in charity. A katriya's duty is to give charity, and a
brhmaa's duty is to accept charity, but not more than needed to
maintain body and soul together. Therefore, when the brhmaas were


given so much land by Lord Rmacandra, they returned it to Him and

were not greedy.
apratta nas tvay ki nu
bhagavan bhuvanevara
yan no 'ntar-hdaya viya
tamo hasi sva-roci
aprattamnot given; naunto us; tvayby Your Lordship; kim
what; nuindeed; bhagavanO Supreme Lord; bhuvana-varaO
master of the whole universe; yatbecause; naour; anta-hdayam
within the core of the heart; viyaentering; tamathe darkness of
ignorance; hasiYou annihilate; sva-rociby Your own effulgence.
O Lord, You are the master of the entire universe. What have You not
given to us? You have entered the core of our hearts and dissipated the
darkness of our ignorance by Your effulgence. This is the supreme gift.
We do not need a material donation.
When Dhruva Mahrja was offered a benediction by the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, he replied, "O my Lord, I am fully satisfied. I do
not need any material benediction." Similarly, when Prahlda Mahrja
was offered a benediction by Lord Nsihadeva, he also refused to accept
it and instead declared that a devotee should not be like a vaik, a
mercantile man who gives something in exchange for some profit. One
who becomes a devotee for some material profit is not a pure devotee.
Brhmaas are always enlightened by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead within the heart (sarvasya cha hdi sannivio matta smtir
jnam apohana ca [Bg. 15.15]). And because the brhmaas and
Vaiavas are always directed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
they are not greedy for material wealth. What is absolutely necessary they
possess, but they do not want an expanded kingdom. An example of this
was given by Vmanadeva. Acting as a brahmacr, Lord Vmanadeva
wanted only three paces of land. Aspiring to possess more and more for
personal sense gratification is simply ignorance, and this ignorance is
conspicuous by its absence from the heart of a brhmaa or Vaiava.


namo brahmaya-devya
namawe offer our respectful obeisances; brahmaya-devyaunto the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, who accepts the brhmaas as His
worshipable deity; rmyaunto Lord Rmacandra; akuha-medhase
whose memory and knowledge are never disturbed by anxiety;
uttamaloka-dhuryyathe best of very famous persons; nyasta-daaarpita-aghrayewhose lotus feet are worshiped by sages beyond the
jurisdiction of punishment.
O Lord, You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who have
accepted the brhmaas as Your worshipable deity. Your knowledge
and memory are never disturbed by anxiety. You are the chief of all
famous persons within this world, and Your lotus feet are worshiped by
sages who are beyond the jurisdiction of punishment. O Lord
Rmacandra, let us offer our respectful obeisances unto You.
kadcil loka-jijsur
gho rtrym alakita
caran vco 'od rmo
bhrym uddiya kasyacit
kadcitonce upon a time; loka-jijsudesiring to know about the
public; ghahiding Himself by a disguise; rtrymat night;
alakitawithout being identified by anyone else; caranwalking;
vcaspeaking; aotheard; rmaLord Rmacandra; bhrym
unto His wife; uddiyaindicating; kasyacitof someone.
ukadeva Gosvm continued: Once while Lord Rmacandra was
walking at night incognito, hiding Himself by a disguise to find out the
people's opinion of Himself, He heard a man speaking unfavorably
about His wife, Stdev.


nha bibharmi tv dum

asat para-vema-gm
straio hi bibhyt st
rmo nha bhaje puna
nanot; ahamI; bibharmican maintain; tvmyou; dumbecause
you are polluted; asatmunchaste; para-vema-gmone who has gone
to another man's house and committed adultery; straiaa person who
is henpecked; hiindeed; bibhytcan accept; stmeven St;
rmalike Lord Rmacandra; nanot; ahamI; bhaje-shall accept;
[Speaking to his unchaste wife, the man said] You go to another man's
house, and therefore you are unchaste and polluted. I shall not maintain
you any more. A henpecked husband like Lord Rma may accept a wife
like St, who went to another man's house, but I am not henpecked
like Him, and therefore I shall not accept you again.
iti lokd bahu-mukhd
durrdhyd asavida
paty bhtena s tyakt
prpt prcetasramam
itithus; loktfrom persons; bahu-mukhtwho can talk nonsensically
in various ways; durrdhytwhom it is very difficult to stop;
asavidawho are without full knowledge; patyby the husband;
bhtenabeing afraid; smother St; tyaktwas abandoned; prpt
went; prcetasa-ramamto the hermitage of Prcetasa (Vlmki Muni).
ukadeva Gosvm said: Men with a poor fund of knowledge and a
heinous character speak nonsensically. Fearing such rascals, Lord
Rmacandra abandoned His wife, Stdev, although she was pregnant.
Thus Stdev went to the rama of Vlmki Muni.
antarvatny gate kle
yamau s suuve sutau


kuo lava iti khytau

tayo cakre kriy muni
antarvatnthe pregnant wife; gatearrived; klein due course of
time; yamautwins; sStdev; suuvegave birth to; sutautwo sons;
kuaKua; lavaLava; itithus; khytaucelebrated; tayoof
them; cakreperformed; kriythe ritualistic ceremonies of birth;
munithe great sage Vlmki.
When the time came, the pregnant mother Stdev gave birth to twin
sons, later celebrated as Lava and Kua. The ritualistic ceremonies for
their birth were performed by Vlmki Muni.
agada citraketu ca
lakmaasytmajau smtau
taka pukala ity st
bharatasya mahpate
agadaAgada; citraketuCitraketu; caalso; lakmaasyaof Lord
Lakmaa; tmajautwo sons; smtauwere said to be; takaTaka;
pukalaPukala; itithus; stmwere; bharatasyaof Lord Bharata;
mahpateO King Parkit.
O Mahrja Parkit, Lord Lakmaa had two sons, named Agada and
Citraketu, and Lord Bharata also had two sons, named Taka and
TEXTS 13-14
subhu rutasena ca
atrughnasya babhvatu
gandharvn koio jaghne
bharato vijaye dim
tadya dhanam nya
sarva rje nyavedayat
atrughna ca madho putra
lavaa nma rkasam


hatv madhuvane cakre

mathur nma vai purm
subhuSubhu; rutasenarutasena; caalso; atrughnasyaof
Lord atrughna; babhvatuwere born; gandharvnpersons related
with the Gandharvas, who are mostly pretenders; koiaby the tens of
millions; jaghnekilled; bharataLord Bharata; vijayewhile
conquering; dimall directions; tadyamof the Gandharvas;
dhanamriches; nyabringing; sarvameverything; rjeunto the
King (Lord Rmacandra); nyavedayatoffered; atrughnaatrughna;
caand; madhoof Madhu; putramthe son; lavaamLavaa;
nmaby the name; rkasama man-eater; hatvby killing;
madhuvanein the great forest known as Madhuvana; cakre
constructed; mathurmMathur; nmaby the name; vaiindeed;
purma great town.
atrughna had two sons, named Subhu and rutasena. When Lord
Bharata went to conquer all directions, He had to kill many millions of
Gandharvas, who are generally pretenders. Taking all their wealth, He
offered it to Lord Rmacandra. atrughna also killed a Rkasa named
Lavaa, who was the son of Madhu Rkasa. Thus He established in the
great forest known as Madhuvana the town known as Mathur.
munau nikipya tanayau
st bhartr vivsit
dhyyant rma-caraau
vivara pravivea ha
munauunto the great sage Vlmki; nikipyagiving in charge;
tanayauthe two sons Lava and Kua; stmother Stdev; bhartrby
her husband; vivsitbanished; dhyyantmeditating upon; rmacaraauthe lotus feet of Lord Rmacandra; vivaramwithin the earth;
praviveashe entered; haindeed.
Being forsaken by her husband, Stdev entrusted her two sons to the
care of Vlmki Muni. Then, meditating upon the lotus feet of Lord
Rmacandra, she entered into the earth.


It was impossible for Stdev to live in separation from Lord Rmacandra.

Therefore, after entrusting her two sons to the care of Vlmki Muni, she
entered into the earth.
tac chrutv bhagavn rmo
rundhann api dhiy uca
smaras tasy gus ts tn
naknod roddhum vara
tatthis (the news of Stdev's entering the earth); rutvhearing;
bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of Godhead; rmaLord
Rmacandra; rundhantrying to reject; apialthough; dhiyby
intelligence; ucagrief; smaranremembering; tasyof her;
gunqualities; tn tnunder different circumstances; nanot;
aaknotwas able; roddhumto check; varaalthough the supreme
After hearing the news of mother St's entering the earth, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead was certainly aggrieved. Although He is the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, upon remembering the exalted
qualities of mother St, He could not check His grief in transcendental
Lord Rmacandra's grief at the news of Stdev's entering the earth is not
to be considered material. In the spiritual world also there are feelings of
separation, but such feelings are considered spiritual bliss. Grief in
separation exists even in the Absolute, but such feelings of separation in
the spiritual world are transcendentally blissful. Such feelings are a sign of
tasya prema-vayatva-svabhva, being under the influence of hldin-akti
and being controlled by love. In the material world such feelings of
separation are only a perverted reflection.
str-pu-prasaga etdk
sarvatra trsam-vaha
apvar kim uta
grmyasya gha-cetasa
str-pum-prasagaattraction between husband and wife, or man and


woman; etdklike this; sarvatraeverywhere; trsam-vahathe

cause of fear; apieven; varmof controllers; kim utaand what to
speak of; grmyasyaof ordinary men of this material world; ghacetasawho are attached to materialistic household life.
The attraction between man and woman, or male and female, always
exists everywhere, making everyone always fearful. Such feelings are
present even among the controllers like Brahm and Lord iva and is
the cause of fear for them, what to speak of others who are attached to
household life in this material world.
As explained above, when the feelings of love and transcendental bliss
from the spiritual world are pervertedly reflected in this material world,
they are certainly the cause of bondage. As long as men feel attracted to
women in this material world and women feel attracted to men, the
bondage of repeated birth and death will continue. But in the spiritual
world, where there is no fear of birth and death, such feelings of
separation are the cause of transcendental bliss. In the absolute reality
there are varieties of feeling, but all of them are of the same quality of
transcendental bliss.
tata rdhva brahmacarya
dhryann ajuhot prabhu
agnihotram akhaitam
tatathereafter; rdhvamafter mother St's going into the earth;
brahmacaryamcomplete celibacy; dhrayanobserving; ajuhot
performed a ritualistic ceremony and sacrifice; prabhuLord
Rmacandra; trayodaa-abda-shasramfor thirteen thousand years;
agnihotramthe sacrifice known as Agnihotra-yaja; akhaitam
without ceasing.
After mother St entered the earth, Lord Rmacandra observed
complete celibacy and performed an uninterrupted Agnihotra-yaja for
thirteen thousand years.


smarat hdi vinyasya

viddha daaka-kaakai
sva-pda-pallava rma
tma-jyotir agt tata
smaratmof persons who always think of Him; hdiin the core of the
heart; vinyasyaplacing; viddhampierced; daaka-kaakaiby
thorns in the forest of Daakraya (while Lord Rmacandra was living
there); sva-pda-pallavamthe petals of Mis lotus feet; rmaLord
Rmacandra; tma-jyotithe rays of His bodily luster, known as the
brahmajyoti; agtentered; tatabeyond the brahmajyoti, or in His own
Vaikuha planet.
After completing the sacrifice, Lord Rmacandra, whose lotus feet were
sometimes pierced by thorns when He lived in Daakraya, placed
those lotus feet in the hearts of those who always think of Him. Then
He entered His own abode, the Vaikuha planet beyond the
The lotus feet of the Lord are always a subject matter for meditation for
devotees. Sometimes when Lord Rmacandra wandered in the forest of
Daakraya, thorns pricked His lotus feet. The devotees, upon thinking
of this, would faint. The Lord does not feel pain or pleasure from any
action or reaction of this material world, but the devotees cannot tolerate
even the pricking of the Lord's lotus feet by a thorn. This was the attitude
of the gops when they thought of Ka wandering in the forest, with
pebbles and grains of sand pricking His lotus feet. This tribulation in the
heart of a devotee cannot be understood by karms, jns or yogs. The
devotees, who could not tolerate even thinking of the Lord's lotus feet
being pricked by a thorn, were again put into tribulation by thinking of
the Lord's disappearance, for the Lord had to return to His abode after
finishing His pastimes in this material world.
The word tma-jyoti is significant. The brahmajyoti, which is greatly
appreciated by jns, or monistic philosophers who desire to enter it for
liberation, is nothing but the rays of the Lord's body.
yasya prabh prabhavato jagad-aa-koikoiv aea-vasudhdi-vibhti-bhinnam
tad brahma nikalam anantam aea-bhta


govindam di-purua tam aha bhajmi

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is endowed with great
power. The glowing effulgence of His transcendental form is the
impersonal Brahman, which is absolute, complete and unlimited and
which displays the varieties of countless planets, with their different
opulences, in millions and millions of universes." (Bs. 5.40) The
brahmajyoti is the beginning of the spiritual world, and beyond the
brahmajyoti are the Vaikuha planets. In other words, the brahmajyoti
stays outside the Vaikuha planets, just as the sunshine stays outside the
sun. To enter the sun planet, one must go through the sunshine.
Similarly, when the Lord or His devotees enter the Vaikuha planets,
they go through the brahmajyoti. The jns, or monistic philosophers,
because of their impersonal conception of the Lord, cannot enter the
Vaikuha planets, but they also cannot stay eternally in the brahmajyoti.
Thus after some time they fall again to this material world. ruhya
kcchrea para pada tata patanty adho 'ndta-yumad-aghraya (SB
10.2.32). The Vaikuha planets are covered by the brahmajyoti, and
therefore one cannot properly understand what those Vaikuha planets
are unless one is a pure devotee.
neda yao raghupate sura-ycayttall-tanor adhika-smya-vimukta-dhmna
rako-vadho jaladhi-bandhanam astra-pgai
ki tasya atru-hanane kapaya sahy
nanot; idamall these; yaafame; raghu-pateof Lord
Rmacandra; sura-ycayby the prayers of the demigods; tta-lltanowhose spiritual body is always engaged in various pastimes;
adhika-smya-vimukta-dhmnano one is greater than or equal to Him;
raka-vadhakilling the Rkasa (Rvaa); jaladhi-bandhanam
bridging the ocean; astra-pgaiwith bow and arrows; kimwhether;
tasyaHis; atru-hananein killing the enemies; kapayathe monkeys;
Lord Rmacandra's reputation for having killed Rvaa with showers of
arrows at the request of the demigods and for having built a bridge over
the ocean does not constitute the factual glory of the Supreme


Personality of Godhead Lord Rmacandra, whose spiritual body is

always engaged in various pastimes. Lord Rmacandra has no equal or
superior, and therefore He had no need to take help from the monkeys
to gain victory over Rvaa.
As stated in the Vedas (vetvatara Upaniad 6.8):
na tasya krya karaa ca vidyate
na tat-sama cbhyadhika ca dyate
parsya aktir vividhaiva ryate
svbhvik jna-bala-kriy ca
[Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]
"The Supreme Lord has nothing to do, and no one is found to be equal to
or greater than Him, for everything is done naturally and systematically
by His multifarious energies." The Lord has nothing to do (na tasya
krya karaa ca vidyate); whatever He does is His pastime. The Lord
has no duty to perform to oblige anyone. Nonetheless, He appears to act
to protect His devotees or kill His enemies. Of course, no one can be the
Lord's enemy, since who could be more powerful than the Lord? There is
actually no question of anyone's being His enemy, but when the Lord
wants to take pleasure in pastimes, He comes down to this material world
and acts like a human being, thus showing His wonderful, glorious
activities to please the devotees. His devotees always want to see the Lord
victorious in varied activities, and therefore, to please Himself and them,
the Lord sometimes agrees to act as a human being and perform
wonderful, uncommon pastimes for the satisfaction of the devotees.
yasymala npa-sadasu yao 'dhunpi
gyanty agha-ghnam ayo dig-ibhendra-paam
ta nkapla-vasupla-kira-juapdmbuja raghupati araa prapadye
yasyawhose (Lord Rmacandra's); amalamspotless, free from material
qualities; npa-sadasuin the assembly of great emperors like Mahrja
Yudhihira; yaafamous glories; adhun apieven today; gyanti
glorify; agha-ghnamwhich vanquish all sinful reactions; ayagreat
saintly persons like Mrkaeya; dik-ibha-indra-paamas the


ornamental cloth covering the elephant that conquers the directions;

tamthat; nka-plaof heavenly demigods; vasu-plaof earthly kings;
kiraby the helmets; juaare worshiped; pda-ambujamwhose
lotus feet; raghu-patimunto Lord Rmacandra; araamsurrender;
prapadyeI offer.
Lord Rmacandra's spotless name and fame, which vanquish all sinful
reactions, are celebrated in all directions, like the ornamental cloth of
the victorious elephant that conquers all directions. Great saintly
persons like Mrkaeya i still glorify His characteristics in the
assemblies of great emperors like Mahrja Yudhihira. Similarly, all
the saintly kings and all the demigods, including Lord iva and Lord
Brahm, worship the Lord by bowing down with their helmets. Let me
offer my obeisances unto His lotus feet.
sa yai spo 'bhido v
savio 'nugato 'pi v
kosals te yayu sthna
yatra gacchanti yogina
saHe, Lord Rmacandra; yaiby which persons; spatouched;
abhidaseen; veither; saviaeating together, lying together;
anugatafollowed as servants; api veven; kosalall those
inhabitants of Kosala; tethey; yayudeparted; sthnamto the place;
yatrawherein; gacchantithey go; yoginaall the bhakti-yogis.
Lord Rmacandra returned to His abode, to which bhakti-yogs are
promoted. This is the place to which all the inhabitants of Ayodhy
went after they served the Lord in His manifest pastimes by offering
Him obeisances, touching His lotus feet, fully observing Him as a
fatherlike King, sitting or lying down with Him like equals, or even just
accompanying Him.
The Lord says in Bhagavad-gt (4.9):
janma karma ca me divyam
eva yo vetti tattvata
tyaktv deha punar janma


naiti mm eti so 'rjuna

"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and
activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this
material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." Here this is
confirmed. All the inhabitants of Ayodhy who saw Lord Rmacandra as
citizens, served Him as servants, sat and talked with Him as friends or
were somehow or other present during His reign went back home, back to
Godhead. After giving up the body, the devotee who becomes perfect in
devotional service enters that particular universe where Lord Rmacandra
or Lord Ka is engaged in His pastimes. Then, after being trained to
serve the Lord in various capacities in that prakaa-ll, the devotee is
finally promoted to santana-dhma, the supreme abode in the spiritual
world. This santana-dhma is also mentioned in Bhagavad-gt (paras
tasmt tu bhvo 'nyo 'vyakto 'vyaktt santana [Bg. 8.20]). One who enters
the transcendental pastimes of the Lord is called nitya-ll-pravia. To
understand clearly why Lord Rmacandra returned, it is mentioned
herewith that the Lord went to that particular place where the bhaktiyogs go. The impersonalists misunderstand the statements of rmadBhgavatam to mean that the Lord entered His own effulgence and
therefore become impersonal. But the Lord is a person, and His devotees
are persons. Indeed, the living entities, like the Lord, were persons in the
past, they are persons in the present, and they will continue to be persons
even after giving up the body. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gt.
puruo rma-carita
ravaair upadhrayan
nasya-paro rjan
karma-bandhair vimucyate
puruaany person; rma-caritamthe narration concerning the
activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Rmacandra;
ravaaiby aural reception; upadhrayansimply by this process of
hearing; nasya-parabecomes completely free from envy; rjanO
King Parkit; karma-bandhaiby the bondage of fruitive activities;
vimucyateone becomes liberated.
O King Parkit, anyone who aurally receives the narrations concerning


the characteristics of Lord Rmacandra's pastimes will ultimately be

freed from the disease of envy and thus be liberated from the bondage
of fruitive activities.
Here in this material world, everyone is envious of someone else. Even in
religious life, it is sometimes found that if one devotee has advanced in
spiritual activities, other devotees are envious of him. Such envious
devotees are not completely freed from the bondage of birth and death. As
long as one is not completely free from the cause of birth and death, one
cannot enter the santana-dhma or the eternal pastimes of the Lord. One
becomes envious because of being influenced by the designations of the
body, but the liberated devotee has nothing to do with the body, and
therefore he is completely on the transcendental platform. A devotee is
never envious of anyone, even his enemy. Because the devotee knows that
the Lord is his supreme protector, he thinks, "What harm can the socalled enemy do?" Thus a devotee is confident about his protection. The
Lord says, ye yath m prapadyante ts tathaiva bhajmy aham: [Bg.
4.11] "According to the proportion of one's surrender unto Me, I respond
accordingly." A devotee must therefore be completely free from envy,
especially of other devotees. To envy other devotees is a great offense, a
vaiava-apardha. A devotee who constantly engages in hearing and
chanting (ravaa-krtana) is certainly freed from the disease of envy, and
thus he becomes eligible to go back home, back to Godhead.
katha sa bhagavn rmo
bhrtn v svayam tmana
tasmin v te 'nvavartanta
praj paur ca vare
r-rj uvcaMahrja Parkit inquired; kathamhow; saHe, the
Lord; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of Godhead; rmaLord
Rmacandra; bhrtnunto the brothers (Lakmaa, Bharata and
atrughna); veither; svayampersonally; tmanaexpansions of His
person; tasminunto the Lord; veither; tethey (all the inhabitants
and the brothers); anvavartantabehaved; prajall the inhabitants;
paurthe citizens; caand; vareunto the Supreme Lord.


Mahrja Parkit inquired from ukadeva Gosvm: How did the Lord
conduct Himself, and how did He behave in relationship with His
brothers, who were expansions of His own self? And how did His
brothers and the inhabitants of Ayodhy treat Him?
r-bdaryair uvca
athdiad dig-vijaye
bhrts tri-bhuvanevara
tmna darayan svn
purm aikata snuga
r-bdaryai uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; athahereafter
(when the Lord accepted the throne on the request of Bharata); diat
ordered; dik-vijayeto conquer all the world; bhrtnHis younger
brothers; tri-bhuvana-varathe Lord of the universe; tmnam
personally, Himself; darayangiving audience; svnmto the family
members and the citizens; purmthe city; aikatasupervised; saanugawith other assistants.
ukadeva Gosvm replied: After accepting the throne of the
government by the fervent request of His younger brother Bharata, Lord
Rmacandra ordered His younger brothers to go out and conquer the
entire world, while He personally remained in the capital to give
audience to all the citizens and residents of the palace and supervise the
governmental affairs with His other assistants.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead does not allow any of His devotees
or assistants to be engaged in sense gratification. The younger brothers of
Lord Rmacandra were at home enjoying the personal presence of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the Lord ordered Them to go out
and achieve victory all over the world. It was the custom (and this
custom, in some places, is still current) that all other kings would have to
accept the supremacy of the emperor. If the king of a small state did not
accept the emperor's supremacy, there would be a fight, and the king of
the small state would be obliged to accept the emperor as supreme;
otherwise, it would not be possible for the emperor to rule the country.
Lord Rmacandra showed His favor to His brothers by ordering Them to


go out. Many of the Lord's devotees residing in Vndvana have taken the
vow not to leave Vndvana to preach Ka consciousness. But the Lord
says that Ka consciousness should be spread all over the world, in
every village and every town. This is the open order of Lord Caitanya
pthivte che yata nagardi grma
sarvatra pracra haibe mora nma
A pure devotee, therefore, must execute the order of the Lord and must
not gratify his senses by remaining stagnant in one place, falsely proud,
thinking that because he does not leave Vndvana but chants in a solitary
place he has become a great devotee. A devotee must carry out the order
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Caitanya Mahprabhu said, yre
dekha, tre kaha 'ka'-upadea [Cc. Madhya 7.128]. Every devotee,
therefore, should spread Ka consciousness by preaching, asking
whomever he meets to accept the order of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. The Lord says, sarva-dharmn parityajya mm eka araa
vraja: [Bg. 18.66] "Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender
unto Me." This is the order of the Lord, who speaks as the supreme
emperor. Everyone should be induced to accept this order, for this is
victory (dig-vijaya). And it is the duty of the soldier, the devotee, to
impress upon everyone this philosophy of life.
Of course, those who are kaniha-adhikrs do not preach, but the Lord
shows mercy to them also, as He did by staying personally in Ayodhy to
give audience to the people in general. One should not mistakenly think
that the Lord asked His younger brothers to leave Ayodhy because He
especially favored the citizens. The Lord is merciful to everyone, and He
knows how to show His favor to each individual person according to his
capacity. One who abides by the order of the Lord is a pure devotee.
sikta-mrg gandhodai
kari mada-karai
svmina prptam lokya
matt v sutarm iva
sikta-mrgmthe streets were sprinkled; gandha-udaiwith perfumed
water; karimof elephants; mada-karaiwith particles of perfumed


liquor; svminamthe master or proprietor; prptampresent; lokya

seeing personally; mattmvery opulent; veither; sutarmhighly;
ivaas if.
During the reign of Lord Rmacandra, the streets of the capital,
Ayodhy, were sprinkled with perfumed water and drops of perfumed
liquor, thrown about by elephants from their trunks. When the citizens
saw the Lord personally supervising the affairs of the city in such
opulence, they appreciated this opulence very much.
We have simply heard about the opulence of Rma-rjya during the reign
of Lord Rmacandra. Now, here is one example of the opulence of the
Lord's kingdom. The streets of Ayodhy were not only cleaned but also
sprinkled with perfumed water and drops of perfumed liquor, which were
distributed by elephants through their trunks. There was no need of
sprinkling machines, for the elephant has a natural ability to suck water
through its trunk and again throw it out in a shower. We can understand
the opulence of the city from this one example: it was actually sprinkled
with perfumed water. Moreover, the citizens had the opportunity to see
the Lord personally supervising the affairs of the state. He was not a
sleeping monarch, as we can understand from His activities in sending His
brothers to see to affairs outside the capital and punish anyone who did
not obey the emperor's orders. This is called dig-vijaya. The citizens were
all given facilities for peaceful life, and they were also qualified with
appropriate attributes according to varrama. As we have seen from the
previous chapter, varrama-gunvit: the citizens were trained
according to the varrama system. A class of men were brhmaas, a
class of men were katriyas, a class were vaiyas, and a class were dras.
Without this scientific division, there can be no question of good
citizenship. The King, being magnanimous and perfect in His duty,
performed many sacrifices and treated the citizens as His sons, and the
citizens, being trained in the varrama system, were obedient and
perfectly ordered. The entire monarchy was so opulent and peaceful that
the government was even able to sprinkle the street with perfumed water,
what to speak of other management. Since the city was sprinkled with
perfumed water, we can simply imagine how opulent it was in other
respects. Why should the citizens not have felt happy during the reign of
Lord Rmacandra.


patkbhi ca maitm
prsdain palaces; gopurapalace gates; sabhassembly houses;
caityaraised platforms; deva-ghatemples wherein deities are
worshiped; diuand so on; vinyastaplaced; hema-kalaaiwith
golden waterpots; patkbhiby flags; caalso; maitmbedecked.
The palaces, the palace gates, the assembly houses, the platforms for
meeting places, the temples and all such places were decorated with
golden waterpots and bedecked with various types of flags.
pgai savntai rambhbhi
paikbhi suvsasm
darair aukai sragbhi
pgaiby trees of betel nut; sa-vntaiwith bunches of flowers and
fruits; rambhbhiwith banana trees; paikbhiwith flags; suvsasmdecorated with colorful cloth; daraiwith mirrors;
aukaiwith cloths; sragbhiwith garlands; kta-kautukamade
auspicious; torampossessing reception gates.
Wherever Lord Rmacandra visited, auspicious welcome gates were
constructed, with banana trees and betel nut trees, full of flowers and
fruits. The gates were decorated with various flags made of colorful
cloth and with tapestries, mirrors and garlands.
tam upeyus tatra tatra
paur arhaa-paya
io yuyujur deva
phm prk tvayoddhtm


tamunto Him, Lord Rmacandra; upeyuapproached; tatra tatra

wherever He visited; paurthe inhabitants of the neighborhood;
arhaa-payacarrying paraphernalia to worship the Lord; ia
blessings from the Lord; yuyujucame down; devaO my Lord; phi
just maintain; immthis land; prkas before; tvayby You;
uddhtmrescued (from the bottom of the sea in Your incarnation as
Wherever Lord Rmacandra visited, the people approached Him with
paraphernalia of worship and begged the Lord's blessings. "O Lord,"
they said, "as You rescued the earth from the bottom of the sea in Your
incarnation as a boar, may You now maintain it. Thus we beg Your
tata praj vkya pati cirgata
didkayotsa-gh striyo nar
ruhya harmyy aravinda-locanam
atpta-netr kusumair avkiran
tatathereafter; prajthe citizens; vkyaby seeing; patimthe
King; cira-gatamreturned after a long time; didkaydesiring to see;
utsa-ghvacating their respective residences; striyathe women;
narthe men; ruhyagetting on top of; harmyigreat palaces;
aravinda-locanamLord Rmacandra, whose eyes are like the petals of a
lotus; atpta-netrwhose eyes were not fully satisfied; kusumaiby
flowers; avkiranshowered the Lord.
Thereafter, not having seen the Lord for a long time, the citizens, both
men and women, being very eager to see Him, left their homes and got
up on the roofs of the palaces. Being incompletely satiated with seeing
the face of the lotus-eyed Lord Rmacandra, they showered flowers
upon Him.
TEXTS 31-34
atha pravia sva-gha
jua svai prva-rjabhi


sthalair mrakatai svacchair
citra-sragbhi paikbhir
mukt-phalai cid-ullsai
dhpa-dpai surabhibhir
maita pupa-maanai
str-pumbhi sura-sakair
jua bhaa-bhaai
athathereafter; praviaHe entered; sva-ghamHis own palace;
juamoccupied; svaiby His own family members; prva-rjabhi
by the previous members of the royal family; anantaunlimited; akhila
everywhere; koatreasury; hyamprosperous; anarghyapriceless;
uruhigh; paricchadamparaphernalia; vidrumaof coral; udumbaradvraiwith the two sides of the doors; vaidrya-stambhawith pillars
of vaidrya-mai; paktibhiin a line; sthalaiwith floors;
mrakataimade of marakata stone; svacchaivery cleanly polished;
bhrjatdazzling; sphaikamarble; bhittibhifoundations; citrasragbhiwith varieties of flower garlands; paikbhiwith flags;
vsaclothing; mai-gaa-aukaiby various effulgent and valuable
stones; mukt-phalaiwith pearls; cit-ullsaiincreasing celestial
pleasure; knta-kmafulfilling one's desires; upapattibhiby such
paraphernalia; dhpa-dpaiwith incense and lamps; surabhibhivery
fragrant; maitamdecorated; pupa-maanaiby bunches of various
flowers; str-pumbhiby men and women; sura-sakaiappearing
like the demigods; juamfull of; bhaa-bhaaiwhose bodies
beautified their ornaments.
Thereafter, Lord Rmacandra entered the palace of His forefathers.
Within the palace were various treasures and valuable wardrobes. The
sitting places on the two sides of the entrance door were made of coral,
the yards were surrounded by pillars of vaidrya-mai, the floor was


made of highly polished marakata-mai, and the foundation was made

of marble. The entire palace was decorated with flags and garlands and
bedecked with valuable stones, shining with a celestial effulgence. The
palace was fully decorated with pearls and surrounded by lamps and
incense. The men and women within the palace all resembled demigods
and were decorated with various ornaments, which seemed beautiful
because of being placed on their bodies.
tasmin sa bhagavn rma
snigdhay priyayeay
reme svrma-dhrm
abha stay kila
tasminin that celestial palace; saHe; bhagavnthe Supreme
Personality of Godhead; rmaLord Rmacandra; snigdhayalways
pleased by her behavior; priyay iaywith His dearmost wife; reme
enjoyed; sva-rmapersonal pleasure; dhrmof the greatest learned
persons; abhathe chief; staywith mother St; kilaindeed.
Lord Rmacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, chief of the
best learned scholars, resided in that palace with His pleasure potency,
mother St, and enjoyed complete peace.
bubhuje ca yath-kla
kmn dharmam apayan
vara-pgn bahn nm
bubhujeHe enjoyed; caalso; yath-klamas long as required;
kmnall enjoyment; dharmamreligious principles; apayan
without transgressing; vara-pgnduration of years; bahnmany;
nmof the people in general; abhidhytabeing meditated upon;
aghri-pallavaHis lotus feet.
Without transgressing the religious principles, Lord Rmacandra,
whose lotus feet are worshiped by devotees in meditation, enjoyed with


all the paraphernalia of transcendental pleasure for as long as needed.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Eleventh Chapter, of
the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "Lord Rmacandra Rules the World."


12. The Dynasty of Kua, the Son of Lord Rmacandra

This chapter describes the dynasty of Kua, the son of Lord Rmacandra.
The members of this dynasty are descendants of Sada, the son of
Mahrja Ikvku.
Following in the genealogical table of Lord Rmacandra's dynasty, Kua,
the Lord's son, was followed consecutively by Atithi, Niadha, Nabha,
Puarka, Kemadhanv, Devnka, Anha, Priytra, Balasthala,
Vajranbha, Sagaa and Vidhti. These personalities ruled the world.
From Vidhti came Hirayanbha, who later became the disciple of
Jaimini and propounded the system of mystic yoga in which Yjavalkya
was initiated. Following in this dynasty were Pupa, Dhruvasandhi,
Sudarana, Agnivara, ghra and Maru. Maru attained full perfection in
the practice of yoga, and he still lives in the village of Kalpa. At the end
of this age of Kali, he will revive the dynasty of the sun-god. Next in the
dynasty were Prasuruta, Sandhi, Amaraa, Mahasvn, Vivabhu,
Prasenajit, Takaka and Bhadbala, who was later killed by Abhimanyu.
ukadeva Gosvm said that these were all kings who had passed away.
The future descendants of Bhadbala will be Bhadraa, rukriya,
Vatsavddha, Prativyoma, Bhnu, Divka, Sahadeva, Bhadava,
Bhnumn, Pratkva, Supratka, Marudeva, Sunakatra, Pukara,
Antarika, Sutap, Amitrajit, Bhadrja, Barhi, Ktajaya, Raajaya,
Sajaya, kya, uddhoda, Lgala, Prasenajit, Kudraka, Raaka, Suratha
and Sumitra. All of them will become kings one after another. Sumitra,
coming in this age of Kali, will be the last king in the Ikvku dynasty;
after him, the dynasty will be extinguished.
r-uka uvca
kuasya ctithis tasmn
niadhas tat-suto nabha
puarko 'tha tat-putra
kemadhanvbhavat tata


r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; kuasyaof Kua, the son of

Lord Rmacandra; caalso; atithiAtithi; tasmtfrom him;
niadhaNiadha; tat-sutahis son; nabhaNabha; puarka
Puarka; athathereafter; tat-putrahis son; kemadhanv
Kemadhanv; abhavatbecame; tatathereafter.
ukadeva Gosvm said: The son of Rmacandra was Kua, the son of
Kua was Atithi, the son of Atithi was Niadha, and the son of Niadha
was Nabha. The son of Nabha was Puarka, and from Puarka came
a son named Kemadhanv.
devnkas tato 'nha
priytro 'tha tat-suta
tato balasthalas tasmd
vajranbho 'rka-sambhava
Devnka came the son named Anha; priytraPriytra; atha
thereafter; tat-sutathe son of Anha; tatafrom Priytra;
Vajranbha; arka-sambhavaderived from the sun-god.
The son of Kemadhanv was Devnka, Devnka's son was Anha,
Anha's son was Priytra, and Priytra's son was Balasthala. The son
of Balasthala was Vajranbha, who was said to have been born from the
effulgence of the sun-god.
sagaas tat-sutas tasmd
vidhti cbhavat suta
tato hirayanbho 'bhd
yogcryas tu jaimine
iya kaualya dhytma
yjavalkyo 'dhyagd yata
yoga mahodayam ir


sagaaSagaa; tatthis (Vajranbha's); sutason; tasmtfrom

him; vidhtiVidhti; caalso; abhavatwas born; sutahis son;
tatafrom him; hirayanbhaHirayanbha; abhtbecame; yogacryathe propounder of the philosophy of yoga; tubut; jaimine
because of accepting Jaimini as his spiritual master; iyadisciple;
kaualyaKaualya; dhytmamspiritual; yjavalkyaYjavalkya;
adhyagtstudied; yatafrom him (Hirayanbha); yogamthe mystic
performances; mah-udayamhighly elevated; iYjavalkya i;
hdaya-granthi-bhedakammystic yoga, which can loosen the knots of
material attachment in the heart.
The son of Vajranbha was Sagaa, and his son was Vidhti. The son of
Vidhti was Hirayanbha, who became a disciple of Jaimini and
became a great crya of mystic yoga. It is from Hirayanbha that the
great saint Yjavalkya learned the highly elevated system of mystic
yoga known as dhytma-yoga, which can loosen the knots of material
attachment in the heart.
pupo hirayanbhasya
dhruvasandhis tato 'bhavat
sudarano 'thgnivara
ghras tasya maru suta
dhruvasandhiDhruvasandhi; tatafrom him; abhavatwas born;
sudaranafrom Dhruvasandhi, Sudarana was born; athathereafter;
agnivaraAgnivara, the son of Sudarana; ghraghra; tasyahis
(Agnivara's); maruMaru; sutason.
The son of Hirayanbha was Pupa, and the son of Pupa was
Dhruvasandhi. The son of Dhruvasandhi was Sudarana, whose son was
Agnivara. The son of Agnivara was named ghra, and his son was
so 'sv ste yoga-siddha
kalpa-grmam sthita


kaler ante srya-vaa

naa bhvayit puna
sahe; asauthe personality known as Maru; stestill existing; yogasiddhaperfection in the power of mystic yoga; kalpa-grmamthe
place named Kalpa-grma; sthitahe is still living there; kaleof this
Kali-yuga; anteat the end; srya-vaamthe descendants of the sungod; naamafter being lost; bhvayitMaru will begin by begetting a
son; punaagain.
Having achieved perfection in the power of mystic yoga, Maru still lives
in a place known as Kalpa-grma. At the end of Kali-yuga, he will
revive the lost Srya dynasty by begetting a son.
At least five thousand years ago, rla ukadeva Gosvm ascertained the
existence of Maru in Kalpa-grma and said that Maru, having achieved a
yoga-siddha body, would continue to exist until the end of Kali-yuga,
which is calculated to continue for 432,000 years. Such is the perfection
of mystic power. By controlling the breath, the perfect yog can continue
his life for as long as he likes. Sometimes we hear from the Vedic
literature that some personalities from the Vedic age, such as Vysadeva
and Avatthm, are still living. Here we understand that Maru is also still
living. We are sometimes surprised that a mortal body can live for such a
long time. The explanation of this longevity is given here by the word
yoga-siddha. If one becomes perfect in the practice of yoga, he can live as
long as he likes. The demonstration of some trifling yoga-siddha does not
constitute perfection. Here is a factual example of perfection: a yogasiddha can live as long as he likes.
tasmt prasurutas tasya
sandhis tasypy amaraa
mahasvs tat-sutas tasmd
vivabhur ajyata
tasmtfrom Maru; prasurutaPrasuruta, his son; tasyaof
Prasuruta; sandhia son named Sandhi; tasyahis (Sandhi's); api
also; amaraaa son named Amaraa; mahasvnthe son of
Amaraa; tathis; sutason; tasmtfrom him (Mahasvn);


vivabhuVivabhu; ajyatatook birth.

From Maru was born a son named Prasuruta, from Prasuruta came
Sandhi, from Sandhi came Amaraa, and from Amaraa a son named
Mahasvn. From Mahasvn, Vivabhu took his birth.
tata prasenajit tasmt
takako bhavit puna
tato bhadbalo yas tu
pitr te samare hata
tatafrom Vivabhu; prasenajita son named Prasenajit was born;
tasmtfrom him; takakaTakaka; bhavitwould take birth;
punaagain; tatafrom him; bhadbalaa son named Bhadbala;
yahe who; tubut; pitrby father; teyour; samarein the fight;
From Vivabhu came a son named Prasenajit, from Prasenajit came
Takaka, and from Takaka came Bhadbala, who was killed in a fight
by your father.
ete hkvku-bhpl
att v angatn
bhadbalasya bhavit
putro nmn bhadraa
eteall of them; hiindeed; ikvku-bhplkings in the dynasty of
Ikvku; attall of them are dead and gone; ujust hear;
angatnthose who will come in the future; bhadbalasyaof
Bhadbala; bhavitthere will be; putraa son; nmnby the name;
All these kings in the dynasty of Ikvku have passed away. Now please
listen as I describe the kings who will be born in the future. From
Bhadbala will come Bhadraa.


rukriya sutas tasya
vatsavddho bhaviyati
prativyomas tato bhnur
divko vhin-pati
rukriyarukriya; sutason; tasyaof rukriya; vatsavddha
Vatsavddha; bhaviyatiwill take birth; prativyomaPrativyoma;
tatafrom Vatsavddha; bhnu(from Prativyoma) a son named
Bhnu; divkafrom Bhnu a son named Divka; vhin-patia great
commander of soldiers.
The son of Bhadraa will be rukriya, who will have a son named
Vatsavddha. Vatsavddha will have a son named Prativyoma, and
Prativyoma will have a son named Bhnu, from whom Divka, a great
commander of soldiers, will take birth.
sahadevas tato vro
bhadavo 'tha bhnumn
pratkvo bhnumata
supratko 'tha tat-suta
sahadevaSahadeva; tatafrom Divka; vraa great hero;
bhadavaBhadava; athafrom him; bhnumnBhnumn;
pratkvaPratkva; bhnumatafrom Bhnumn; supratka
Supratka; athathereafter; tat-sutathe son of Pratkva.
Thereafter, from Divka will come a son named Sahadeva, and from
Sahadeva a great hero named Bhadava. From Bhadava will come
Bhnumn, and from Bhnumn will come Pratkva. The son of
Pratkva will be Supratka.
bhavit marudevo 'tha
sunakatro 'tha pukara
tasyntarikas tat-putra
sutaps tad amitrajit


bhavitwill be born; marudevaMarudeva; athathereafter;

sunakatraSunakatra; athathereafter; pukaraPukara, a son of
Sunakatra; tasyaof Pukara; antarikaAntarika; tat-putrahis
son; sutapSutap; tatfrom him; amitrajita son named Amitrajit.
Thereafter, from Supratka will come Marudeva; from Marudeva,
Sunakatra; from Sunakatra, Pukara; and from Pukara, Antarika.
The son of Antarika will be Sutap, and his son will be Amitrajit.
bhadrjas tu tasypi
barhis tasmt ktajaya
raajayas tasya suta
sajayo bhavit tata
bhadrjaBhadrja; tubut; tasya apiof Amitrajit; barhiBarhi;
tasmtfrom Barhi; ktajayaKtajaya; raajayaRaajaya;
tasyaof Ktajaya; sutason; sajayaSajaya; bhavitwill take
birth; tatafrom Raajaya.
From Amitrajit will come a son named Bhadrja, from Bhadrja will
come Barhi, and from Barhi will come Ktajaya. The son of Ktajaya
will be known as Raajaya, and from him will come a son named
tasmc chkyo 'tha uddhodo
lgalas tat-suta smta
tata prasenajit tasmt
kudrako bhavit tata
tasmtfrom Sajaya; kyakya; athathereafter; uddhoda
uddhoda; lgalaLgala; tat-sutathe son of uddhoda; smta
is well known; tatafrom him; prasenajitPrasenajit; tasmtfrom
Prasenajit; kudrakaKudraka; bhavitwill take birth; tata
From Sajaya will come kya, from kya will come uddhoda, and


from uddhoda will come Lgala. From Lgala will come Prasenajit,
and from Prasenajit, Kudraka.
raako bhavit tasmt
surathas tanayas tata
sumitro nma nihnta
ete brhadbalnvay
raakaRaaka; bhavitwill take birth; tasmtfrom Kudraka;
surathaSuratha; tanayathe son; tatathereafter; sumitra
Sumitra, the son of Suratha; nmaby the name; niha-antathe end of
the dynasty; eteall the above-mentioned kings; brhadbala-anvayin
the dynasty of King Bhadbala.
From Kudraka will come Raaka, from Raaka will come Suratha, and
from Suratha will come Sumitra, ending the dynasty. This is a
description of the dynasty of Bhadbala.
ikvkm aya vaa
sumitrnto bhaviyati
yatas ta prpya rjna
sasth prpsyati vai kalau
ikvkmof the dynasty of King Ikvku; ayamthis (what has been
described); vaadescendants; sumitra-antaSumitra being the last
king of this dynasty; bhaviyatiwill appear in the future, while the Kaliyuga still continues; yatabecause; tamhim, Mahrja Sumitra;
prpyagetting; rjnamas a king in that dynasty; sasthm
culmination; prpsyatigets; vaiindeed; kalauat the end of Kali-yuga.
The last king in the dynasty of Ikvku will be Sumitra; after Sumitra
there will be no more sons in the dynasty of the sun-god, and thus the
dynasty will end.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Twelfth Chapter, of


the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Dynasty of Kua, the Son of Lord



13. The Dynasty of Mahrja Nimi

This chapter describes the dynasty in which the great and learned scholar
Janaka was born. This is the dynasty of Mahrja Nimi, who is said to
have been the son of Ikvku.
When Mahrja Nimi began performing great sacrifices, he appointed
Vasiha to be chief priest, but Vasiha refused, for he had already agreed
to be priest in performing a yaja for Lord Indra. Vasiha therefore
requested Mahrja Nimi to wait until Lord Indra's sacrifice was finished,
but Mahrja Nimi did not wait. He thought, "Life is very short, so there
is no need to wait." He therefore appointed another priest to perform the
yaja. Vasiha was very angry at King Nimi and cursed him, saying, "May
your body fall down." Cursed in that way, Mahrja Nimi also became
very angry, and he retaliated by saying, "May your body also fall down."
As a result of this cursing and countercursing, both of them died. After
this incident, Vasiha took birth again, begotten by Mitra and Varua,
who were agitated by Urva.
The priests who were engaged in the sacrifice for King Nimi preserved
Nimi's body in fragrant chemicals. When the sacrifice was over, the
priests prayed for Nimi's life to all the demigods who had come to the
arena of yaja, but Mahrja Nimi refused to take birth again in a material
body because he considered the material body obnoxious. The great sages
then churned Nimi's body, and as a result of this churning, Janaka was
The son of Janaka was Udvasu, and the son of Udvasu was
Nandivardhana. The son of Nandivardhana was Suketu, and his
descendants continued as follows: Devarta, Bhadratha, Mahvrya,
Sudhti, Dhaketu, Haryava, Maru, Pratpaka, Ktaratha, Devamha,
Viruta, Mahdhti, Ktirta, Mahrom, Svararom, Hrasvarom and
radhvaja. All these sons appeared in the dynasty one after another. From
radhvaja, mother Stdev was born. radhvaja's son was Kuadhvaja,
and the son of Kuadhvaja was Dharmadhvaja. The sons of Dharmadhvaja
were Ktadhvaja and Mitadhvaja. The son of Ktadhvaja was Keidhvaja,
and the son of Mitadhvaja was Khikya. Keidhvaja was a self-realized


soul, and his son was Bhnumn, whose descendants were as follows:
atadyumna, uci, Sanadvja, rjaketu, Aja, Purujit, Arianemi, rutyu,
Suprvaka, Citraratha, Kemdhi, Samaratha, Satyaratha, Upaguru,
Upagupta, Vasvananta, Yuyudha, Subhaa, ruta, Jaya, Vijaya, ta,
unaka, Vtahavya, Dhti, Bahulva, Kti and Mahva. All of these sons
were great self-controlled personalities. This completes the list of the
entire dynasty.
r-uka uvca
nimir ikvku-tanayo
vasiham avtartvijam
rabhya satra so 'py ha
akrea prg vto 'smi bho
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; nimiKing Nimi; ikvkutanayathe son of Mahrja Ikvku; vasihamthe great sage
Vasiha; avtaappointed; tvijamthe chief priest of the sacrifice;
rabhyabeginning; satramthe sacrifice; sahe, Vasiha; apialso;
hasaid; akreaby Lord Indra; prkbefore; vta asmiI was
appointed; bhoO Mahrja Nimi.
rla ukadeva Gosvm said: After beginning sacrifices, Mahrja
Nimi, the son of Ikvku, requested the great sage Vasiha to take the
post of chief priest. At that time, Vasiha replied, "My dear Mahrja
Nimi, I have already accepted the same post in a sacrifice begun by
Lord Indra.
ta nirvartygamiymi
tvan m pratiplaya
tm sd gha-pati
so 'pndrasykaron makham
tamthat sacrifice; nirvartyaafter finishing; gamiymiI shall come
back; tvatuntil that time; mmme (Vasiha); pratiplayawait for;
tmsilent; stremained; gha-patiMahrja Nimi; sahe,
Vasiha; apialso; indrasyaof Lord Indra; akarotexecuted;
makhamthe sacrifice.


"I shall return here after finishing the yaja for Indra. Kindly wait for
me until then." Mahrja Nimi remained silent, and Vasiha began to
perform the sacrifice for Lord Indra.
nimi calam ida vidvn
satram rabhattmavn
tvigbhir aparais tvan
ngamad yvat guru
nimiMahrja Nimi; calamflickering, subject to end at any moment;
idamthis (life); vidvnbeing completely aware of this fact; satram
the sacrifice; rabhatainaugurated; tmavnself-realized person;
tvigbhiby priests; aparaiother than Vasiha; tvatfor the time
being; nanot; gamatreturned; yvatso long; guruhis spiritual
master (Vasiha).
Mahrja Nimi, being a self-realized soul, considered that this life is
flickering. Therefore, instead of waiting long for Vasiha, he began
performing the sacrifice with other priests.
Cakya Paita says, arra kaa-vidhvsi kalpnta-sthyino gu:
"The duration of one's life in the material world may end at any moment,
but if within this life one does something worthy, that qualification is
depicted in history eternally." Here is a great personality, Mahrja Nimi,
who knew this fact. In the human form of life one should perform
activities in such a way that at the end he goes back home, back to
Godhead. This is self-realization.
iya-vyatikrama vkya
ta nirvartygato guru
aapat patatd deho
nime paita-mnina
iya-vyatikramamthe disciple's deviation from the order of the guru;
vkyaobserving; tamthe performance of yaja by Indra; nirvartya
after finishing; gatawhen he returned; guruVasiha Muni;
aapathe cursed Nimi Mahrja; patattmay it fall down; dehathe


material body; nimeof Mahrja Nimi; paita-mninawho

considers himself so learned (as to disobey the order of his spiritual
After completing the sacrificial performance for King Indra, the
spiritual master Vasiha returned and found that his disciple Mahrja
Nimi had disobeyed his instructions. Thus Vasiha cursed him, saying,
"May the material body of Nimi, who considers himself learned,
immediately fall."
nimi pratidadau pa
gurave 'dharma-vartine
tavpi patatd deho
lobhd dharmam ajnata
nimiMahrja Nimi; pratidadau pamcountercursed; guraveunto
his spiritual master, Vasiha; adharma-vartinewho was induced to
irreligious principles (because he cursed his offenseless disciple); tavaof
you; apialso; patattlet it fall; dehathe body; lobhtbecause of
greed; dharmamreligious principles; ajnatanot knowing.
For unnecessarily cursing him when he had committed no offense,
Mahrja Nimi countercursed his spiritual master. "For the sake of
getting contributions from the King of heaven," he said, "you have lost
your religious intelligence. Therefore I pronounce this curse: your body
also will fall."
The religious principle for a brhmaa is that he should not be greedy at
all. In this case, however, for the sake of more lucrative remunerations
from the King of heaven, Vasiha neglected Mahrja Nimi's request on
this planet, and when Nimi performed the sacrifices with other priests,
Vasiha unnecessarily cursed him. When one is infected by contaminated
activities, his power, material or spiritual, reduces. Although Vasiha was
the spiritual master of Mahrja Nimi, because of his greed he became
ity utsasarja sva deha


nimir adhytma-kovida
mitr-varuayor jaje
urvay prapitmaha
itithus; utsasarjagave up; svamhis own; dehambody; nimi
Mahrja Nimi; adhytma-kovidafully conversant with spiritual
knowledge; mitr-varuayofrom the semen of Mitra and Varua
(discharged from seeing the beauty of Urva); jajewas born;
urvaymthrough Urva, a prostitute of the heavenly kingdom;
prapitmahaVasiha, who was known as the great-grandfather.
After saying this, Mahrja Nimi, who was expert in the science of
spiritual knowledge, gave up his body. Vasiha, the great-grandfather,
gave up his body also, but through the semen discharged by Mitra and
Varua when they saw Urva, he was born again.
Mitra and Varua chanced to meet Urva, the most beautiful prostitute of
the heavenly kingdom, and they became lusty. Because they were great
saints, they tried to control their lust, but they could not do so, and thus
they discharged semen. This semen was kept carefully in a waterpot, and
Vasiha was born from it.
gandha-vastuu tad-deha
nidhya muni-sattam
sampte satra-yge ca
devn cu samgatn
gandha-vastuuin things very fragrant; tat-dehamthe body of Mahrja
Nimi; nidhyahaving preserved; muni-sattamall the great sages
gathered there; sampte satra-ygeat the end of the sacrifice known by
the name Satra; caalso; devnto all the demigods; curequested or
spoke; samgatnwho were assembled there.
During the performance of the yaja, the body relinquished by
Mahrja Nimi was preserved in fragrant substances, and at the end of
the Satra-yga the great saints and brhmaas made the following
request to all the demigods assembled there.


rjo jvatu deho 'ya
prasann prabhavo yadi
tathety ukte nimi prha
m bhn me deha-bandhanam
rjaof the King; jvatumay again be enlivened; deha ayamthis
body (now preserved); prasannvery much pleased; prabhavaall
able to do it; yadiif; tathlet it be so; itithus; uktewhen it was
replied (by the demigods); nimiMahrja Nimi; prhasaid; m
bhtdo not do it; memy; deha-bandhanamimprisonment again in a
material body.
"If you are satisfied with this sacrifice and if you are actually able to do
so, kindly bring Mahrja Nimi back to life in this body." The demigods
said yes to this request by the sages, but Mahrja Nimi said, "Please do
not imprison me again in a material body."
The demigods are in a position many times higher than that of human
beings. Therefore, although the great saints and sages were also powerful
brhmaas, they requested the demigods to revive Mahrja Nimi's body,
which had been preserved in various perfumed balms. One should not
think that the demigods are powerful only in enjoying the senses; they are
also powerful in such deeds as bringing life back to a dead body. There
are many similar instances in the Vedic literature. For example, according
to the history of Svitr and Satyavn, Satyavn died and was being taken
away by Yamarja, but on the request of his wife, Svitr, Satyavn was
revived in the same body. This is an important fact about the power of the
yasya yoga na vchanti
bhajanti carambhoja
munayo hari-medhasa
yasyawith the body; yogamcontact; nado not; vchantijns
desire; viyoga-bhaya-ktarbeing afraid of giving up the body again;
bhajantioffer transcendental loving service; caraa-ambhojamto the


lotus feet of the Lord; munayagreat saintly persons; hari-medhasa

whose intelligence is always absorbed in thoughts of Hari, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.
Mahrja Nimi continued: Myvds generally want freedom from
accepting a material body because they fear having to give it up again.
But devotees whose intelligence is always filled with the service of the
Lord are unafraid. Indeed, they take advantage of the body to render
transcendental loving service.
Mahrja Nimi did not want to accept a material body, which would be a
cause of bondage; because he was a devotee, he wanted a body by which
he could render devotional service to the Lord. rla Bhaktivinoda
hkura sings:
janmobi more icch yadi tora
bhakta-ghe jani janma ha-u mora
ka-janma ha-u yath tuy dsa
"My Lord, if You want me to take birth and accept a material body again,
kindly do me this favor: allow me to take birth in the home of Your
servant, Your devotee. I do not mind being born there even as an
insignificant creature like an insect." r Caitanya Mahprabhu also said:
na dhana na jana na sundar
kavit v jagada kmaye
mama janmani janmanvare
bhavatd bhaktir ahaituky tvayi
[Cc. Antya 20.29, ikaka 4]
"O Lord of the universe, I do not desire material wealth, materialistic
followers, a beautiful wife or fruitive activities described in flowery
language. All I want, life after life, is unmotivated devotional service to
You." (ikaka 4) By saying "life after life" (janmani janmani), the Lord
referred not to an ordinary birth but a birth in which to remember the
lotus feet of the Lord. Such a body is desirable. A devotee does not think
like yogs and jns, who want to refuse a material body and become one
with the impersonal Brahman effulgence. A devotee does not like this
idea. On the contrary, he will accept any body, material or spiritual, for he


wants to serve the Lord. This is real liberation.

If one has a strong desire to serve the Lord, even if he accepts a material
body, there is no cause of anxiety, since a devotee, even in a material
body, is a liberated soul. This is confirmed by rla Rpa Gosvm:
h yasya harer dsye
karma manas gir
nikhilsv apy avasthsu
jvan-mukta sa ucyate
"A person acting in Ka consciousness (or, in other words, in the
service of Ka) with his body, mind, intelligence and words is a
liberated person even within the material world, although he may be
engaged in many so-called material activities." The desire to serve the
Lord establishes one as liberated in any condition of life, whether in a
spiritual body or a material body. In a spiritual body the devotee becomes
a direct associate of the Lord, but even though a devotee may superficially
appear to be in a material body, he is always liberated and is engaged in
the same duties of service to the Lord as a devotee in Vaikuhaloka.
There is no distinction. It is said, sdhur jvo v maro v. Whether a
devotee is alive or dead, his only concern is to serve the Lord. Tyaktv
deha punar janma naiti mm eti [Bg. 4.9]. When he gives up his body, he
goes directly to become an associate of the Lord and serve Him, although
he does the same thing even in a material body in the material world.
For a devotee there is no pain, pleasure or material perfection. One may
argue that at the time of death a devotee also suffers because of giving up
his material body. But in this connection the example may be given that a
cat carries a mouse in its mouth and also carries a kitten in its mouth.
Both the mouse and the kitten are carried in the same mouth, but the
perception of the mouse is different from that of the kitten. When a
devotee gives up his body (tyaktv deham), he is ready to go back home,
back to Godhead. Thus his perception is certainly different from that of a
person being taken away by Yamarja for punishment. A person whose
intelligence is always concentrated upon the service of the Lord is
unafraid of accepting a material body, whereas a nondevotee, having no
engagement in the service of the Lord, is very much afraid of accepting a
material body or giving up his present one. Therefore, we should follow
the instruction of Caitanya Mahprabhu: mama janmani janmanvare


bhavatd bhaktir ahaituk tvayi [Cc. Antya 20.29, ikaka 4]. It doesn't
matter whether we accept a material body or a spiritual body; our only
ambition should be to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
deha nvarurutse 'ha
sarvatrsya yato mtyur
matsynm udake yath
dehama material body; nanot; avarurutsedesire to accept; ahamI;
dukha-oka-bhaya-vahamwhich is the cause of all kinds of distress,
lamentation and fear; sarvatraalways and everywhere within this
universe; asyaof the living entities who have accepted material bodies;
yatabecause; mtyudeath; matsynmof the fish; udakeliving
within the water; yathlike.
I do not wish to accept a material body, for such a body is the source of
all distress, lamentation and fear, everywhere in the universe, just as it
is for a fish in the water, which lives always in anxiety because of fear
of death.
The material body, whether in the higher or lower planetary system, is
destined to die. In the lower planetary system or lower species of life one
may die soon, and in the higher planets or higher species one may live for
a long, long time, but death is inevitable. This fact should be understood.
In the human form of life one should take the opportunity to put an end
to birth, death, old age and disease by performing tapasya. This is the aim
of human civilization: to stop the repetition of birth and death, which is
called mtyu-sasra-vartmani [Bg. 9.3]. This can be done only when one
is Ka conscious, or has achieved the service of the lotus feet of the
Lord. Otherwise one must rot in this material world and accept a material
body subject to birth, death, old age and disease.
The example given here is that water is a very nice place for a fish, but the
fish is never free from anxiety about death, since big fish are always eager
to eat the small fish. phalgni tatra mahatm: all living entities are eaten
by bigger living entities. This is the way of material nature.
ahastni sahastnm


apadni catu-padm
phalgni tatra mahat
jvo jvasya jvanam
"Those who are devoid of hands are prey for those who have hands; those
devoid of legs are prey for the four-legged. The weak are the subsistence
of the strong, and the general rule holds that one living being is food for
another." (SB 1.13.47) The Supreme Personality of Godhead has created
the material world in such a way that one living entity is food for another.
Thus there is a struggle for existence, but although we speak of survival of
the fittest, no one can escape death without becoming a devotee of the
Lord. Hari vin naiva sti taranti: one cannot escape the cycle of birth
and death without becoming a devotee. This is also confirmed in
Bhagavad-gt (9.3). Aprpya m nivartante mtyu-sasra-vartmani.
One who does not attain shelter at the lotus feet of Ka must certainly
wander up and down within the cycle of birth and death.
dev cu
videha uyat kma
locaneu arrim
lakito 'dhytma-sasthita
dev cuthe demigods said; videhawithout any material body;
uyatmyou live; kmamas you like; locaneuin the vision;
arrimof those who have material bodies; unmeaa-nimebhym
become manifest and unmanifest as you desire; lakitabeing seen;
adhytma-sasthitasituated in a spiritual body.
The demigods said: Let Mahrja Nimi live without a material body. Let
him live in a spiritual body as a personal associate of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, and, according to his desire, let him be
manifest or unmanifest to common materially embodied people.
The demigods wanted Mahrja Nimi to come to life, but Mahrja Nimi
did not want to accept another material body. Under the circumstances,
the demigods, having been requested by the saintly persons, gave him the
benediction that he would be able to stay in his spiritual body. There are


two kinds of spiritual bodies, as generally understood by common men.

The term "spiritual body" is sometimes taken to refer to a ghostly body.
An impious man who dies after sinful activities is sometimes condemned
so that he cannot possess a gross material body of five material elements,
but must live in a subtle body of mind, intelligence and ego. However, as
explained in Bhagavad-gt, devotees can give up the material body and
attain a spiritual body free from all material tinges, gross and subtle
(tyaktv deha punar janma naiti mm eti so 'rjuna [Bg. 4.9]). Thus the
demigods gave King Nimi the benediction that he would be able to stay in
a purely spiritual body, free from all gross and subtle material
The Supreme Personality of Godhead can be seen or unseen according to
His own transcendental desire; similarly, a devotee, being jvan-mukta, can
be seen or not, as he chooses. As stated in Bhagavad-gt, nha praka
sarvasya yogamy-samvta: [Bg. 7.25] the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Ka, is not manifest to everyone and anyone. To the common
man He is unseen. Ata r-ka-nmdi na bhaved grhyam indriyai:
[Cc. Madhya 17.136] [Brs. 1.2.234] Ka and His name, fame, qualities
and paraphernalia cannot be materially understood. Unless one is
advanced in spiritual life (sevonmukhe hi jihvdau), one cannot see Ka.
Therefore the ability to see Ka depends on Ka's mercy. The same
privilege of being seen or unseen according to one's own desire was given
to Mahrja Nimi. Thus he lived in his original, spiritual body as an
associate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
arjaka-bhaya n
manyamn maharaya
deha mamanthu sma nime
kumra samajyata
arjaka-bhayamdue to fear of the danger of an unregulated government;
nmfor the people in general; manyamnconsidering this
situation; mah-ayathe great sages; dehamthe body; mamanthu
churned; smain the past; nimeof Mahrja Nimi; kumraone son;
samajyatawas thus born.
Thereafter, to save the people from the danger of an unregulated
government, the sages churned Mahrja Nimi's material body, from


which, as a result, a son was born.

Arjaka-bhayam. If the government is unsteady and unregulated, there is
danger of fear for the people. At the present moment this danger always
exists because of government by the people. Here we can see that the
great sages got a son from Nimi's material body to guide the citizens
properly, for such guidance is the duty of a katriya king. A katriya is
one who saves the citizens from being injured. In the so-called people's
government there is no trained katriya king; as soon as someone strong
accumulates votes, he becomes the minister or president, without training
from the learned brhmaas expert in the stras. Indeed, we see that in
some countries the government changes from party to party, and
therefore the men in charge of the government are more eager to protect
their position than to see that the citizens are happy. The Vedic
civilization prefers monarchy. People liked the government of Lord
Rmacandra, the government of Mahrja Yudhihira and the
governments of Mahrja Parkit, Mahrja Ambara and Mahrja
Prahlda. There are many instances of excellent government under a
monarch. Gradually the democratic government is becoming unfit for the
needs of the people, and therefore some parties are trying to elect a
dictator. A dictatorship is the same as a monarchy, but without a trained
leader. Actually people will be happy when a trained leader, whether a
monarch or a dictator, takes control of the government and rules the
people according to the standard regulations of the authorized scriptures.
janman janaka so 'bhd
vaidehas tu videhaja
mithilo mathanj jto
mithil yena nirmit
janmanby birth; janakaborn uncommonly, not by the usual
process; sahe; abhtbecame; vaidehaalso known as Vaideha; tu
but; videha-jabecause of being born from the body of Mahrja Nimi,
who had left his material body; mithilahe also became known as
Mithila; mathantbecause of being born from the churning of his
father's body; jtathus born; mithilthe kingdom called Mithil;
yenaby whom (Janaka); nirmitwas constructed.


Because he was born in an unusual way, the son was called Janaka, and
because he was born from the dead body of his father, he was known as
Vaideha. Because he was born from the churning of his father's material
body, he was known as Mithila, and because he constructed a city as
King Mithila, the city was called Mithil.
tasmd udvasus tasya
putro 'bhn nandivardhana
tata suketus tasypi
devarto mahpate
tasmtfrom Mithila; udvasua son named Udvasu; tasyaof him
Nandivardhana; tatafrom him (Nandivardhana); suketua son
named Suketu; tasyaof him (Suketu); apialso; devartaa son
named Devarta; mahpateO King Parkit.
O King Parkit, from Mithila came a son named Udvasu; from
Udvasu, Nandivardhana; from Nandivardhana, Suketu; and from
Suketu, Devarta.
tasmd bhadrathas tasya
mahvrya sudht-pit
sudhter dhaketur vai
haryavo 'tha marus tata
tasmtfrom Devarta; bhadrathaa son named Bhadratha; tasyaof
him (Bhadratha); mahvryaa son named Mahvrya; sudht-pithe
became the father of King Sudhti; sudhtefrom Sudhti; dhaketu
a son named Dhaketu; vaiindeed; haryavahis son was Haryava;
athathereafter; maruMaru; tatathereafter.
From Devarta came a son named Bhadratha and from Bhadratha a
son named Mahvrya, who became the father of Sudhti. The son of
Sudhti was known as Dhaketu, and from Dhaketu came Haryava.
From Haryava came a son named Maru.


maro pratpakas tasmj
jta ktaratho yata
devamhas tasya putro
viruto 'tha mahdhti
maroof Maru; pratpakaa son named Pratpaka; tasmtfrom
Pratpaka; jtawas born; ktarathaa son named Ktaratha; yata
and from Ktaratha; devamhaDevamha; tasyaof Devamha;
putraa son; virutaViruta; athafrom him; mahdhtia son
named Mahdhti.
The son of Maru was Pratpaka, and the son of Pratpaka was Ktaratha.
From Ktaratha came Devamha; from Devamha, Viruta; and from
Viruta, Mahdhti.
ktirtas tatas tasmn
mahrom ca tat-suta
svararom sutas tasya
hrasvarom vyajyata
ktirtaKtirta; tatafrom Mahdhti; tasmtfrom Ktirta;
mahroma son named Mahrom; caalso; tat-sutahis son;
suta tasyahis
Hrasvarom; vyajyatawere all born.
From Mahdhti was born a son named Ktirta, from Ktirta was born
Mahrom, from Mahrom came a son named Svararom, and from
Svararom came Hrasvarom.
tata radhvajo jaje
yajrtha karato mahm
st rgrato jt
tasmt radhvaja smta
tatafrom Hrasvarom; radhvajaa son named radhvaja; jaje


was born; yaja-arthamfor performing sacrifices; karatawhile

plowing the field; mahmthe earth; stmother St, the wife of Lord
Rmacandra; ra-agratafrom the front portion of the plow; jtwas
born; tasmttherefore; radhvajawas known as radhvaja; smta
From Hrasvarom came a son named radhvaja [also called Janaka].
When radhvaja was plowing a field, from the front of his plow [ra]
appeared a daughter named Stdev, who later became the wife of Lord
Rmacandra. Thus he was known as radhvaja.
kuadhvajas tasya putras
tato dharmadhvajo npa
dharmadhvajasya dvau putrau
kuadhvajaKuadhvaja; tasyaof radhvaja; putrason; tata
dharmadhvajasyafrom this Dharmadhvaja; dvautwo; putrausons;
ktadhvaja-mitadhvajauKtadhvaja and Mitadhvaja.
The son of radhvaja was Kuadhvaja, and the son of Kuadhvaja was
King Dharmadhvaja, who had two sons, namely Ktadhvaja and
TEXTS 20-21
ktadhvajt keidhvaja
khikyas tu mitadhvajt
ktadhvaja-suto rjann
khikya karma-tattva-jo
bhta keidhvajd druta
bhnums tasya putro 'bhc
chatadyumnas tu tat-suta
ktadhvajtfrom Ktadhvaja; keidhvajaa son named Keidhvaja;


khikya tualso a son named Khikya; mitadhvajtfrom

Mitadhvaja; ktadhvaja-sutathe son of Ktadhvaja; rjanO King;
tma-vidy-viradaexpert in transcendental science; khikya
King Khikya; karma-tattva-jaexpert in Vedic ritualistic
ceremonies; bhtafearing; keidhvajtbecause of Keidhvaja; druta
he fled; bhnumnBhnumn; tasyaof Keidhvaja; putrason;
abhtthere was; atadyumnaatadyumna; tubut; tat-sutathe son
of Bhnumn.
O Mahrja Parkit, the son of Ktadhvaja was Keidhvaja, and the son
of Mitadhvaja was Khikya. The son of Ktadhvaja was expert in
spiritual knowledge, and the son of Mitadhvaja was expert in Vedic
ritualistic ceremonies. Khikya fled in fear of Keidhvaja. The son of
Keidhvaja was Bhnumn, and the son of Bhnumn was atadyumna.
ucis tu tanayas tasmt
sanadvja suto 'bhavat
rjaketu sanadvjd
ajo 'tha purujit suta
uciuci; tubut; tanayaa son; tasmtfrom him; sanadvja
Sanadvja; sutaa son; abhavatwas born; rjaketurjaketu;
sanadvjtfrom Sanadvja; ajaAja; athathereafter; purujit
Purujit; sutaa son.
The son of atadyumna was named uci. From uci, Sanadvja was
born, and from Sanadvja came a son named rjaketu. The son of
rjaketu was Aja, and the son of Aja was Purujit.
arianemis tasypi
rutyus tat suprvaka
tata citraratho yasya
kemdhir mithildhipa
arianemiArianemi; tasya apiof Purujit also; rutyua son
named rutyu; tatand from him; suprvakaSuprvaka; tata


from Suprvaka; citrarathaCitraratha; yasyaof whom (Citraratha);

kemdhiKemdhi; mithil-adhipabecame the king of Mithil.
The son of Purujit was Arianemi, and his son was rutyu. rutyu
begot a son named Suprvaka, and Suprvaka begot Citraratha. The
son of Citraratha was Kemdhi, who became the king of Mithil.
tasmt samarathas tasya
suta satyarathas tata
sd upagurus tasmd
upagupto 'gni-sambhava
tasmtfrom Kemdhi; samarathaa son named Samaratha; tasya
from Samaratha; sutason; satyarathaSatyaratha; tatafrom him
(Satyaratha); stwas born; upaguruUpaguru; tasmtfrom him;
upaguptaUpagupta; agni-sambhavaa partial expansion of the
demigod Agni.
The son of Kemdhi was Samaratha, and his son was Satyaratha. The
son of Satyaratha was Upaguru, and the son of Upaguru was Upagupta,
a partial expansion of the fire-god.
vasvananto 'tha tat-putro
yuyudho yat subhaa
rutas tato jayas tasmd
vijayo 'smd ta suta
vasvanantaVasvananta; athathereafter (the son of Upagupta); tatputrahis son; yuyudhaby the name Yuyudha; yatfrom Yuyudha;
subhaaa son named Subhaa; ruta tataand the son of
Subhaa was ruta; jaya tasmtthe son of ruta was Jaya; vijayaa
son named Vijaya; asmtfrom Jaya; tata; sutaa son.
The son of Upagupta was Vasvananta, the son of Vasvananta was
Yuyudha, the son of Yuyudha was Subhaa, and the son of Subhaa
was ruta. The son of ruta was Jaya, from whom there came Vijaya.


The son of Vijaya was ta.

unakas tat-suto jaje
vtahavyo dhtis tata
bahulvo dhtes tasya
ktir asya mahva
unakaunaka; tat-sutathe son of ta; jajewas born;
vtahavyaVtahavya; dhtiDhti; tatathe son of Vtahavya;
bahulvaBahulva; dhtefrom Dhti; tasyahis son; ktiKti;
asyaof Kti; mahvathere was a son named Mahva.
The son of ta was unaka, the son of unaka was Vtahavya, the son of
Vtahavya was Dhti, and the son of Dhti was Bahulva. The son of
Bahulva was Kti, and his son was Mahva.
ete vai maithil rjann
dvandvair mukt ghev api
eteall of them; vaiindeed; maithilthe descendants of Mithila;
rjanO King; tma-vidy-viradexpert in spiritual knowledge;
yogevara-prasdenaby the grace of Yogevara, the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, Ka; dvandvai muktthey were all freed from the
duality of the material world; gheu apieven though staying at home.
ukadeva Gosvm said: My dear King Parkit, all the kings of the
dynasty of Mithila were completely in knowledge of their spiritual
identity. Therefore, even though staying at home, they were liberated
from the duality of material existence.
This material world is called dvaita, or duality. The Caitanya-caritmta
(Antya 4.176) says:
'dvaite 'bhadrbhadra-jna, saba'manodharma'
'ei bhla, ei manda,'ei saba 'bhrama'


In the world of dualitythat is to say, in the material worldso-called

goodness and badness are both the same. Therefore, in this world, to
distinguish between good and bad, happiness and distress, is meaningless
because they are both mental concoctions (manodharma). Because
everything here is miserable and troublesome, to create an artificial
situation and pretend it to be full of happiness is simply illusion. The
liberated person, being above the influence of the three modes of material
nature, is unaffected by such dualities in all circumstances. He remains
Ka conscious by tolerating so-called happiness and distress. This is
also confirmed in Bhagavad-gt (2.14):
mtr-spars tu kaunteya
gampyino 'nitys
ts titikasva bhrata
"O son of Kunt, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress,
and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and
disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense
perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them
without being disturbed." Those who are liberated, being on the
transcendental platform of rendering service to the Lord, do not care
about so-called happiness and distress. They know that these are like
changing seasons, which are perceivable by contact with the material
body. Happiness and distress come and go. Therefore a paita, a learned
man, is not concerned with them. As it is said, gatsn agats ca
nnuocanti pait [Bg. 2.11]. The body is dead from the very beginning
because it is a lump of matter. It has no feelings of happiness and distress.
Because the soul within the body is in the bodily concept of life, he suffers
happiness and distress, but these come and go. It is understood herewith
that the kings born in the dynasty of Mithila were all liberated persons,
unaffected by the so-called happiness and distress of this world.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Thirteenth Chapter,
of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Dynasty of Mahrja Nimi."


14. King Purrav Enchanted by Urva

The summary of this Fourteenth Chapter is given as follows. This chapter

describes Soma and how he kidnapped the wife of Bhaspati and begot in
her womb a son named Budha. Budha begot Purrav, who begot six
sons, headed by yu, in the womb of Urva.
Lord Brahm was born from the lotus that sprouted from the navel of
Garbhodakay Viu. Brahm had a son named Atri, and Atri's son was
Soma, the king of all drugs and stars. Soma became the conqueror of the
entire universe, and, being inflated with pride, he kidnapped Tr, who
was the wife of Bhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods. A great
fight ensued between the demigods and the asuras, but Brahm rescued
Bhaspati's wife from the clutches of Soma and returned her to her
husband, thus stopping the fighting. In the womb of Tr, Soma begot a
son named Budha, who later begot in the womb of Il a son named Aila,
or Purrav. Urva was captivated by Purrav's beauty, and therefore
she lived with him for some time, but when she left his company he
became almost like a madman. While traveling all over the world, he met
Urva again at Kuruketra, but she agreed to join with him for only one
night in a year.
One year later, Purrav saw Urva at Kuruketra and was glad to be with
her for one night, but when he thought of her leaving him again, he was
overwhelmed by grief. Urva then advised Purrav to worship the
Gandharvas. Being satisfied with Purrav, the Gandharvas gave him a
woman known as Agnisthl. Purrav mistook Agnisthl for Urva, but
while he was wandering in the forest his misunderstanding was cleared,
and he immediately gave up her company. After returning home and
meditating upon Urva all night, he wanted to perform a Vedic ritualistic
ceremony to satisfy his desire. Thereafter he went to the same place where
he had left Agnisthl, and there he saw that from the womb of a am tree
had come an avattha tree. Purrav made two sticks from this tree and
thus produced a fire. By such a fire one can satisfy all lusty desires. The
fire was considered the son of Purrav. In Satya-yuga there was only one
social division, called hasa; there were no divisions of vara like


brhmaa, katriya, vaiya and dra. The Veda was the okra. The
various demigods were not worshiped, for only the Supreme Personality
of Godhead was the worshipable Deity.
r-uka uvca
athta ryat rjan
vaa somasya pvana
yasminn aildayo bhp
krtyante puya-krtaya
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; athanow (after hearing
the history of the dynasty of the sun); atatherefore; ryatmjust
hear from me; rjanO King (Mahrja Parkit); vaathe dynasty;
somasyaof the moon-god; pvanawhich is purifying to hear about;
yasminin which (dynasty); aila-dayaheaded by Aila (Purrav);
bhpkings; krtyanteare described; puya-krtayapersons of
whom it is glorious to hear.
rla ukadeva Gosvm said to Mahrja Parkit: O King, thus far you
have heard the description of the dynasty of the sun-god. Now hear the
most glorious and purifying description of the dynasty of the moon-god.
This description mentions kings like Aila [Purrav] of whom it is
glorious to hear.
sahasra-irasa puso
jtasyst suto dhtur
atri pit-samo guai
sahasra-irasawho has thousands of heads; pusaof Lord Viu
(Garbhodakay Viu); nbhi-hrada-saroruhtfrom the lotus produced
from the lake of the navel; jtasyawho appeared; stthere was;
sutaa son; dhtuof Lord Brahm; atriby the name Atri; pitsamalike his father; guaiqualified.
Lord Viu [Garbhodakay Viu] is also known as Sahasra-r
Purua. From the lake of His navel sprang a lotus, on which Lord


Brahm was generated. Atri, the son of Lord Brahm, was as qualified
as his father.
tasya dgbhyo 'bhavat putra
somo 'mtamaya kila
brahma kalpita pati
tasyaof him, Atri, the son of Brahm; dgbhyafrom the tears of
jubilation from the eyes; abhavatwas born; putraa son; somathe
moon-god; amta-mayafull of soothing rays; kilaindeed; vipraof
the brhmaas; oadhiof the drugs; uu-ganmand of the
luminaries; brahmaby Lord Brahm; kalpitawas appointed or
designated; patithe supreme director.
From Atri's tears of jubilation was born a son named Soma, the moon,
who was full of soothing rays. Lord Brahm appointed him the director
of the brhmaas, drugs and luminaries.
According to the Vedic description, Soma, the moon-god, was born from
the mind of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (candram manaso
jta). But here we find that Soma was born from the tears in the eyes of
Atri. This appears contradictory to the Vedic information, but actually it
is not, for this birth of the moon is understood to have taken place in
another millennium. When tears appear in the eyes because of jubilation,
the tears are soothing. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura says, dgbhya
nandrubhya ata evmtamaya: "Here the word dgbhya means 'from
tears of jubilation.' Therefore the moon-god is called amtamaya, 'full of
soothing rays.' " In the Fourth Canto of rmad-Bhgavatam (4.1.15) we
find this verse:
atre patny anasy tr
jaje suyaasa sutn
datta durvsasa somam
This verse describes that Anasy, the wife of Atri i, bore three sons
Soma, Durvs and Datttreya. It is said that at the time of conception


Anasy was impregnated by the tears of Atri.

so 'yajad rjasyena
vijitya bhuvana-trayam
patn bhaspater darpt
tr nmharad balt
sahe, Soma; ayajatperformed; rjasyenathe sacrifice known as
Rjasya; vijityaafter conquering; bhuvana-trayamthe three worlds
(Svarga, Martya and Ptla); patnmthe wife; bhaspateof Bhaspati,
the spiritual master of the demigods; darptout of pride; trmTr;
nmaby name; aharattook away; baltby force.
After conquering the three worlds [the upper, middle and lower
planetary systems], Soma, the moon-god, performed a great sacrifice
known as the Rjasya-yaja. Because he was very much puffed up, he
forcibly kidnapped Bhaspati's wife, whose name was Tr.
yad sa deva-guru
ycito 'bhkao madt
ntyajat tat-kte jaje
yadwhen; sahe (Soma, the moon-god); deva-guruby the
spiritual master of the demigods, Bhaspati; ycitawas begged;
abhkaaagain and again; madtbecause of false pride; nanot;
atyajatdid deliver; tat-ktebecause of this; jajethere was; suradnavabetween the demigods and the demons; vigrahaa fight.
Although requested again and again by Bhaspati, the spiritual master
of the demigods, Soma did not return Tr. This was due to his false
pride. Consequently, a fight ensued between the demigods and the
ukro bhaspater dved


agraht ssuroupam
haro guru-suta sneht
ukrathe demigod named ukra; bhaspateunto Bhaspati; dvet
because of enmity; agrahttook; sa-asurawith the demons; uupam
the side of the moon-god; haraLord iva; guru-sutamthe side of his
spiritual master's son; snehtbecause of affection; sarva-bhta-gaavtaaccompanied by all kinds of ghosts and hobgoblins.
Because of enmity between Bhaspati and ukra, ukra took the side of
the moon-god and was joined by the demons. But Lord iva, because of
affection for the son of his spiritual master, joined the side of Bhaspati
and was accompanied by all the ghosts and hobgoblins.
The moon-god is one of the demigods, but to fight against the other
demigods he took the assistance of the demons. ukra, being an enemy of
Bhaspati, also joined the moon-god to retaliate in wrath against
Bhaspati. To counteract this situation, Lord iva, who was affectionate
toward Bhaspati, joined Bhaspati. The father of Bhaspati was Agir,
from whom Lord iva had received knowledge. Therefore Lord iva had
some affection for Bhaspati and joined his side in this fight. rdhara
Svm remarks, agirasa sakt prpta-vidyo hara iti prasiddha: "Lord
iva is well known to have received knowledge from Agir."
mahendro gurum anvayt
sursura-vino 'bht
samaras trakmaya
sarva-deva-gaaby all the different demigods; upetajoined;
mahendraMahendra, the King of heaven, Indra; gurumhis spiritual
master; anvaytfollowed; suraof the demigods; asuraand of the
demons; vinacausing destruction; abhtthere was; samaraa
fight; trak-mayasimply because of Tr, a woman, the wife of
King Indra, accompanied by all kinds of demigods, joined the side of
Bhaspati. Thus there was a great fight, destroying both demons and


demigods, only for the sake of Tr, Bhaspati's wife.

nivedito 'thgiras
soma nirbhartsya viva-kt
tr sva-bhartre pryacchad
antarvatnm avait pati
niveditabeing fully informed; athathus; agirasby Agir Muni;
somamthe moon-god; nirbhartsyachastising severely; viva-ktLord
Brahm; trmTr, the wife of Bhaspati; sva-bhartreunto her
husband; pryacchatdelivered; antarvatnmpregnant; avaitcould
understand; patithe husband (Bhaspati).
When Lord Brahm was fully informed by Agir about the entire
incident, he severely chastised the moon-god, Soma. Thus Lord Brahm
delivered Tr to her husband, who could then understand that she was
tyaja tyaju dupraje
mat-ketrd hita parai
nha tv bhasmast kury
striya sntnike 'sati
tyajadeliver; tyajadeliver; uimmediately; duprajeyou foolish
woman; mat-ketrtfrom the womb meant for me to impregnate;
hitambegotten; paraiby others; nanot; ahamI; tvmyou;
bhasmastburnt to ashes; kurymshall make; striyambecause you
are a woman; sntnikewanting a child; asatialthough you are
Bhaspati said: You foolish woman, your womb, which was meant for
me to impregnate, has been impregnated by someone other than me.
Immediately deliver your child! Immediately deliver it! Be assured that
after the child is delivered, I shall not burn you to ashes. I know that
although you are unchaste, you wanted a son. Therefore I shall not
punish you.


Tr was married to Bhaspati, and therefore as a chaste woman she

should have been impregnated by him. But instead she preferred to be
impregnated by Soma, the moon-god, and therefore she was unchaste.
Although Bhaspati accepted Tr from Brahm, when he saw that she
was pregnant he wanted her to deliver a son immediately. Tr certainly
very much feared her husband, and she thought she might be punished
after giving birth. Thus Bhaspati assured her that he would not punish
her, for although she was unchaste and had become pregnant illicitly, she
wanted a son.
tatyja vrit tr
kumra kanaka-prabham
sphm girasa cakre
kumre soma eva ca
tatyjagave delivery; vritbeing very much ashamed; trTr,
the wife of Bhaspati; kumramto a child; kanaka-prabhamhaving a
bodily effulgence like gold; sphmaspiration; girasaBhaspati;
cakremade; kumreunto the child; somathe moon-god; eva
indeed; caalso.
ukadeva Gosvm continued: By Bhaspati's order, Tr, who was very
much ashamed, immediately gave birth to the child, who was very
beautiful, with a golden bodily hue. Both Bhaspati and the moon-god,
Soma, desired the beautiful child.
mamya na tavety uccais
tasmin vivadamnayo
papracchur ayo dev
naivoce vrit tu s
mamamine; ayamthis (child); nanot; tavayours; itithus;
uccaivery loudly; tasminfor the child; vivadamnayowhen the
two parties were fighting; papracchuinquired (from Tr); ayaall
the saintly persons; devall the demigods; nanot; evaindeed; uce
said anything; vritbeing ashamed; tuindeed; sTr.


Fighting again broke out between Bhaspati and the moon-god, both of
whom claimed, "This is my child, not yours!" All the saints and
demigods present asked Tr whose child the newborn baby actually
was, but because she was ashamed she could not immediately answer.
kumro mtara prha
kupito 'lka-lajjay
ki na vacasy asad-vtte
tmvadya vadu me
kumrathe child; mtaramunto his mother; prhasaid; kupita
being very angry; alkaunnecessary; lajjaywith shame; kimwhy;
nanot; vacasiyou say; asat-vtteO unchaste woman; tmaavadyamthe fault you have committed; vadasay; uimmediately;
meunto me.
The child then became very angry and demanded that his mother
immediately tell the truth. "You unchaste woman," he said, "what is the
use of your unnecessary shame? Why do you not admit your fault?
Immediately tell me about your faulty behavior."
brahm t raha hya
samaprkc ca sntvayan
somasyety ha anakai
somas ta tvad agraht
brahmLord Brahm; tmunto her, Tr; rahain a secluded place;
hyaputting her; samaprktinquired in detail; caand;
sntvayanpacifying; somasyathis son belongs to Soma, the moon-god;
itithus; hashe replied; anakaivery slowly; somaSoma; tam
the child; tvatimmediately; agrahttook charge of.
Lord Brahm then brought Tr to a secluded place, and after pacifying
her he asked to whom the child actually belonged. She replied very
slowly, "This is the son of Soma, the moon-god." Then the moon-god
immediately took charge of the child.


tasytma-yonir akta
budha ity abhidh npa
buddhy gambhray yena
putrepour mudam
tasyaof the child; tma-yoniLord Brahm; aktamade; budha
Budha; itithus; abhidhmthe name; npaO King Parkit; buddhy
by intelligence; gambhrayvery deeply situated; yenaby whom;
putreaby such a son; pahe got; uurthe moon-god; mudam
O Mahrja Parkit, when Lord Brahm saw that the child was deeply
intelligent, he gave the child the name Budha. The moon-god, the ruler
of the stars, enjoyed great jubilation because of this son.
TEXTS 15-16
tata purrav jaje
ily ya udhta
tasya rpa-guaudryala-dravia-vikramn
gyamnn surari
tad-antikam upeyya
dev smara-arrdit
tatafrom him (Budha); purravthe son named Purrav; jaje
was born; ilymin the womb of Il; yaone who; udhtahas
already been described (in the beginning of the Ninth Canto); tasyahis
(Purrav's); rpabeauty; guaqualities; audryamagnanimity;
labehavior; draviawealth; vikramnpower; rutvby hearing;
urvathe celestial woman named Urva; indra-bhavanein the court of
King Indra; gyamnnwhen they were being described; sura-iby
Nrada; tat-antikamnear him; upeyyaapproached; devUrva;
smara-araby the arrows of Cupid; arditbeing stricken.
Thereafter, from Budha, through the womb of Il, a son was born
named Purrav, who was described in the beginning of the Ninth


Canto. When his beauty, personal qualities, magnanimity, behavior,

wealth and power were described by Nrada in the court of Lord Indra,
the celestial woman Urva was attracted to him. Pierced by the arrow
of Cupid, she thus approached him.
TEXTS 17-18
mitr-varuayo pd
pann nara-lokatm
niamya purua-reha
kandarpam iva rpiam
dhti viabhya lalan
upatasthe tad-antike
sa t vilokya npatir
uvca lakay vc
dev ha-tanruha
mitr-varuayoof Mitra and Varua; ptby the curse; pann
having obtained; nara-lokatmthe habits of a human being; niamya
thus seeing; purua-rehamthe best of males; kandarpam ivalike
Cupid; rpiamhaving beauty; dhtimpatience, forbearance;
viabhyaaccepting; lalanthat woman; upatastheapproached; tatantikenear to him; sahe, Purrav; tmher; vilokyaby seeing;
npatithe King; hareawith great jubilation; utphulla-locana
whose eyes became very bright; uvcasaid; lakayvery mild;
vcby words; devmunto the demigoddess; ha-tanruhathe
hairs on whose body were standing in jubilation.
Having been cursed by Mitra and Varua, the celestial woman Urva
had acquired the habits of a human being. Therefore, upon seeing
Purrav, the best of males, whose beauty resembled that of Cupid, she
controlled herself and then approached him. When King Purrav saw
Urva, his eyes became jubilant in the ecstasy of joy, and the hairs on
his body stood on end. With mild, pleasing words, he spoke to her as


svgata te varrohe
syat karavma kim
saramasva may ska
ratir nau vat sam
r-rj uvcathe King (Purrav) said; svgatamwelcome; teunto
you; varroheO best of beautiful women; syatmkindly take your
seat; karavma kimwhat can I do for you; saramasvajust become my
companion; may skamwith me; ratia sexual relationship; nau
between us; vat samfor many years.
King Purrav said: O most beautiful woman, you are welcome. Please
sit here and tell me what I can do for you. You may enjoy with me as
long as you desire. Let us pass our life happily in a sexual relationship.
urvay uvca
kasys tvayi na sajjeta
mano di ca sundara
yad-agntaram sdya
cyavate ha rirasay
urva uvcaUrva replied; kasyof which woman; tvayiunto you;
nanot; sajjetawould become attracted; manathe mind; di ca
and sight; sundaraO most beautiful man; yat-agntaramwhose chest;
sdyaenjoying; cyavategives up; haindeed; rirasayfor sexual
Urva replied: O most handsome man, who is the woman whose mind
and sight would not be attracted by you? If a woman takes shelter of
your chest, she cannot refuse to enjoy with you in a sexual relationship.
When a beautiful man and a beautiful woman unite together and embrace
one another, how within these three worlds can they check their sexual
relationship? Therefore rmad-Bhgavatam (7.9.45) says, yan maithundighamedhi-sukha hi tuccham.


etv uraakau rjan

nysau rakasva mnada
sarasye bhavat ska
lghya str vara smta
etauto these two; uraakaulambs; rjanO King Purrav; nysau
who have fallen down; rakasvaplease give protection; mna-daO one
who gives all honor to a guest or visitor; sarasyeI shall enjoy sexual
union; bhavat skamin your company; lghyasuperior; strm
of a woman; varahusband; smtait is said.
My dear King Purrav, please give protection to these two lambs, who
have fallen down with me. Although I belong to the heavenly planets
and you belong to earth, I shall certainly enjoy sexual union with you. I
have no objection to accepting you as my husband, for you are superior
in every respect.
As stated in the Brahma-sahit (5.40), yasya prabh prabhavato jagadaa-koi-koiv aea-vasudhdi-vibhti-bhinnam. There are various
planets and various atmospheres within this universe. The atmosphere of
the heavenly planet from which Urva descended after being cursed by
Mitra and Varua was different from the atmosphere of this earth. Indeed,
the inhabitants of the heavenly planets are certainly far superior to the
inhabitants of earth. Nonetheless, Urva agreed to remain the consort of
Purrav, although she belonged to a superior community. A woman who
finds a man with superior qualities may accept such a man as her
husband. Similarly, if a man finds a woman who is from an inferior family
but who has good qualities, he can accept such a brilliant wife, as advised
by r Cakya Paita (str-ratna dukuld api). The combination of
male and female is worthwhile if the qualities of both are on an equal
ghta me vra bhakya syn
neke tvnyatra maithunt
vivsasa tat tatheti
pratipede mahman
ghtamclarified butter or nectar; memy; vraO hero; bhakyam


eatable; sytshall be; nanot; keI shall see; tvyou; anyatraany

other time; maithuntexcept at the time of sexual intercourse;
vivsasamwithout any dress (naked); tatthat; tath itishall be like
that; pratipedepromised; mahmanKing Purrav.
Urva said: "My dear hero, only preparations made in ghee [clarified
butter] will be my eatables, and I shall not want to see you naked at any
time, except at the time of sexual intercourse." The great-minded King
Purrav accepted these proposals.
aho rpam aho bhvo
ko na seveta manujo
dev tv svayam gatm
ahowonderful; rpambeauty; ahowonderful; bhvapostures;
nara-lokain human society or on the planet earth; vimohanamso
attractive; kawho; nanot; sevetacan accept; manujaamong
human beings; devma demigoddess; tvmlike you; svayam gatm
who has personally arrived.
Purrav replied: O beautiful one, your beauty is wonderful and your
gestures are also wonderful. Indeed, you are attractive to all human
society. Therefore, since you have come of your own accord from the
heavenly planets, who on earth would not agree to serve a demigoddess
such as you.
It appears from the words of Urva that the standard of living, eating,
behavior and speech are all different on the heavenly planets from the
standards on this planet earth. The inhabitants of the heavenly planets do
not eat such abominable things as meat and eggs; everything they eat is
prepared in clarified butter. Nor do they like to see either men or women
naked, except at the time of sexual intercourse. To live naked or almost
naked is uncivilized, but on this planet earth it has now become
fashionable to dress half naked, and sometimes those like hippies live
completely naked. Indeed, there are many clubs and societies for this
purpose. Such conduct is not allowed, however, on the heavenly planets.
The inhabitants of the heavenly planets, aside from being very beautiful,


both in complexion and bodily features, are well behaved and long-living,
and they eat first-class food in goodness. These are some of the
distinctions between the inhabitants of the heavenly planets and the
inhabitants of earth.
tay sa purua-reho
ramayanty yathrhata
reme sura-vihreu
kma caitrarathdiu
taywith her; sahe; purua-rehathe best of human beings
(Purrav); ramayantyenjoying; yath-arhataas far as possible;
remeenjoyed; sura-vihreuin places resembling the heavenly parks;
kmamaccording to his desire; caitraratha-diuin the best gardens,
like Caitraratha.
ukadeva Gosvm continued: The best of human beings, Purrav,
began freely enjoying the company of Urva, who engaged in sexual
activities with him in many celestial places, such as Caitraratha and
Nandana-knana, where the demigods enjoy.
ramamas tay devy
mumude 'har-gan bahn
ramamaenjoying sex; taywith her; devythe heavenly goddess;
padmaof a lotus; kijalkalike the saffron; gandhaythe fragrance of
whom; tat-mukhaher beautiful face; modaby the fragrance;
muitabeing enlivened more and more; mumudeenjoyed life; ahagandays after days; bahnmany.
Urva's body was as fragrant as the saffron of a lotus. Being enlivened
by the fragrance of her face and body, Purrav enjoyed her company
for many days with great jubilation.


apayann urvam indro
gandharvn samacodayat
urva-rahita mahyam
sthna ntiobhate
apayanwithout seeing; urvamUrva; indrathe King of the
heavenly planet; gandharvnunto the Gandharvas; samacodayat
instructed; urva-rahitamwithout Urva; mahyammy; sthnam
place; nanot; atiobhateappears beautiful.
Not seeing Urva in his assembly, the King of heaven, Lord Indra, said,
"Without Urva my assembly is no longer beautiful." Considering this,
he requested the Gandharvas to bring her back to his heavenly planet.
te upetya mah-rtre
tamasi pratyupasthite
urvay uraau jahrur
nyastau rjani jyay
tethey, the Gandharvas; upetyacoming there; mah-rtrein the dead
of night; tamasiwhen the darkness; pratyupasthiteappeared; urvay
by Urva; uraautwo lambs; jahrustole; nyastaugiven in charge;
rjaniunto the King; jyayby his wife, Urva.
Thus the Gandharvas came to earth, and at midnight, when everything
was dark, they appeared in the house of Purrav and stole the two
lambs entrusted to the King by his wife, Urva.
"The dead of night" refers to midnight. The mah-ni is described in this
smti-mantra: mah-ni dve ghaike rtrer madhyama-ymayo, "Twelve
o'clock midnight is called the dead of night."
niamykrandita dev
putrayor nyamnayo
hatsmy aha kunthena
napus vra-mnin


niamyaby hearing; kranditamcrying (because of being stolen);

devUrva; putrayoof those two lambs, which she treated as sons;
nyamnayoas they were being taken away; hatkilled; asmiam;
ahamI; ku-nthenaunder the protection of a bad husband; napusby the eunuch; vra-mninalthough considering himself a
Urva treated the two lambs like her own sons. Therefore, when they
were being taken by the Gandharvas and began crying, Urva heard
them and rebuked her husband. "Now I am being killed," she said,
"under the protection of an unworthy husband, who is a coward and a
eunuch although he thinks himself a great hero.
yad-virambhd aha na
htpaty ca dasyubhi
ya ete nii santrasto
yath nr div pumn
yat-virambhtbecause of depending upon whom; ahamI (am);
nalost; hta-apatybereft of my two sons, the lambs; caalso;
dasyubhiby the plunderers; yahe who (my so-called husband);
etelies down; niiat night; santrastabeing afraid; yathas;
nra woman; divduring the daytime; pumnmale.
"Because I depended on him, the plunderers have deprived me of my
two sons the lambs, and therefore I am now lost. My husband lies down
at night in fear, exactly like a woman, although he appears to be a man
during the day."
iti vk-syakair biddha
pratottrair iva kujara
nii nistriam dya
vivastro 'bhyadravad ru
itithus; vk-syakaiby the arrows of strong words; biddhabeing
pierced; pratottraiby the goads; ivalike; kujaraan elephant;


niiin the night; nistriama sword; dyataking in hand;

vivastranaked; abhyadravatwent out; ruin anger.
Purrav, stricken by the sharp words of Urva like an elephant struck
by its driver's pointed rod, became very angry. Not even dressing
himself properly, he took a sword in hand and went out naked into the
night to follow the Gandharvas who had stolen the lambs.
te visjyoraau tatra
vyadyotanta sma vidyuta
dya mev ynta
nagnam aikata s patim
tethey, the Gandharvas; visjyaafter giving up; uraauthe two
lambs; tatraon the spot; vyadyotanta smailluminated; vidyuta
shining like lightning; dyataking in hand; meauthe two lambs;
yntamreturning; nagnamnaked; aikatasaw; sUrva; patim
her husband.
After giving up the two lambs, the Gandharvas shone brightly like
lightning, thus illuminating the house of Purrav. Urva then saw her
husband returning with the lambs in hand, but he was naked, and
therefore she left.
ailo 'pi ayane jym
apayan viman iva
tac-citto vihvala ocan
babhrmonmattavan mahm
ailaPurrav; apialso; ayaneon the bedstead; jymhis wife;
apayannot seeing; vimanmorose; ivalike that; tat-cittabeing
too much attached to her; vihvaladisturbed in mind; ocan
lamenting; babhrmatraveled; unmatta-vatlike a madman; mahmon
the earth.
No longer seeing Urva on his bed, Purrav was most aggrieved.


Because of his great attraction for her, he was very much disturbed.
Thus, lamenting, he began traveling about the earth like a madman.
sa t vkya kuruketre
sarasvaty ca tat-sakh
paca praha-vadana
prha skta purrav
sahe, Purrav; tmUrva; vkyaobserving; kuruketreat the
place known as Kuruketra; sarasvatymon the bank of the Sarasvat;
caalso; tat-sakhher companions; pacafive; praha-vadana
being very happy and smiling; prhasaid; sktamsweet words;
purravKing Purrav.
Once during his travels all over the world, Purrav saw Urva,
accompanied by five companions, on the bank of the Sarasvat at
Kuruketra. With jubilation in his face, he then spoke to her in sweet
words as follows.
aho jye tiha tiha
ghore na tyaktum arhasi
m tvam adypy anirvtya
vacsi kavvahai
ahohello; jyeO my dear wife; tiha tihakindly stay, stay; ghore
O most cruel one; nanot; tyaktumto give up; arhasiyou ought;
mmme; tvamyou; adya apiuntil now; anirvtyahaving not gotten
any happiness from me; vacsisome words; kavvahailet us talk
for some time.
O my dear wife, O most cruel one, kindly stay, kindly stay. I know that
I have never made you happy until now, but you should not give me up
for that reason. This is not proper for you. Even if you have decided to
give up my company, let us nonetheless talk for some time.


sudeho 'ya pataty atra
devi dra htas tvay
khdanty ena vk gdhrs
tvat-prasdasya nspadam
su-dehavery beautiful body; ayamthis; patatiwill now fall down;
atraon the spot; deviO Urva; dramfar, far away from home;
htataken away; tvayby you; khdantithey will eat; enamthis
(body); vkfoxes; gdhrvultures; tvatyour; prasdasyain
mercy; nanot; spadamsuitable.
O goddess, now that you have refused me, my beautiful body will fall
down here, and because it is unsuitable for your pleasure, it will be
eaten by foxes and vultures.
urvay uvca
m mth puruo 'si tva
m sma tvdyur vk ime
kvpi sakhya na vai str
vk hdaya yath
urva uvcaUrva said; mdo not; mthgive up your life;
puruamale; asiare; tvamyou; m smado not allow it; tvunto
you; adyumay eat; vkthe foxes; imethese senses (do not be
under the control of your senses); kva apianywhere; sakhyam
friendship; nanot; vaiindeed; strmof women; vkmof the
foxes; hdayamthe heart; yathas.
Urva said: My dear King, you are a man, a hero. Don't be impatient
and give up your life. Be sober and don't allow the senses to overcome
you like foxes. Don't let the foxes eat you. In other words, you should
not be controlled by your senses. Rather, you should know that the
heart of a woman is like that of a fox. There is no use making friendship
with women.
Cakya Paita has advised, vivso naiva kartavya stru rja-kuleu ca:
"Never place your faith in a woman or a politician." Unless elevated to


spiritual consciousness, everyone is conditioned and fallen, what to speak

of women, who are less intelligent than men. Women have been
compared to dras and vaiyas (striyo vaiys tath dr [Bg. 9.32]).
On the spiritual platform, however, when one is elevated to the platform
of Ka consciousness, whether one is a man, woman, dra or whatever,
everyone is equal. Otherwise, Urva, who was a woman herself and who
knew the nature of women, said that a woman's heart is like that of a sly
fox. If a man cannot control his senses, he becomes a victim of such sly
foxes. But if one can control the senses, there is no chance of his being
victimized by sly, foxlike women. Cakya Paita has also advised that if
one has a wife like a sly fox, he must immediately give up his life at home
and go to the forest.
mt yasya ghe nsti
bhry cpriya-vdin
araya tena gantavya
yathraya tath gham
(Cakya-loka 57)
Ka conscious ghasthas must be very careful of the sly fox woman. If
the wife at home is obedient and follows her husband in Ka
consciousness, the home is welcome. Otherwise one should give up one's
home and go to the forest.
hitvtma-pta gham andha-kpa
vana gato yad dharim rayeta
(SB 7.5.5)
One should go to the forest and take shelter of the lotus feet of Hari, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
striyo hy akaru krr
durmar priya-shas
ghnanty alprthe 'pi virabdha
pati bhrtaram apy uta
striyawomen; hiindeed; akarumerciless; krrcunning;
durmarintolerant; priya-shasfor their own pleasure they can do


anything; ghnantithey kill; alpa-arthefor a slight reason; apiindeed;

virabdhamfaithful; patimhusband; bhrtarambrother; apialso;
utait is said.
Women as a class are merciless and cunning. They cannot tolerate even
a slight offense. For their own pleasure they can do anything irreligious,
and therefore they do not fear killing even a faithful husband or
King Purrav was greatly attached to Urva. Yet despite his faithfulness
to her, she had left him. Now, considering that the King was wasting his
rarely achieved human form of life, Urva frankly explained the nature of
a woman. Because of her nature, a woman can respond to even a slight
offense from her husband by not only leaving him but even killing him if
required. To say nothing of her husband, she can even kill her brother.
That is a woman's nature. Therefore, in the material world, unless women
are trained to be chaste and faithful to their husbands, there cannot be
peace or prosperity in society.
ajeu tyakta-sauhd
nava navam abhpsantya
pucalya svaira-vttaya
vidhyaby establishing;
ajeuunto the foolish men; tyakta-sauhdwho have given up the
company of well-wishers; navamnew; navamnew; abhpsantya
desiring; pucalyawomen very easily allured by other men; svaira
independently; vttayaprofessional.
Women are very easily seduced by men. Therefore, polluted women
give up the friendship of a man who is their well-wisher and establish
false friendship among fools. Indeed, they seek newer and newer
friends, one after another.
Because women are easily seduced, the Manu-sahit enjoins that they
should not be given freedom. A woman must always be protected, either
by her father, by her husband, or by her elderly son. If women are given
freedom to mingle with men like equals, which they now claim to be, they


cannot keep their propriety. The nature of a woman, as personally

described by Urva, is to establish false friendship with someone and
then seek new male companions, one after another, even if this means
giving up the company of a sincere well-wisher.
savatsarnte hi bhavn
eka-rtra mayevara
rasyaty apatyni ca te
bhaviyanty apari bho
savatsara-anteat the end of every year; hiindeed; bhavnyour
good self; eka-rtramone night only; maywith me; varamy
husband; rasyatiwill enjoy sex life; apatynichildren; caalso; te
your; bhaviyantiwill generate; apariothers, one after another;
bhoO my dear King.
O my dear King, you will be able to enjoy with me as my husband at the
end of every year, for one night only. In this way you will have other
children, one after another.
Although Urva had adversely explained the nature of woman, Mahrja
Purrav was very much attached to her, and therefore she wanted to give
the King some concession by agreeing to be his wife for one night at the
end of each year.
antarvatnm uplakya
dev sa prayayau purm
punas tatra gato 'bdnte
urva vra-mtaram
antarvatnmpregnant; uplakyaby observing; devmUrva; sa
he, King Purrav; prayayaureturned; purmto his palace; puna
again; tatraat that very spot; gatawent; abda-anteat the end of the
year; urvamUrva; vra-mtaramthe mother of one katriya son.
Understanding that Urva was pregnant, Purrav returned to his
palace. At the end of the year, there at Kuruketra, he again obtained
the association of Urva, who was then the mother of a heroic son.


upalabhya mud yukta
samuvsa tay nim
athainam urva prha
kpaa virahturam
upalabhyagetting the association; mudin great jubilation; yukta
being united; samuvsaenjoyed her company in sex; taywith her;
nimthat night; athathereafter; enamunto King Purrav; urva
the woman named Urva; prhasaid; kpaamto he who was poorhearted; viraha-turamafflicted by the thought of separation.
Having regained Urva at the end of the year, King Purrav was most
jubilant, and he enjoyed her company in sex for one night. But then he
was very sorry at the thought of separation from her, so Urva spoke to
him as follows.
gandharvn upadhvems
tubhya dsyanti mm iti
tasya sastuvatas tu
agni-sthl dadur npa
urva manyamnas t
so 'budhyata caran vane
gandharvnunto the Gandharvas; upadhvago take shelter; imn
these; tubhyamunto you; dsyantiwill deliver; mm itiexactly like
me, or me factually; tasyaby him; sastuvataoffering prayers;
tubeing satisfied; agni-sthlma girl produced from fire; dadu
delivered; npaO King; urvamUrva; manya-mnathinking;
tmher; sahe (Purrav); abudhyataunderstood factually; caran
while walking; vanein the forest.
Urva said: "My dear King, seek shelter of the Gandharvas, for they
will be able to deliver me to you again." In accordance with these
words, the King satisfied the Gandharvas by prayers, and the
Gandharvas, being pleased with him, gave him an Agnisthl girl who
looked exactly like Urva. Thinking that the girl was Urva, the King
began walking with her in the forest, but later he could understand that


she was not Urva but Agnisthl.

rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura remarks that Purrav was very
lusty. Immediately after getting the Agnisthl girl, he wanted to have sex
with her, but during sexual intercourse he could understand that the girl
was Agnisthl, not Urva. This indicates that every man attached to a
particular woman knows the particular characteristics of that woman
during sex life. Thus Purrav understood during sexual intercourse that
the Agnisthl girl was not Urva.
sthl nyasya vane gatv
ghn dhyyato nii
trety sampravtty
manasi trayy avartata
sthlmthe woman Agnisthl; nyasyaimmediately giving up; vanein
the forest; gatvon returning; ghnat home; dhyyatabegan to
meditate; niithe whole night; tretymwhen the Tret millennium;
sampravttymwas just on the point of beginning; manasiin his
mind; traythe principles of the three Vedas; avartatabecame revealed.
King Purrav then left Agnisthl in the forest and returned home,
where he meditated all night upon Urva. In the course of his
meditation, the Tret millennium began, and therefore the principles of
the three Vedas, including the process of performing yaja to fulfill
fruitive activities, appeared within his heart.
It is said, trety yajato makhai: in Tret-yuga, if one performed yajas,
he would get the results of those yajas. By performing viu-yaja
specifically, one could even achieve the lotus feet of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Of course, yaja is intended to please the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. While Purrav was meditating upon
Urva, the Tret-yuga began, and therefore the Vedic yajas were
revealed in his heart. But Purrav was a materialistic man, especially
interested in enjoying the senses. Yajas for enjoyment of the senses are
called karma-kya-yajas. Therefore, he decided to perform karmakya-yajas to fulfill his lusty desires. In other words, karma-kyayajas are meant for sensuous persons, whereas yaja should actually be


performed to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To please the

Supreme Personality of Godhead in Kali-yuga, the sakrtana-yaja is
recommended. Yajai sakrtana-pryair yajanti hi sumedhasa [SB
11.5.32]. Only those who are very intelligent take to sakrtana-yaja to
fulfill all their desires, material and spiritual, whereas those who are lusty
for sense enjoyment perform karma-kya-yajas.
TEXTS 44-45
sthl-sthna gato 'vattha
am-garbha vilakya sa
tena dve ara ktv
urva mantrato dhyyann
adharraim uttarm
tmnam ubhayor madhye
yat tat prajanana prabhu
sthl-sthnamthe place where Agnisthl was left; gatagoing there;
avatthaman avattha tree; am-garbhamproduced from the womb of
the am tree; vilakyaseeing; sahe, Purrav; tenafrom that; dve
two; arapieces of wood required for igniting a fire for sacrifice;
ktvmaking; urva-loka-kmyaydesiring to go to the planet where
Urva was present; urvamUrva; mantrataby chanting the
required mantra; dhyyanmeditating upon; adharalower; araim
arai wood; uttarmand the upper one; tmnamhimself; ubhayo
madhyein between the two; yat tatthat which (he meditated upon);
prajananamas a son; prabhuthe King.
When the process of fruitive yaja became manifest within his heart,
King Purrav went to the same spot where he had left Agnisthl.
There he saw that from the womb of a am tree, an avattha tree had
grown. He then took a piece of wood from that tree and made it into
two arais. Desiring to go to the planet where Urva resided, he
chanted mantras, meditating upon the lower arai as Urva, the upper
one as himself, and the piece of wood between them as his son. In this
way he began to ignite a fire.
The Vedic fire for performing yaja was not ignited with ordinary


matches or similar devices. Rather, the Vedic sacrificial fire was ignited by
the arais, or two sacred pieces of wood, which produced fire by friction
with a third. Such a fire is necessary for the performance of yaja. If
successful, a yaja will fulfill the desire of its performer. Thus Purrav
took advantage of the process of yaja to fulfill his lusty desires. He
thought of the lower arai as Urva, the upper one as himself, and the
middle one as his son. A relevant Vedic mantra quoted herein by
Vivantha Cakravart hkura is am-garbhd agni mantha. A similar
mantra is urvaym urasi purrav. Purrav wanted to have children
continuously by the womb of Urva. His only ambition was to have sex
life with Urva and thereby get a son. In other words, he had so much
lust in his heart that even while performing yaja he thought of Urva,
instead of thinking of the master of yaja, Yajevara, Lord Viu.
tasya nirmanthanj jto
jta-ved vibhvasu
trayy sa vidyay rj
putratve kalpitas tri-vt
tasyaof Purrav; nirmanthantbecause of interaction; jtawas
born; jta-vedmeant for material enjoyment according to the Vedic
principles; vibhvasua fire; trayyfollowing the Vedic principles;
sathe fire; vidyayby such a process; rjby the King; putratve
a son's being born; kalpitait so became; tri-vtthe three letters a-u-m
combined together as o.
From Purrav's rubbing of the arais came a fire. By such a fire one
can achieve all success in material enjoyment and be purified in seminal
birth, initiation and in the performance of sacrifice, which are invoked
with the combined letters a-u-m. Thus the fire was considered the son
of King Purrav.
According to the Vedic process, one can get a son through semen (ukra),
one can get a bona fide disciple through initiation (svitra), or one can get
a son or disciple through the fire of sacrifice (yaja). Thus when Mahrja
Purrav generated the fire by rubbing the arais, the fire became his son.
Either by semen, by initiation or by yaja one may get a son. The Vedic
mantra okra, or praava, consisting of the letters a-u-m, can call each of


these three methods into existence. Therefore the words nirmanthanj

jta indicate that by the rubbing of the arais a son was born.
tenyajata yajea
bhagavantam adhokajam
urva-lokam anvicchan
sarva-devamaya harim
tenaby generating such a fire; ayajatahe worshiped; yaja-amthe
master or enjoyer of the yaja; bhagavantamthe Supreme Personality of
Godhead; adhokajambeyond the perception of the senses; urvalokamto the planet where Urva was staying; anvicchanalthough
desiring to go; sarva-deva-mayamthe reservoir of all demigods; harim
the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
By means of that fire, Purrav, who desired to go to the planet where
Urva resided, performed a sacrifice, by which he satisfied the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, the enjoyer of the results of
sacrifice. Thus he worshiped the Lord, who is beyond the perception of
the senses and is the reservoir of all the demigods.
As stated in Bhagavad-gt, bhoktra yaja-tapas sarva-lokamahevaram: [Bg. 5.29] any loka, or planet, to which one wants to go is
the property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the enjoyer of the
performance of sacrifice. The purpose of yaja is to satisfy the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. In this age, as we have explained many times, the
yaja of chanting the Hare Ka mah-mantra is the only sacrifice that
can satisfy the Supreme Lord. When the Lord is satisfied, one can fulfill
any desire, material or spiritual. Bhagavad-gt (3.14) also says, yajd
bhavati parjanya: by offering sacrifices to Lord Viu, one can have
sufficient rainfall. When there is sufficient rainfall, the earth becomes fit
to produce everything (sarva-kma-dugh mah). If one can utilize the
land properly, one can get all the necessities of life from the land,
including food grains, fruits, flowers and vegetables. Everything one gets
for material wealth is produced from the earth, and therefore it is said,
sarva-kma-dugh mah (SB 1.10.4). Everything is possible by performing
yaja. Therefore although Purrav desired something material, he
factually performed yaja to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


The Lord is adhokaja, beyond the perception of Purrav and everyone

else. Consequently, some kind of yaja must be performed to fulfill the
desires of the living entity. Yajas can be performed in human society
only when society is divided by varrama-dharma into four varas and
four ramas. Without such a regulative process, no one can perform
yajas, and without the performance of yajas, no material plans can
make human society happy at any time. Everyone should therefore be
induced to perform yajas. In this age of Kali, the yaja recommended is
sakrtana, the individual or collective chanting of the Hare Ka mahmantra. This will bring the fulfillment of all necessities for human society.
eka eva pur veda
praava sarva-vmaya
devo nryao nnya
eko 'gnir vara eva ca
ekaonly one; evaindeed; purformerly; vedabook of
transcendental knowledge; praavaokra; sarva-vk-maya
consisting of all Vedic mantras; devathe Lord, God; nryaaonly
Nryaa (was worshipable in the Satya-yuga); na anyano other; eka
agnione division only for agni; varaorder of life; eva caand
In the Satya-yuga, the first millennium, all the Vedic mantras were
included in one mantra-praava, the root of all Vedic mantras. In other
words, the Atharva Veda alone was the source of all Vedic knowledge.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead Nryaa was the only
worshipable Deity; there was no recommendation for worship of the
demigods. Fire was one only, and the only order of life in human
society was known as hasa.
In Satya-yuga there was only one Veda, not four. Later, before the
beginning of Kali-yuga, this one Veda, the Atharva Veda (or, some say, the
Yajur Veda), was divided into fourSma, Yajur, g and Atharvafor the
facility of human society. In Satya-yuga the only mantra was okra (o
tat sat). The same name okra is manifest in the mantra Hare Ka,
Hare Ka, Ka Ka, Hare Hare/ Hare Rma, Hare Rma, Rma Rma,
Hare Hare. Unless one is a brhmaa, one cannot utter okra and get the


desired result. But in Kali-yuga almost everyone is a dra, unfit for

pronouncing the praava, okra. Therefore the stras have
recommended the chanting of the Hare Ka mah-mantra. Okra is a
mantra, or mah-mantra, and Hare Ka is also a mah-mantra. The
purpose of pronouncing okra is to address the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Vsudeva (o namo bhagavate vsudevya). And the purpose of
chanting the Hare Ka mantra is the same. Hare: "O energy of the
Lord!" Ka: "O Lord Ka!" Hare: "O energy of the Lord!" Rma: "O
Supreme Lord, O supreme enjoyer!" The only worshipable Lord is Hari,
who is the goal of the Vedas (vedai ca sarvair aham eva vedya [Bg.
15.15]). By worshiping the demigods, one worships the different parts of
the Lord, just as one might water the branches and twigs of a tree. But
worshiping Nryaa, the all-inclusive Supreme Personality of Godhead,
is like pouring water on the root of the tree, thus supplying water to the
trunk, branches, twigs, leaves and so on. In Satya-yuga people knew how
to fulfill the necessities of life simply by worshiping Nryaa, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. The same purpose can be served in this
age of Kali by the chanting of the Hare Ka mantra, as recommended in
the Bhgavatam. Krtand eva kasya mukta-saga para vrajet [SB
12.3.51]. Simply by chanting the Hare Ka mantra, one becomes free
from the bondage of material existence and thus becomes eligible to
return home, back to Godhead.
purravasa evst
tray tret-mukhe npa
agnin prajay rj
loka gndharvam eyivn
purravasafrom King Purrav; evathus; stthere was; traythe
Vedic principles of karma, jna and upsan; tret-mukhein the
beginning of the Tret-yuga; npaO King Parkit; agninsimply by
generating the fire of sacrifice; prajayby his son; rjKing Purrav;
lokamto the planet; gndharvamof the Gandharvas; eyivnachieved.
O Mahrja Parkit, at the beginning of Tret-yuga, King Purrav
inaugurated a karma-ka sacrifice. Thus Purrav, who considered
the yajic fire his son, was able to go to Gandharvaloka as he desired.


In Satya-yuga, Lord Nryaa was worshiped by meditation (kte yad

dhyyato vium). Indeed, everyone always meditated upon Lord Viu,
Nryaa, and achieved every success by this process of meditation. In the
next yuga, Tret-yuga, the performance of yaja began (trety yajato
mukhai). Therefore this verse says, tray tret-mukhe. Ritualistic
ceremonies are generally called fruitive activities. rla Vivantha
Cakravart hkura says that in Tret-yuga, beginning in the
Svyambhuva-manvantara, ritualistic fruitive activities were similarly
manifested from Priyavrata, etc.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Fourteenth Chapter,
of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "King Purrav Enchanted by Urva."


15. Paraurma, the Lord's Warrior Incarnation

This chapter describes the history of Gdhi in the dynasty of Aila.

From the womb of Urva came six sons, named yu, rutyu, Satyyu,
Raya, Jaya and Vijaya. The son of rutyu was Vasumn, the son of
Satyyu was rutajaya, the son of Raya was Eka, the son of Jaya was
Amita, and the son of Vijaya was Bhma. Bhma's son was named Kcana,
the son of Kcana was Hotraka, and the son of Hotraka was Jahnu, who
was celebrated for having drunk all the water of the Ganges in one sip.
The descendants of Jahnu, one after another, were Puru, Balka, Ajaka
and Kua. The sons of Kua were Kumbu, Tanaya, Vasu and Kuanbha.
From Kumbu came Gdhi, who had a daughter named Satyavat.
Satyavat married cka Muni after the muni contributed a substantial
dowry, and from the womb of Satyavat by cka Muni, Jamadagni was
born. The son of Jamadagni was Rma, or Paraurma. When a king
named Krtavryrjuna stole Jamadagni's desire cow, Paraurma, who is
ascertained by learned experts to be a saktyvea incarnation of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, killed Krtavryrjuna. Later, he
annihilated the katriya dynasty twenty-one times. After Paraurma
killed Krtavryrjuna, Jamadagni told him that killing a king is sinful and
that as a brhmaa he should have tolerated the offense. Therefore
Jamadagni advised Paraurma to atone for his sin by traveling to various
holy places.
r-bdaryair uvca
ailasya corva-garbht
a sann tmaj npa
yu rutyu satyy
rayo 'tha vijayo jaya
r-bdaryai uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; ailasyaof Purrav;
caalso; urva-garbhtfrom the womb of Urva; asix; santhere
were; tmajsons; npaO King Parkit; yuyu; rutyu


rutyu; satyyuSatyyu; rayaRaya; athaas well as; vijaya

Vijaya; jayaJaya.
ukadeva Gosvm continued: O King Parkit, from the womb of
Urva, six sons were generated by Purrav. Their names were yu,
rutyu, Satyyu, Raya, Vijaya and Jaya.
rutyor vasumn putra
satyyo ca rutajaya
rayasya suta eka ca
jayasya tanayo 'mita
bhmas tu vijayasytha
kcano hotrakas tata
tasya jahnu suto gag
ga-ktya yo 'pibat
rutyoof rutyu; vasumnVasumn; putraa son; satyyoof
Satyyu; caalso; rutajayaa son named rutajaya; rayasyaof
Raya; sutaa son; ekaby the name Eka; caand; jayasyaof Jaya;
tanayathe son; amitaby the name Amita; bhmaby the name
Bhma; tuindeed; vijayasyaof Vijaya; athathereafter; kcana
Kcana, the son of Bhma; hotrakaHotraka, the son of Kcana;
tatathen; tasyaof Hotraka; jahnuby the name Jahnu; sutaa
son; gagmall the water of the Ganges; ga-ktyaby one sip;
yahe who (Jahnu); apibatdrank.
The son of rutyu was Vasumn; the son of Satyyu, rutajaya; the
son of Raya, Eka; the son of Jaya, Amita; and the son of Vijaya, Bhma.
The son of Bhma was Kcana; the son of Kcana was Hotraka; and
the son of Hotraka was Jahnu, who drank all the water of the Ganges in
one sip.
jahnos tu purus tasytha
balka ctmajo 'jaka
tata kua kuasypi


kumbus tanayo vasu

kuanbha ca catvro
gdhir st kumbuja
jahnoof Jahnu; tuindeed; purua son named Puru; tasyaof Puru;
athathereafter; balkaa son named Balka; caand; tmaja
Balka's son; ajakaof the name Ajaka; tatathereafter; kuaKua;
kuasyaof Kua; apithen; kumbuKumbu; tanayaTanaya;
vasuVasu; kuanbhaKuanbha; caand; catvrafour (sons);
gdhiGdhi; stthere was; kumbujathe son of Kumbu.
The son of Jahnu was Puru, the son of Puru was Balka, the son of
Balka was Ajaka, and the son of Ajaka was Kua. Kua had four sons,
named Kumbu, Tanaya, Vasu and Kuanbha. The son of Kumbu
was Gdhi.
tasya satyavat kanym
cko 'ycata dvija
vara visada matv
gdhir bhrgavam abravt
ekata yma-karn
hayn candra-varcasm
sahasra dyat ulka
kanyy kuik vayam
tasyaof Gdhi; satyavatmSatyavat; kanymthe daughter; cka
the great sage cka; aycatarequested; dvijathe brhmaa; varam
as her husband; visadamnot equal or fit; matvthinking like that;
gdhiKing Gdhi; bhrgavamunto cka; abravtreplied; ekata
by one; yma-karnmwhose ear is black; haynmhorses; candravarcasmas brilliant as the moonshine; sahasramone thousand;
dyatmplease deliver; ulkamas a dowry; kanyyto my daughter;
kuikin the family of Kua; vayamwe (are).
King Gdhi had a daughter named Satyavat, whom a brhmaa sage
named cka requested from the King to be his wife. King Gdhi,
however, regarded cka as an unfit husband for his daughter, and


therefore he told the brhmaa, "My dear sir, I belong to the dynasty of
Kua. Because we are aristocratic katriyas, you have to give some
dowry for my daughter. Therefore, bring at least one thousand horses,
each as brilliant as moonshine and each having one black ear, whether
right or left."
The son of King Gdhi was Vivmitra, who was said to be a brhmaa
and katriya combined. Vivmitra attained the status of a brahmari, as
explained later. From the marriage of Satyavat with cka Muni would
come a son with the spirit of a katriya. King Gdhi demanded that an
uncommon request be fulfilled before the brhmaa cka could marry
his daughter.
ity uktas tan-mata jtv
gata sa varuntikam
nya dattv tn avn
upayeme varnanm
itithus; uktahaving been requested; tat-matamhis mind; jtv
(the sage) could understand; gatawent; sahe; varua-antikamto
the place of Varua; nyahaving brought; dattvand after delivering;
tnthose; avnhorses; upayememarried; vara-nanmthe
beautiful daughter of King Gdhi.
When King Gdhi made this demand, the great sage cka could
understand the King's mind. Therefore he went to the demigod Varua
and brought from him the one thousand horses that Gdhi had
demanded. After delivering these horses, the sage married the King's
beautiful daughter.
sa i prrthita patny
varv cpatya-kmyay
rapayitvobhayair mantrai
caru sntu gato muni
sahe (cka); ithe great saint; prrthitabeing requested;
patnyby his wife; varvby his mother-in-law; caalso; apatya-


kmyaydesiring a son; rapayitvafter cooking; ubhayaiboth;

mantraiby chanting particular mantras; caruma preparation for
offering in a sacrifice; sntumto bathe; gatawent out; munithe
great sage.
Thereafter, cka Muni's wife and mother-in-law, each desiring a son,
requested the Muni to prepare an oblation. Thus cka Muni prepared
one oblation for his wife with a brhmaa mantra and another for his
mother-in-law with a katriya mantra. Then he went out to bathe.
tvat satyavat mtr
sva-caru ycit sat
reha matv tayyacchan
mtre mtur adat svayam
tvatin the meantime; satyavatSatyavat, the wife of cka; mtr
by her mother; sva-carumthe oblation meant for herself (Satyavat);
ycitasked to give; satbeing; rehambetter; matvthinking;
tayby her; ayacchatdelivered; mtreto her mother; mtuof the
mother; adatate; svayampersonally.
Meanwhile, because Satyavat's mother thought that the oblation
prepared for her daughter, cka's wife, must be better, she asked her
daughter for that oblation. Satyavat therefore gave her own oblation to
her mother and ate her mother's oblation herself.
A husband naturally has some affection for his wife. Therefore Satyavat's
mother thought that the oblation prepared for Satyavat by the sage cka
must have been better than her own oblation. In cka's absence, the
mother took the better oblation from Satyavat and ate it.
tad viditv muni prha
patn kaam akra
ghoro daa-dhara putro
bhrt te brahma-vittama
tatthis fact; viditvhaving learned; munithe great sage; prha


said; patnmunto his wife; kaamvery regrettable; akrayou

have done; ghorafierce; daa-dharaa great personality who can
punish others; putrasuch a son; bhrtbrother; teyour; brahmavittamaa learned scholar in spiritual science.
When the great sage cka returned home after bathing and understood
what had happened in his absence, he said to his wife, Satyavat, "You
have done a great wrong. Your son will be a fierce katriya, able to
punish everyone, and your brother will be a learned scholar in spiritual
A brhmaa is highly qualified when he can control his senses and mind,
when he is a learned scholar in spiritual science and when he is tolerant
and forgiving. A katriya, however, is highly qualified when he is fierce in
giving punishment to wrongdoers. These qualities are stated in Bhagavadgt (18.42-43). Because Satyavat, instead of eating her own oblation, had
eaten that which was meant for her mother, she would give birth to a son
imbued with the katriya spirit. This was undesirable. The son of a
brhmaa is generally expected to become a brhmaa, but if such a son
becomes fierce like a katriya, he is designated according to the
description of the four varas in Bhagavad-gt (ctur-varya may
sa gua-karma-vibhgaa [Bg. 4.13]). If the son of a brhmaa does
not become like a brhmaa, he may be called a katriya, vaiya or dra,
according to his qualifications. The basic principle for dividing society is
not a person's birth but his qualities and actions.
prasdita satyavaty
maiva bhr iti bhrgava
atha tarhi bhavet pautro
jamadagnis tato 'bhavat
prasditapacified; satyavatyby Satyavat; mnot; evamthus;
bhlet it be; itithus; bhrgavathe great sage; athaif your son
should not become like that; tarhithen; bhavetshould become like
that; pautrathe grandson; jamadagniJamadagni; tatathereafter;
abhavatwas born.
Satyavat, however, pacified cka Muni with peaceful words and


requested that her son not be like a fierce katriya. cka Muni replied,
"Then your grandson will be of a katriya spirit." Thus Jamadagni was
born as the son of Satyavat.
The great sage cka was very angry, but somehow or other Satyavat
pacified him, and at her request he changed his mind. It is indicated here
that the son of Jamadagni would be born as Paraurma.
TEXTS 12-13
s cbht sumahat-puy
kauik loka-pvan
reo sut reuk vai
jamadagnir uvha ym
tasy vai bhrgava-e
sut vasumad-daya
yavy jaja ete
rma ity abhiviruta
sshe (Satyavat); caalso; abhtbecame; sumahat-puyvery great
and sacred; kauikthe river by the name Kauik; loka-pvan
purifying the whole world; reoof Reu; sutmthe daughter;
reukmby the name Reuk; vaiindeed; jamadagniSatyavat's
son, Jamadagni; uvhamarried; ymwhom; tasymin the womb of
Reuk; vaiindeed; bhrgava-eby the semen of Jamadagni; sut
sons; vasumat-dayamany, headed by Vasumn; yavynthe
youngest; jajewas born; etemamong them; rmaParaurma;
itithus; abhivirutawas known everywhere.
Satyavat later became the sacred river Kauik to purify the entire
world, and her son, Jamadagni, married Reuk, the daughter of Reu.
By the semen of Jamadagni, many sons, headed by Vasumn, were born
from the womb of Reuk. The youngest of them was named Rma, or
yam hur vsudeva
haihayn kulntakam
tri-sapta-ktvo ya im


cakre nikatriy mahm

yamwhom (Paraurma); huall the learned scholars say; vsudevaaaman incarnation of Vsudeva, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; haihaynmof the Haihayas; kula-antakamthe annihilator
of the dynasty; tri-sapta-ktvatwenty-one times; yawho
(Paraurma); immthis; cakremade; nikatriymdevoid of
katriyas; mahmthe earth.
Learned scholars accept this Paraurma as the celebrated incarnation
of Vsudeva who annihilated the dynasty of Krtavrya. Paraurma
killed all the katriyas on earth twenty-one times.
dpta katra bhuvo bhram
abrahmayam annaat
rajas-tamo-vtam ahan
phalguny api kte 'hasi
dptamvery proud; katramthe katriyas, the ruling class; bhuvaof
the earth; bhramburden; abrahmayamsinful, not caring for the
religious principles enunciated by the brhmaas; annaatdrove away
or annihilated; raja-tamaby the qualities of passion and ignorance;
vtamcovered; ahanhe killed; phalguninot very great; api
although; ktehad been committed; ahasian offense.
When the royal dynasty, being excessively proud because of the
material modes of passion and ignorance, became irreligious and ceased
to care for the laws enacted by the brhmaas, Paraurma killed them.
Although their offense was not very severe, he killed them to lessen the
burden of the world.
The katriyas, or the ruling class, must govern the world in accordance
with the rules and regulations enacted by great brhmaas and saintly
persons. As soon as the ruling class becomes irresponsible in regard to the
religious principles, it becomes a burden on the earth. As stated here,
rajas-tamo-vta, bhram abrahmayam: when the ruling class is
influenced by the lower modes of nature, namely ignorance and passion,
it becomes a burden to the world and must then be annihilated by


superior power. We actually see from modern history that monarchies

have been abolished by various revolutions, but unfortunately the
monarchies have been abolished to establish the supremacy of third-class
and fourth-class men. Although monarchies overpowered by the modes of
passion and ignorance have been abolished in the world, the inhabitants
of the world are still unhappy, for although the qualities of the former
monarchs were degraded by taints of ignorance, these monarchs have
been replaced by men of the mercantile and worker classes whose
qualities are even more degraded. When the government is actually
guided by brhmaas, or God conscious men, then there can be real
happiness for the people. Therefore in previous times, when the ruling
class was degraded to the modes of passion and ignorance, the brhmaas,
headed by such a katriya-spirited brhmaa as Paraurma, killed them
twenty-one consecutive times.
In Kali-yuga, as stated in rmad-Bhgavatam (12.2.13), dasyu-pryeu
rjasu: the ruling class (rjanya) will be no better than plunderers
(dasyus) because the third-class and fourth-class men will monopolize the
affairs of the government. Ignoring the religious principles and
brahminical rules and regulations, they will certainly try to plunder the
riches of the citizens without consideration. As stated elsewhere in
rmad-Bhgavatam (12.1.40):
asaskt kriy-hn
rajas tamasvt
prajs te bhakayiyanti
mlecch rjanya-rpia
Being unpurified, neglecting to discharge human duties properly, and
being influenced by the modes of passion (rajas) and ignorance (tamas),
unclean people (mlecchas), posing as members of the government
(rjanya-rpia), will swallow the citizens (prjas te bhakayiyanti).
And in still another place, rmad-Bhgavatam (12.2.7-8) says:
eva prajbhir dubhir
kre kiti-maale
yo bal bhavit npa


praj hi lubdhai rjanyair

nirghair dasyu-dharmabhi
ysyanti giri-knanam
Human society is naturally grouped into four divisions, as stated in
Bhagavad-gt (ctur-varya may sa gua-karma-vibhgaa [Bg.
4.13]). But if this system is neglected and the qualities and divisions of
society are not considered, the result will be brahma-vi-katra-dr
yo bal bhavit npa: the so-called caste system of brhmaa, katriya,
vaiya and dra will be meaningless. As a result, whoever somehow or
other becomes powerful will be the king or president, and thus the prajs,
or citizens, will be so harassed that they will give up hearth and home and
will go to the forest (ysyanti giri-knanam) to escape harassment by
government officials who have no mercy and are addicted to the ways of
plunderers. Therefore the prajs, or the people in general, must take to
the Ka consciousness movement, the Hare Ka movement, which is
the sound incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kali-kle
nma-rpe ka-avatra: Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has
now appeared as an incarnation by His holy name. Therefore, when the
prajs become Ka conscious, they can then expect a good government
and good society, a perfect life, and liberation from the bondage of
material existence.
ki tad aho bhagavato
rjanyair ajittmabhi
kta yena kula naa
katriym abhkaa
r-rj uvcaMahrja Parkit inquired; kimwhat; tat ahathat
offense; bhagavataunto the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
rjanyaiby the royal family; ajita-tmabhiwho could not control
their senses and thus were degraded; ktamwhich had been done;
yenaby which; kulamthe dynasty; naamwas annihilated;
katriymof the royal family; abhkaaagain and again.
King Parkit inquired from ukadeva Gosvm: What was the offense


that the katriyas who could not control their senses committed before
Lord Paraurma, the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, for which the Lord annihilated the katriya dynasty again and
TEXTS 17-19
r-bdaryair uvca
haihaynm adhipatir
arjuna katriyarabha
datta nryaam
rdhya parikarmabhi
bhn daa-ata lebhe
durdharatvam artiu
avyhatendriyauja rtejo-vrya-yao-balam
yogevaratvam aivarya
gu yatrimdaya
lokeu pavano yath
r-bdaryai uvcar ukadeva Gosvm replied; haihaynm
adhipatithe King of the Haihayas; arjunaby the name
Krtavryrjuna; katriya-abhathe best of the katriyas; dattamunto
Datttreya; nryaa-aa-aamthe plenary portion of the plenary
portion of Nryaa; rdhyaafter worshiping; parikarmabhiby
worship according to the regulative principles; bhnarms; daaatamone thousand (ten times one hundred); lebheachieved;
durdharatvamthe quality of being very difficult to conquer; artiuin
the midst of enemies; avyhataundefeatable; indriya-ojastrength of
the senses; rbeauty; tejainfluence; vryapower; yaafame;
balambodily strength; yoga-varatvamcontrolling power gained by
the practice of mystic yoga; aivaryamopulence; guqualities;
yatrawherein; aim-dayaeight kinds of yogic perfection (aim,
laghim, etc.); cacrahe went; avyhata-gatiwhose progress was
indefatigable; lokeuall over the world or universe; pavanathe wind;


ukadeva Gosvm said: The best of the katriyas, Krtavryrjuna, the

King of the Haihayas, received one thousand arms by worshiping
Datttreya, the plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Nryaa. He also became undefeatable by enemies and
received unobstructed sensory power, beauty, influence, strength, fame
and the mystic power by which to achieve all the perfections of yoga,
such as aim and laghim. Thus having become fully opulent, he
roamed all over the universe without opposition, just like the wind.
str-ratnair vta kran
revmbhasi madotkaa
vaijayant sraja bibhrad
rurodha sarita bhujai
str-ratnaiby beautiful women; vtasurrounded; kranenjoying;
rev-ambhasiin the water of the River Rev, or Narmad; madautkaatoo puffed up because of opulence; vaijayantm srajamthe
garland of victory; bibhratbeing decorated with; rurodhastopped the
flow; saritamof the river; bhujaiwith his arms.
Once while enjoying in the water of the River Narmad, the puffed-up
Krtavryrjuna, surrounded by beautiful women and garlanded with a
garland of victory, stopped the flow of the water with his arms.
viplvita sva-ibira
nmyat tasya tad vrya
vramn danana
viplvitamhaving been inundated; sva-ibiramhis own camp;
pratisrotawhich was flowing in the opposite direction; sarit-jalaiby
the water of the river; nanot; amyatcould tolerate; tasyaof
Krtavryrjuna; tat vryamthat influence; vramnconsidering
himself very heroic; daa-nanathe ten-headed Rvaa.
Because Krtavryrjuna made the water flow in the opposite direction,


the camp of Rvaa, which was set up on the bank of the Narmad near
the city of Mhimat, was inundated. This was unbearable to the tenheaded Rvaa, who considered himself a great hero and could not
tolerate Krtavryrjuna's power.
Rvaa was out touring to gain victory over all other countries (digvijaya), and he had camped on the bank of the Narmad River near the
city of Mhimat.
ghto llay str
samaka kta-kilbia
mhimaty sanniruddho
mukto yena kapir yath
ghtawas arrested by force; llayvery easily; strmof the
women; samakamin the presence; kta-kilbiathus becoming an
offender; mhimatymin the city known as Mhimat; sanniruddha
was arrested; muktareleased; yenaby whom (Krtavryrjuna); kapi
yathexactly as done to a monkey.
When Rvaa attempted to insult Krtavryrjuna in the presence of the
women and thus offended him, Krtavryrjuna easily arrested Rvaa
and put him in custody in the city of Mhimat, just as one captures a
monkey, and then released him neglectfully.
sa ekad tu mgay
vicaran vijane vane
jamadagner upviat
sahe, Krtavryrjuna; ekadonce upon a time; tubut; mgaym
while hunting; vicaranwandering; vijanesolitary; vanein a forest;
yadcchaywithout any program; rama-padamthe residential place;
jamadagneof Jamadagni Muni; upviathe entered.
Once while Krtavryrjuna was wandering unengaged in a solitary
forest and hunting, he approached the residence of Jamadagni.


Krtavryrjuna had no business going to the residence of Jamadagni, but

because he was puffed-up by his extraordinary power, he went there and
offended Paraurma. This was the prelude to his being killed by
Paraurma for his offensive act.
tasmai sa naradevya
munir arhaam harat
havimaty tapo-dhana
tasmaiunto him; sahe (Jamadagni); naradevyaunto King
Krtavryrjuna; munithe great sage; arhaamparaphernalia for
worship; haratoffered; sa-sainyawith his soldiers; amtyahis
ministers; vhyaand the chariots, the elephants, the horses or the men
who carried the palanquins; havimatybecause of possessing a
kmadhenu, a cow that could supply everything; tapa-dhanathe great
sage, whose only power was his austerity, or who was engaged in
The sage Jamadagni, who was engaged in great austerities in the forest,
received the King very well, along with the King's soldiers, ministers
and carriers. He supplied all the necessities to worship these guests, for
he possessed a kmadhenu cow that was able to supply everything.
The Brahma-sahit informs us that the spiritual world, and especially
the planet Goloka Vndvana, where Ka lives, is full of surabhi cows
(surabhr abhiplayantam [Bs. 5.29]). The surabhi cow is also called
kmadhenu. Although Jamadagni possessed only one kmadhenu, he was
able to get from it everything desirable. Thus he was able to receive the
King, along with the King's great number of followers, ministers, soldiers,
animals and palanquin carriers. When we speak of a king, we understand
that he is accompanied by many followers. Jamadagni was able to receive
all the King's followers properly and feed them sumptuously with food
prepared in ghee. The King was astonished at how opulent Jamadagni was
because of possessing only one cow, and therefore he became envious of
the great sage. This was the beginning of his offense. Paraurma, the
incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, killed
Krtavryrjuna because Krtavryrjuna was too proud. One may possess


unusual opulence in this material world, but if one becomes puffed up

and acts whimsically he will be punished by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. This is the lesson to learn from this history, in which
Paraurma became angry at Krtavryrjuna and killed him and rid the
entire world of katriyas twenty-one times.
sa vai ratna tu tad dv
tan ndriyatgnihotry
sbhila sahaihaya
sahe (Krtavryrjuna); vaiindeed; ratnama great source of wealth;
tuindeed; tatthe kmadhenu in the possession of Jamadagni; dv
by observing; tma-aivaryahis own personal opulence; ati-yanam
which was exceeding; tatthat; nanot; driyataappreciated very
much; agnihotrymin that cow, which was useful for executing the
agnihotra sacrifice; sa-abhilabecame desirous; sa-haihayawith his
own men, the Haihayas.
Krtavryrjuna thought that Jamadagni was more powerful and wealthy
than himself because of possessing a jewel in the form of the
kmadhenu. Therefore he and his own men, the Haihayas, were not
very much appreciative of Jamadagni's reception. On the contrary, they
wanted to possess that kmadhenu, which was useful for the execution
of the agnihotra sacrifice.
Jamadagni was more powerful than Krtavryrjuna because of
performing the agnihotra-yaja with clarified butter received from the
kmadhenu. Not everyone can be expected to possess such a cow.
Nonetheless, an ordinary man may possess an ordinary cow, give
protection to this animal, take sufficient milk from it, and engage the milk
to produce butter and clarified ghee, especially for performing the
agnihotra-yaja. This is possible for everyone. Thus we find that in
Bhagavad-gt Lord Ka advises go-rakya, the protection of cows. This
is essential because if cows are cared for properly they will surely supply
sufficient milk. We have practical experience in America that in our
various ISKCON farms we are giving proper protection to the cows and
receiving more than enough milk. In other farms the cows do not deliver


as much milk as in our farms; because our cows know very well that we
are not going to kill them, they are happy, and they give ample milk.
Therefore this instruction given by Lord Kago-rakyais extremely
meaningful. The whole world must learn from Ka how to live happily
without scarcity simply by producing food grains (annd bhavanti bhtni
[Bg. 3.14]) and giving protection to the cows (go-rakya). Ki-go-rakyavijya vaiya-karma svabhvajam [Bg. 18.44]. Those who belong to the
third level of human society, namely the mercantile people, must keep
land for producing food grains and giving protection to cows. This is the
injunction of Bhagavad-gt. In the matter of protecting the cows, the
meat-eaters will protest, but in answer to them we may say that since
Ka gives stress to cow protection, those who are inclined to eat meat
may eat the flesh of unimportant animals like hogs, dogs, goats and sheep,
but they should not touch the life of the cows, for this is destructive to the
spiritual advancement of human society.
havirdhnm er darpn
narn hartum acodayat
te ca mhimat ninyu
sa-vats krandat balt
havi-dhnmthe kmadhenu; eof the great sage Jamadagni;
darptbecause of his being puffed up with material power; narnall
his men (soldiers); hartumto steal or take away; acodayatencouraged;
tethe men of Krtavryrjuna; caalso; mhimatmto the capital of
Krtavryrjuna; ninyubrought; sa-vatsmwith the calf; krandatm
crying; baltbecause of being taken away by force.
Being puffed up by material power, Krtavryrjuna encouraged his men
to steal Jamadagni's kmadhenu. Thus the men forcibly took away the
crying kmadhenu, along with her calf, to Mhimat, Krtavryrjuna's
The word havirdhnm is significant in this verse. Havirdhnm refers to a
cow required for supplying havis, or ghee, for the performance of
ritualistic ceremonies in sacrifices. In human life, one should be trained to
perform yajas. As we are informed in Bhagavad-gt (3.9), yajrtht
karmao 'nyatra loko 'ya karma-bandhana: if we do not perform yaja,


we shall simply work very hard for sense gratification like dogs and hogs.
This is not civilization. A human being should be trained to perform
yaja. Yajd bhavati parjanya [Bg. 3.14]. If yajas are regularly
performed, there will be proper rain from the sky, and when there is
regular rainfall, the land will be fertile and suitable for producing all the
necessities of life. Yaja, therefore, is essential. For performing yaja,
clarified butter is essential, and for clarified butter, cow protection is
essential. Therefore, if we neglect the Vedic way of civilization, we shall
certainly suffer. So-called scholars and philosophers do not know the
secret of success in life, and therefore they suffer in the hands of prakti,
nature (prakte kriyamni guai karmi sarvaa [Bg. 3.27]).
Nonetheless, although they are forced to suffer, they think they are
advancing in civilization (ahakra-vimhtm kartham iti manyate).
The Ka consciousness movement is therefore meant to revive a mode
of civilization in which everyone will be happy. This is the motive of our
Ka consciousness movement. Yaje sukhena bhavantu.
atha rjani niryte
rma rama gata
rutv tat tasya daurtmya
cukrodhhir ivhata
athathereafter; rjaniwhen the King; nirytehad gone away;
rmaParaurma, the youngest son of Jamadagni; ramein the
cottage; gatareturned; rutvwhen he heard; tatthat; tasyaof
extremely angry; ahia snake; ivalike; hatatrampled or injured.
Thereafter, Krtavryrjuna having left with the kmadhenu,
Paraurma returned to the rama. When Paraurma, the youngest
son of Jamadagni, heard about Krtavryrjuna's nefarious deed, he
became as angry as a trampled snake.
ghoram dya parau
sata varma krmukam
anvadhvata durmaro


mgendra iva ythapam

ghoramextremely fierce; dyataking in hand; parauma chopper;
sa-tamalong with a quiver; varmaa shield; krmukama bow;
anvadhvatafollowed; durmaraLord Paraurma, being exceedingly
angry; mgendraa lion; ivalike; ythapam(goes to attack) an
Taking up his fierce chopper, his shield, his bow and a quiver of
arrows, Lord Paraurma, exceedingly angry, chased Krtavryrjuna
just as a lion chases an elephant.
tam patanta bhgu-varyam ojas
dhanur-dhara ba-paravadhyudham
aieya-carmmbaram arka-dhmabhir
yuta jabhir dade pur vian
tamthat Lord Paraurma; patantamcoming after him; bhguvaryamthe best of the Bhgu dynasty, Lord Paraurma; ojasvery
fiercely; dhanu-dharamcarrying a bow; baarrows; paravadha
chopper; yudhamhaving all these weapons; aieya-carmablackish
deerskin; ambaramthe covering of his body; arka-dhmabhi
appearing like the sunshine; yutam jabhiwith locks of hair; dade
he saw; purminto the capital; vianentering.
As King Krtavryrjuna entered his capital, Mhimat Pur, he saw
Lord Paraurma, the best of the Bhgu dynasty, coming after him,
holding a chopper, shield, bow and arrows. Lord Paraurma was
covered with a black deerskin, and his matted locks of hair appeared
like the sunshine.
acodayad dhasti-rathva-pattibhir
akauhi sapta-datibhas
t rma eko bhagavn asdayat


acodayathe sent for fighting; hastiwith elephants; rathawith

chariots; avawith horses; pattibhiand with infantry; gadwith
clubs; asiwith swords; bawith arrows; iwith the weapons
called is; ataghniwith weapons called ataghnis; aktibhiwith
weapons called aktis; akauhiwhole groups of akauhis; saptadaaseventeen; ati-bhavery fierce; tall of them; rma
Lord Paraurma; ekaalone; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of
Godhead; asdayatkilled.
Upon seeing Paraurma, Krtavryrjuna immediately feared him and
sent many elephants, chariots, horses and infantry soldiers equipped
with clubs, swords, arrows, is, ataghnis, aktis, and many similar
weapons to fight against him. Krtavryrjuna sent seventeen full
akauhis of soldiers to check Paraurma. But Lord Paraurma alone
killed all of them.
The word akauhi refers to a military phalanx consisting of 21,870
chariots and elephants, 109,350 infantry soldiers and 65,610 horses. An
exact description is given in the Mahbhrata, di parva, Second Chapter,
as follows:
eko ratho gaja caika
nar paca padtaya
traya ca turags taj-jai
pattir ity abhidhyate
patti tu trigum et
vidu senmukha budh
tri senmukhny eko
gulma ity adhidhyate
trayo gulm gao nma
vhin tu gas traya
ruts tisras tu vhinya
ptaneti vicakaai
cams tu ptans tisra
cavas tisras tv ankin


ankin daa-gum
hur akauhi budh
akauhiyas tu sakhyt
rathn dvija-sattam
sahasry eka-viati
atny upari cau ca
bhyas tath ca saptati
gajn tu parma
tvad evtra nirdiet
jeya ata-sahasra tu
sahasri tath nava
narm adhi pacac
chatni tri cnagh
tathvn atni ca
daottari a chur
yathvad abhisakhyay
etm akauhi prhu
sakhy-tattva-vido jan
"One chariot, one elephant, five infantry soldiers and three horses are
called a patti by those who are learned in the science. The wise also know
that a senmukha is three times what a patti is. Three senmukhas are
known as one gulma, three gulmas are called a gaa, and three gaas are
called a vhin. Three vhins have been referred to by the learned as a
ptan, three ptans equal one cam, and three cams equal one ankin.
The wise refer to ten ankins as one akauhi. The chariots of an
akauhi have been calculated at 21,870 by those who know the science
of such calculations, O best of the twice-born, and the number of
elephants is the same. The number of infantry soldiers is 109,350, and the
number of horses is 65,610. This is called an akauhi."


yato yato 'sau praharat-paravadho
mano-'nilauj para-cakra-sdana
tatas tata chinna-bhujoru-kandhar
nipetur urvy hata-sta-vhan
yatawherever; yatawherever; asauLord Paraurma; praharat
slashing; paravadhabeing expert in using his weapon, the parau, or
chopper; manalike the mind; anilalike the wind; ojbeing
forceful; para-cakraof the enemies' military strength; sdanakiller;
tatathere; tataand there; chinnascattered and cut off; bhuja
arms; rulegs; kandharshoulders; nipetufell down; urvymon
the ground; hatakilled; stachariot drivers; vhancarrier horses
and elephants.
Lord Paraurma, being expert in killing the military strength of the
enemy, worked with the speed of the mind and the wind, slicing his
enemies with his chopper [parau]. Wherever he went, the enemies fell,
their legs, arms and shoulders being severed, their chariot drivers
killed, and their carriers, the elephants and horses all annihilated.
In the beginning, when the army of the enemy was full of fighting
soldiers, elephants and horses, Lord Paraurma proceeded into their
midst at the speed of mind to kill them. When somewhat tired, he slowed
down to the speed of wind and continued to kill the enemies vigorously.
The speed of mind is greater than the speed of the wind.
dv sva-sainya rudhiraugha-kardame
rajire rma-kuhra-syakai
niptita haihaya patad ru
dvby seeing; sva-sainyamhis own soldiers; rudhira-oghakardamewhich had become muddy due to the flow of blood; raaajireon the battlefield; rma-kuhraby the axe of Lord Paraurma;
syakaiand by the arrows; vivkascattered; varmathe shields;
dhvajathe flags; cpabows; vigrahamthe bodies; niptitamfallen;
haihayaKrtavryrjuna; patatforcefully came there; rubeing


very angry.
By manipulating his axe and arrows, Lord Paraurma cut to pieces the
shields, flags, bows and bodies of Krtavryrjuna's soldiers, who fell on
the battlefield, muddying the ground with their blood. Seeing these
reverses, Krtavryrjuna, infuriated, rushed to the battlefield.
athrjuna paca-ateu bhubhir
dhanuu bn yugapat sa sandadhe
rmya rmo 'stra-bht samagras
tny eka-dhanveubhir cchinat samam
athathereafter; arjunaKrtavryrjuna; paca-ateufive hundred;
bhubhiwith his arms; dhanuuon the bows; bnarrows;
yugapatsimultaneously; sahe; sandadhefixed; rmyajust to kill
Lord Paraurma; rmaLord Paraurma; astra-bhtmof all the
soldiers who could use weapons; samagrathe very best; tniall the
bows of Krtavryrjuna; eka-dhanvpossessing one bow; iubhithe
arrows; cchinatcut to pieces; samamwith.
Then Krtavryrjuna, with his one thousand arms, simultaneously
fixed arrows on five hundred bows to kill Lord Paraurma. But Lord
Paraurma, the best of fighters, released enough arrows with only one
bow to cut to pieces immediately all the arrows and bows in the hands
of Krtavryrjuna.
puna sva-hastair acaln mdhe 'ghripn
utkipya vegd abhidhvato yudhi
bhujn kuhrea kahora-nemin
ciccheda rma prasabha tv aher iva
punaagain; sva-hastaiby his own hands; acalnhills; mdhein
the battlefield; aghripntrees; utkipyaafter uprooting; vegtwith
great force; abhidhvataof he who was running very forcefully; yudhi
in the battlefield; bhujnall the arms; kuhreaby his axe; kahoraneminwhich was very sharp; cicchedacut to pieces; rmaLord


Paraurma; prasabhamwith great force; tubut; ahe ivajust like the

hoods of a serpent.
When his arrows were cut to pieces, Krtavryrjuna uprooted many
trees and hills with his own hands and again rushed strongly toward
Lord Paraurma to kill him. But Paraurma then used his axe with
great force to cut off Krtavryrjuna's arms, just as one might lop off
the hoods of a serpent.
TEXTS 35-36
ktta-bho iras tasya
gire gam ivharat
hate pitari tat-putr
ayuta dudruvur bhayt
agnihotrm upvartya
savats para-vra-h
samupetyrama pitre
parikli samarpayat
ktta-bhoof Krtavryrjuna, whose arms were cut off; irathe
head; tasyaof him (Krtavryrjuna); gireof a mountain; gam
the peak; ivalike; harat(Paraurma) cut from his body; hate pitari
when their father was killed; tat-putrhis sons; ayutamten thousand;
dudruvufled; bhaytout of fear; agnihotrmthe kmadhenu;
upvartyabringing near; sa-vatsmwith her calf; para-vra-h
Paraurma, who could kill the heroes of the enemies; samupetyaafter
returning; ramamto the residence of his father; pitreunto his father;
pariklimwhich had undergone extreme suffering; samarpayat
Thereafter, Paraurma cut off like a mountain peak the head of
Krtavryrjuna, who had already lost his arms. When Krtavryrjuna's
ten thousand sons saw their father killed, they all fled in fear. Then
Paraurma, having killed the enemy, released the kmadhenu, which
had undergone great suffering, and brought it back with its calf to his
residence, where he gave it to his father, Jamadagni.


sva-karma tat kta rma
pitre bhrtbhya eva ca
varaym sa tac chrutv
jamadagnir abhata
sva-karmahis own activities; tatall those deeds; ktamwhich had
been performed; rmaParaurma; pitreunto his father;
bhrtbhyaunto his brothers; eva caas well as; varaym sa
described; tatthat; rutvafter hearing; jamadagnithe father of
Paraurma; abhatasaid as follows.
Paraurma described to his father and brothers his activities in killing
Krtavryrjuna. Upon hearing of these deeds, Jamadagni spoke to his
son as follows.
rma rma mahbho
bhavn ppam akrat
avadhn naradeva yat
sarva-devamaya vth
rma rmamy dear son Paraurma; mahbhoO great hero; bhavn
you; ppamsinful activities; akrathave executed; avadhthave
killed; naradevamthe king; yatwho is; sarva-deva-mayamthe
embodiment of all the demigods; vthunnecessarily.
O great hero, my dear son Paraurma, you have unnecessarily killed
the king, who is supposed to be the embodiment of all the demigods.
Thus you have committed a sin.
vaya hi brhmas tta
kamayrhaat gat
yay loka-gurur deva
pramehyam agt padam
vayamwe; hiindeed; brhmaare qualified brhmaas; ttaO


my dear son; kamaywith the quality of forgiveness; arhaatmthe

position of being worshiped; gatwe have achieved; yayby this
qualification; loka-guruthe spiritual master of this universe; deva
Lord Brahm; pramehyamthe supreme person within this universe;
agtachieved; padamthe position.
My dear son, we are all brhmaas and have become worshipable for
the people in general because of our quality of forgiveness. It is because
of this quality that Lord Brahm, the supreme spiritual master of this
universe, has achieved his post.
kamay rocate lakmr
brhm saur yath prabh
kamim u bhagavs
tuyate harir vara
kamaysimply by forgiving; rocatebecomes pleasing; lakmthe
goddess of fortune; brhmin connection with brahminical
qualifications; saurthe sun-god; yathas; prabhthe sunshine;
kamimunto the brhmaas, who are so forgiving; uvery soon;
bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of Godhead; tuyatebecomes
pleased; harithe Lord; varathe supreme controller.
The duty of a brhmaa is to culture the quality of forgiveness, which is
illuminating like the sun. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, is
pleased with those who are forgiving.
Different personalities become beautiful by possessing different qualities.
Cakya Paita says that the cuckoo bird, although very black, is
beautiful because of its sweet voice. Similarly, a woman becomes beautiful
by her chastity and faithfulness to her husband, and an ugly person
becomes beautiful when he becomes a learned scholar. In the same way,
brhmaas, katriyas, vaiyas and dras become beautiful by their
qualities. Brhmaas are beautiful when they are forgiving, katriyas when
they are heroic and never retreat from fighting, vaiyas when they enrich
cultural activities and protect cows, and dras when they are faithful in
the discharge of duties pleasing to their masters. Thus everyone becomes


beautiful by his special qualities. And the special quality of the brhmaa,
as described here, is forgiveness.
rjo mrdhbhiiktasya
vadho brahma-vadhd guru
trtha-sasevay cho
jahy agcyuta-cetana
rjaof the king; mrdha-abhiiktasyawho is noted as the emperor;
vadhathe killing; brahma-vadhtthan killing a brhmaa; guru
more severe; trtha-sasevayby worshiping the holy places; caalso;
ahathe sinful act; jahiwash out; agaO my dear son; acyutacetanabeing fully Ka conscious.
My dear son, killing a king who is an emperor is more severely sinful
than killing a brhmaa. But now, if you become Ka conscious and
worship the holy places, you can atone for this great sin.
One who fully surrenders to the Supreme Personality of Godhead is freed
from all sins (aha tv sarva-ppebhyo mokayiymi [Bg. 18.66]). From
the very day or moment he fully surrenders to r Ka, even the most
sinful person is freed. Nonetheless, as an example, Jamadagni advised his
son Paraurma to worship the holy places. Because an ordinary person
cannot immediately surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he
is advised to go from one holy place to another to find saintly persons and
thus gradually be released from sinful reactions.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Fifteenth Chapter,
of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "Paraurma, the Lord's Warrior


16. Lord Paraurma Destroys the World's Ruling Class

When Jamadagni was killed by the sons of Krtavryrjuna, as described

in this chapter, Paraurma rid the entire world of katriyas twenty-one
times. This chapter also describes the descendants of Vivmitra.
When Jamadagni's wife, Reuk, went to bring water from the Ganges
and saw the King of the Gandharvas enjoying the company of Apsars,
she was captivated, and she slightly desired to associate with him. Because
of this sinful desire, she was punished by her husband. Paraurma killed
his mother and brothers, but later, by dint of the austerities of Jamadagni,
they were revived. The sons of Krtavryrjuna, however, remembering
the death of their father, wanted to take revenge against Lord Paraurma,
and therefore when Paraurma was absent from the rama, they killed
Jamadagni, who was meditating on the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
When Paraurma returned to the rama and saw his father killed, he
was very sorry, and after asking his brothers to take care of the dead body,
he went out with determination to kill all the katriyas on the surface of
the world. Taking up his axe, he went to Mhimat-pura, the capital of
Krtavryrjuna, and killed all of Krtavryrjuna's sons, whose blood
became a great river. Paraurma, however, was not satisfied with killing
only the sons of Krtavryrjuna; later, when the katriyas became
disturbing, he killed them twenty-one times, so that there were no
katriyas on the surface of the earth. Thereafter, Paraurma joined the
head of his father to the dead body and performed various sacrifices to
please the Supreme Lord. Thus Jamadagni got life again in his body, and
later he was promoted to the higher planetary system known as Saptarimaala. Paraurma, the son of Jamadagni, still lives in Mahendraparvata. In the next manvantara, he will become a preacher of Vedic
In the dynasty of Gdhi, the most powerful Vivmitra took birth. By dint
of his austerity and penance, he became a brhmaa. He had 101 sons,
who were celebrated as the Madhucchands. In the sacrificial arena of
Haricandra, the son of Ajgarta named unaepha was meant to be
sacrificed, but by the mercy of the Prajpatis he was released. Thereafter,


he became Devarta in the dynasty of Gdhi. The fifty elder sons of

Vivmitra, however, did not accept unaepha as their elder brother,
and therefore Vivmitra cursed them to become mlecchas, unfaithful to
the Vedic civilization. Vivmitra's fifty-first son, along with his younger
brothers, then accepted unaepha as their eldest brother, and their
father, Vivmitra, being satisfied, blessed them. Thus Devarta was
accepted in the dynasty of Kauika, and consequently there are different
divisions of that dynasty.
r-uka uvca
pitropaikito rmas
tatheti kuru-nandana
savatsara trtha-ytr
caritvramam vrajat
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; pitrby his father;
upaikitathus advised; rmaLord Paraurma; tath itilet it be
so; kuru-nandanaO son of the Kuru dynasty, Mahrja Parkit;
savatsaramfor one complete year; trtha-ytrmtraveling to all the
holy places; caritvafter executing; ramamto his own residence;
ukadeva Gosvm said: My dear Mahrja Parkit, son of the Kuru
dynasty, when Lord Paraurma was given this order by his father, he
immediately agreed, saying, "Let it be so." For one complete year he
traveled to holy places. Then he returned to his father's residence.
kadcid reuk yt
gagy padma-mlinam
gandharva-rja krantam
apsarobhir apayata
kadcitonce upon a time; reukJamadagni's wife, the mother of Lord
Paraurma; ytwent; gagymto the bank of the River Ganges;
padma-mlinamdecorated with a garland of lotus flowers; gandharvarjamthe King of the Gandharvas; krantamsporting; apsarobhi
with the Apsars (heavenly society girls); apayatashe saw.


Once when Reuk, the wife of Jamadagni, went to the bank of the
Ganges to get water, she saw the King of the Gandharvas, decorated
with a garland of lotuses and sporting in the Ganges with celestial
women [Apsars].
vilokayant krantam
udakrtha nad gat
homa-vel na sasmra
kicic citraratha-sph
vilokayantwhile looking at; krantamthe King of the Gandharvas,
engaged in such activities; udaka-arthamfor getting some water;
nadmto the river; gatas she went; homa-velmthe time for
performing the homa, fire sacrifice; na sasmradid not remember;
kicitvery little; citrarathaof the King of the Gandharvas, known as
Citraratha; sphdid desire the company.
She had gone to bring water from the Ganges, but when she saw
Citraratha, the King of the Gandharvas, sporting with the celestial girls,
she was somewhat inclined toward him and failed to remember that the
time for the fire sacrifice was passing.
kltyaya ta vilokya
mune pa-viakit
gatya kalaa tasthau
purodhya ktjali
kla-atyayampassing the time; tamthat; vilokyaobserving; mune
of the great sage Jamadagni; pa-viakitbeing afraid of the curse;
gatyareturning; kalaamthe waterpot; tasthaustood; purodhya
putting in front of the sage; kta-ajaliwith folded hands.
Later, understanding that the time for offering the sacrifice had passed,
Reuk feared a curse from her husband. Therefore when she returned
she simply put the waterpot before him and stood there with folded


vyabhicra munir jtv
patny prakupito 'bravt
ghnatain putrak ppm
ity ukts te na cakrire
vyabhicramadultery; munithe great sage Jamadagni; jtvcould
understand; patnyof his wife; prakupitahe became angry;
abravthe said; ghnatakill; enmher; putrakmy dear sons;
ppmsinful; iti uktbeing thus advised; teall the sons; nadid
not; cakrirecarry out his order.
The great sage Jamadagni understood the adultery in the mind of his
wife. Therefore he was very angry and told his sons, "My dear sons, kill
this sinful woman!" But the sons did not carry out his order.
rma sacodita pitr
bhrtn mtr sahvadht
prabhva-jo mune samyak
samdhes tapasa ca sa
rmaLord Paraurma; sacoditabeing encouraged (to kill his
mother and brothers); pitrby his father; bhrtnall his brothers;
mtr sahawith the mother; avadhtkilled immediately; prabhvajaaware of the prowess; muneof the great sage; samyak
completely; samdheby meditation; tapasaby austerity; caalso;
Jamadagni then ordered his youngest son, Paraurma, to kill his
brothers, who had disobeyed this order, and his mother, who had
mentally committed adultery. Lord Paraurma, knowing the power of
his father, who was practiced in meditation and austerity, killed his
mother and brothers immediately.
The word prabhva ja is significant. Paraurma knew the prowess of
his father, and therefore he agreed to carry out his father's order. He
thought that if he refused to carry out the order he would be cursed, but if
he carried it out his father would be pleased, and when his father was


pleased, Paraurma would ask the benediction of having his mother and
brothers brought back to life. Paraurma was confident in this regard,
and therefore he agreed to kill his mother and brothers.
varea cchandaym sa
prta satyavat-suta
vavre hatn rmo 'pi
jvita csmti vadhe
varea cchandaym saasked to take a benediction as he liked; prta
being very pleased (with him); satyavat-sutaJamadagni, the son of
Satyavat; vavresaid; hatnmof my dead mother and brothers;
rmaParaurma; apialso; jvitamlet them be alive; caalso;
asmtimno remembrance; vadheof their having been killed by me.
Jamadagni, the son of Satyavat, was very much pleased with
Paraurma and asked him to take any benediction he liked. Lord
Paraurma replied, "Let my mother and brothers live again and not
remember having been killed by me. This is the benediction I ask."
uttasthus te kualino
nidrpya ivjas
pitur vidvs tapo-vrya
rma cakre suhd-vadham
uttasthugot up immediately; teLord Paraurma's mother and
brothers; kualinabeing happily alive; nidr-apyeat the end of
sound sleep; ivalike; ajasvery soon; pituof his father; vidvn
being aware of; tapaausterity; vryampower; rmaLord
Paraurma; cakreexecuted; suht-vadhamkilling of his family
Thereafter, by the benediction of Jamadagni, Lord Paraurma's mother
and brothers immediately came alive and were very happy, as if
awakened from sound sleep. Lord Paraurma had killed his relatives in
accordance with his father's order because he was fully aware of his
father's power, austerity and learning.


ye 'rjunasya sut rjan
smaranta sva-pitur vadham
lebhire arma na kvacit
yethose who; arjunasyaof Krtavryrjuna; sutsons; rjanO
Mahrja Parkit; smarantaalways remembering; sva-pitu vadham
their father's having been killed (by Paraurma); rma-vryaparbhtdefeated by the superior power of Lord Paraurma;
lebhireachieved; armahappiness; nanot; kvacitat any time.
My dear King Parkit, the sons of Krtavryrjuna, who were defeated
by the superior strength of Paraurma, never achieved happiness, for
they always remembered the killing of their father.
Jamadagni was certainly very powerful due to his austerities, but because
of a slight offense by his poor wife, Reuk, he ordered that she be killed.
This certainly was a sinful act, and therefore Jamadagni was killed by the
sons of Krtavryrjuna, as described herein. Lord Paraurma was also
infected by sin because of killing Krtavryrjuna, although this was not
very offensive. Therefore, whether one be Krtavryrjuna, Lord
Paraurma, Jamadagni or whoever one may be, one must act very
cautiously and sagaciously; otherwise one must suffer the results of sinful
activities. This is the lesson we receive from Vedic literature.
ekadramato rme
sabhrtari vana gate
vaira sidhayiavo
labdha-cchidr upgaman
ekadonce upon a time; ramatafrom the rama of Jamadagni;
rmewhen Lord Paraurma; sa-bhrtariwith his brothers; vanam
into the forest; gatehaving gone; vairamrevenge for past enmity;
opportunity; upgamanthey came near the residence of Jamadagni.
Once when Paraurma left the rama for the forest with Vasumn and
his other brothers, the sons of Krtavryrjuna took the opportunity to


approach Jamadagni's residence to seek vengeance for their grudge.

dvgny-gra snam
veita-dhiya munim
bhagavaty uttamaloke
jaghnus te ppa-nicay
dvby seeing; agni-great the place where the fire sacrifice is
performed; snamsitting; veitacompletely absorbed; dhiyamby
intelligence; munimthe great sage Jamadagni; bhagavatiunto the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; uttama-lokewho is praised by the
best of selected prayers; jaghnukilled; tethe sons of Krtavryrjuna;
ppa-nicaydetermined to commit a greatly sinful act, or the
personified sins.
The sons of Krtavryrjuna were determined to commit sinful deeds.
Therefore when they saw Jamadagni sitting by the side of the fire to
perform yaja and meditating upon the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who is praised by the best of selected prayers, they took the
opportunity to kill him.
ycyamn kpaay
prasahya ira utktya
ninyus te katra-bandhava
ycyamnbeing begged for the life of her husband; kpaayby the
poor unprotected woman; rma-mtrby the mother of Lord
Paraurma; ati-druvery cruel; prasahyaby force; irathe head
of Jamadagni; utktyahaving separated; ninyutook away; tethe
sons of Krtavryrjuna; katra-bandhavanot katriyas, but the most
abominable sons of katriyas.
With pitiable prayers, Reuk, the mother of Paraurma and wife of
Jamadagni, begged for the life of her husband. But the sons of
Krtavryrjuna, being devoid of the qualities of katriyas, were so cruel


that despite her prayers they forcibly cut off his head and took it away.
reuk dukha-okrt
nighnanty tmnam tman
rma rmeti tteti
vicukrooccakai sat
reukReuk, the wife of Jamadagni; dukha-oka-artbeing very
much aggrieved in lamentation (over her husband's death); nighnant
striking; tmnamher own body; tmanby herself; rmaO
Paraurma; rmaO Paraurma; itithus; ttaO my dear son; iti
thus; vicukroabegan to cry; uccakaivery loudly; satthe most
chaste woman.
Lamenting in grief for the death of her husband, the most chaste
Reuk struck her own body with her hands and cried very loudly, "O
Rma, my dear son Rma!"
tad uparutya drasth
h rmety rtavat svanam
tvarayramam sdya
dadu pitara hatam
tatthat crying of Reuk; uparutyaupon hearing; dra-sth
although staying a long distance away; h rmaO Rma, O Rma; iti
thus; rta-vatvery aggrieved; svanamthe sound; tvarayvery hastily;
ramamto the residence of Jamadagni; sdyacoming; dadusaw;
pitaramthe father; hatamkilled.
Although the sons of Jamadagni, including Lord Paraurma, were a
long distance from home, as soon as they heard Reuk loudly calling
"O Rma, O my son," they hastily returned to the rama, where they
saw their father already killed.


te dukha-romarrtioka-vega-vimohit
h tta sdho dharmiha
tyaktvsmn svar-gato bhavn
teall the sons of Jamadagni; dukhaof grief; roaanger; amara
indignation; rtiaffliction; okaand lamentation; vegawith the
force; vimohitbewildered; h ttaO father; sdhothe great saint;
dharmihathe most religious person; tyaktvleaving; asmnus;
sva-gatahave gone to the heavenly planets; bhavnyou.
Virtually bewildered by grief, anger, indignation, affliction and
lamentation, the sons of Jamadagni cried, "O father, most religious,
saintly person, you have left us and gone to the heavenly planets !"
vilapyaiva pitur deha
nidhya bhrtu svayam
praghya parau rma
katrntya mano dadhe
vilapyalamenting; evamlike this; pituof his father; dehamthe
body; nidhyaentrusting; bhrtuto his brothers; svayam
personally; praghyataking; paraumthe axe; rmaLord
Paraurma; katra-antyato put an end to all the katriyas; manathe
mind; dadhefixed.
Thus lamenting, Lord Paraurma entrusted his father's dead body to
his brothers and personally took up his axe, having decided to put an
end to all the katriyas on the surface of the world.
gatv mhimat rmo
te sa rabh rjan
madhye cakre mah-girim
gatvgoing; mhimatmto the place known as Mhimat; rma


Lord Paraurma; brahma-ghnabecause of the killing of a brhmaa;

vihata-riyamdoomed, bereft of all opulences; temof all of them
(the sons of Krtavryrjuna and the other katriya inhabitants); sahe,
Lord Paraurma; rabhiby the heads cut off from their bodies;
rjanO Mahrja Parkit; madhyewithin the jurisdiction of
Mhimat; cakremade; mah-girima great mountain.
O King, Lord Paraurma then went to Mhimat, which was already
doomed by the sinful killing of a brhmaa. In the midst of that city he
made a mountain of heads, severed from the bodies of the sons of
TEXTS 18-19
tad-raktena nad ghorm
hetu ktv pit-vadha
katre 'magala-krii
tri-sapta-ktva pthiv
ktv nikatriy prabhu
samanta-pacake cakre
oitodn hradn nava
tat-raktenaby the blood of the sons of Krtavryrjuna; nadma river;
ghormfierce; abrahmaya-bhaya-vahmcausing fear to the kings
who had no respect for brahminical culture; hetumcause; ktv
accepting; pit-vadhamthe killing of his father; katrewhen the whole
royal class; amagala-kriiwas acting very inauspiciously; tri-saptaktvatwenty-one times; pthivmthe entire world; ktvmaking;
nikatriymwithout a katriya dynasty; prabhuthe Supreme Lord,
Paraurma; samanta-pacakeat the place known as Samanta-pacaka;
cakrehe made; oita-udnfilled with blood instead of water;
hradnlakes; navanine.
With the blood of the bodies of these sons, Lord Paraurma created a
ghastly river, which brought great fear to the kings who had no respect
for brahminical culture. Because the katriyas, the men of power in
government, were performing sinful activities, Lord Paraurma, on the
plea of retaliating for the murder of his father, rid all the katriyas from


the face of the earth twenty-one times. Indeed, in the place known as
Samanta-pacaka he created nine lakes filled with their blood.
Paraurma is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and his eternal
mission is paritrya sdhn vinya ca duktm [Bg. 4.8]to
protect the devotees and annihilate the miscreants. To kill all the sinful
men is one among the tasks of the incarnation of Godhead. Lord
Paraurma killed all the katriyas twenty-one times consecutively
because they were disobedient to the brahminical culture. That the
katriyas had killed his father was only a plea; the real fact is that because
the katriyas, the ruling class, had become polluted, their position was
inauspicious. Brahminical culture is enjoined in the stra, especially in
Bhagavad-gt (ctur-varya may sa gua-karma-vibhgaa [Bg.
4.13]). According to the laws of nature, whether at the time of
Paraurma or at the present, if the government becomes irresponsible
and sinful, not caring for brahminical culture, there will certainly be an
incarnation of God like Paraurma to create a devastation by fire, famine,
pestilence or some other calamity. Whenever the government disrespects
the supremacy of the Personality of Godhead and fails to protect the
institution of varrama-dharma, it will certainly have to face such
catastrophes as formerly brought about by Lord Paraurma.
pitu kyena sandhya
ira dya barhii
sarva-deva-maya devam
tmnam ayajan makhai
pituof his father; kyenawith the body; sandhyajoining; ira
the head; dyakeeping; barhiiupon kua grass; sarva-deva-mayam
the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the
demigods; devamLord Vsudeva; tmnamwho is present everywhere
as the Supersoul; ayajathe worshiped; makhaiby offering sacrifices.
Thereafter, Paraurma joined his father's head to the dead body and
placed the whole body and head upon kua grass. By offering sacrifices,
he began to worship Lord Vsudeva, who is the all-pervading Supersoul
of all the demigods and of every living entity.


TEXTS 21-22
dadau prc dia hotre
brahmae daki diam
adhvaryave pratc vai
udgtre uttar diam
anyebhyo 'vntara-dia
kayapya ca madhyata
ryvartam upadrare
sadasyebhyas tata param
dadaugave as a gift; prcmeastern; diamdirection; hotreunto the
priest known as hot; brahmaeunto the priest known as brahm;
dakimsouthern; diamdirection; adhvaryaveunto the priest
known as adhvaryu; pratcmthe western side; vaiindeed; udgtre
unto the priest known as udgt; uttarmnorthern; diamside;
anyebhyaunto the others; avntara-diathe different corners
(northeast, southeast, northwest and southwest); kayapyaunto
Kayapa Muni; caalso; madhyatathe middle portion; ryvartam
the portion known as ryvarta; upadrareunto the upadra, the
priest acting as overseer to hear and check the mantras; sadasyebhya
unto the sadasyas, the associate priests; tata paramwhatever remained.
After completing the sacrifice, Lord Paraurma gave the eastern
direction to the hot as a gift, the south to the brahm, the west to the
adhvaryu, the north to the udgt, and the four cornersnortheast,
southeast, northwest and southwestto the other priests. He gave the
middle to Kayapa and the place known as ryvarta to the upadra.
Whatever remained he distributed among the sadasyas, the associate
The tract of land in India between the Himalaya Mountains and the
Vindhya Hills is called ryvarta.
tata cvabhtha-snnavidhtea-kilbia
sarasvaty mah-nady
reje vyabbhra ivumn


tatathereafter; caalso; avabhtha-snnaby bathing after finishing

the sacrifice; vidhtacleansed; aeaunlimited; kilbiawhose
reactions of sinful activities; sarasvatymon the bank of the great river
Sarasvat; mah-nadymone of the biggest rivers in India; rejeLord
Paraurma appeared; vyabbhracloudless; iva aumnlike the sun.
Thereafter, having completed the ritualistic sacrificial ceremonies, Lord
Paraurma took the bath known as the avabhtha-snna. Standing on
the bank of the great river Sarasvat, cleared of all sins, Lord
Paraurma appeared like the sun in a clear, cloudless sky.
As stated in Bhagavad-gt (3.9), yajrtht karmao 'nyatra loko 'ya
karma-bandhana: "Work done as a sacrifice for Viu has to be
performed, otherwise work binds one to this material world." Karmabandhana refers to the repeated acceptance of one material body after
another. The whole problem of life is this repetition of birth and death.
Therefore one is advised to work to perform yaja meant for satisfying
Lord Viu. Although Lord Paraurma was an incarnation of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, he had to account for sinful activities.
Anyone in this material world, however careful he may be, must commit
some sinful activities, even though he does not want to. For example, one
may trample many small ants and other insects while walking on the
street and kill many living beings unknowingly. Therefore the Vedic
principle of paca-yaja, five kinds of recommended sacrifice, is
compulsory. In this age of Kali, however, there is a great concession given
to people in general. Yajai sakrtana-pryair yajanti hi sumedhasa: [SB
11.5.32] we may worship Lord Caitanya, the hidden incarnation of Ka.
Ka-vara tvikam: although He is Ka Himself, He always
chants Hare Ka and preaches Ka consciousness. One is
recommended to worship this incarnation by chanting, the sakrtanayaja. The performance of sakrtana-yaja is a special concession for
human society to save people from being affected by known or unknown
sinful activities. We are surrounded by unlimited sins, and therefore it is
compulsory that one take to Ka consciousness and chant the Hare
Ka mah-mantra.
sva-deha jamadagnis tu
labdhv sajna-lakaam


maale so 'bht
saptamo rma-pjita
sva-dehamhis own body; jamadagnithe great sage Jamadagni; tu
but; labdhvregaining; sajna-lakaamshowing full symptoms of
life, knowledge and remembrance; mof the great is; maalein
the group of seven stars; sahe, Jamadagni; abhtlater became;
saptamathe seventh; rma-pjitabecause of being worshiped by
Lord Paraurma.
Thus Jamadagni, being worshiped by Lord Paraurma, was brought
back to life with full remembrance, and he became one of the seven
sages in the group of seven stars.
The seven stars revolving around the polestar at the zenith are called
saptari-maala. On these seven stars, which form the topmost part of
our planetary system, reside seven sages: Kayapa, Atri, Vasiha,
Vivmitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvja. These seven stars are
seen every night, and they each make a complete orbit around the
polestar within twenty-four hours. Along with these seven stars, all the
others stars also orbit from east to west. The upper portion of the universe
is called the north, and the lower portion is called the south. Even in our
ordinary dealings, while studying a map, we regard the upper portion of
the map as north.
jmadagnyo 'pi bhagavn
rma kamala-locana
gminy antare rjan
vartayiyati vai bhat
jmadagnyathe son of Jamadagni; apialso; bhagavnthe
Personality of Godhead; rmaLord Paraurma; kamala-locana
whose eyes are like lotus petals; gminicoming; antarein the
manvantara, the time of one Manu; rjanO King Parkit; vartayiyati
will propound; vaiindeed; bhatVedic knowledge.
My dear King Parkit, in the next manvantara the lotus-eyed
Personality of Godhead Lord Paraurma, the son of Jamadagni, will be
a great propounder of Vedic knowledge. In other words, he will be one


of the seven sages.

ste 'dypi mahendrdrau
nyasta-daa pranta-dh
steis still existing; adya apieven now; mahendra-adrauin the hilly
country known as Mahendra; nyasta-daahaving given up the
weapons of a katriya (the bow, arrows and axe); prantanow fully
satisfied as a brhmaa; dhin such intelligence; upagyamna-carita
being worshiped and adored for his exalted character and activities;
siddha-gandharva-craaiby such celestial persons as the inhabitants of
Gandharvaloka, Siddhaloka and Craaloka.
Lord Paraurma still lives as an intelligent brhmaa in the
mountainous country known as Mahendra. Completely satisfied, having
given up all the weapons of a katriya, he is always worshiped, adored
and offered prayers for his exalted character and activities by such
celestial beings as the Siddhas, Craas and Gandharvas.
eva bhguu vivtm
bhagavn harir vara
avatrya para bhra
bhuvo 'han bahuo npn
evamin this way; bhguuin the dynasty of Bhgu; viva-tmthe
soul of the universe, the Supersoul; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality of
Godhead; harithe Lord; varathe supreme controller; avatrya
appearing as an incarnation; paramgreat; bhramthe burden;
bhuvaof the world; ahankilled; bahuamany times; npnkings.
In this way the supreme soul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
Lord and the supreme controller, descended as an incarnation in the
Bhgu dynasty and released the universe from the burden of
undesirable kings by killing them many times.


gdher abhn mah-tej
samiddha iva pvaka
tapas ktram utsjya
yo lebhe brahma-varcasam
gdhefrom Mahrja Gdhi; abhtwas born; mah-tejvery
powerful; samiddhainflamed; ivalike; pvakafire; tapasby
austerities and penances; ktramthe position of a katriya; utsjya
giving up; yaone who (Vivmitra); lebheachieved; brahmavarcasamthe quality of a brhmaa.
Vivmitra, the son of Mahrja Gdhi, was as powerful as the flames of
fire. From the position of a katriya, he achieved the position of a
powerful brhmaa by undergoing penances and austerities.
Now, having narrated the history of Lord Paraurma, ukadeva Gosvm
begins the history of Vivmitra. From the history of Paraurma we can
understand that although Paraurma belonged to the brahminical group,
he circumstantially had to work as a katriya. Later, after finishing his
work as a katriya, he again became a brhmaa and returned to
Mahendra-parvata. Similarly, we can see that although Vivmitra was
born in a katriya family, by austerities and penances he achieved the
position of a brhmaa. These histories confirm the statements in stra
that a brhmaa may become a katriya, a katriya may become a
brhmaa or vaiya, and a vaiya may become a brhmaa, by achieving
the required qualities. One's status does not depend upon birth. As
confirmed in rmad-Bhgavatam (7.11.35) by Nrada:
yasya yal lakaa prokta
puso varbhivyajakam
yad anyatrpi dyeta
tat tenaiva vinirdiet
"If one shows the symptoms of being a brhmaa, katriya, vaiya or
dra, even if he has appeared in a different class, he should be accepted
according to those symptoms of classification." To know who is a
brhmaa and who is a katriya, one must consider a man's quality and
work. If all the unqualified dras become so-called brhmaas and


katriyas, social order will be impossible to maintain. Thus there will be

discrepancies, human society will turn into a society of animals, and the
situation all over the world will be hellish.
vivmitrasya caivsan
putr eka-ata npa
madhyamas tu madhucchand
madhucchandasa eva te
vivmitrasyaof Vivmitra; caalso; evaindeed; santhere were;
putrsons; eka-atam101; npaO King Parkit; madhyamathe
middle one; tuindeed; madhucchandknown as Madhucchand;
madhucchandasanamed the Madhucchands; evaindeed; teall of
O King Parkit, Vivmitra had 101 sons, of whom the middle one was
known as Madhucchand. In relation to him, all the other sons were
celebrated as the Madhucchands.
In this connection, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura quotes this
statement from the Vedas: tasya ha vivmitrasyaika-ata putr su
pacad eva jyyso madhucchandasa pacat kanysa.
"Vivmitra had 101 sons. Fifty were older than Madhucchand and fifty
putra ktv unaepha
devarta ca bhrgavam
jgarta sutn ha
jyeha ea prakalpyatm
putrama son; ktvaccepting; unaephamwhose name was
unaepha; devartamDevarta, whose life was saved by the demigods;
caalso; bhrgavamborn in the Bhgu dynasty; jgartamthe son of
Ajgarta; sutnto his own sons; haordered; jyehathe eldest;
eaunaepha; prakalpyatmaccept as such.
Vivmitra accepted the son of Ajgarta known as unaepha, who was
born in the Bhgu dynasty and was also known as Devarta, as one of


his own sons. Vivmitra ordered his other sons to accept unaepha
as their eldest brother.
yo vai haricandra-makhe
vikrta purua pau
stutv devn prajedn
mumuce pa-bandhant
yahe who (unaepha); vaiindeed; haricandra-makhein the
sacrifice performed by King Haricandra; vikrtawas sold; purua
man; pausacrificial animal; stutvoffering prayers; devnto the
demigods; praj-a-dnheaded by Lord Brahm; mumucewas
released; pa-bandhantfrom being bound with ropes like an animal.
unaepha's father sold unaepha to be sacrificed as a man-animal
in the yaja of King Haricandra. When unaepha was brought into
the sacrificial arena, he prayed to the demigods for release and was
released by their mercy.
Here is a description of unaepha. When Haricandra was to sacrifice
his son Rohita, Rohita arranged to save his own life by purchasing
unaepha from unaepha's father to be sacrificed in the yaja.
unaepha was sold to Mahrja Haricandra because he was the middle
son, between the oldest and the youngest. It appears that the sacrifice of a
man as an animal in yaja has been practiced for a very long time.
yo rto deva-yajane
devair gdhiu tpasa
deva-rta iti khyta
unaephas tu bhrgava
yahe who (unaepha); rtawas protected; deva-yajanein the
arena for worshiping the demigods; devaiby the same demigods;
gdhiuin the dynasty of Gdhi; tpasaadvanced in executing
spiritual life; deva-rtaprotected by the demigods; itithus; khyta
celebrated; unaepha tuas well as unaepha; bhrgavain the
dynasty of Bhgu.


Although unaepha was born in the Bhrgava dynasty, he was greatly

advanced in spiritual life, and therefore the demigods involved in the
sacrifice protected him. Consequently he was also celebrated as the
descendant of Gdhi named Devarta.
ye madhucchandaso jyeh
kuala menire na tat
aapat tn muni kruddho
mlecch bhavata durjan
yethose who; madhucchandasasons of Vivmitra, celebrated as the
Madhucchands; jyeheldest; kualamvery good; menire
accepting; nanot; tatthat (the proposal that he be accepted as the
eldest brother); aapatcursed; tnall the sons; muniVivmitra
Muni; kruddhabeing angry; mlecchdisobedient to the Vedic
principles; bhavataall of you become; durjanvery bad sons.
When requested by their father to accept unaepha as the eldest son,
the elder fifty of the Madhucchands, the sons of Vivmitra, did not
agree. Therefore Vivmitra, being angry, cursed them. "May all of you
bad sons become mlecchas," he said, "being opposed to the principles
of Vedic culture."
In Vedic literature there are names like mleccha and yavana. The mlecchas
are understood to be those who do not follow the Vedic principles. In
former days, the mlecchas were fewer, and Vivmitra Muni cursed his
sons to become mlecchas. But in the present age, Kali-yuga, there is no
need of cursing, for people are automatically mlecchas. This is only the
beginning of Kali-yuga, but at the end of Kali-yuga the entire population
will consist of mlecchas because no one will follow the Vedic principles.
At that time the incarnation Kalki will appear. Mleccha-nivaha-nidhane
kalayasi kara-blam. He will kill all the mlecchas indiscriminately with his
sa hovca madhucchand
srdha pacat tata


yan no bhavn sajnte

tasmis tihmahe vayam
sathe middle son of Vivmitra; haindeed; uvcasaid;
madhucchandMadhucchand; srdhamwith; pacatthe second
fifty of the sons known as the Madhucchands; tatathen, after the first
half were thus cursed; yatwhat; naunto us; bhavnO father;
sajnteas you please; tasminin that; tihmaheshall remain;
vayamall of us.
When the elder Madhucchands were cursed, the younger fifty, along
with Madhucchand himself, approached their father and agreed to
accept his proposal. "Dear father," they said, "we shall abide by
whatever arrangement you like."
jyeha mantra-da cakrus
tvm anvaco vaya sma hi
vivmitra sutn ha
vravanto bhaviyatha
ye mna me 'nughanto
vravantam akarta mm
jyehamthe eldest; mantra-dama seer of mantras; cakruthey
accepted; tvmyou; anvacahave agreed to follow; vayamwe;
smaindeed; hicertainly; vivmitrathe great sage Vivmitra;
sutnto the obedient sons; hasaid; vra-vantafathers of sons;
bhaviyathabecome in the future; yeall of you who; mnamhonor;
memy; anughantaaccepted; vra-vantamthe father of good sons;
akartayou have made; mmme.
Thus the younger Madhucchands accepted unaepha as their eldest
brother and told him, "We shall follow your orders." Vivmitra then
said to his obedient sons, "Because you have accepted unaepha as
your eldest brother, I am very satisfied. By accepting my order, you
have made me a father of worthy sons, and therefore I bless all of you to
become the fathers of sons also."
Of the one hundred sons, half disobeyed Vivmitra by not accepting


unaepha as their eldest brother, but the other half accepted his order.
Therefore the father blessed the obedient sons to become the fathers of
sons. Otherwise they too would have been cursed to be sonless mlecchas.
ea va kuik vro
devartas tam anvita
anye caka-hrtajaya-kratumad-daya
eathis (unaepha); valike you; kuikO Kuikas; vramy
son; devartahe is known as Devarta; tamhim; anvitajust obey;
anyeothers; caalso; aakaAaka; hrtaHrta; jayaJaya;
kratumatKratumn; dayaand others.
Vivmitra said, "O Kuikas [descendants of Kauika], this Devarta is
my son and is one of you. Please obey his orders." O King Parkit,
Vivmitra had many other sons, such as Aaka, Hrta, Jaya and
eva kauika-gotra tu
vivmitrai pthag-vidham
pravarntaram panna
tad dhi caiva prakalpitam
evamin this way (some sons having been cursed and some blessed);
kauika-gotramthe dynasty of Kauika; tuindeed; vivmitraiby the
sons of Vivmitra; pthak-vidhamin different varieties; pravaraantaramdifferences between one another; pannamobtained; tat
that; hiindeed; caalso; evamthus; prakalpitamascertained.
Vivmitra cursed some of his sons and blessed the others, and he also
adopted a son. Thus there were varieties in the Kauika dynasty, but
among all the sons, Devarta was considered the eldest.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Sixteenth Chapter,
of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "Lord Paraurma Destroys the World's


Ruling Class."


17. The Dynasties of the Sons of Purrav

yu, the eldest son of Purrav, had five sons. This chapter describes the
dynasties of four of them, beginning with Katravddha.
yu, the son of Purrav, had five sons- Nahua, Katravddha, Raj,
Rbha and Anen. The son of Katravddha was Suhotra, who had three
sons, named Kya, Kua and Gtsamada. The son of Gtsamada was
unaka, and his son was aunaka. The son of Kya was Ki. From Ki
came the sons and grandsons known as Rra, Drghatama and then
Dhanvantari, who was the inaugurator of medical science and was a
aktyvea incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vsudeva.
The descendants of Dhanvantari were Ketumn, Bhmaratha, Divodsa
and Dyumn, who was also known as Pratardana, atrujit, Vatsa,
tadhvaja and Kuvalayva. The son of Dyumn was Alarka, who reigned
over the kingdom for many, many years. Following in the dynasty of
Alarka were Santati, Suntha, Niketana, Dharmaketu, Satyaketu,
Dhaketu, Sukumra, Vtihotra, Bharga and Bhrgabhmi. All of them
belonged to the dynasty of Ki, the descendant of Katravddha.
The son of Rbha was Rabhasa, and his son was Gambhra. Gambhra's
son was Akriya, and from Akriya came Brahmavit. The son of Anen was
uddha, and his son was uci. The son of uci was Citrakt, whose son
was ntaraja. Raj had five hundred sons, all of extraordinary strength.
Raj was personally very powerful and was given the kingdom of heaven
by Lord Indra. Later, after Raj's death, when the sons of Raj refused to
return the kingdom to Indra, by Bhaspati's arrangement they became
unintelligent, and Lord Indra conquered them.
The grandson of Katravddha named Kua gave birth to a son named
Prati. From Prati came Sajaya; from Sajaya, Jaya; from Jaya, Kta; and
from Kta, Haryabala. The son of Haryabala was Sahadeva; the son of
Sahadeva, Hna; the son of Hna, Jayasena; the son of Jayasena, Sakti;
and the son of Sakti, Jaya.
r-bdaryair uvca


ya purravasa putra
yus tasybhavan sut
nahua katravddha ca
raj rbha ca vryavn
anen iti rjendra
u katravdho 'nvayam
suhotrasytmajs traya
kya kuo gtsamada
iti gtsamadd abht
unaka aunako yasya
bahvca-pravaro muni
r-bdaryai uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; yaone who;
purravasaof Purrav; putrason; yuhis name was yu;
tasyaof him; abhavanthere were; sutsons; nahuaNahua;
katravddha caand Katravddha; rajRaj; rbhaRbha; ca
also; vryavnvery powerful; anenAnen; itithus; rja-indraO
Mahrja Parkit; ujust hear from me; katravdhaof
Katravddha; anvayamthe dynasty; katravddhaof Katravddha;
sutasyaof the son; santhere were; suhotrasyaof Suhotra; tmaj
sons; trayathree; kyaKya; kuaKua; gtsamada
Gtsamada; itithus; gtsamadtfrom Gtsamada; abhtthere was;
unakaunaka; aunakaaunaka; yasyaof whom (unaka); bahuca-pravarathe best of those conversant with the g Veda; munia
great saintly person.
ukadeva Gosvm said: From Purrav came a son named yu, whose
very powerful sons were Nahua, Katravddha, Raj, Rbha and Anen.
O Mahrja Parkit, now hear about the dynasty of Katravddha.
Katravddha's son was Suhotra, who had three sons, named Kya,
Kua and Gtsamada. From Gtsamada came unaka, and from him
came aunaka, the great saint, the best of those conversant with the g
kyasya kis tat-putro


rro drghatama-pit
dhanvantarir drghatamasa
yaja-bhug vsudeva
kyasyaof Kya; kiKi; tat-putrahis son; rraRra;
drghatama-pithe became the father of Drghatama; dhanvantari
Dhanvantari; drghatamasafrom Drghatama; yu-veda-pravartaka
the inaugurator of medical science, yur Veda; yaja-bhukthe enjoyer of
the results of sacrifice; vsudeva-aaincarnation of Lord Vsudeva;
smta-mtraif he is remembered; rti-nanait immediately
vanquishes all kinds of disease.
The son of Kya was Ki, and his son was Rra, the father of
Drghatama. Drghatama had a son named Dhanvantari, who was the
inaugurator of the medical science and an incarnation of Lord
Vsudeva, the enjoyer of the results of sacrifices. One who remembers
the name of Dhanvantari can be released from all disease.
tat-putra ketumn asya
jaje bhmarathas tata
divodso dyums tasmt
pratardana iti smta
tat-putrahis son (the son of Dhanvantari); ketumnKetumn; asya
his; jajetook birth; bhmarathaa son named Bhmaratha; tata
from him; divodsaa son named Divodsa; dyumnDyumn;
tasmtfrom him; pratardanaPratardana; itithus; smtaknown.
The son of Dhanvantari was Ketumn, and his son was Bhmaratha. The
son of Bhmaratha was Divodsa, and the son of Divodsa was Dyumn,
also known as Pratardana.
sa eva atrujid vatsa
tadhvaja itrita


tath kuvalayveti
prokto 'larkdayas tata
sathat Dyumn; evaindeed; atrujitatrujit; vatsaVatsa;
tadhvajatadhvaja; itilike that; ritaknown; tathas well as;
kuvalayvaKuvalayva; itithus; proktawell known; alarkadayaAlarka and other sons; tatafrom him.
Dyumn was also known as atrujit, Vatsa, tadhvaja and Kuvalayva.
From him were born Alarka and other sons.
ai vara-sahasri
ai vara-atni ca
nlarkd aparo rjan
bubhuje medin yuv
aimsixty; vara-sahasrisuch thousands of years; aimsixty;
vara-atnihundreds of years; caalso; nanot; alarktexcept for
Alarka; aparaanyone else; rjanO King Parkit; bubhujeenjoyed;
medinmthe surface of the world; yuvas a young man.
Alarka, the son of Dyumn, reigned over the earth for sixty-six
thousand years, my dear King Parkit. No one other than him has
reigned over the earth for so long as a young man.
alarkt santatis tasmt
suntho 'tha niketana
dharmaketu sutas tasmt
satyaketur ajyata
alarktfrom Alarka; santatia son known as Santati; tasmtfrom
him; sunthaSuntha; athafrom him; niketanaa son named
Niketana; dharmaketuDharmaketu; sutaa son; tasmtand from
Dharmaketu; satyaketuSatyaketu; ajyatawas born.
From Alarka came a son named Santati, and his son was Suntha. The
son of Suntha was Niketana, the son of Niketana was Dharmaketu, and


the son of Dharmaketu was Satyaketu.

dhaketus tatas tasmt
sukumra kitvara
vtihotro 'sya bhargo 'to
bhrgabhmir abhn npa
dhaketuDhaketu; tatathereafter; tasmtfrom Dhaketu;
sukumraa son named Sukumra; kiti-varathe emperor of the
entire world; vtihotraa son named Vtihotra; asyahis son; bharga
Bharga; atafrom him; bhrgabhmia son named Bhrgabhmi;
abhtgenerated; npaO King.
O King Parkit, from Satyaketu came a son named Dhaketu, and
from Dhaketu came Sukumra, the emperor of the entire world.
From Sukumra came a son named Vtihotra; from Vtihotra, Bharga;
and from Bharga, Bhrgabhmi.
itme kayo bhp
rbhasya rabhasa putro
gambhra ckriyas tata
itithus; imeall of them; kayaborn in the dynasty of Ki;
bhpkings; katravddha-anvaya-yinaalso within the dynasty of
Katravddha; rbhasyafrom Rbha; rabhasaRabhasa; putraa son;
gambhraGambhra; caalso; akriyaAkriya; tatafrom him.
O Mahrja Parkit, all of these kings were descendants of Ki, and
they could also be called descendants of Katravddha. The son of
Rbha was Rabhasa, from Rabhasa came Gambhra, and from Gambhra
came a son named Akriya.
tad-gotra brahmavij jaje


u vaam anenasa
uddhas tata ucis tasmc
citrakd dharmasrathi
tat-gotramthe descendant of Akriya; brahmavitBrahmavit; jajetook
birth; ujust hear from me; vaamdescendants; anenasaof
Anen; uddhaa son known as uddha; tatafrom him; uciuci;
tasmtfrom him; citraktCitrakt; dharma-srathiDharmasrathi.
The son of Akriya was known as Brahmavit, O King. Now hear about
the descendants of Anen. From Anen came a son named uddha, and
his son was uci. The son of uci was Dharmasrathi, also called
tata ntarajo jaje
kta-ktya sa tmavn
raje paca-atny san
putrm amitaujasm
tatafrom Citrakt; ntarajaa son named ntaraja; jajewas
born; kta-ktyaperformed all kinds of ritualistic ceremonies; sahe;
tmavna self-realized soul; rajeof Raj; paca-atnifive hundred;
santhere were; putrmsons; amita-ojasmvery, very powerful.
From Citrakt was born a son named ntaraja, a self-realized soul who
performed all kinds of Vedic ritualistic ceremonies and therefore did
not beget any progeny. The sons of Raj were five hundred, all very
devair abhyarthito daityn
hatvendrydadd divam
indras tasmai punar dattv
ghtv caraau raje
tmnam arpaym sa


devaiby the demigods; abhyarthitabeing requested; daitynthe

demons; hatvkilling; indryato Indra, the King of heaven; adadt
delivered; divamthe kingdom of heaven; indrathe King of heaven;
tasmaiunto him, Raj; punaagain; dattvreturning; ghtv
capturing; caraauthe feet; rajeof Raj; tmnamthe self; arpaym
sasurrendered; prahrda-diPrahlda and others; ari-akita
being afraid of such enemies.
On the request of the demigods, Raj killed the demons and thus
returned the kingdom of heaven to Lord Indra. But Indra, fearing such
demons as Prahlda, returned the kingdom of heaven to Raj and
surrendered himself at Raj's lotus feet.
pitary uparate putr
ycamnya no dadu
triviapa mahendrya
yaja-bhgn samdadu
pitariwhen their father; uparatepassed away; putrthe sons;
ycamnyaalthough requesting from them; nonot; dadureturned;
triviapamthe heavenly kingdom; mahendryaunto Mahendra; yajabhgnthe shares of ritualistic ceremonies; samdadugave.
Upon Raj's death, Indra begged Raj's sons for the return of the
heavenly planet. They did not return it, however, although they agreed
to return Indra's shares in ritualistic ceremonies.
Raj conquered the kingdom of heaven, and therefore when Indra, the
heavenly king, begged Raj's sons to return it, they refused. Because they
had not taken the heavenly kingdom from Indra but had inherited it from
their father, they considered it their paternal property. Why then should
they return it to the demigods?
guru hyamne 'gnau
balabhit tanayn raje
avadhd bhraitn mrgn
na kacid avaeita


guruby the spiritual master (Bhaspati); hyamne agnauwhile

oblations were being offered in the fire of sacrifice; balabhitIndra;
tanaynthe sons; rajeof Raj; avadhtkilled; bhraitnfallen;
mrgtfrom the moral principles; nanot; kacitanyone; avaeita
remained alive.
Thereafter, Bhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods, offered
oblations in the fire so that the sons of Raj would fall from moral
principles. When they fell, Lord Indra killed them easily because of
their degradation. Not a single one of them remained alive.
kut prati ktravddht
sajayas tat-suto jaya
tata kta ktasypi
jaje haryabalo npa
kutfrom Kua; pratia son named Prati; ktravddhtthe
grandson of Katravddha; sajayaa son named Sajaya; tat-sutahis
son; jayaJaya; tatafrom him; ktaKta; ktasyafrom Kta;
apias well as; jajewas born; haryabalaHaryabala; npathe
From Kua, the grandson of Katravddha, was born a son named Prati.
The son of Prati was Sajaya, and the son of Sajaya was Jaya. From
Jaya, Kta was born, and from Kta, King Haryabala.
sahadevas tato hno
jayasenas tu tat-suta
saktis tasya ca jaya
katra-dharm mah-ratha
katravddhnvay bhp
ime v atha nhun
sahadevaSahadeva; tatafrom Sahadeva; hnaa son named Hna;
jayasenaJayasena; tualso; tat-sutathe son of Hna; sakti
Sakti; tasyaof Sakti; caalso; jayaa son named Jaya; katra-


dharmexpert in the duties of a katriya; mah-rathaa greatly

powerful fighter; katravddha-anvayin the dynasty of Katravddha;
bhpkings; imeall these; uhear from me; athanow;
nhunthe descendants of Nahua.
From Haryabala came a son named Sahadeva, and from Sahadeva came
Hna. The son of Hna was Jayasena, and the son of Jayasena was
Sakti. The son of Sakti was the powerful and expert fighter named
Jaya. These kings were the members of the Katravddha dynasty. Now
let me describe to you the dynasty of Nahua.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Seventeenth
Chapter, of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "The Dynasties of the Sons of


18. King Yayti Regains His Youth

This chapter gives the history of King Yayti, the son of Nahua. Among
Yayti's five sons, the youngest son, Pru, accepted Yayti's invalidity.
When Nahua, who had six sons, was cursed to become a python, his
eldest son, Yati, took sannysa, and therefore the next son, Yayti, was
enthroned as king. By providence, Yayti married the daughter of
ukrcrya. ukrcrya was a brhmaa and Yayti a katriya, but Yayti
married her nonetheless. ukrcrya's daughter, named Devayn, had a
girl friend named armih, who was the daughter of Vaparv. King
Yayti married armih also. The history of this marriage is as follows.
Once armih was sporting in the water with thousands of her girl
friends, and Devayn was also there. When the young girls saw Lord iva,
seated on his bull with Um, they immediately dressed themselves, but
armih mistakenly put on Devayn's clothes. Devayn, being very
angry, rebuked armih, who also became very angry and responded by
rebuking Devayn and throwing her into a well. By chance, King Yayti
came to that well to drink water, and he found Devayn and rescued her.
Thus Devayn accepted Mahrja Yayti as her husband. Thereafter,
Devayn, crying loudly, told her father about armih's behavior. Upon
hearing of this incident, ukrcrya was very angry and wanted to chastise
Vaparv, armih's father. Vaparv, however, satisfied ukrcrya by
offering armih as Devayn's maidservant. Thus armih, as the
maidservant of Devayn, also went to the house of Devayn's husband.
When armih found her friend Devayn with a son she also desired to
have a son. Therefore, at the proper time for conception, she also
requested Mahrja Yayti for sex. When armih became pregnant also,
Devayn was very envious. In great anger, she immediately left for her
father's house and told her father everything. ukrcrya again became
angry and cursed Mahrja Yayti to become old, but when Yayti begged
ukrcrya to be merciful to him, ukrcrya gave him the benediction
that he could transfer his old age and invalidity to some young man.
Yayti exchanged his old age for the youth of his youngest son, Pru, and
thus he was able to enjoy with young girls.


r-uka uvca
yatir yayti saytir
yatir viyati kti
a ime nahuasysann
indriyva dehina
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; yatiYati; yaytiYayti;
saytiSayti; yatiyati; viyatiViyati; ktiKti; asix;
imeall of them; nahuasyaof King Nahua; sanwere; indriyithe
(six) senses; ivalike; dehinaof an embodied soul.
ukadeva Gosvm said: O King Parkit, as the embodied soul has six
senses, King Nahua had six sons, named Yati, Yayti, Sayti, yati,
Viyati and Kti.
rjya naicchad yati pitr
datta tat-parimavit
yatra pravia purua
tmna nvabudhyate
rjyamthe kingdom; na aicchatdid not accept; yatithe eldest son,
Yati; pitrby his father; dattamoffered; tat-parima-vitknowing the
result of becoming powerful as a king; yatrawherein; praviahaving
entered; puruasuch a person; tmnamself-realization; nanot;
avabudhyatewill take seriously and understand.
When one enters the post of king or head of the government, one
cannot understand the meaning of self-realization. Knowing this, Yati,
the eldest son of Nahua, did not accept the power to rule, although it
was offered by his father.
Self-realization is the prime objective of human civilization, and it is
regarded seriously by those who are situated in the mode of goodness and
have developed the brahminical qualities. Katriyas are generally endowed
with material qualities conducive to gaining material wealth and enjoying
sense gratification, but those who are spiritually advanced are not
interested in material opulence. Indeed, they accept only the bare


necessities for a life of spiritual advancement in self-realization. It is

specifically mentioned here that if one enters political life, especially in
the modern day, one looses the chance for human perfection.
Nonetheless, one can attain the highest perfection if one hears rmadBhgavatam. This hearing is described as nitya bhgavata-sevay [SB
1.2.18]. Mahrja Parkit was involved in politics, but because at the end
of his life he heard rmad-Bhgavatam from ukadeva Gosvm, he
attained perfection very easily. r Caitanya Mahprabhu has therefore
sthne sthit ruti-gat tanu-v-manobhir
ye pryao 'jita jito 'py asi tais tri-lokym
(SB 10.14.3)
Regardless of whether one is in the mode of passion, ignorance or
goodness, if one regularly hears rmad-Bhgavatam from the self-realized
soul, one is freed from the bondage of material involvement.
pitari bhraite sthnd
indry dharad dvijai
prpite 'jagaratva vai
yaytir abhavan npa
pitariwhen his father; bhraitewas caused to fall down; sthnt
from the heavenly planets; indryof ac, the wife of Indra;
dharatfrom offending; dvijaiby them (upon her lodging a
complaint with the brhmaas); prpitebeing degraded to;
ajagaratvamthe life of a snake; vaiindeed; yaytithe son named
Yayti; abhavatbecame; npathe king.
Because Nahua, the father of Yayti, molested Indra's wife, ac, who
then complained to Agastya and other brhmaas, these saintly
brhmaas cursed Nahua to fall from the heavenly planets and be
degraded to the status of a python. Consequently, Yayti became the


catasv diad diku

bhrtn bhrt yavyasa
kta-dro jugoporv
kvyasya vaparvaa
catasuover the four; diatallowed to rule; dikudirections;
bhrtnfour brothers; bhrtYayti; yavyasayoung; kta-dra
married; jugoparuled; rvmthe world; kvyasyathe daughter of
ukrcrya; vaparvaathe daughter of Vaparv.
King Yayti had four younger brothers, whom he allowed to rule the
four directions. Yayti himself married Devayn, the daughter of
ukrcrya, and armih, the daughter of Vaparv, and ruled the
entire earth.
brahmarir bhagavn kvya
katra-bandhu ca nhua
rjanya-viprayo kasmd
vivha pratilomaka
r-rj uvcaMahrja Parkit inquired; brahma-ithe best of the
brhmaas; bhagavnvery powerful; kvyaukrcrya; katrabandhubelonged to the katriya class; caalso; nhuaKing Yayti;
rjanya-viprayoof a brhmaa and a katriya; kasmthow; vivha
a marital relationship; pratilomakaagainst the customary regulative
Mahrja Parkit said: ukrcrya was a very powerful brhmaa, and
Mahrja Yayti was a katriya. Therefore I am curious to know how
there occurred this pratiloma marriage between a katriya and a
According to the Vedic system, marriages between katriyas and katriyas
or between brhmaas and brhmaas are the general custom. If marriages
sometimes take place between different classes, these marriages are of two
types, namely anuloma and pratiloma. Anuloma, marriage between a
brhmaa and the daughter of a katriya, is permissible, but pratiloma,


marriage between a katriya and the daughter of a brhmaa, is not

generally allowed. Therefore Mahrja Parkit was curious about how
ukrcrya, a powerful brhmaa, could accept the principle of pratiloma.
Mahrja Parkit was eager to know the cause for this uncommon
r-uka uvca
ekad dnavendrasya
armih nma kanyak
guru-putry ca bhmin
devayny purodyne
vyacarat kala-gtlinalin-puline 'bal
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; ekadonce upon a time;
dnava-indrasyaof Vaparv; armiharmih; nmaby name;
thousands of friends; guru-putrywith the daughter of the guru,
ukrcrya; caalso; bhminvery easily irritated; devaynywith
Devayn; pura-udynewithin the palace garden; pupitafull of
flowers; drumawith nice trees; sakulecongested; vyacaratwas
walking; kala-gtawith very sweet sounds; aliwith bumblebees;
nalinwith lotuses; pulinein such a garden; abalinnocent.
ukadeva Gosvm said: One day Vaparv's daughter armih, who
was innocent but angry by nature, was walking with Devayn, the
daughter of ukrcrya, and with thousands of friends, in the palace
garden. The garden was full of lotuses and trees of flowers and fruits
and was inhabited by sweetly singing birds and bumblebees.
t jalayam sdya
kany kamala-locan
tre nyasya duklni
vijahru sicatr mitha


tthey; jala-ayamto the lakeside; sdyacoming; kanyall

the girls; kamala-locanwith eyes like lotus petals; treon the bank;
nyasyagiving up; duklnitheir dresses; vijahrubegan to sport;
sicatthrowing water; mithaon one another.
When the young, lotus-eyed girls came to the bank of a reservoir of
water, they wanted to enjoy by bathing. Thus they left their clothing on
the bank and began sporting, throwing water on one another.
vkya vrajanta giria
saha devy va-sthitam
sahasottrya vssi
paryadhur vrit striya
vkyaseeing; vrajantampassing by; giriamLord iva; sahawith;
devyPrvat, the wife of Lord iva; va-sthitamseated upon his bull;
sahasquickly; uttryagetting out of the water; vssigarments;
paryadhuput on the body; vritbeing ashamed; striyathe
young girls.
While sporting in the water, the girls suddenly saw Lord iva passing
by, seated on the back of his bull with his wife, Prvat. Ashamed
because they were naked, the girls quickly got out of the water and
covered themselves with their garments.
armihjnat vso
guru-putry samavyayat
svya matv prakupit
devayndam abravt
armihthe daughter of Vaparv; ajnatwithout knowledge;
vsathe dress; guru-putryof Devayn, the daughter of the guru;
samavyayatput on the body; svyamher own; matvthinking;
prakupitirritated and angry; devaynthe daughter of ukrcrya;
idamthis; abravtsaid.


armih unknowingly put Devayn's dress on her own body, thus

angering Devayn, who then spoke as follows.
aho nirkyatm asy
dsy karma hy asmpratam
asmad-dhrya dhtavat
unva havir adhvare
ahoalas; nirkyatmjust see; asyof her (armih); dsyjust
like our servant; karmaactivities; hiindeed; asmpratamwithout any
etiquette; asmat-dhryamthe garment meant for me; dhtavatshe has
put on; un ivalike a dog; haviclarified butter; adhvaremeant for
offering in the sacrifice.
Oh, just see the activities of this servant-maid armih! Disregarding
all etiquette, she has put on my dress, just like a dog snatching clarified
butter meant for use in a sacrifice.
TEXTS 12-14
yair ida tapas sa
mukha pusa parasya ye
dhryate yair iha jyoti
iva panth pradarita
yn vandanty upatihante
loka-nth surevar
bhagavn api vivtm
pvana r-niketana
vaya tatrpi bhgava
iyo 'sy na pitsura
asmad-dhrya dhtavat
dro vedam ivsat
yaiby which persons; idamthis entire universe; tapasby austerity;
samwas created; mukhamthe face; pusaof the Supreme Person;
parasyatranscendental; yethose who (are); dhryateis always born;
yaiby which persons; ihahere; jyotithe brahmajyoti, the


effulgence of the Supreme Lord; ivaauspicious; panthway;

pradaritais directed; ynto whom; vandantioffer prayers;
upatihantehonor and follow; loka-nththe directors of the various
planets; sura-varthe demigods; bhagavnthe Supreme Personality
of Godhead; apieven; viva-tmthe Supersoul; pvanathe
purifier; r-niketanathe husband of the goddess of fortune; vayam
we (are); tatra apieven greater than other brhmaas; bhgava
descendants of Bhgu; iyadisciple; asyof her; naour; pit
father; asurabelong to the demoniac group; asmat-dhryammeant to
be worn by us; dhtavatshe has put on; draa non-brhmaa
worker; vedamthe Vedas; ivalike; asatunchaste.
We are among the qualified brhmaas, who are accepted as the face of
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The brhmaas have created the
entire universe by their austerity, and they always keep the Absolute
Truth within the core of their hearts. They have directed the path of
good fortune, the path of Vedic civilization, and because they are the
only worshipable objects within this world, they are offered prayers
and worshiped even by the great demigods, the directors of the various
planets, and even by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
Supersoul, the supreme purifier, the husband of the goddess of fortune.
And we are even more respectable because we are in the dynasty of
Bhgu. Yet although this woman's father, being among the demons, is
our disciple, she has put on my dress, exactly like a dra taking charge
of Vedic knowledge.
eva kipant armih
guru-putrm abhata
ru vasanty uragva
dharit daa-dacchad
evamthus; kipantmchastising; armihthe daughter of Vaparv;
guru-putrmunto the daughter of the guru, ukrcrya; abhatasaid;
rubeing very angry; vasantbreathing very heavily; urag ivalike
a serpent; dharitoffended, trampled; daa-dat-chadbiting her lip
with her teeth.


ukadeva Gosvm said: When thus rebuked in cruel words, armih

was very angry. Breathing heavily like a serpent and biting her lower lip
with her teeth, she spoke to the daughter of ukrcrya as follows.
tma-vttam avijya
katthase bahu bhikuki
ki na pratkase 'smka
ghn balibhujo yath
tma-vttamone's own position; avijyawithout understanding;
katthaseyou are talking madly; bahuso much; bhikukibeggar;
kimwhether; nanot; pratkaseyou wait; asmkamour; ghnat
the house; balibhujacrows; yathlike.
You beggar, since you don't understand your position, why should you
unnecessarily talk so much? Don't all of you wait at our house,
depending on us for your livelihood like crows?
Crows have no independent life; they fully depend on the remnants of
foodstuffs thrown by householders into the garbage tank. Therefore,
because a brhmaa depends on his disciples, when armih was heavily
rebuked by Devayn she charged Devayn with belonging to a family of
crowlike beggars. It is the nature of women to fight verbally at even a
slight provocation. As we see from this incident, this has been their nature
for a long, long time.
eva-vidhai suparuai
kiptvcrya-sut satm
armih prkipat kpe
vsa cdya manyun
evam-vidhaisuch; su-paruaiby unkind words; kiptvafter
chastising; crya-sutmthe daughter of ukrcrya; satmDevayn;
armiharmih; prkipatthrew (her); kpeinto a well; vsa
the garments; caand; dyataking away; manyunbecause of anger.
Using such unkind words, armih rebuked Devayn, the daughter of


ukrcrya. In anger, she took away Devayn's garments and threw

Devayn into a well.
tasy gaty sva-gha
yaytir mgay caran
prpto yadcchay kpe
jalrth t dadara ha
tasymwhen she; gatymwent; sva-ghamto her home; yayti
King Yayti; mgaymhunting; caranwandering; prptaarrived;
yadcchayby chance; kpein the well; jala-arthdesiring to drink
water; tmher (Devayn); dadarasaw; haindeed.
After throwing Devayn into the well, armih went home.
Meanwhile, King Yayti, while engaged in a hunting excursion, went to
the well to drink water and by chance saw Devayn.
dattv svam uttara vsas
tasyai rj vivsase
ghtv pin pim
ujjahra day-para
dattvgiving; svamhis own; uttaramupper; vsacloth; tasyai
unto her (Devayn); rjthe King; vivsasebecause she was naked;
ghtvcatching; pinwith his hand; pimher hand; ujjahra
delivered; day-parabeing very kind.
Seeing Devayn naked in the well, King Yayti immediately gave her
his upper cloth. Being very kind to her, he caught her hand with his
own and lifted her out.
TEXTS 20-21
ta vram hauanas
prema-nirbharay gir
rjas tvay ghto me


pi para-purajaya
hasta-grho 'paro m bhd
ghtys tvay hi me
ea a-kto vra
sambandho nau na paurua
tamunto him; vramYayti; hasaid; auanasthe daughter of
Uan Kavi, ukrcrya; prema-nirbharaysaturated with love and
kindness; girby such words; rjanO King; tvayby you; ghta
accepted; memy; pihand; para-purajayathe conqueror of the
kingdoms of others; hasta-grhahe who accepted my hand; apara
another; mmay not; bhtbecome; ghtyaccepted; tvayby
you; hiindeed; meof me; eathis; a-ktaarranged by
providence; vraO great hero; sambandharelationship; nauour;
nanot; pauruaanything man-made.
With words saturated with love and affection, Devayn said to King
Yayti: O great hero, O King, conqueror of the cities of your enemies, by
accepting my hand you have accepted me as your married wife. Let me
not be touched by others, for our relationship as husband and wife has
been made possible by providence, not by any human being.
While taking Devayn out of the well, King Yayti must certainly have
appreciated her youthful beauty, and therefore he might have asked her
which caste she belonged to. Thus Devayn would have immediately
replied, "We are already married because you have accepted my hand."
Uniting the hands of the bride and bridegroom is a system perpetually
existing in all societies. Therefore, as soon as Yayti accepted Devayn's
hand, they could be regarded as married. Because Devayn was enamored
with the hero Yayti, she requested him not to change his mind and let
another come to marry her.
yad ida kpa-magny
bhavato darana mama
na brhmao me bhavit
hasta-grho mah-bhuja
kacasya brhaspatyasya


pd yam aapa pur

yatbecause of; idamthis; kpa-magnyfallen in the well;
bhavataof your good self; daranammeeting; mamawith me; na
not; brhmaaa qualified brhmaa; memy; bhavitwill become;
hasta-grhahusband; mah-bhujaO great mighty-armed one;
kacasyaof Kaca; brhaspatyasyathe son of the learned brhmaa and
celestial priest Bhaspati; ptbecause of the curse; yamwhom;
aapamI cursed; purin the past.
Because of falling in the well, I met you. Indeed, this has been arranged
by providence. After I cursed Kaca, the son of the learned scholar
Bhaspati, he cursed me by saying that I would not have a brhmaa for
a husband. Therefore, O mighty-armed one, there is no possibility of
my becoming the wife of a brhmaa.
Kaca, the son of the learned celestial priest Bhaspati, had been a student
of ukrcrya, from whom he had learned the art of reviving a man who
has died untimely. This art, called mta-sajvan, was especially used
during wartime. When there was a war, soldiers would certainly die
untimely, but if a soldier's body was intact, he could be brought to life
again by this art of mta-sajvan. This art was known to ukrcrya and
many others, and Kaca, the son of Bhaspati, became ukrcrya's student
to learn it. Devayn desired to have Kaca as her husband, but Kaca, out of
regard for ukrcrya, looked upon the guru's daughter as a respectable
superior and therefore refused to marry her. Devayn angrily cursed Kaca
by saying that although he had learned the art of mta-sajvan from her
father, it would be useless. When cursed in this way, Kaca retaliated by
cursing Devayn never to have a husband who was a brhmaa. Because
Devayn liked Yayti, who was a katriya, she requested him to accept
her as his bona fide wife. Although this would be pratiloma-vivha, a
marriage between the daughter of a high family and the son of a lower
family, she explained that this arrangement was made by providence.
yaytir anabhipreta
daivopahtam tmana
manas tu tad-gata buddhv
pratijagrha tad-vaca


yaytiKing Yayti; anabhipretamnot liked; daiva-upahtambrought

about by providential arrangements; tmanahis personal interest;
manamind; tuhowever; tat-gatambeing attracted to her; buddhv
by such intelligence; pratijagrhaaccepted; tat-vacathe words of
ukadeva Gosvm continued: Because such a marriage is not
sanctioned by regular scriptures, King Yayti did not like it, but
because it was arranged by providence and because he was attracted by
Devayn's beauty, he accepted her request.
According to the Vedic system, the parents would consider the
horoscopes of the boy and girl who were to be married. If according to
astrological calculations the boy and girl were compatible in every
respect, the match was called yoaka and the marriage would be accepted.
Even fifty years ago, this system was current in Hindu society. Regardless
of the affluence of the boy or the personal beauty of the girl, without this
astrological compatibility the marriage would not take place. A person is
born in one of three categories, known as deva-gaa, manuya-gaa and
rakasa-gaa. In different parts of the universe there are demigods and
demons, and in human society also some people resemble demigods
whereas others resemble demons. If according to astrological calculations
there was conflict between a godly and a demoniac nature, the marriage
would not take place. Similarly, there were calculations of pratiloma and
anuloma. The central idea is that if the boy and girl were on an equal level
the marriage would be happy, whereas inequality would lead to
unhappiness. Because care is no longer taken in marriage, we now find
many divorces. Indeed, divorce has now become a common affair,
although formerly one's marriage would continue lifelong, and the
affection between husband and wife was so great that the wife would
voluntarily die when her husband died or would remain a faithful widow
throughout her entire life. Now, of course, this is no longer possible, for
human society has fallen to the level of animal society. Marriage now
takes place simply by agreement. Dmpatye 'bhirucir hetu (SB 12.2.3).
The word abhiruci means "agreement." If the boy and girl simply agree to
marry, the marriage takes place. But when the Vedic system is not rigidly
observed, marriage frequently ends in divorce.


gate rjani s dhre

tatra sma rudat pitu
nyavedayat tata sarvam
ukta armihay ktam
gate rjaniafter the departure of the King; sshe (Devayn); dhre
learned; tatra smareturning to her home; rudatcrying; pitubefore
her father; nyavedayatsubmitted; tatathereafter; sarvamall;
uktammentioned; armihayby armih; ktamdone.
Thereafter, when the learned King returned to his palace, Devayn
returned home crying and told her father, ukrcrya, about all that had
happened because of armih. She told how she had been thrown into
the well but was saved by the King.
durman bhagavn kvya
paurohitya vigarhayan
stuvan vtti ca kpot
duhitr sa yayau purt
durmanbeing very unhappy; bhagavnthe most powerful; kvya
ukrcrya; paurohityamthe business of priesthood; vigarhayan
condemning; stuvanpraising; vttimthe profession; caand;
kpotmof collecting grains from the field; duhitrwith his daughter;
sahe (ukrcrya); yayauwent; purtfrom his own residence.
As ukrcrya listened to what had happened to Devayn, his mind
was very much aggrieved. Condemning the profession of priesthood
and praising the profession of ucha-vtti [collecting grains from the
fields], he left home with his daughter.
When a brhmaa adopts the profession of a kapota, or pigeon, he lives by
collecting grains from the field. This is called ucha-vtti. A brhmaa who
takes to this ucha-vtti profession is called first class because he depends
completely on the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and does
not beg from anyone. Although the profession of begging is allowed for a
brhmaa or sannys, one does better if he can avoid such a profession
and completely depend on the mercy of the Supreme Personality of


Godhead for maintenance. ukrcrya was certainly very sorry that

because of his daughter's complaint he had to go to his disciple to beg
some mercy, which he was obliged to do because he had accepted the
profession of priesthood. In his heart, ukrcrya did not like his
profession, but since he had accepted it, he was obliged to go unwillingly
to his disciple to settle the grievance submitted by his daughter.
vaparv tam jya
guru prasdayan mrdhn
pdayo patita pathi
vaparvthe King of the demons; tam jyaunderstanding the
motive of ukrcrya; pratyankasome curse; vivakitamdesiring to
speak; gurumhis spiritual master, ukrcrya; prasdayathe satisfied
immediately; mrdhnwith his head; pdayoat the feet; patitafell
down; pathion the road.
King Vaparv understood that ukrcrya was coming to chastise or
curse him. Consequently, before ukrcrya came to his house,
Vaparv went out and fell down in the street at the feet of his guru
and satisfied him, checking his wrath.
kardha-manyur bhagavn
iya vycaa bhrgava
kmo 'sy kriyat rjan
nain tyaktum ihotsahe
kaa-ardhalasting only a few moments; manyuwhose anger;
bhagavnthe most powerful; iyamunto his disciple, Vaparv;
vycaasaid; bhrgavaukrcrya, the descendant of Bhgu;
kmathe desire; asyof this Devayn; kriyatmplease fulfill;
rjanO King; nanot; enmthis girl; tyaktumto give up; ihain
this world; utsaheI am able.
The powerful ukrcrya was angry for a few moments, but upon being
satisfied he said to Vaparv: My dear King, kindly fulfill the desire of


Devayn, for she is my daughter and in this world I cannot give her up
or neglect her.
Sometimes a great personality like ukrcrya cannot neglect sons and
daughters, for sons and daughters are by nature dependent on their father
and the father has affection for them. Although ukrcrya knew that the
quarrel between Devayn and armih was childish, as Devayn's
father he had to side with his daughter. He did not like to do this, but he
was obliged to because of affection. He plainly admitted that although he
should not have asked the King for mercy for his daughter, because of
affection he could not avoid doing so.
tathety avasthite prha
devayn manogatam
pitr datt yato ysye
snug ytu mm anu
tath itiwhen King Vaparv agreed to ukrcrya's proposal;
avasthitethe situation being settled in this way; prhasaid; devayn
the daughter of ukrcrya; manogatamher desire; pitrby the father;
dattgiven; yatato whomever; ysyeI shall go; sa-anugwith her
friends; ytushall go; mm anuas my follower or servant.
After hearing ukrcrya's request, Vaparv agreed to fulfill
Devayn's desire, and he awaited her words. Devayn then expressed
her desire as follows: "Whenever I marry by the order of my father, my
friend armih must go with me as my maidservant, along with her
pitr datt devaynyai
armih snug tad
svn tat sakaa vkya
tad-arthasya ca gauravam
devayn paryacarat
str-sahasrea dsavat
pitrby the father; dattgiven; devaynyaiunto Devayn, the


daughter of ukrcrya; armihthe daughter of Vaparv; sa-anug

with her friends; tadat that time; svnmof his own; tatthat;
sakaamdangerous position; vkyaobserving; tatfrom him;
arthasyaof the benefit; caalso; gauravamthe greatness; devaynm
unto Devayn; paryacaratserved; str-sahasreawith thousands of
other women; dsa-vatacting as a slave.
Vaparv wisely thought that ukrcrya's displeasure would bring
danger and that his pleasure would bring material gain. Therefore he
carried out ukrcrya's order and served him like a slave. He gave his
daughter armih to Devayn, and armih served Devayn like a
slave, along with thousands of other women.
In the beginning of these affairs concerning armih and Devayn, we
saw that armih had many friends. Now these friends became
maidservants of Devayn. When a girl married a katriya king, it was
customary for all her girl friends to go with her to her husband's house.
For instance, when Vasudeva married Devak, the mother of Ka, he
married all six of her sisters, and she also had many friends who
accompanied her. A king would maintain not only his wife but also the
many friends and maidservants of his wife. Some of these maidservants
would become pregnant and give birth to children. Such children were
accepted as ds-putra, the sons of the maidservants, and the king would
maintain them. The female population is always greater than the male,
but since a woman needs to be protected by a man, the king would
maintain many girls, who acted either as friends or as maidservants of the
queen. In the history of Ka's household life we find that Ka married
16,108 wives. These were not maidservants but direct queens, and Ka
expanded Himself into 16,108 forms to maintain different establishments
for each and every wife. This is not possible for ordinary men. Therefore
although the kings had to maintain many, many servants and wives, not
all of them had different establishments.
nhuya sut dattv
saha armihayoan
tam ha rja charmihm
dhs talpe na karhicit


nhuyaunto King Yayti, the descendant of Nahua; sutmhis

daughter; dattvgiving in marriage; sahawith; armihay
armih, the daughter of Vaparv and servant of Devayn; uan
ukrcrya; tamunto him (King Yayti); hasaid; rjanmy dear
King; armihmarmih, the daughter of Vaparv; dhallow;
talpeon your bed; nanot; karhicitat any time.
When ukrcrya gave Devayn in marriage to Yayti, he had
armih go with her, but he warned the King, "My dear King, never
allow this girl armih to lie with you in your bed."
vilokyauanas rja
charmih supraj kvacit
tam eva vavre rahasi
sakhy patim tau sat
vilokyaby seeing; auanasmDevayn, the daughter of ukrcrya;
rjanO King Parkit; armihthe daughter of Vaparv; suprajmpossessing nice children; kvacitat some time; tamhim (King
Yayti); evaindeed; vavrerequested; rahasiin a secluded place;
sakhyof her friend; patimthe husband; tauat the appropriate
time; satbeing in that position.
O King Parkit, upon seeing Devayn with a nice son, armih once
approached King Yayti at the appropriate time for conception. In a
secluded place, she requested the King, the husband of her friend
Devayn, to enable her to have a son also.
rja-putryrthito 'patye
dharma cvekya dharmavit
smara chukra-vaca kle
diam evbhyapadyata
rja-putryby armih, who was the daughter of a king; arthita
being requested; apatyefor a son; dharmamreligious principles; caas
well as; avekyaconsidering; dharma-vitaware of all religious


principles; smaranremembering; ukra-vacathe warning of

ukrcrya; kleat the time; diamcircumstantially; evaindeed;
abhyapadyataaccepted (to fulfill the desire of armih).
When Princess armih begged King Yayti for a son, the King was
certainly aware of the principles of religion, and therefore he agreed to
fulfill her desire. Although he remembered the warning of ukrcrya,
he thought of this union as the desire of the Supreme, and thus he had
sex with armih.
King Yayti was completely aware of the duty of a katriya. When a
katriya is approached by a woman, he cannot deny her. This is a
religious principle. Consequently, when Dharmarja, Yudhihira, saw
Arjuna unhappy after Arjuna returned from Dvrak, he asked whether
Arjuna had refused a woman who had begged for a son. Although
Mahrja Yayti remembered ukrcrya's warning, he could not refuse
armih. He thought it wise to give her a son, and thus he had sexual
intercourse with her after her menstrual period. This kind of lust is not
against religious principles. As stated in Bhagavad-gt (7.11),
dharmviruddho bhteu kmo 'smi: sex life not contrary to the principles
of religion is sanctioned by Ka. Because armih, the daughter of a
king, had begged Yayti for a son, their combination was not lust but an
act of religion.
yadu ca turvasu caiva
devayn vyajyata
druhyu cnu ca pru ca
armih vraparva
yadumYadu; caand; turvasumTurvasu; ca evaas well as;
devaynthe daughter of ukrcrya; vyajyatagave birth to;
druhyumDruhyu; caand; anumAnu; caalso; prumPru; ca
also; armiharmih; vraparvathe daughter of Vaparv.
Devayn gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu, and armih gave birth to
Druhyu, Anu and Pru.


garbha-sambhavam sury
bhartur vijya mnin
devayn pitur geha
yayau krodha-vimrchit
garbha-sambhavampregnancy; suryof armih; bhartumade
possible by her husband; vijyaknowing (from the brhmaa
astrologers); mninbeing very proud; devaynthe daughter of
ukrcrya; pituof her father; gehamto the house; yayaudeparted;
krodha-vimrchitfrenzied because of anger.
When the proud Devayn understood from outside sources that
armih was pregnant by her husband, she was frenzied with anger.
Thus she departed for her father's house.
priym anugata km
vacobhir upamantrayan
na prasdayitu eke
priymhis beloved wife; anugatafollowing; kmvery, very lusty;
vacobhiby great words; upamantrayanappeasing; nanot;
prasdayitumto appease; ekewas able; pda-savhana-dibhi
even by massaging her feet.
King Yayti, who was very lusty, followed his wife, caught her and tried
to appease her by speaking pleasing words and massaging her feet, but
he could not satisfy her by any means.
ukras tam ha kupita
tv jar viat manda
virpa-kara nm
ukraukrcrya; tamunto him (King Yayti); hasaid; kupita
being very angry at him; str-kmaO you who have lusty desires for


women; anta-pruaO untruthful person; tvmunto you; jarold

age, invalidity; viatmmay enter; mandayou fool; virpa-kara
which disfigures; nmthe bodies of human beings.
ukrcrya was extremely angry. "You untruthful fool, lusting after
women! You have done a great wrong," he said. "I therefore curse you
to be attacked and disfigured by old age and invalidity."
r-yaytir uvca
atpto 'smy adya kmn
brahman duhitari sma te
vyatyasyat yath-kma
vayas yo 'bhidhsyati
r-yayti uvcaKing Yayti said; atptaunsatisfied; asmiI am;
adyatill now; kmnmto satisfy my lusty desires; brahmanO
learned brhmaa; duhitariin connection with the daughter; smain
the past; teyour; vyatyasyatmjust exchange; yath-kmamas long
as you are lusty; vayaswith youth; ya abhidhsyatiof one who
agrees to exchange your old age for his youth.
King Yayti said, "O learned, worshipable brhmaa, I have not yet
satisfied my lusty desires with your daughter." ukrcrya then replied,
"You may exchange your old age with someone who will agree to
transfer his youth to you."
When King Yayti said that he had not yet satisfied his lusty desires with
ukrcrya's daughter, ukrcrya saw that it was against the interests of
his own daughter for Yayti to continue in old age and invalidity, for
certainly his lusty daughter would not be satisfied. Therefore ukrcrya
blessed his son-in-law by saying that he could exchange his old age for
someone else's youth. He indicated that if Yayti's son would exchange his
youth for Yayti's old age, Yayti could continue to enjoy sex with
iti labdha-vyavasthna
putra jyeham avocata


yado tta pratcchem

jar dehi nija vaya
itithus; labdha-vyavasthnagetting the opportunity to exchange his
old age; putramunto his son; jyehamthe eldest; avocatahe
requested; yadoO Yadu; ttayou are my beloved son; pratccha
kindly exchange; immthis; jarminvalidity; dehiand give; nijam
your own; vayayouth.
When Yayti received this benediction from ukrcrya, he requested
his eldest son: My dear son Yadu, please give me your youth in
exchange for my old age and invalidity.
mtmaha-kt vatsa
na tpto viayev aham
vayas bhavadyena
rasye katipay sam
mtmaha-ktmgiven by your maternal grandfather, ukrcrya;
vatsamy dear son; nanot; tptasatisfied; viayeuin sex life,
sense gratification; ahamI (am); vayasby age; bhavadyenaof your
good self; rasyeI shall enjoy sex life; katipayfor a few; sam
My dear son, I am not yet satisfied in my sexual desires. But if you are
kind to me, you can take the old age given by your maternal
grandfather, and I may take your youth so that I may enjoy life for a few
years more.
This is the nature of lusty desires. In Bhagavad-gt (7.20) it is said,
kmais tais tair hta jn: when one is too attached to sense
gratification, he actually loses his sense. The word hta jn refers to
one who has lost his sense. Here is an example: the father shamelessly
asked his son to exchange youth for old age. Of course, the entire world is
under such illusion. Therefore it is said that everyone is pramatta, or
exclusively mad. Nna pramatta kurute vikarma: [SB 5.5.4] when one
becomes almost like a madman, he indulges in sex and sense gratification.
Sex and sense gratification can be controlled, however, and one achieves


perfection when he has no desires for sex. This is possible only when one
is fully Ka conscious.
yad-avadhi mama ceta ka-pdravinde
nava-nava-rasa-dhmany udyata rantum st
tad-avadhi bata nr-sagame smaryamne
bhavati mukha-vikra suhu nihvana ca
"Since I have been engaged in the transcendental loving service of Ka,
realizing ever-new pleasure in Him, whenever I think of sex pleasure, I
spit at the thought, and my lips curl with distaste." Sexual desire can be
stopped only when one is fully Ka conscious, and not otherwise. As
long as one has desires for sex, one must change his body and
transmigrate from one body to another to enjoy sex in different species or
forms. But although the forms may differ, the business of sex is the same.
Therefore it is said, puna puna carvita-carvanm [SB 7.5.30]. Those
who are very much attached to sex transmigrate from one body to
another, with the same business of "chewing the chewed," tasting sex
enjoyment as a dog, sex enjoyment as a hog, sex enjoyment as a demigod,
and so on.
r-yadur uvca
notsahe jaras sthtum
antar prptay tava
aviditv sukha grmya
vaitya naiti prua
r-yadu uvcaYadu, the eldest son to Yayti, replied; na utsaheI am
not enthusiastic; jaraswith your old age and invalidity; sthtumto
remain; antarwhile in youth; prptayaccepted; tavayour;
aviditvwithout experiencing; sukhamhappiness; grmyammaterial
or bodily; vaityamindifference to material enjoyment; nadoes not;
etiattain; pruaa person.
Yadu replied: My dear father, you have already achieved old age,
although you also were a young man. But I do not welcome your old age
and invalidity, for unless one enjoys material happiness, one cannot
attain renunciation.


Renunciation of material enjoyment is the ultimate goal of human life.

Therefore the varrama institution is most scientific. It aims at giving
one the facility to return home, back to Godhead, which one cannot do
without completely renouncing all connections with the material world.
bhagavadbhajanonmukhasya: one who wants to go back home, back to Godhead,
must be nikicana, free from all affinity for material enjoyment.
Brahmay upaamrayam: unless one is fully renounced, one cannot
engage in devotional service or stay in Brahman. Devotional service is
rendered on the Brahman platform. Therefore, unless one attains the
Brahman platform, or spiritual platform, one cannot engage in devotional
service; or, in other words, a person engaged in devotional service is
already on the Brahman platform.
m ca yo 'vyabhicrea
bhakti-yogena sevate
sa gun samattyaitn
brahma-bhyya kalpate
"One who engages in full devotional service, who does not fall down in
any circumstance, at once transcends the modes of material nature and
thus comes to the level of Brahman." (Bg. 14.26) If one attains devotional
service, therefore, he is certainly liberated. Generally, unless one enjoys
material happiness, one cannot attain renunciation. Varrama therefore
gives the opportunity for gradual elevation. Yadu, the son of Mahrja
Yayti, explained that he was unable to give up his youth, for he wanted
to use it to attain the renounced order in the future.
Mahrja Yadu was different from his brothers. As stated in the next
verse, turvasu codita pitr druhyu cnu ca bhrata/ pratycakhyur
adharmaj. Mahrja Yadu's brothers refused to accept their father's
proposal because they were not completely aware of dharma. To accept
orders that follow religious principles, especially the orders of one's
father, is very important. Therefore when the brothers of Mahrja Yadu
refused their father's order, this was certainly irreligious. Mahrja Yadu's
refusal, however, was religious. As stated in the Tenth Canto, yado ca
dharma-lya: Mahrja Yadu was completely aware of the principles of
religion. The ultimate principle of religion is to engage oneself in
devotional service to the Lord. Mahrja Yadu was very eager to engage


himself in the Lord's service, but there was an impediment: during youth
the material desire to enjoy the material senses is certainly present, and
unless one fully satisfies these lusty desires in youth, there is a chance of
one's being disturbed in rendering service to the Lord. We have actually
seen that many sannyss who accept sannysa prematurely, not having
satisfied their material desires, fall down because they are disturbed.
Therefore the general process is to go through ghastha life and
vnaprastha life and finally come to sannysa and devote oneself
completely to the service of the Lord. Mahrja Yadu was ready to accept
his father's order and exchange youth for old age because he was
confident that the youth taken by his father would be returned. But
because this exchange would delay his complete engagement in
devotional service, he did not want to accept his father's old age, for he
was eager to achieve freedom from disturbances. Moreover, among the
descendants of Yadu would be Lord Ka. Therefore, because Yadu was
eager to see the Lord's appearance in his dynasty as soon as possible, Yadu
refused to accept his father's proposal. This was not irreligious, however,
because Yadu's purpose was to serve the Lord. Because Yadu was a faithful
servant of the Lord, Lord Ka appeared in his dynasty. As confirmed in
the prayers of Kunt, yado priyasynvavye. Yadu was very dear to Ka,
who was therefore eager to descend in Yadu's dynasty. In conclusion,
Mahrja Yadu should not be considered adharma ja, ignorant of
religious principles, as the next verse designates his brothers. He was like
the four Sanakas (catu-sana), who refused the order of their father,
Brahm, for the sake of a better cause. Because the four Kumras wanted
to engage themselves completely in the service of the Lord as brahmacrs,
their refusal to obey their father's order was not irreligious.
turvasu codita pitr
druhyu cnu ca bhrata
pratycakhyur adharmaj
hy anitye nitya-buddhaya
turvasuTurvasu, another son; coditarequested; pitrby the father
(to exchange old age and invalidity for his youth); druhyuDruhyu,
another son; caand; anuAnu, another son; caalso; bhrataO
King Parkit; pratycakhyurefused to accept; adharma-jbecause
they did not know religious principles; hiindeed; a-nityetemporary


youth; nitya-buddhayathinking to be permanent.

O Mahrja Parkit, Yayti similarly requested his sons Turvasu,
Druhyu and Anu to exchange their youth for his old age, but because
they were unaware of religious principles, they thought that their
flickering youth was eternal, and therefore they refused to carry out
their father's order.
apcchat tanaya pru
vayasona gudhikam
na tvam agrajavad vatsa
m pratykhytum arhasi
apcchatrequested; tanayamthe son; prumPru; vayasby age;
namalthough younger; gua-adhikambetter than the others by
quality; nanot; tvamyou; agraja-vatlike your older brothers;
vatsamy dear son; mmme; pratykhytumto refuse; arhasiought.
King Yayti then requested Pru, who was younger than these three
brothers but more qualified, "My dear son, do not be disobedient like
your elder brothers, for that is not your duty."
r-prur uvca
ko nu loke manuyendra
pitur tma-kta pumn
pratikartu kamo yasya
prasdd vindate param
r-pru uvcaPru said; kawhat; nuindeed; lokein this world;
manuya-indraO Your Majesty, best of human beings; pituthe father;
tma-ktawho has given this body; pumna person; pratikartumto
repay; kamais able; yasyaof whom; prasdtby the mercy;
vindateone enjoys; paramsuperior life.
Pru replied: O Your Majesty, who in this world can repay his debt to
his father? By the mercy of one's father, one gets the human form of life,


which can enable one to become an associate of the Supreme Lord.

The father gives the seed of the body, and this seed gradually grows and
develops until one ultimately attains the developed human body, with
consciousness higher than that of the animals. In the human body one
can be elevated to the higher planets, and, furthermore, if one cultivates
Ka consciousness, one can return home, back to Godhead. This
important human body is obtained by the grace of the father, and
therefore everyone is indebted to his father. Of course, in other lives one
also gets a father and mother; even cats and dogs have fathers and
mothers. But in the human form of life the father and mother can award
their son the greatest benediction by teaching him to become a devotee.
When one becomes a devotee, he achieves the greatest benediction
because he completely averts the repetition of birth and death. Therefore
the father who trains his child in Ka consciousness is the most
benevolent father in this world. It is said:
janame janame sabe pit mt pya
ka guru nahi mile bhaja hari ei
Everyone gets a father and mother, but if one gets the benediction of
Ka and guru, he can conquer material nature and return home, back to
uttama cintita kuryt
prokta-kr tu madhyama
adhamo 'raddhay kuryd
akartoccarita pitu
uttamathe best; cintitamconsidering the father's idea; kurytacts
accordingly; prokta-krone who acts on the order of the father; tu
indeed; madhyamamediocre; adhamalower class; araddhay
without any faith; kurytacts; akartunwilling to do; uccaritamlike
stool; pituof the father.
A son who acts by anticipating what his father wants him to do is first
class, one who acts upon receiving his father's order is second class,
and one who executes his father's order irreverently is third class. But a


son who refuses his father's order is like his father's stool.
Pru, Yayti's last son, immediately accepted his father's proposal, for
although he was the youngest, he was very qualified. Pru thought, "I
should have accepted my father's proposal before he asked, but I did not.
Therefore I am not a first-class son. I am second class. But I do not wish
to become the lowest type of son, who is compared to his father's stool."
One Indian poet has spoken of putra and mtra. putra means "son," and
mtra means "urine." Both a son and urine come from the same genitals.
If a son is an obedient devotee of the Lord he is called putra, or a real son;
otherwise, if he is not learned and is not a devotee, a son is nothing better
than urine.
iti pramudita pru
pratyaghj jar pitu
so 'pi tad-vayas kmn
yathvaj jujue npa
itiin this way; pramuditavery pleased; pruPru; pratyaght
accepted; jarmthe old age and invalidity; pituof his father; sa
that father (Yayti); apialso; tat-vayasby the youth of his son;
kmnall desires; yath-vatas required; jujuesatisfied; npaO
Mahrja Parkit.
ukadeva Gosvm said: In this way, O Mahrja Parkit, the son
named Pru was very pleased to accept the old age of his father, Yayti,
who took the youth of his son and enjoyed this material world as he
sapta-dvpa-pati sayak
pitvat playan praj
yathopajoa viay
jujue 'vyhatendriya
sapta-dvpa-patithe master of the entire world, consisting of seven
islands; sayakcompletely; pit-vatexactly like a father; playan
ruling; prajthe subjects; yath-upajoamas much as he wanted;


viaynmaterial happiness; jujueenjoyed; avyhatawithout being

disturbed; indriyahis senses.
Thereafter, King Yayti became the ruler of the entire world, consisting
of seven islands, and ruled the citizens exactly like a father. Because he
had taken the youth of his son, his senses were unimpaired, and he
enjoyed as much material happiness as he desired.
devayny apy anudina
preyasa param prtim
uvha preyas raha
devaynMahrja Yayti's wife, the daughter of ukrcrya; apialso;
anudinamtwenty-four hours, day after day; mana-vkby her mind
and words; dehabody; vastubhiwith all requisite things; preyasaof
her beloved husband; parammtranscendental; prtimbliss; uvha
executed; preyasvery dear to her husband; rahain seclusion,
without any disturbance.
In secluded places, engaging her mind, words, body and various
paraphernalia, Devayn, the dear wife of Mahrja Yayti, always
brought her husband the greatest possible transcendental bliss.
ayajad yaja-purua
kratubhir bhri-dakiai
sarva-devamaya deva
sarva-vedamaya harim
ayajatworshiped; yaja-puruamthe yaja-purua, the Lord;
kratubhiby performing various sacrifices; bhri-dakiaigiving
abundant gifts to the brhmaas; sarva-deva-mayamthe reservoir of all
the demigods; devamthe Supreme Lord; sarva-veda-mayamthe
ultimate object of all Vedic knowledge; harimthe Lord, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.


King Yayti performed various sacrifices, in which he offered abundant

gifts to the brhmaas to satisfy the Supreme Lord, Hari, who is the
reservoir of all the demigods and the object of all Vedic knowledge.
yasminn ida viracita
vyomnva jaladvali
nneva bhti nbhti
yasminin whom; idamthis entire cosmic manifestation; viracitam
created; vyomniin the sky; ivajust like; jalada-valiclouds; nn
ivaas if in different varieties; bhtiis manifested; na bhtiis
unmanifested; svapna-myillusion, like a dream; mana-ratha
created to be traversed by the chariot of the mind.
The Supreme Lord, Vsudeva, who created the cosmic manifestation,
exhibits Himself as all-pervading, like the sky that holds clouds. And
when the creation is annihilated, everything enters into the Supreme
Lord, Viu, and varieties are no longer manifested.
As stated by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gt (7.19):
bahn janmanm ante
jnavn m prapadyate
vsudeva sarvam iti
sa mahtm sudurlabha
"After many births and deaths, he who is actually in knowledge
surrenders unto Me, knowing Me to be the cause of all causes and all that
is. Such a great soul is very rare." The Supreme Personality of Godhead,
Vsudeva, is one with the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Absolute
Truth. Everything is in Him in the beginning, and at the end all
manifestations enter into Him. He is situated in everyone's heart (sarvasya
cha hdi sannivia [Bg. 15.15]). And from Him everything has
emanated (janmdy asya yata [SB 1.1.1]). All material manifestations,
however, are temporary. The word svapna means "dreams," my means
"illusion," and manoratha means "mental creations." Dreams, illusions
and mental creations are temporary. Similarly, all material creation is


temporary, but Vsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the

eternal Absolute Truth.
tam eva hdi vinyasya
vsudeva guhayam
nryaam aysa
nirr ayajat prabhum
tam evaHim only; hdiwithin the heart; vinyasyaplacing;
vsudevamLord Vsudeva; guha-ayamwho exists in everyone's
heart; nryaamwho is Nryaa, or an expansion of Nryaa;
aysaminvisible to material eyes, although existing everywhere;
nirYayti, without any material desires; ayajatworshiped;
prabhumthe Supreme Lord.
Without material desires, Mahrja Yayti worshiped the Supreme
Lord, who is situated in everyone's heart as Nryaa and is invisible to
material eyes, although existing everywhere.
King Yayti, although externally seeming very fond of material
enjoyment, was internally thinking of becoming an eternal servant of the
eva vara-sahasri
mana-ahair mana-sukham
vidadhno 'pi ntpyat
srva-bhauma kad-indriyai
evamin this way; vara-sahasrifor one thousand years; manaahaiby the mind and five knowledge-acquiring senses; manasukhamtemporary happiness created by the mind; vidadhna
executing; apialthough; na atpyatcould not be satisfied; srvabhaumaalthough he was the king of the entire world; kat-indriyai
because of possessing impure senses.
Although Mahrja Yayti was the king of the entire world and he
engaged his mind and five senses in enjoying material possessions for
one thousand years, he was unable to be satisfied.


The kad-indriya, or unpurified senses, can be purified if one engages the

senses and the mind in Ka consciousness. Sarvopdhi-vinirmukta tatparatvena nirmalam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. One must be freed from all
designations. When one identifies himself with the material world, his
senses are impure. But when one achieves spiritual realization and
identifies himself as a servant of the Lord, his senses are purified
immediately. Engagement of the purified senses in the service of the Lord
is called bhakti. Hkea hkea-sevana bhaktir ucyate. One may enjoy
the senses for many thousands of years, but unless one purifies the senses,
one cannot be happy.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Eighteenth Chapter,
of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "King Yayti Regains His Youth."


19. King Yayti Achieves Liberation

This Nineteenth Chapter describes how Mahrja Yayti achieved

liberation after he recounted the figurative story of the he-goat and shegoat.
After many, many years of sexual relationships and enjoyment in the
material world, King Yayti finally became disgusted with such
materialistic happiness. When satiated with material enjoyment, he
devised a story of a he-goat and she-goat, corresponding to his own life,
and narrated the story before his beloved Devayn. The story is as
follows. Once upon a time, while a goat was searching in a forest for
different types of vegetables to eat, by chance he came to a well, in which
he saw a she-goat. He became attracted to this she-goat and somehow or
other delivered her from the well, and thus they were united. One day
thereafter, when the she-goat saw the he-goat enjoying sex with another
she-goat, she became angry, abandoned the he-goat, and returned to her
brhmaa owner, to whom she described her husband's behavior. The
brhmaa became very angry and cursed the he-goat to lose his sexual
power. Thereupon, the he-goat begged the brhmaa's pardon and was
given back the power for sex. Then the he-goat enjoyed sex with the shegoat for many years, but still he was not satisfied. If one is lusty and
greedy, even the total stock of gold in this world cannot satisfy one's lusty
desires. These desires are like a fire. One may pour clarified butter on a
blazing fire, but one cannot expect the fire to be extinguished. To
extinguish such a fire, one must adopt a different process. The stra
therefore advises that by intelligence one renounce the life of enjoyment.
Without great endeavor, those with a poor fund of knowledge cannot give
up sense enjoyment, especially in relation to sex, because a beautiful
woman bewilders even the most learned man. King Yayti, however,
renounced worldly life and divided his property among his sons. He
personally adopted the life of a mendicant, or sannys, giving up all
attraction to material enjoyment, and engaged himself fully in devotional
service to the Lord. Thus he attained perfection. Later, when his beloved
wife, Devayn, was freed from her mistaken way of life, she also engaged


herself in the devotional service of the Lord.

r-uka uvca
sa ittham caran kmn
straio 'pahnavam tmana
buddhv priyyai nirvio
gthm etm agyata
r-uka uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; saMahrja Yayti;
itthamin this way; caranbehaving; kmnin regard to lusty desires;
straiavery much attached to woman; apahnavamcounteraction;
tmanaof his own welfare; buddhvunderstanding with intelligence;
priyyaiunto his beloved wife, Devayn; nirviadisgusted;
gthmstory; etmthis (as follows); agyatanarrated.
ukadeva Gosvm said: O Mahrja Parkit, Yayti was very much
attached to woman. In due course of time, however, when disgusted
with sexual enjoyment and its bad effects, he renounced this way of life
and narrated the following story to his beloved wife.
u bhrgavy am gth
mad-vidhcarit bhuvi
dhr yasynuocanti
vane grma-nivsina
uplease hear; bhrgaviO daughter of ukrcrya; ammthis;
gthmhistory; mat-vidhexactly resembling my behavior; caritm
behavior; bhuviwithin this world; dhrthose who are sober and
intelligent; yasyaof whom; anuocantilament very much; vanein the
forest; grma-nivsinavery much attached to materialistic enjoyment.
My dearly beloved wife, daughter of ukrcrya, in this world there was
someone exactly like me. Please listen as I narrate the history of his life.
By hearing about the life of such a householder, those who have retired
from householder life always lament.
Persons who live in the village or town are called grma-nivs, and those


who live in the forest are called vana-vs or vnaprastha. The

vnaprasthas, who have retired from family life, generally lament about
their past family life because it engaged them in trying to fulfill lusty
desires. Prahlda Mahrja said that one should retire from family life as
soon as possible, and he described family life as the darkest well
(hitvtma-pta gham andha-kpam). If one continuously or
permanently concentrates on living with his family, he should be
understood to be killing himself. In the Vedic civilization, therefore, it is
recommended that one retire from family life at the end of his fiftieth year
and go to vana, the forest. When he becomes expert or accustomed to
forest life, or retired life as a vnaprastha, he should accept sannysa.
Vana gato yad dharim rayeta [SB 7.5.5]. Sannysa means accepting
unalloyed engagement in the service of the Lord. Vedic civilization
therefore recommends four different stages of life-brahmacarya, ghastha,
vnaprastha and sannysa. One should be very much ashamed of
remaining a householder and not promoting oneself to the two higher
stages, namely vnaprastha and sannysa.
basta eko vane kacid
vicinvan priyam tmana
dadara kpe patit
sva-karma-vaagm ajm
bastagoat; ekaone; vanein a forest; kacitsome; vicinvan
searching for food; priyamvery dear; tmanafor himself; dadara
saw by chance; kpewithin a well; patitmfallen; sva-karma-vaagmunder the influence of the results of fruitive activities; ajma shegoat.
While wandering in the forest, eating to satisfy his senses, a he-goat by
chance approached a well, in which he saw a she-goat standing
helplessly, having fallen into it by the influence of the results of fruitive
Here Mahrja Yayti compares himself to a he-goat and Devayn to a
she-goat and describes the nature of man and woman. Like a he-goat, a
man searches for sense gratification, wandering here and there, and a
woman without the shelter of a man or husband is like a she-goat that has


fallen into a well. Without being cared for by a man, a woman cannot be
happy. Indeed, she is just like a she-goat that has fallen into a well and is
struggling for existence. Therefore a woman must take shelter of her
father, as Devayn did when under the care of ukrcrya, and then the
father must give the daughter in charity to a suitable man, or a suitable
man should help the woman by placing her under the care of a husband.
This is shown vividly by the life of Devayn. When King Yayti delivered
Devayn from the well, she felt great relief and requested Yayti to accept
her as his wife. But when Mahrja Yayti accepted Devayn, he became
too attached and had sex life not only with her but with others, like
armih. Yet still he was dissatisfied. Therefore one should retire by
force from such family life as Yayti's. When one is fully convinced of the
degrading nature of worldly family life, one should completely renounce
this way of life, take sannysa, and engage himself fully in the service of
the Lord. Then one's life will be successful.
tasy uddharaopya
basta km vicintayan
vyadhatta trtham uddhtya
vigrea rodhas
tasyof the she-goat; uddharaa-upyamthe means of deliverance
(from the well); bastathe he-goat; kmhaving lusty desires;
vicintayanplanning; vyadhattaexecuted; trthama way to come out;
uddhtyadigging the earth; via-agreaby the point of the horns;
rodhasat the edge of the well.
After planning how to get the she-goat out of the well, the lusty he-goat
dug up the earth on the well's edge with the point of his horns in such a
way that she was able to come out very easily.
Attraction for woman is the impetus for economic development, housing
and many other things meant for living comfortably in this material
world. Digging up the earth to make a way out for the she-goat was a
laborious task, but before accepting the she-goat, the he-goat underwent
this labor. Ato gha-ketra-sutpta-vittair janasya moho 'yam aha mameti
[SB 5.5.8]. The union between male and female provides the impetus for
gaining a nice apartment, a good income, children and friends. Thus one


becomes entangled in this material world.

sottrya kpt suro
tam eva cakame kila
tay vta samudvkya
bahvyo 'j knta-kmin
pvna marula preha
mhvsa ybha-kovidam
sa eko 'javas ts
bahvn rati-vardhana
reme kma-graha-grasta
tmna nvabudhyata
sthe she-goat; uttryagetting out; kptfrom the well; su-ro
possessing very nice hips; tamunto the he-goat; evaindeed; cakame
desired to get as her husband; kilaindeed; tayby her; vtam
accepted; samudvkyaseeing; bahvyamany others; ajshe-goats;
knta-kmindesiring to get the he-goat as their husband; pvnam
very stout and strong; marulamhaving a very nice mustache and
beard; prehamfirst-class; mhvsamexpert in discharging semen;
ybha-kovidamexpert in the art of sexual intercourse; sathat he-goat;
ekaalone; aja-vathe hero of the goats; tsmof all the she-goats;
bahvnma great number; rati-vardhanacould increase the lusty
desire; remehe enjoyed; kma-graha-grastabeing haunted by the
ghost of lusty desire; tmnamhis own self; nanot; avabudhyata
could understand.
When the she-goat, who had very nice hips, got out of the well and saw
the very handsome he-goat, she desired to accept him as her husband.
When she did so, many other she-goats also desired him as their
husband because he had a very beautiful bodily structure and a nice
mustache and beard and was expert in discharging semen and in the art
of sexual intercourse. Therefore, just as a person haunted by a ghost
exhibits madness, the best of the he-goats, attracted by the many shegoats, engaged in erotic activities and naturally forgot his real business
of self-realization.


Materialists are certainly very much attracted by sexual intercourse. Yan

maithundi-ghamedhi-sukha hi tuccham [SB 7.9.45]. Although one
becomes a ghastha, or householder, to enjoy sex life to his heart's
content, one is never satisfied. Such a lusty materialist is like a goat, for it
is said that if goats meant for slaughter get the opportunity, they enjoy sex
before being killed. Human beings, however, are meant for selfrealization.
tapo divya putrak yena sattva
uddhyed yasmd brahma-saukhya tv anantam
[SB 5.5.1]
Human life is meant for realization of the self, the spiritual soul within the
body (dehino 'smin yath dehe [Bg. 2.13]). A materialistic rascal does not
know that he is not the body but a spiritual soul within the body.
However, one should understand his real position and cultivate
knowledge by which to get free from bodily entanglement. Like an
unfortunate person who acts madly, haunted by ghosts, a materialist
haunted by the ghost of lust forgets his real business so that he can enjoy
so-called happiness in the bodily concept of life.
tam eva prehatamay
ramamam ajnyay
vilokya kpa-savign
nmyad basta-karma tat
tamthe he-goat; evaindeed; prehatamaybeloved; ramamam
engaged in sexual activities; ajthe she-goat; anyaywith another shegoat; vilokyaby seeing; kpa-savignthe she-goat who had fallen
into the well; nanot; amyattolerated; basta-karmathe business of
the goat; tatthat (sex is accepted here as the business of the goat).
When the she-goat who had fallen into the well saw her beloved goat
engaged in sexual affairs with another she-goat, she could not tolerate
the goat's activities.


ta durhda suhd-rpa
kmina kaa-sauhdam
indriyrmam utsjya
svmina dukhit yayau
tamhim (the he-goat); durhdamcruel hearted; suht-rpam
pretending to be a friend; kminamvery lusty; kaa-sauhdamhaving
friendship for the time being; indriya-rmaminterested only in sense
gratification or sensuality; utsjyagiving up; svminamto her present
husband, or to the former maintainer; dukhitbeing very much
aggrieved; yayaushe left.
Aggrieved by her husband's behavior with another, the she-goat thought
that the he-goat was not actually her friend but was hardhearted and
was her friend only for the time being. Therefore, because her husband
was lusty, she left him and returned to her former maintainer.
The word svminam is significant. Svm means "caretaker" or "master."
Devayn was cared for by ukrcrya before her marriage, and after her
marriage she was cared for by Yayti, but here the word svminam
indicates that Devayn left the protection of her husband, Yayti, and
returned to her former protector, ukrcrya. Vedic civilization
recommends that a woman stay under the protection of a man. During
childhood she should be cared for by her father, in youth by her husband,
and in old age by a grown son. In any stage of life, a woman should not
have independence.
so 'pi cnugata straia
kpaas t prasditum
kurvann iavi-kra
naknot pathi sandhitum
sathat he-goat; apialso; caalso; anugatafollowing the she-goat;
straiahen pecked; kpaavery poor; tmher; prasditumto
satisfy; kurvanmaking; iavi-kraman utterance in the language of
the goats; nanot; aaknotwas able; pathion the road; sandhitumto
Being very sorry, the he-goat, who was subservient to his wife, followed


the she-goat on the road and tried his best to flatter her, but he could
not pacify her.
tasya tatra dvija kacid
aj-svmy acchinad ru
lambanta vaa bhya
sandadhe 'rthya yogavit
tasyaof the he-goat; tatrathereupon; dvijabrhmaa; kacitsome;
aj-svmthe maintainer of another she-goat; acchinatcastrated, made
effeminate; ruout of anger; lambantamlong; vaamtesticles;
bhyaagain; sandadhejoined; arthyafor self-interest; yoga-vit
expert in the power of mystic yoga.
The she-goat went to the residence of a brhmaa who was the
maintainer of another she-goat, and that brhmaa angrily cut off the
he-goat's dangling testicles. But at the he-goat's request, the brhmaa
later rejoined them by the power of mystic yoga.
Here ukrcrya is figuratively described as the husband of another shegoat. This indicates that the relationship between husband and wife in any
society, whether higher or lower than human society, is nothing but the
same relationship between he-goat and she-goat, for the material
relationship between man and woman is one of sex. Yan maithundighamedhi-sukha hi tuccham [SB 7.9.45]. ukrcrya was an crya, or
expert, in family affairs, which involve the transfer of semen from he-goat
to she-goat, The words kacid aj-svm expressly indicate herein that
ukrcrya was no better than Yayti, for both of them were interested in
family affairs generated by ukra, or semen. ukrcrya first cursed Yayti
to become old so that he could no longer indulge in sex, but when
ukrcrya saw that Yayti's emasculation would make his own daughter
a victim of punishment, he used his mystic power to restore Yayti's
masculinity. Because he used his power of mystic yoga for family affairs
and not to realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this exercise in
the magic of yoga was no better than the affairs of he-goats and she-goats.
Yogic power should properly be used to realize the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. As the Lord Himself recommends in Bhagavad-gt (6.47):


yoginm api sarve

raddhvn bhajate yo m
sa me yuktatamo mata
"Of all yogs, he who always abides in Me with great faith, worshiping Me
in transcendental loving service, is most intimately united with Me in
yoga and is the highest of all."
sambaddha-vaa so 'pi
hy ajay kpa-labdhay
kla bahu-titha bhadre
kmair ndypi tuyati
sambaddha-vaarejoined with his testicles; sahe; apialso; hi
indeed; ajaywith the she-goat; kpa-labdhaywhom he got from the
well; klamfor a time; bahu-tithamof a long, long duration; bhadreO
my dear wife; kmaiwith such lusty desires; nanot; adya apieven
until now; tuyatiis satisfied.
My dear wife, when the he-goat had his testicles restored, he enjoyed
the she-goat he had gotten from the well, but although he continued to
enjoy for many, many years, even now he has not been fully satisfied.
When one is bound by affection for one's wife, one is attached to sexual
desires that are very difficult to overcome. Therefore, according to Vedic
civilization, one must voluntarily leave his so-called home and go to the
forest. Pacordhva vana vrajet. Human life is meant for such tapasya,
or austerity. By the austerity of voluntarily stopping sex life at home and
going to the forest to engage in spiritual activities in the association of
devotees, one achieves the actual purpose of human life.
tathha kpaa subhru
bhavaty prema-yantrita
tmna nbhijnmi
mohitas tava myay


tathexactly like the he-goat; ahamI; kpaaa miser with no sense

of the importance of life; su-bhruO my wife, with beautiful eyebrows;
bhavatyin your company; prema-yantritaas if tied in love,
although it is actually lust; tmnamself-realization (what I am and
what my duty is); na abhijnmiI could not realize even until now;
mohitabeing bewildered; tavayour; myayby the materially
attractive feature.
O my dear wife with beautiful eyebrows, I am exactly like that he-goat,
for I am so poor in intelligence that I am captivated by your beauty and
have forgotten the real task of self-realization.
If one remains a victim of the so-called beauty of his wife, his family life is
nothing but a dark well. Hitvtma-pta gham andha-kpam. Existence
in such a dark well is certainly suicidal. If one wants relief from the
miserable condition of material life, one must voluntarily give up his lusty
relationship with his wife; otherwise there is no question of selfrealization. Unless one is extremely advanced in spiritual consciousness,
household life is nothing but a dark well in which one commits suicide.
Prahlda Mahrja therefore recommended that in due time, at least after
one's fiftieth year, one must give up household life and go to the forest.
Vana gato yad dharim rayeta [SB 7.5.5]. There one should seek shelter
at the lotus feet of Hari.
yat pthivy vrhi-yava
hiraya paava striya
na duhyanti mana-prti
pusa kma-hatasya te
yatwhat; pthivymwithin this world; vrhifood grains, rice;
yavambarley; hirayamgold; paavaanimals; striyawives or
other women; na duhyantido not give; mana-prtimsatisfaction of the
mind; pusato a person; kma-hatasyabecause of being victimized
by lusty desires; tethey.
A person who is lusty cannot satisfy his mind even if he has enough of
everything in this world, including rice, barley and other food grains,
gold, animals and women. Nothing can satisfy him.


Improvement of one's economic condition is the aim and object of a

materialist, but there is no end to this material advancement, for if one
cannot control his lusty desires, he will never be pleased, even if he gets
all the material wealth of the world. In this age we see much material
improvement, but still people are struggling to get more and more
material opulence. Mana ahnndriyi prakti-sthni karati [Bg.
15.7]. Although every living entity is a part of the Supreme Being, because
of lusty desires one continuously struggles for so-called betterment of
one's economic condition. To have a satisfied mind, one must give up his
heart disease of lusty desires. This can be done only when one is Ka
bhakti par bhagavati pratilabhya kma
hd-rogam v apahinoty acirea dhra
(SB 10.33.39)
If one becomes Ka conscious, then he can give up this heart disease;
otherwise this disease of lusty desires will continue, and one cannot have
peace in his mind.
na jtu kma kmnm
upabhogena yati
havi ka-vartmeva
bhya evbhivardhate
nanot; jtuat any time; kmalusty desires; kmnmof persons
who are very lusty; upabhogenaby enjoyment of lusty desires; yati
can be pacified; haviby supplying butter; ka-vartmfire; iva
like; bhyaagain and again; evaindeed; abhivardhateincreases
more and more.
As supplying butter to a fire does not diminish the fire but instead
increases it more and more, the endeavor to stop lusty desires by
continual enjoyment can never be successful. [In fact, one must
voluntarily cease from material desires.]
One may have enough money and enough resources to satisfy the senses
but still not be satisfied, for the endeavor to stop lusty desires by enjoying


can never be successful. The example given here is very appropriate. One
cannot stop a blazing fire by trying to extinguish it with butter.
yad na kurute bhva
sarva-bhtev amagalam
sama-des tad pusa
sarv sukhamay dia
yadwhen; nanot; kurutedoes; bhvama different attitude of
attachment or envy; sarva-bhteuto all living entities; amagalam
inauspicious; sama-debecause of being equipoised; tadat that
time; pusaof the person; sarvall; sukha-mayin a happy
condition; diadirections.
When a man is nonenvious and does not desire ill fortune for anyone,
he is equipoised. For such a person, all directions appear happy.
Prabodhnanda Sarasvat said, viva pra-sukhyate: when one
becomes Ka conscious by the mercy of Lord Caitanya, for him the
entire world appears happy, and he has nothing for which to hanker. On
the brahma-bhta [SB 4.30.20] stage, or the platform of spiritual
realization, there is no lamentation and no material hankering (na ocati
na kkati [Bg. 18.54]). As long as one lives in the material world,
actions and reactions will continue, but when one is unaffected by such
material actions and reactions, he is to be considered free from the danger
of being victimized by material desires. The symptoms of those who are
satiated with lusty desires are described in this verse. As explained by
rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, when one is not envious even of his
enemy, does not expect honor from anyone, but instead desires all wellbeing even for his enemy, he is understood to be a paramahasa, one who
has fully subdued the lusty desires for sense gratification.
y dustyaj durmatibhir
jryato y na jryate
t t dukha-nivah
arma-kmo druta tyajet
ythat which; dustyajextremely difficult to give up; durmatibhiby


persons too attached to material enjoyment; jryataeven by one who is

an invalid because of old age; ythat which; nanot; jryateis
vanquished; tmsuch; tmdesire; dukha-nivahmwhich is the
cause of all tribulations; arma-kmaa person desiring his own
happiness; drutamvery soon; tyajetshould give up.
For those who are too attached to material enjoyment, sense
gratification is very difficult to give up. Even when one is an invalid
because of old age, one cannot give up such desires for sense
gratification. Therefore, one who actually desires happiness must give
up such unsatisfied desires, which are the cause of all tribulations.
We have actually seen, especially in the Western countries, that men who
have reached more than eighty years of age still go to nightclubs and pay
heavy fees to drink wine and associate with women. Although such men
are too old to enjoy anything, their desires have not ceased. Time
deteriorates even the body itself, which is the medium for all sensual
satisfaction, but even when a man becomes old and invalid, his desires are
strong enough to dictate that he go here and there to satisfy the desires of
his senses. Therefore, by the practice of bhakti-yoga, one should give up
his lusty desires. As explained by r Ymuncrya:
yad-avadhi mama ceta ka-pdravinde
nava-nava-rasa-dhmany udyata rantum st
tad-avadhi bata nr-sagame smaryamne
bhavati mukha-vikra suhu nihvana ca
When one is Ka conscious, he gets more and more happiness by
discharging duties for Ka. Such a person spits on sense gratification,
especially that of sexual enjoyment. An experienced, advanced devotee is
no longer interested in sex life. The strong desire for sex can be subdued
only by advancement in Ka consciousness.
mtr svasr duhitr v
nviviktsano bhavet
balavn indriya-grmo
vidvsam api karati


mtrwith one's mother; svasrwith one's sister; duhitrwith ones

own daughter; veither; nanot; avivikta-sanaseated closely on
one seat; bhavetone should be; balavnvery strong; indriya-grma
the group of senses; vidvsamthe very learned and advanced person;
apieven; karatiagitates.
One should not allow oneself to sit on the same seat even with one's
own mother, sister or daughter, for the senses are so strong that even
though one is very advanced in knowledge, he may be attracted by sex.
Learning the etiquette of how to deal with women does not free one from
sexual attraction. As specifically mentioned herewith, such attraction is
possible even with one's mother, sister or daughter. Generally, of course,
one is not sexually attracted to his mother, sister or daughter, but if one
allows himself to sit very close to such a woman, one may be attracted.
This is a psychological fact. It may be said that one is liable to be attracted
if he is not very advanced in civilized life; however, as specifically
mentioned here, vidvsam api karati: even if one is highly advanced,
materially or spiritually, he may be attracted by lusty desires. The object
of attraction may even be one's mother, sister or daughter. Therefore, one
should be extremely careful in dealings with women. r Caitanya
Mahprabhu was most strict in such dealings, especially after He accepted
the sannysa order. Indeed, no woman could come near Him to offer Him
respect. Again, one is warned herewith that one should be extremely
careful in dealings with women. A brahmacr is forbidden even to see the
wife of his spiritual master if she happens to be young. The wife of the
spiritual master may sometimes take some service from the disciple of her
husband, as she would from a son, but if the wife of the spiritual master is
young, a brahmacr is forbidden to render service to her.
pra vara-sahasra me
viayn sevato 'sakt
tathpi cnusavana
t tepajyate
pramcompletely; vara-sahasramone thousand years; memy;
cessation, continuously; tath apistill; caindeed; anusavanammore


and more; tlusty desires; teuin sense gratification; upajyate

are increased.
I have spent a full one thousand years enjoying sense gratification, yet
my desire to enjoy such pleasure increases daily.
Mahrja Yayti is explaining, in terms of his actual experience, how
strong are sexual desires, even in old age.
tasmd etm aha tyaktv
brahmay adhyya mnasam
nirdvandvo nirahakra
cariymi mgai saha
tasmttherefore; etmsuch strong desires for lusty affairs; ahamI;
tyaktvgiving up; brahmaiupon the Supreme Absolute Truth;
adhyyafixing; mnasamthe mind; nirdvandvawithout duality;
nirahakrawithout an identity of false prestige; cariymiI shall
loiter or wander in the forest; mgai sahawith the forest animals.
Therefore, I shall now give up all these desires and meditate upon the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Free from the dualities of mental
concoction and free from false prestige, I shall wander in the forest with
the animals.
To go to the forest and live there with the animals, meditating upon the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the only means by which to give up
lusty desires. Unless one gives up such desires, one's mind cannot be
freed from material contamination. Therefore, if one is at all interested in
being freed from the bondage of repeated birth, death, old age and
disease, after a certain age one must go to the forest. pacordhva
vana vrajet. After fifty years of age, one should voluntarily give up family
life and go to the forest. The best forest is Vndvana, where one need not
live with the animals but can associate with the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who never leaves Vndvana. Cultivating Ka consciousness
in Vndvana is the best means of being liberated from material bondage,
for in Vndvana one can automatically meditate upon Ka. Vndvana
has many temples, and in one or more of these temples one may see the
form of the Supreme Lord as Rdh-Ka or Ka-Balarma and


meditate upon this form. As expressed here by the words brahmay

adhyya, one should concentrate one's mind upon the Supreme Lord,
Parabrahman. This Parabrahman is Ka, as confirmed by Arjuna in
Bhagavad-gt (para brahma para dhma pavitra parama bhavn
[Bg. 10.12]). Ka and His abode, Vndvana, are not different. r
Caitanya Mahprabhu said, rdhyo bhagavn vrajea-tanayas tad-dhma
vndvanam. Vndvana is as good as Ka. Therefore, if one somehow or
other gets the opportunity to live in Vndvana, and if one is not a
pretender but simply lives in Vndvana and concentrates his mind upon
Ka, one is liberated from material bondage. One's mind is not purified,
however, even in Vndvana, if one is agitated by lusty desires. One
should not live in Vndvana and commit offenses, for a life of offenses in
Vndvana is no better than the lives of the monkeys and hogs there.
Many monkeys and hogs live in Vndvana, and they are concerned with
their sexual desires. Men who have gone to Vndvana but who still
hanker for sex should immediately leave Vndvana and stop their
grievous offenses at the lotus feet of the Lord. There are many misguided
men who live in Vndvana to satisfy their sexual desires, but they are
certainly no better than the monkeys and hogs. Those who are under the
control of my, and specifically under the control of lusty desires, are
called my-mga. Indeed, everyone in the conditional stage of material
life is a my-mga. It is said, my-mga dayitayepsitam anvadhvad: [SB
11.5.34] r Caitanya Mahprabhu took sannysa to show His causeless
mercy to the my-mgas, the people of this material world, who suffer
because of lusty desires. One should follow the principles of r Caitanya
Mahprabhu and always think of Ka in full Ka consciousness. Then
one will be eligible to live in Vndvana, and his life will be successful.
da rutam asad buddhv
nnudhyyen na sandiet
sasti ctma-na ca
tatra vidvn sa tma-dk
damthe material enjoyment we experience in our present life;
rutammaterial enjoyment as promised to the fruitive workers for future
happiness (either in this life or in the next, in the heavenly planets and so
on); asatall temporary and bad; buddhvknowing; nanot;
anudhyyetone should even think of; nanor; sandietshould


actually enjoy; sastimprolongation of material existence; caand;

tma-namforgetfulness of one's own constitutional position; caas
well as; tatrain such a subject matter; vidvnone who is completely
aware; sasuch a person; tma-dka self-realized soul.
One who knows that material happiness, whether good or bad, in this
life or in the next, on this planet or on the heavenly planets, is
temporary and useless, and that an intelligent person should not try to
enjoy or even think of such things, is the knower of the self. Such a selfrealized person knows quite well that material happiness is the very
cause of continued material existence and forgetfulness of one's own
constitutional position.
The living entity is a spiritual soul, and the material body is his
encagement. This is the beginning of spiritual understanding.
dehino 'smin yath dehe
kaumra yauvana jar
tath dehntara-prptir
dhras tatra na muhyati
"As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to
youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The
self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." (Bg. 2.13) The real
mission of human life is to get free from encagement in the material body.
Therefore Ka descends to teach the conditioned soul about spiritual
realization and how to become free from material bondage. Yad yad hi
dharmasya glnir bhavati bhrata [Bg. 4.7]. The words dharmasya glni
mean "pollution of one's existence." Our existence is now polluted, and it
must be purified (sattva uddhyet). The human life is meant for this
purification, not for thinking of happiness in terms of the external body,
which is the cause of material bondage. Therefore, in this verse, Mahrja
Yayti advises that whatever material happiness we see and whatever is
promised for enjoyment is all merely flickering and temporary. brahmabhuvanl lok punar vartino 'rjuna [Bg. 8.16]. Even if one is promoted to
Brahmaloka, if one is not freed from material bondage one must return to
this planet earth and continue in the miserable condition of material
existence (bhtv bhtv pralyate) [Bg. 8.19]. One should always keep
this understanding in mind so as not to be allured by any kind of sense


enjoyment, in this life or in the next. One who is fully aware of this truth
is self-realized (sa tma-dk), but aside from him, everyone suffers in the
cycle of birth and death (mtyu-sasra-vartmani [Bg. 9.3]). This
understanding is one of true intelligence, and anything contrary to this is
but a cause of unhappiness. Ka-bhakta-nikma, ataeva 'nta.' [Cc.
Madhya 19.149] Only a Ka conscious person, who knows the aim and
object of life, is peaceful. All others, whether karms, jns or yogs, are
restless and cannot enjoy real peace.
ity uktv nhuo jy
tadya prave vaya
dattv sva-jarasa tasmd
dade vigata-spha
iti uktvsaying this; nhuaMahrja Yayti, the son of King Nahua;
jymunto his wife, Devayn; tadyamhis own; praveunto his son
Pru; vayayouth; dattvdelivering; sva-jarasamhis own invalidity
and old age; tasmtfrom him; dadetook back; vigata-sphabeing
freed from all material lusty desires.
ukadeva Gosvm said: After speaking in this way to his wife,
Devayn, King Yayti, who was now free from all material desires,
called his youngest son, Pru, and returned Pru's youth in exchange
for his own old age.
dii dakia-prvasy
druhyu dakiato yadum
pratcy turvasu cakra
udcym anum varam
diiin the direction; dakia-prvasymsoutheast; druhyumhis son
named Druhyu; dakiatain the southern side of the world; yadum
Yadu; pratcymin the western side of the world; turvasumhis son
known as Turvasu; cakrehe made; udcymin the northern side of the
world; anumhis son named Anu; varamthe King.
King Yayti gave the southeast to his son Druhyu, the south to his son


Yadu, the west to his son Turvasu, and the north to his son Anu. In this
way he divided the kingdom.
bh-maalasya sarvasya
prum arhattama vim
abhiicygrajs tasya
vae sthpya vana yayau
bh-maalasyaof the entire planet earth; sarvasyaof all wealth and
riches; prumhis youngest son, Pru; arhat-tamamthe most
worshipable person, the king; vimof the citizens or the subjects of the
world; abhiicyacrowning on the throne of the emperor; agrajnall
his elder brothers, beginning from Yadu; tasyaof Pru; vaeunder the
control; sthpyaestablishing; vanamin the forest; yayauhe went
Yayti enthroned his youngest son, Pru, as the emperor of the entire
world and the proprietor of all its riches, and he placed all the other
sons, who were older than Pru, under Pru's control.
sevita vara-pgn
a-varga viayeu sa
kaena mumuce na
jta-paka iva dvija
sevitambeing always engaged in; vara-pgnfor many, many years;
a-vargamthe six senses, including the mind; viayeuin sense
enjoyment; saKing Yayti; kaenawithin a moment; mumucegave
up; namnest; jta-pakaone that has grown its wings; ivalike;
dvijaa bird.
Having enjoyed sense gratification for many, many years, O King
Parkit, Yayti was accustomed to it, but he gave it up entirely in a
moment, just as a bird flies away from the nest as soon as its wings
have grown.


That Mahrja Yayti was immediately liberated from the bondage of

conditioned life is certainly astonishing. But the example given herewith
is appropriate. A tiny baby bird, dependent fully on its father and mother
even to eat, suddenly flies away from the nest when its wings have grown.
Similarly, if one fully surrenders to the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
one is immediately liberated from the bondage of conditioned life, as
promised by the Lord Himself (aha tv sarva-ppebhyo mokayiymi
[Bg. 18.66]). As stated in rmad-Bhgavatam (2.4.18):
bhra-umbh yavan khasdaya
ye 'nye ca pp yad-aprayray
udhyanti tasmai prabhaviave nama
"Kirta, Ha, ndhra, Pulinda, Pulkaa, bhra, umbha, Yavana and the
Khasa races and even others addicted to sinful acts can be purified by
taking shelter of the devotees of the Lord, for He is the supreme power. I
beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto Him." Lord Viu is so
powerful that He can deliver anyone at once if He is pleased to do so. And
Lord Viu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ka, can be pleased
immediately if we accept His order by surrendering unto Him, as
Mahrja Yayti did. Mahrja Yayti was eager to serve Vsudeva, Ka,
and therefore as soon as he wanted to renounce material life, Lord
Vsudeva helped him. We must therefore be very sincere in surrendering
ourselves unto the lotus feet of the Lord. Then we can immediately be
liberated from all the bondage of conditioned life. This is clearly
expressed in the next verse.
sa tatra nirmukta-samasta-saga
tmnubhty vidhuta-triliga
pare 'male brahmai vsudeve
lebhe gati bhgavat pratta
saMahrja Yayti; tatraupon doing this; nirmuktawas
immediately liberated from; samasta-sagaall contamination; tmaanubhtysimply by understanding his constitutional position;
vidhutawas cleansed of; tri-ligathe contamination caused by the
three modes of material nature (sattva-gua, rajo-gua and tamo-gua);


pareunto the Transcendence; amalewithout material contact;

brahmaithe Supreme Lord; vsudeveVsudeva, Ka, the Absolute
Truth, Bhagavn; lebheachieved; gatimthe destination; bhgavatm
as an associate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prattafamous.
Because King Yayti completely surrendered unto the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Vsudeva, he was freed from all contamination
of the material modes of nature. Because of his self-realization, he was
able to fix his mind upon the Transcendence [Parabrahman, Vsudeva],
and thus he ultimately achieved the position of an associate of the Lord.
The word vidhuta, meaning "cleansed," is very significant. Everyone in
this material world is contaminated (kraa gua-sago 'sya [Bg.
13.22]). Because we are in a material condition, we are contaminated
either by sattva-gua, by rajo-gua or by tamo-gua. Even if one becomes a
qualified brhmaa in the mode of goodness (sattva-gua), he is still
materially contaminated. One must come to the platform of uddha-sattva,
transcending the sattva-gua. Then one is vidhuta-triliga, cleansed of the
contamination caused by the three modes of material nature. This is
possible by the mercy of Ka. As stated in rmad-Bhgavatam (1.2.17):
vat sva-kath ka
hdy anta-stho hy abhadri
vidhunoti suht-satm
"r Ka, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramtm
[Supersoul] in everyone's heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee,
cleanses desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who
has developed the urge to hear His messages, which are in themselves
virtuous when properly heard and chanted." A person trying to be
perfectly Ka conscious by hearing the words of Ka from rmadBhgavatam or Bhagavad-gt certainly has all the dirty things cleansed
from the core of his heart. Caitanya Mahprabhu also says, ceto-darpaamrjanam: [Cc. Antya 20.12] the process of hearing and chanting the
glories of the Supreme Lord washes away the dirty things accumulated in
the core of the heart. As soon as one is freed from all the dirt of material
contamination, as Mahrja Yayti was, one's original position as an
associate of the Lord is revealed. This is called svarpa-siddhi, or personal


rutv gth devayn
mene prastobham tmana
str-puso sneha-vaiklavyt
parihsam iveritam
rutvhearing; gthmthe narration; devaynQueen Devayn, the
wife of Mahrja Yayti; meneunderstood; prastobham tmanawhen
instructed for her self-realization; str-pusobetween the husband and
wife; sneha-vaiklavytfrom an exchange of love and affection;
parihsama funny joke or story; ivalike; ritamspoken (by Mahrja
When Devayn heard Mahrja Yayti's story of the he-goat and shegoat, she understood that this story, which was presented as if a funny
joke for entertainment between husband and wife, was intended to
awaken her to her constitutional position.
When one actually awakens from material life, one understands his real
position as an eternal servant of Ka. This is called liberation. Muktir
hitvnyath rpa svarpea vyavasthiti (SB 2.10.6). Under the influence
of my, everyone living in this material world thinks that he is the
master of everything (ahakra-vimhtm kartham iti manyate [Bg.
3.27]). One thinks that there is no God or controller and that one is
independent and can do anything. This is the material condition, and
when one awakens from this ignorance, he is called liberated. Mahrja
Yayti had delivered Devayn from the well, and finally, as a dutiful
husband, he instructed her with the story about the he-goat and she-goat
and thus delivered her from the misconception of material happiness.
Devayn was quite competent to understand her liberated husband, and
therefore she decided to follow him as his faithful wife.
TEXTS 27-28
s sannivsa suhd
prapym iva gacchatm
my-viracita prabho


sarvatra sagam utsjya

svapnaupamyena bhrgav
ke mana samveya
vyadhunol ligam tmana
sDevayn; sannivsamliving in the association; suhdmof friends
and relatives; prapymin a place where water is supplied; ivalike;
gacchatmof tourists on a program for going from one place to another;
vijyaunderstanding; vara-tantrmunder the influence of the
rigid laws of nature; my-viracitamthe laws enforced by my, the
illusory energy; prabhoof the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
sarvatraeverywhere in this material world; sagamassociation;
utsjyagiving up; svapna-aupamyenaby the analogy of a dream;
bhrgavDevayn, the daughter of ukrcrya; keunto Lord Ka;
manacomplete attention; samveyafixing; vyadhunotgave up;
ligamthe gross and subtle bodies; tmanaof the soul.
Thereafter, Devayn, the daughter of ukrcrya, understood that the
materialistic association of husband, friends and relatives is like the
association in a hotel full of tourists. The relationships of society,
friendship and love are created by the my of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, exactly as in a dream. By the grace of Ka, Devayn gave
up her imaginary position in the material world. Completely fixing her
mind upon Ka, she achieved liberation from the gross and subtle
One should be convinced that he is a spirit soul, part and parcel of the
Supreme Brahman, Ka, but has somehow or other been entrapped by
the material coverings of the gross and subtle bodies, consisting of earth,
water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego. One should know
that the association of society, friendship, love, nationalism, religion and
so on are nothing but creations of my. One's only business is to become
Ka conscious and render service unto Ka as extensively as possible
for a living being. In this way one is liberated from material bondage. By
the grace of Ka, Devayn attained this state through the instructions
of her husband.
namas tubhya bhagavate


vsudevya vedhase
ntya bhate nama
namaI offer my respectful obeisances; tubhyamunto You;
bhagavatethe Supreme Personality of Godhead; vsudevyaLord
Vsudeva; vedhasethe creator of everything; sarva-bhta-adhivsya
present everywhere (within the heart of every living entity and within the
atom also); ntyapeaceful, as if completely inactive; bhatethe
greatest of all; namaI offer my respectful obeisances.
O Lord Vsudeva, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are the
creator of the entire cosmic manifestation. You live as the Supersoul in
everyone's heart and are smaller than the smallest, yet You are greater
than the greatest and are all-pervading. You appear completely silent,
having nothing to do, but this is due to Your all-pervading nature and
Your fullness in all opulences. I therefore offer my respectful
obeisances unto You.
How Devayn became self-realized by the grace of her great husband,
Mahrja Yayti, is described here. Describing such realization is another
way of performing the bhakti process.
ravaa krtana vio
smaraa pda-sevanam
arcana vandana dsya
sakhyam tma-nivedanam
"Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form,
qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Viu, remembering them,
serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship,
offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord
one's best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him-these nine
processes are accepted as pure devotional service." (SB 7.5.23) ravaa
krtanam, hearing and chanting, are especially important. By hearing from
her husband about the greatness of Lord Vsudeva, Devayn certainly
became convinced and surrendered herself unto the lotus feet of the Lord
(o namo bhagavate vsudevya). This is knowledge. Bahn janmanm
ante jnavn m prapadyate [Bg. 7.19]. Surrender to Vsudeva is the


result of hearing about Him for many, many births. As soon as one
surrenders unto Vsudeva, one is liberated immediately. Because of her
association with her great husband, Mahrja Yayti, Devayn became
purified, adopted the means of bhakti-yoga, and thus became liberated.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Nineteenth Chapter,
of the rmad-Bhgavatam, entitled "King Yayti Achieves Liberation."


20. The Dynasty of Pru

This chapter describes the history of Pru and his descendant Dumanta.
The son of Pru was Janamejaya, and his son was Pracinvn. The sons
and grandsons in the line of Pracinvn, one after another, were Pravra,
Manusyu, Crupada, Sudyu, Bahugava, Sayti, Ahayti and Raudrva.
Raudrva had ten sons-teyu, Kakeyu, Sthaileyu, Kteyuka, Jaleyu,
Sannateyu, Dharmeyu, Satyeyu, Vrateyu and Vaneyu. The son of teyu
was Rantinva, who had three sons-Sumati, Dhruva and Apratiratha. The
son of Apratiratha was Kava, and Kava's son was Medhtithi. The sons
of Medhtithi, headed by Praskanna, were all brhmaas. The son of
Rantinva named Sumati had a son named Rebhi, and his son was
While hunting in the forest, Dumanta once approached the rama of
Mahi Kava, where he saw an extremely beautiful woman and became
attracted to her. That woman was the daughter of Vivmitra, and her
name was akuntal. Her mother was Menak, who had left her in the
forest, where Kava Muni found her. Kava Muni brought her to his
rama, where he raised and maintained her. When akuntal accepted
Mahrja Dumanta as her husband, he married her according to the
gndharva-vidhi. akuntal later became pregnant by her husband, who
left her in the rama of Kava Muni and returned to his kingdom.
In due course of time, akuntal gave birth to a Vaiava son, but
Dumanta, having returned to the capital, forgot what had taken place.
Therefore, when akuntal approached him with her newly born child,
Mahrja Dumanta refused to accept them as his wife and son. Later,
however, after a mysterious omen, the King accepted them. After
Mahrja Dumanta's death, Bharata, the son of akuntal, was
enthroned. He performed many great sacrifices, in which he gave great
riches in charity to the brhmaas. This chapter ends by describing the
birth of Bharadvja and how Mahrja Bharata accepted Bharadvja as his


r-bdaryair uvca
pror vaa pravakymi
yatra jto 'si bhrata
yatra rjarayo vay
brahma-vay ca jajire
r-bdaryai uvcar ukadeva Gosvm said; pro vaamthe
dynasty of Mahrja Pru; pravakyminow I shall narrate; yatrain
which dynasty; jta asiyou were born; bhrataO Mahrja Parkit,
descendant of Mahrja Bharata; yatrain which dynasty; rja-aya
all the kings were saintly; vayone after another; brahma-vay
many brhmaa dynasties; caalso; jajiregrew up.
ukadeva Gosvm said: O Mahrja Parkit, descendant of Mahrja
Bharata, I shall now describe the dynasty of Pru, in which you were
born, in which many saintly kings appeared, and from which many
dynasties of brhmaas began.
There are many historical instances by which we can understand that
from katriyas many brhmaas have been born and that from brhmaas
many katriyas have been born. The Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gt
(4.13), ctur-varya may sa gua-karma-vibhgaa: "According to
the three modes of material nature and the work ascribed to them, the
four divisions of human society were created by Me." Therefore,
regardless of the family in which one takes birth, when one is qualified
with the symptoms of a particular section, he is to be described
accordingly. Yal-lakaa proktam. One's place in the vara divisions of
society is determined according to one's symptoms or qualities. This is
maintained everywhere in the stra. Birth is a secondary consideration;
the first consideration is one's qualities and activities.
janamejayo hy abht pro
pracinvs tat-sutas tata
pravro 'tha manusyur vai
tasmc crupado 'bhavat
janamejayaKing Janamejaya; hiindeed; abhtappeared; pro
from Pru; pracinvnPracinvn; tathis (Janamejaya's); sutason;


tatafrom him (Pracinvn); pravraPravra; athathereafter;

manusyuPravra's son Manusyu; vaiindeed; tasmtfrom him
(Manusyu); crupadaKing Crupada; abhavatappeared.
King Janamejaya was born of this dynasty of Pru. Janamejaya's son
was Pracinvn, and his son was Pravra. Thereafter, Pravra's son was
Manusyu, and from Manusyu came the son named Crupada.
tasya sudyur abht putras
tasmd bahugavas tata
saytis tasyhayt
raudrvas tat-suta smta
tasyaof him (Crupada); sudyuby the name Sudyu; abht
appeared; putraa son; tasmtfrom him (Sudyu); bahugavaa son
named Bahugava; tatafrom him; saytia son named Sayti;
tasyaand from him; ahaytia son named Ahayti; raudrva
Raudrva; tat-sutahis son; smtawell known.
The son of Crupada was Sudyu, and the son of Sudyu was Bahugava.
Bahugava's son was Sayti. From Sayti came a son named
Ahayti, from whom Raudrva was born.
teyus tasya kakeyu
sthaileyu kteyuka
jaleyu sannateyu ca
daaite 'psarasa putr
vaneyu cvama smta
ghtcym indriyva
mukhyasya jagad-tmana
teyuteyu; tasyaof him (Raudrva); kakeyuKakeyu;
sannateyuSannateyu; caalso; dharmaDharmeyu; satyaSatyeyu;


vrateyavaand Vrateyu; daaten; eteall of them; apsarasaborn of

an Apsar; putrsons; vaneyuthe son named Vaneyu; caand;
avamathe youngest; smtaknown; ghtcymGhtc; indriyi
ivaexactly like the ten senses; mukhyasyaof the living force; jagattmanathe living force of the entire universe.
Raudrva had ten sons, named teyu, Kakeyu, Sthaileyu, Kteyuka,
Jaleyu, Sannateyu, Dharmeyu, Satyeyu, Vrateyu and Vaneyu. Of these
ten sons, Vaneyu was the youngest. As the ten senses, which are
products of the universal life, act under the control of life, these ten
sons of Raudrva acted under Raudrva's full control. All of them
were born of the Apsar named Ghtc.
teyo rantinvo 'bht
trayas tasytmaj npa
sumatir dhruvo 'pratiratha
kavo 'pratirathtmaja
teyofrom the son named teyu; rantinvathe son named
Rantinva; abhtappeared; trayathree; tasyahis (Rantinva's);
tmajsons; npaO King; sumatiSumati; dhruvaDhruva;
apratirathaApratiratha; kavaKava; apratiratha-tmajathe son
of Apratiratha.
teyu had a son named Rantinva, who had three sons, named Sumati,
Dhruva and Apratiratha. Apratiratha had only one son, whose name was
tasya medhtithis tasmt
praskanndy dvijtaya
putro 'bht sumate rebhir
dumantas tat-suto mata
tasyaof him (Kava); medhtithia son named Medhtithi; tasmt
from him (Medhtithi); praskanna-dysons headed by Praskanna;
dvijtayaall brhmaas; putraa son; abhtthere was; sumate


from Sumati; rebhiRebhi; dumantaMahrja Dumanta; tat-suta

the son of Rebhi; matais well-known.
The son of Kava was Medhtithi, whose sons, all brhmaas, were
headed by Praskanna. The son of Rantinva named Sumati had a son
named Rebhi. Mahrja Dumanta is well known as the son of Rebhi.
dumanto mgay yta
kavrama-pada gata
tatrsn sva-prabhay
maayant ramm iva
vilokya sadyo mumuhe
deva-mym iva striyam
babhe t varroh
bhaai katipayair vta
dumantaMahrja Dumanta; mgaym ytawhen he went
hunting; kava-rama-padamto the residence of Kava; gatahe
came; tatrathere; snma woman sitting; sva-prabhayby her own
beauty; maayantmilluminating; ramm ivaexactly like the goddess
of fortune; vilokyaby observing; sadyaimmediately; mumuhehe
became enchanted; deva-mym ivaexactly like the illusory energy of
the Lord; striyama beautiful woman; babhehe addressed; tmher
(the woman); vara-rohmwho was the best of beautiful women;
bhaaiby soldiers; katipayaia few; vtasurrounded.
Once when King Dumanta went to the forest to hunt and was very
much fatigued, he approached the residence of Kava Muni. There he
saw a most beautiful woman who looked exactly like the goddess of
fortune and who sat there illuminating the entire rama by her
effulgence. The King was naturally attracted by her beauty, and
therefore he approached her, accompanied by some of his soldiers, and
spoke to her.


papraccha kma-santapta
prahasa lakay gir
tat-darana-pramuditabeing very much enlivened by seeing the
beautiful woman; sannivtta-pariramabeing relieved of the fatigue of
the hunting excursion; papracchahe inquired from her; kmasantaptabeing agitated by lusty desires; prahasanin a joking mood;
lakayvery beautiful and pleasing; girwith words.
Seeing the beautiful woman, the King was very much enlivened, and the
fatigue of his hunting excursion was relieved. He was of course very
much attracted because of lusty desires, and thus he inquired from her
as follows, in a joking mood.
k tva kamala-patrki
kasysi hdaya-game
ki svic cikrita tatra
bhavaty nirjane vane
kwho; tvamare you; kamala-patra-akiO beautiful woman with
eyes like the petals of a lotus; kasya asiwith whom are you related;
hdayam-gameO most beautiful one, pleasing to the heart; kim svit
what kind of business; cikritamis being thought of; tatrathere;
bhavatyby you; nirjanesolitary; vanein the forest.
O beautiful lotus-eyed woman, who are you? Whose daughter are you?
What purpose do you have in this solitary forest? Why are you staying
vyakta rjanya-tanay
vedmy aha tv sumadhyame
na hi ceta pauravm
adharme ramate kvacit
vyaktamit appears; rjanya-tanaymthe daughter of a katriya;


vedmican realize; ahamI; tvmyour good self; su-madhyameO

most beautiful; nanot; hiindeed; cetathe mind; pauravmof
persons who have taken birth in the Pru dynasty; adharmein
irreligion; ramateenjoys; kvacitat any time.
O most beautiful one, it appears to my mind that you must be the
daughter of a katriya. Because I belong to the Pru dynasty, my mind
never endeavors to enjoy anything irreligiously.
Mahrja Dumanta indirectly expressed his desire to marry akuntal,
for she appeared to his mind to be the daughter of some katriya king.
tyakt menakay vane
vedaitad bhagavn kavo
vra ki karavma te
r-akuntal uvcar akuntal replied; vivmitra-tmajthe
daughter of Vivmitra; evaindeed; ahamI (am); tyaktleft;
menakayby Menak; vanein the forest; vedaknows; etatall these
incidents; bhagavnthe most powerful saintly person; kavaKava
Muni; vraO hero; kimwhat; karavmacan I do; tefor you.
akuntal said: I am the daughter of Vivmitra. My mother, Menak,
left me in the forest. O hero, the most powerful saint Kava Muni
knows all about this. Now let me know, how may I serve you?
akuntal informed Mahrja Dumanta that although she never saw or
knew her father or mother, Kava Muni knew everything about her, and
she had heard from him that she was the daughter of Vivmitra and that
her mother was Menak, who had left her in the forest.
syat hy aravindka
ghyatm arhaa ca na
bhujyat santi nvr
uyat yadi rocate


syatmplease come sit here; hiindeed; aravinda-akaO great hero

with eyes like the petals of a lotus; ghyatmplease accept; arhaam
humble reception; caand; naour; bhujyatmplease eat; santi
what there is in stock; nvrnvr rice; uyatmstay here; yadiif;
rocateyou so desire.
O King with eyes like the petals of a lotus, kindly come sit down and
accept whatever reception we can offer. We have a supply of nvr rice
that you may kindly take. And if you so desire, stay here without
r-dumanta uvca
upapannam ida subhru
jty kuiknvaye
svaya hi vute rj
kanyak sada varam
r-dumanta uvcaKing Dumanta replied; upapannamjust befitting
your position; idamthis; su-bhruO akuntal, with beautiful
eyebrows; jtybecause of your birth; kuika-anvayein the family of
Vivmitra; svayampersonally; hiindeed; vuteselect; rjmof a
royal family; kanyakdaughters; sadamon an equal level; varam
King Dumanta replied: O akuntal, with beautiful eyebrows, you have
taken your birth in the family of the great saint Vivmitra, and your
reception is quite worthy of your family. Aside from this, the daughters
of a king generally select their own husbands.
In her reception of Mahrja Dumanta, akuntal clearly said, "Your
Majesty may stay here, and you may accept whatever reception I can
offer." Thus she indicated that she wanted Mahrja Dumanta as her
husband. As far as Mahrja Dumanta was concerned, he desired
akuntal as his wife from the very beginning, as soon as he saw her, so
the agreement to unite as husband and wife was natural. To induce
akuntal to accept the marriage, Mahrja Dumanta reminded her that
as the daughter of a king she could select her husband in an open
assembly. In the history of ryan civilization there have been many


instances in which famous princesses have selected their husbands in

open competitions. For example, it was in such a competition that
Stdev accepted Lord Rmacandra as her husband and that Draupad
accepted Arjuna, and there are many other instances. So marriage by
agreement or by selecting one's own husband in an open competition is
allowed. There are eight kinds of marriage, of which marriage by
agreement is called gndharva marriage. Generally the parents select the
husband or wife for their daughter or son, but gndharva marriage takes
place by personal selection. Still, although marriage by personal selection
or by agreement took place in the past, we find no such thing as divorce
by disagreement. Of course, divorce by disagreement took place among
low-class men, but marriage by agreement was found even in the very
highest classes, especially in the royal katriya families. Mahrja
Dumanta's acceptance of akuntal as his wife was sanctioned by Vedic
culture. How the marriage took place is described in the next verse.
om ity ukte yath-dharmam
upayeme akuntalm
gndharva-vidhin rj
om iti ukteby reciting the Vedic praava, invoking the Supreme
Personality of Godhead to witness the marriage; yath-dharmamexactly
according to the principles of religion (because Nryaa becomes the
witness in an ordinary religious marriage also); upayemehe married;
akuntalmthe girl akuntal; gndharva-vidhinby the regulative
principle of the Gandharvas, without deviation from religious principles;
rjMahrja Dumanta; dea-kla-vidhna-vitcompletely aware of
duties according to time, position and objective.
When akuntal responded to Mahrja Dumanta's proposal with
silence, the agreement was complete. Then the King, who knew the
laws of marriage, immediately married her by chanting the Vedic
praava [okra], in accordance with the marriage ceremony as
performed among the Gandharvas.
The okra, praava, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead represented
by letters. Bhagavad-gt says that the letters a-u-m, combined together as


o, represent the Supreme Lord. Religious principles are meant to invoke

the blessings and mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ka,
who says in Bhagavad-gt that He is personally present in sexual desires
that are not contrary to religious principles. The word vidhin means,
"according to religious principles." The association of men and women
according to religious principles is allowed in the Vedic culture. In our
Ka consciousness movement we allow marriage on the basis of
religious principles, but the sexual combination of men and women as
friends is irreligious and is not allowed.
amogha-vryo rjarir
mahiy vryam dadhe
vo-bhte sva-pura yta
klensta s sutam
amogha-vryaa person who discharges semen without being baffled,
or, in other words, who must beget a child; rja-ithe saintly King
Dumanta; mahiyminto the Queen, akuntal (after her marriage,
akuntal became the Queen); vryamsemen; dadheplaced; vabhtein the morning; sva-puramto his own place; ytareturned;
klenain due course of time; astagave birth; sshe (akuntal);
sutamto a son.
King Dumanta, who never discharged semen without a result, placed
his semen at night in the womb of his Queen, akuntal, and in the
morning he returned to his palace. Thereafter, in due course of time,
akuntal gave birth to a son.
kava kumrasya vane
cakre samucit kriy
baddhv mgendra taras
krati sma sa blaka
kavaKava Muni; kumrasyaof the son born of akuntal; vanein
the forest; cakreexecuted; samucitprescribed; kriyritualistic
ceremonies; baddhvcapturing; mga-indrama lion; tarasby force;
kratiplaying; smain the past; sahe; blakathe child.


In the forest, Kava Muni performed all the ritualistic ceremonies

concerning the newborn child. Later, the boy became so powerful that
he would capture a lion and play with it.
ta duratyaya-vikrntam
dya pramadottam
harer aa-sambhta
bhartur antikam gamat
tamhim; duratyaya-vikrntamwhose strength was insurmountable;
dyataking with her; pramad-uttamthe best of women, akuntal;
hareof God; aa-aa-sambhtama partial plenary incarnation;
bhartu antikamunto her husband; gamatapproached.
akuntal, the best of beautiful women, along with her son, whose
strength was insurmountable and who was a partial expansion of the
Supreme Godhead, approached her husband, Dumanta.
yad na jaghe rj
bhry-putrv aninditau
vat sarva-bhtn
khe vg harri
yadwhen; nanot; jagheaccepted; rjthe King (Dumanta);
bhry-putrauhis real son and real wife; aninditaunot abominable, not
accused by anyone; vatmwhile hearing; sarva-bhtnmall the
people; khein the sky; vka sound vibration; hadeclared;
aarriwithout a body.
When the King refused to accept his wife and son, who were both
irreproachable, an unembodied voice spoke from the sky as an omen
and was heard by everyone present.
Mahrja Dumanta knew that akuntal and the boy were his own wife
and son, but because they came from outside and were unknown to the
citizens, he at first declined to accept them. akuntal, however, was so


chaste that an omen from the sky declared the truth so that others could
hear. When everyone heard from the omen that akuntal and her child
were truly the King's wife and son, the King gladly accepted them.
mt bhastr pitu putro
yena jta sa eva sa
bharasva putra dumanta
mvamasth akuntalm
mtthe mother; bhastrjust like the skin of a bellows containing air;
pituof the father; putrathe son; yenaby whom; jtaone is
born; sathe father; evaindeed; sathe son; bharasvajust
maintain; putramyour son; dumantaO Mahrja Dumanta; mdo
not; avamasthinsult; akuntalmakuntal.
The voice said: O Mahrja Dumanta, a son actually belongs to his
father, whereas the mother is only a container, like the skin of a
bellows. According to Vedic injunctions, the father is born as the son.
Therefore, maintain your own son and do not insult akuntal.
According to the Vedic injunction tm vai putra-nmsi, the father
becomes the son. The mother is simply like a storekeeper, because the
seed of the child is placed in her womb, but it is the father who is
responsible for maintaining the son. In Bhagavad-gt the Lord says that
He is the seed-giving father of all living entities (aha bja-prada pit
[Bg. 14.4]), and therefore He is responsible for maintaining them. This is
also confirmed in the Vedas. Eko bahn yo vidadhti kmn: although
God is one, He maintains all living entities with their necessities for life.
The living entities in different forms are sons of the Lord, and therefore
the father, the Supreme Lord, supplies them food according to their
different bodies. The small ant is supplied a grain of sugar, and the
elephant is supplied tons of food, but everyone is able to eat. Therefore
there is no question of overpopulation. Because the father, Ka, is fully
opulent, there is no scarcity of food, and because there is no scarcity, the
propaganda of overpopulation is only a myth. Actually one suffers for
want of food when material nature, under the order of the father, refuses
to supply him food. It is the living entity's position that determines
whether food will be supplied or not. When a diseased person is


forbidden to eat, this does not mean that there is a scarcity of food; rather,
the diseased person requires the treatment of not being supplied with
food. In Bhagavad-gt (7.10) the Lord also says, bja m samabhtnm: "I am the seed of all living entities." A particular type of seed is
sown within the earth, and then a particular type of tree or plant comes
out. The mother resembles the earth, and when a particular type of seed is
sown by the father, a particular type of body takes birth.
reto-dh putro nayati
naradeva yama-kayt
tva csya dht garbhasya
satyam ha akuntal
reta-dha person who discharges semen; putrathe son; nayati
saves; nara-devaO King (Mahrja Dumanta); yama-kaytfrom
punishment by Yamarja, or from the custody of Yamarja; tvamyour
good self; caand; asyaof this child; dhtthe creator; garbhasyaof
the embryo; satyamtruthfully; hasaid; akuntalyour wife,
O King Dumanta, he who discharges semen is the actual father, and his
son saves him from the custody of Yamarja. You are the actual
procreator of this child. Indeed, akuntal is speaking the truth.
Upon hearing the omen, Mahrja Dumanta accepted his wife and child.
According to Vedic smti:
pun-nmno narakd yasmt
pitara tryate suta
tasmt putra iti prokta
svayam eva svayambhuv
Because a son delivers his father from punishment in the hell called put,
the son is called putra. According to this principle, when there is a
disagreement between the father and mother, it is the father, not the
mother, who is delivered by the son. But if the wife is faithful and firmly
adherent to her husband, when the father is delivered the mother is also
delivered. Consequently, there is no such thing as divorce in the Vedic
literature. A wife is always trained to be chaste and faithful to her


husband, for this helps her achieve deliverance from any abominable
material condition. This verse clearly says, putro nayati naradeva yamakayt: "The son saves his father from the custody of Yamarja." It never
says, putro nayati mtaram: "The son saves his mother." The seed-giving
father is delivered, not the storekeeper mother. Consequently, husband
and wife should not separate under any condition, for if they have a child
whom they raise to be a Vaiava, he can save both the father and mother
from the custody of Yamarja and punishment in hellish life.
pitary uparate so 'pi
cakravart mah-ya
mahim gyate tasya
harer aa-bhuvo bhuvi
pitariafter his father; uparatepassed away; sathe King's son; api
also; cakravartthe emperor; mah-yavery famous; mahim
glories; gyateare glorified; tasyahis; hareof the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; aa-bhuvaa partial representation; bhuvi
upon this earth.
ukadeva Gosvm said: When Mahrja Dumanta passed away from
this earth, his son became the emperor of the world, the proprietor of
the seven islands. He is referred to as a partial representation of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead in this world.
In Bhagavad-gt (10.41) it is said:
yad yad vibhtimat sattva
rmad rjitam eva v
tat tad evvagaccha tva
mama tejo 'a-sambhavam
Anyone extraordinarily powerful must be considered a partial
representation of the opulence of the Supreme Godhead. Therefore when
the son of Mahrja Dumanta became the emperor of the entire world,
he was celebrated in this way.
TEXTS 24-26


cakra dakia-haste 'sya

padma-koo 'sya pdayo
je mahbhiekea
so 'bhiikto 'dhir vibhu
paca-pacat medhyair
gagym anu vjibhi
mmateya purodhya
yamunm anu ca prabhu
babandha pradadad vasu
bharatasya hi daumanter
agni sc-gue cita
sahasra badvao yasmin
brhma g vibhejire
cakramthe mark of Ka's disc; dakia-hasteon the palm of the right
hand; asyaof him (Bharata); padma-koathe mark of the whorl of a
lotus; asyaof him; pdayoon the soles of the feet; jeworshiped the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; mah-abhiekeaby a grand Vedic
ritualistic ceremony; sahe (Mahrja Bharata); abhiiktabeing
promoted; adhirto the topmost position of a ruler; vibhuthe master
of everything; paca-pacatfifty-five; medhyaifit for sacrifices;
gagym anufrom the mouth of the Ganges to the source; vjibhi
with horses; mmateyamthe great sage Bhgu; purodhyamaking him
the great priest; yamunmon the bank of the Yamun; anuin regular
order; caalso; prabhuthe supreme master, Mahrja Bharata; aasaptatiseventy-eight; medhya-avnhorses fit for sacrifice; babandha
he bound; pradadatgave in charity; vasuriches; bharatasyaof
Mahrja Bharata; hiindeed; daumantethe son of Mahrja
Dumanta; agnithe sacrificial fire; sc-gueon an excellent site;
citaestablished; sahasramthousands; badvaaby the number of
one badva (one badva equals 13,084); yasminin which sacrifices;
brhmaall the brhmaas present; gthe cows; vibhejire
received their respective share.
Mahrja Bharata, the son of Dumanta, had the mark of Lord Ka's
disc on the palm of his right hand, and he had the mark of a lotus whorl


on the soles of his feet. By worshiping the Supreme Personality of

Godhead with a grand ritualistic ceremony, he became the emperor and
master of the entire world. Then, under the priesthood of Mmateya,
Bhgu Muni, he performed fifty-five horse sacrifices on the bank of the
Ganges, beginning from its mouth and ending at its source, and
seventy-eight horse sacrifices on the bank of the Yamun, beginning
from the confluence at Prayga and ending at the source. He established
the sacrificial fire on an excellent site, and he distributed great wealth
to the brhmaas. Indeed, he distributed so many cows that each of
thousands of brhmaas had one badva [13,084] as his share.
As indicated here by the words daumanter agni sc-gue cita, Bharata,
the son of Mahrja Dumanta, arranged for many ritualistic ceremonies
all over the world, especially all over India on the banks of the Ganges
and Yamun, from the mouth to the source, and all such sacrifices were
performed in very distinguished places. As stated in Bhagavad-gt (3.9),
yajrtht karmao 'nyatra loko 'ya karma-bandhana: "Work done as a
sacrifice for Viu has to be performed, otherwise work binds one to this
material world." Everyone should engage in the performance of yaja, and
the sacrificial fire should be ignited everywhere, the entire purpose being
to make people happy, prosperous and progressive in spiritual life. Of
course, these things were possible before the beginning of Kali-yuga
because there were qualified brhmaas who could perform such yajas.
For the present, however, the Brahma-vaivarta Pura enjoins:
avamedha gavlambha
sannysa pala-paitkam
devarea sutotpatti
kalau paca vivarjayet
[Cc. di 17.164]
"In this age of Kali, five acts are forbidden: offering a horse in sacrifice,
offering a cow in sacrifice, accepting the order of sannysa, offering
oblations of flesh to the forefathers, and begetting children in the wife of
one's brother." In this age, such yajas as the avamedha-yaja and
gomedha-yaja are impossible to perform because there are neither
sufficient riches nor qualified brhmaas. This verse says, mmateya
purodhya: Mahrja Bharata engaged the son of Mamat, Bhgu Muni, to
take charge of performing this yaja. Now, however, such brhmaas are


impossible to find. Therefore the stras recommend, yajai sakrtanapryair yajanti hi sumedhasa: those who are intelligent should perform
the sakrtana-yaja inaugurated by Lord r Caitanya Mahprabhu.
ka-vara tvika
yajai sakrtana-pryair
yajanti hi sumedhasa
"In this age of Kali, people endowed with sufficient intelligence will
worship the Lord, who is accompanied by His associates, by performance
of sakrtana-yaja." (SB 11.5.32) Yaja must be performed, for otherwise
people will be entangled in sinful activities and will suffer immensely.
Therefore the Ka consciousness movement has taken charge of
introducing the chanting of Hare Ka all over the world. This Hare
Ka movement is also yaja, but without the difficulties involved in
securing paraphernalia and qualified brhmaas. This congregational
chanting can be performed anywhere and everywhere. If people somehow
or other assemble together and are induced to chant Hare Ka, Hare
Ka, Ka Ka, Hare Hare/ Hare Rma, Hare Rma, Rma Rma, Hare
Hare, all the purposes of yaja will be fulfilled. The first purpose is that
there must be sufficient rain, for without rain there cannot be any
produce (annd bhavanti bhtni parjanyd anna-sambhava [Bg. 3.14]).
All our necessities can be produced simply by rainfall (kma vavara
parjanya [SB 1.10.4]), and the earth is the original source of all
necessities (sarva-kma-dugh mah). In conclusion, therefore, in this age
of Kali people all over the world should refrain from the four principles of
sinful life-illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling-and in a pure
state of existence should perform the simple yaja of chanting the Hare
Ka mah-mantra. Then the earth will certainly produce all the
necessities for life, and people will be happy economically, politically,
socially, religiously and culturally. Everything will be in proper order.
trayas-triac-chata hy avn
baddhv vismpayan npn
daumantir atyagn my
devn gurum yayau


trayathree; triatthirty; atamhundred; hiindeed; avn

horses; baddhvarresting in the yaja; vismpayanastonishing;
npnall other kings; daumantithe son of Mahrja Dumanta;
atyagtsurpassed; mymmaterial opulences; devnmof the
demigods; gurumthe supreme spiritual master; yayauachieved.
Bharata, the son of Mahrja Dumanta, bound thirty-three hundred
horses for those sacrifices, and thus he astonished all other kings. He
surpassed even the opulence of the demigods, for he achieved the
supreme spiritual master, Hari.
One who achieves the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
certainly surpasses all material wealth, even that of the demigods in the
heavenly planets. Ya labdhv cpara lbha manyate ndhika tata.
The achievement of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
is the most exalted achievement in life.
mg chukla-data kn
hirayena parvtn
adt karmai mare
niyutni caturdaa
mgnfirst-class elephants; ukla-datawith very white tusks;
knwith black bodies; hirayenawith gold ornaments; parvtn
completely covered; adtgive in charity; karmaiin the sacrifice;
mareby the name Mara, or in the place known as Mara;
niyutnilakhs (one lakh equals one hundred thousand); caturdaa
When Mahrja Bharata performed the sacrifice known as Mara [or
a sacrifice in the place known as Mara], he gave in charity fourteen
lakhs of excellent elephants with white tusks and black bodies,
completely covered with golden ornaments.
bharatasya mahat karma
na prve npare np
naivpur naiva prpsyanti


bhubhy tridiva yath

bharatasyaof Mahrja Bharata, the son of Mahrja Dumanta;
mahatvery great, exalted; karmaactivities; naneither; prve
previously; nanor; apareafter his time; npkings as a class; na
neither; evacertainly; puattained; nanor; evacertainly;
prpsyantiwill get; bhubhymby the strength of his arms; tri-divam
the heavenly planets; yathas.
As one cannot approach the heavenly planets simply by the strength of
his arms (for who can touch the heavenly planets with his hands?), one
cannot imitate the wonderful activities of Mahrja Bharata. No one
could perform such activities in the past, nor will anyone be able to do
so in the future.
kirta-hn yavann
paurn kakn kha chakn
abrahmaya-np chan
mlecchn dig-vijaye 'khiln
kirtathe black people called Kirtas (mostly the Africans); hnthe
Huns, the tribes from the far north; yavannthe meat-eaters;
paurnthe Pauras; kaknthe Kakas; khanthe Mongolians;
aknthe akas; abrahmayaagainst the brahminical culture; npn
kings; caand; ahanhe killed; mlecchnsuch atheists, who had no
respect for Vedic civilization; dik-vijayewhile conquering all directions;
akhilnall of them.
When Mahrja Bharata was on tour, he defeated or killed all the
Kirtas, Has, Yavanas, Pauras, Kakas, Khaas, akas and the
kings who were opposed to the Vedic principles of brahminical culture.
jitv pursur devn
ye rasauksi bhejire
deva-striyo ras nt
pribhi punar harat


jitvconquering; purformerly; asurthe demons; devnthe

demigods; yeall who; rasa-oksiin the lower planetary system
known as Rastala; bhejiretook shelter; deva-striyathe wives and
daughters of the demigods; rasmin the lower planetary system; nt
were brought; pribhiwith their own dear associates; punaagain;
haratbrought back to their original places.
Formerly, after conquering the demigods, all the demons had taken
shelter in the lower planetary system known as Rastala and had
brought all the wives and daughters of the demigods there also.
Mahrja Bharata, however, rescued all those women, along with their
associates, from the clutches of the demons, and he returned them to
the demigods.
sarvn kmn duduhatu
prajn tasya rodas
sams tri-ava-shasrr
diku cakram avartayat
sarvn kmnall necessities or desirable things; duduhatufulfilled;
prajnmof the subjects; tasyahis; rodasthis earth and the heavenly
planets; samyears; tri-nava-shasrthree times nine thousand (that
is, twenty-seven thousand); dikuin all directions; cakramsoldiers or
orders; avartayatcirculated.
Mahrja Bharata provided all necessities for his subjects, both on this
earth and in the heavenly planets, for twenty-seven thousand years. He
circulated his orders and distributed his soldiers in all directions.
sa sar loka-plkhyam
aivaryam adhir riyam
cakra cskhalita prn
mety upararma ha
sahe (Mahrja Bharata); sarthe emperor; loka-pla-khyam
known as the ruler of all the lokas, or planets; aivaryamsuch


opulences; adhirthoroughly in power; riyamkingdom; cakram

soldiers or orders; caand; askhalitamwithout failure; prnlife or
sons and family; mall false; itithus; upararmaceased to enjoy;
hain the past.
As the ruler of the entire universe, Emperor Bharata had the opulences
of a great kingdom and unconquerable soldiers. His sons and family had
seemed to him to be his entire life. But finally he thought of all this as
an impediment to spiritual advancement, and therefore he ceased from
enjoying it.
Mahrja Bharata had incomparable opulence in sovereignty, soldiers,
sons, daughters and everything for material enjoyment, but when he
realized that all such material opulences were useless for spiritual
advancement, he retired from material enjoyment. The Vedic civilization
enjoins that after a certain age, following in the footsteps of Mahrja
Bharata, one should cease to enjoy material opulences and should take the
order of vnaprastha.
tasysan npa vaidarbhya
patnyas tisra susammat
jaghnus tyga-bhayt putrn
nnurp itrite
tasyaof him (Mahrja Bharata); santhere were; npaO King
(Mahrja Parkit); vaidarbhyadaughters of Vidarbha; patnya
wives; tisrathree; su-sammatvery pleasing and suitable; jaghnu
killed; tyga-bhaytfearing rejection; putrntheir sons; na anurp
not exactly like the father; itilike this; riteconsidering.
O King Parkit, Mahrja Bharata had three pleasing wives, who were
daughters of the King of Vidarbha. When all three of them bore
children who did not resemble the King, these wives thought that he
would consider them unfaithful queens and reject them, and therefore
they killed their own sons.
tasyaiva vitathe vae


tad-artha yajata sutam

marut-stomena maruto
bharadvjam updadu
tasyahis (Mahrja Bharata's); evamthus; vitathebeing baffled;
vaein generating progeny; tat-arthamto get sons; yajata
performing sacrifices; sutama son; marut-stomenaby performing a
marut-stoma sacrifice; marutathe demigods named the Maruts;
bharadvjamBharadvja; updadupresented.
The King, his attempt for progeny frustrated in this way, performed a
sacrifice named marut-stoma to get a son. The demigods known as the
Maruts, being fully satisfied with him, then presented him a son named
antarvatny bhrt-patny
maithunya bhaspati
pravtto vrito garbha
aptv vryam upsjat
anta-vatnympregnant; bhrt-patnymwith the brother's wife;
maithunyadesiring sexual enjoyment; bhaspatithe demigod named
Bhaspati; pravttaso inclined; vritawhen forbidden to do so;
garbhamthe son within the abdomen; aptvby cursing; vryam
semen; upsjatdischarged.
When the demigod named Bhaspati was attracted by his brother's wife,
Mamat, who at that time was pregnant, he desired to have sexual
relations with her. The son within her womb forbade this, but Bhaspati
cursed him and forcibly discharged semen into the womb of Mamat.
The sex impulse is so strong in this material world that even Bhaspati,
who is supposed to be the priest of the demigods and a very learned
scholar, wanted to have a sexual relationship with his brother's pregnant
wife. This can happen even in the society of the higher demigods, so what
to speak of human society? The sex impulse is so strong that it can agitate
even a learned personality like Bhaspati.


ta tyaktu-km mamat
bhartus tyga-viakitm
nma-nirvcana tasya
lokam ena sur jagu
tamthat newly born baby; tyaktu-kmmwho was trying to avoid;
mamatmunto Mamat; bhartu tyga-viakitmvery much afraid of
being forsaken by her husband because of giving birth to an illegitimate
son; nma-nirvcanama name-giving ceremony, or nma-karaa;
tasyato the child; lokamverse; enamthis; surthe demigods;
Mamat very much feared being forsaken by her husband for giving
birth to an illegitimate son, and therefore she considered giving up the
child. But then the demigods solved the problem by enunciating a name
for the child.
According to Vedic scripture, whenever a child is born there are some
ceremonies known as jta-karma and nma-karaa, in which learned
brhmaas, immediately after the birth of the child, make a horoscope
according to astrological calculations. But the child to which Mamat gave
birth was begotten by Bhaspati irreligiously, for although Mamat was
the wife of Utathya, Bhaspati made her pregnant by force. Therefore
Bhaspati became bhart. According to Vedic culture, a wife is considered
the property of her husband, and a son born by illicit sex is called dvja.
The common word still current in Hindu society for such a son is dogl,
which refers to a son not begotten by the husband of his mother. In such
a situation, it is difficult to give the child a name according to proper
regulative principles. Mamat, therefore, was perplexed, but the demigods
gave the child the appropriate name Bharadvja, which indicated that the
child born illegitimately should be maintained by both Mamat and
mhe bhara dvjam ima
bhara dvja bhaspate
ytau yad uktv pitarau
bharadvjas tatas tv ayam


mheO foolish woman; bharajust maintain; dvjamalthough born

by an illicit connection between two; imamthis child; bharamaintain;
dvjamalthough born by an illicit connection between two; bhaspate
O Bhaspati; ytauleft; yatbecause; uktvhaving said; pitarauboth
the father and mother; bharadvjaby the name Bharadvja; tata
thereafter; tuindeed; ayamthis child.
Bhaspati said to Mamat, "You foolish woman, although this child was
born from the wife of one man through the semen discharged by
another, you should maintain him." Upon hearing this, Mamat replied,
"O Bhaspati, you maintain him!" After speaking in this way, Bhaspati
and Mamat both left. Thus the child was known as Bharadvja.
codyamn surair eva
matv vitatham tmajam
vyasjan maruto 'bibhran
datto 'ya vitathe 'nvaye
codyamnalthough Mamat was encouraged (to maintain the child);
suraiby the demigods; evamin this way; matvconsidering;
vitathampurposeless; tmajamher own child; vyasjatrejected;
marutathe demigods known as the Maruts; abibhranmaintained (the
child); dattathe same child was given; ayamthis; vitathewas
disappointed; anvayewhen the dynasty of Mahrja Bharata.
Although encouraged by the demigods to maintain the child, Mam