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**2.2 Accepting the Union, Intersection,
**

or Difference of Two Languages

2 3 Distinguishing One String from

2.3

Another

Accepting the Union, Intersection, or Difference of Two Languages

** Suppose that L1 and L2 are languages over
**

Given an FA that accepts L

Given an FA that accepts L1 and another that

and another that

accepts L2, we can construct one that accepts

L1∪L2 .

The same approach works for L

Th

h

k f L1∩L2 and L

d L1–L

L2 .

If x*, then knowing whether xL1 and whether

xL2 is enough to determine whether x

g

L1∪L2.

2

2

1

or Difference of Two Languages Theorem: Suppose M1 = (Q1. q . 2 A = {(p. • Given two machines. A1. Q = Q1 Q2 q0 = (q1. . ) be defined as follows: Accepting the Union. 2)) are FAs accepting L p g 1 and L2. = {(p q) | p A1 and q and q A2}. . Intersection. q2. 3 4 2 . q) | p A1 or q A2}. q) | p 2. M accepts L1∪L2. A = {(p. and draw the necessary transitions. q1. q). Let M = (Q... Intersection.Accepting the Union. ) = (1(p. if : 1. )) Then. 3. q0. M accepts L1–L2. . q) | p A1 and q ∉ A2}. or Difference of Two Languages Construct an FA Accepting L1∪L2 / L1∩L2 / L1–L2. q2) ((p. 2(q. A2. M } M accepts L accepts L1∩L2.. A. A = {(p. ). create the Cartesian product of Given two machines create the Cartesian product of the state sets. 1) and M2 = (Q (Q2.

Intersection. or Difference of Two Languages The FA below accepts L1∩L2. if possible. Intersection.b BQ AP AR 5 CR 6 3 . pp p p g The FA below accepts L1∪L2. and designate the appropriate accepting states. Accepting the Union. or Difference of Two Languages Simplify the resulting FA.Accepting the Union. a.

) | g } Construct an FA that accepts L1∪L2.s a.b b 8 4 . or Difference of Two Languages L1={x(a.r b b b 1. Intersection.b)* | x contains the substring bba} .s a 7 2.p b 3.Accepting the Union.q b 1.q 3p 3. a a a 2. Intersection. or Difference of Two Languages Accepting the Union.p a 3r 3.p p b a b 1.b)* | x contains the substring ab} L2={x { ((a.r a a 3.

Accepting the Union. aba and ab lead to different states. Intersection. Could the FA be constructed with fewer than 3 states?? Are 3 states enough? 9 10 5 . aba and aabbabbabaaaba lead to the same state. or Difference of Two Languages Distinguishing One String from Another The FA after combining all the accepting states.

x) ≠ *(q0. and yzL A string z having this property is said to distinguish x and y with respect to L.) Definition: If L If L is a language over the alphabet . or L‐distinguishable. or xzL and yzL. q0. ) is an FA accepting L* accepting L If x and y are two strings in * that are L‐distinguishable. Equivalently.Distinguishing One String from Another (cont’d. and x is a language over the alphabet and x and y and y are strings in *. x and y are L‐distinguishable if L/x ≠ L/y. then Q must contain at least n states. . where L/x = {z* | xzL} Theorem: Suppose M = (Q. y) For every n ≥ 2. 11 12 6 . A. if there is a string z* such that either xzL and yzL. then *(q0. if there is a set of n pairwise L‐distinguishable strings in *. then x and y are distinguishable with respect to L.) Distinguishing One String from Another (cont’d.

because aabL. create state u. if the next symbol is a it’s the start of a new occurrence.) Distinguishing One String from Another (cont’d.Distinguishing One String from Another (cont’d. because aabbL but not a prefix of any other string in L.) Consruct an FA to accept L = {aa. Let (u. aab}*{b}. If the input starts with aa we need to leave state p because a and aa are L‐ di ti distinguishable.b) be r. States t and u can be thought of as representing the end of an occurrence of aa or aab. i h bl t t t t (t. so go back to p. 13 14 7 . create a new state t. the same as for an initial b. b) must be accepting.

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