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A Tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheel's rim to

protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tyres, such as
those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle
and the road while providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock.
The earliest tyres were bands of leather, then iron, placed on
wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tyre would be heated in
a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to
contract and fit tightly on the wheel. A skilled worker, known as
a wheelwright, carried out this work. The outer ring served to "tie" the
wheel segments together for use, providing also a wear-resistant surface
to the perimeter of the wheel. The word "tire" thus emerged as a variant
spelling to refer to the metal bands used to tie wheels.
The first practical pneumatic tyre was made in 1888 for his son
Johnnie's tricycle, in May Street, Belfast by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop,
proprietor of one of Ireland's most prosperous veterinary practices. In
Dunlop's tyre patent specification dated 31 October 1888 his interest is
only in its use in cycles and light vehicles. In September 1890 he was
made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the
information to itself.
Dunlop is credited with the theory of realizing rubber could withstand the
wear and tear of being a tyre while retaining its resilience. In terms of
materials, the vulcanization of natural rubber which was patented in 1844
is credited to Charles Goodyear and Robert William Thomson. Synthetic
rubbers were invented in the laboratories of Bayer in the 1920s.
In 1946, Michelin developed the radial tyre method of construction.
Michelin had bought the bankrupt Citron automobile brand in 1934, so it
was able to fit this new technology immediately. Because of its superiority
in handling and fuel economy. The use of this technology quickly spread
throughout Europe and Asia. In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential
American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction,
setting off a rapid decline in Michelin's competition. Even in the U.S., the
radial tyre now has a market share of 100%.
Today, over 1 billion tyres are produced annually in over 400 tyre

How To Read a Tyre

Pneumatic tyre is a flexible, toroidal, compressed gas (normally air)

container mechanically attached to the outer circumference of rim of a
vehicle wheel. The name is derived from Attire a protecting covering or
The rubber exterior of a pneumatic tyre is merely a flesh for a
skeleton of fabric; this skeleton and the manner in which it is constructed
are of fundamental importance in establishing the tyres characteristics.
A tyre is an integral component of a vehicle and is the intermediary
between the vehicle and the road.


Tread: The portion of the tyre, which comes in contact with the
road, is called the tread. It is designed to provide the necessary traction,
wear resistance, and allow for low heat build-up and low noise.
Side Walls: These are the layers of appropriate thickness of rubber
compound applied on both sides of the tyre carcass between the beads
and tread.
Plies: Plies are reinforcing members of the tyre, which are made
from rubber coated fabric (Rayon, Nylon, Steel, and Polyester etc.
Bead: Layers of rubber coated high tensile steel wires formed into
inextensible loops.

Types of Tyres and their Advantages

Carcass ply cords run at 90 degrees to circumferential axis. Carcass
stabilized by steel belts.

Carcass ply cords run Carcass ply cords run at at an angle with respect to
90 degrees to circumferential axis of the circumferential axis.

Advantage of Radial tyre:



Longer tyre life resulting from lesser tread squirming & shuffling.
Improved fuel efficiency due to reduced rolling resistance.
Better high speed performance: Better dimensional & directional
stability due to reduced edgewise bending.
Better Vehicle handling due to:
Minimum distortion in foot print area
Higher flexibility of sidewalls
Reduced side slip
Greater traction , improved braking & cornering stability due to:
Larger footprint
More Uniform Pressure Distribution

Tubeless Tyres

What is a tubeless Tyre?

Tubeless tyres, as the name suggests, are tyres without the tube.
The tyre is built in such a way that it can contain the air by itself. It does
not require a tube within it.
The tyre and rim assembly form an air container, to Seal and
Contain the compressed air inside the assembly.
The tyre has a halo- or chloro-butyl lining on its inside which is
airtight. Together with the airtight joint between the tyre and the wheel,
the membrane forms a container that holds the air for the tyre.
A valve is fitted on to the rim for inflation or deflation to the
Advantages of Tubeless Tyres Use

Since tube is eliminated, friction between tyre & tube is not

experienced, thus lower rolling resistance, improved fuel efficiency, less
vibrations, less heat generation and better comfort.

Chances of tube getting pinched under the bead while mounting are

The number of components used in a tyre wheel assembly gets

reduced :
The tube and the flap are both eliminated

Lower tyre/wheel weight (un-sprung mass) results in better vehicle

handling and therefore longer life.

In case a nail or other sharp object penetrate a tubeless tyre, the air loss
is not sudden. The tyre wheel assembly continues to perform its function

for some time before going flat. This ensures and is one of the biggest
advantages of a tubeless tyre.

Industry Profile
The Indian tyre industry has been witnessing tremendous growth for
the past few years on account of growth in automobiles demand,
especially in passenger vehicles and two-wheeler segments. In fact,
availability of raw material (natural rubber) and ultramodern production
facilities has led the country to emerge as one of the worlds most
competitive tyre markets. Driven by the strong demand in automobile
OEM sector and replacement market, the India tyre industry has been
witnessing stupendous growth from since the last two fiscal years.
Further, according to the research report, Indian Tyre Industry
Forecast to 2015, the tyre production in India is anticipated to reach
191 Million Units by the end of FY 2016. Moreover, manufacturers are
expected to invest huge amount into the industry over the next few years,
with a major proportion of this investment directed towards the radial tyre
capacity expansion.
The study also finds out that tyre manufacturers are coming up with new
technologies to provide customers with better products and services. The
concept of green tyres is becoming a paradigm of the countrys
competitive edge. Technologies like self-inflation by Goodyear and run flat
tyre (RFT) by Bridgestone are paving the way in Indian market. This new
category of tyres is now being widely accepted in India. Several Greenfield
projects are also there in pipeline to facilitate an increase in the domestic
production capacity to meet the growing tyre demand in the country.
It has also been found that Indias market for radial tyres in commercial
vehicles section is still in its infancy. The passenger car segment switched
to radial tyres in a short period of time, with radial tyre penetration level
for the category reaching 100%. However, penetration level of radial tyre
has also started to increase rapidly in the light commercial vehicles and
truck & bus segment. This segment will be the largest growth area over
the next few years.
It was found that companies are also looking for overseas plantation of
rubber to meet their raw materials need which will help the companies to
acquire raw material at cheaper prices. Apart from this, the raw material
accounts for the major share in total cost.
Further, tubeless tyres are gaining ground in Indian market as almost all
the automobile manufacturers are launching their vehicles with tubeless

tyres. This shows that tubeless tyre market will exhibit tremendous growth
in the coming years.
Key Figures:

No. of Tyre Companies:


No. of Tyre Plants:


Industry Turnover 2014-15 (est.):

Rs. 50000 crore (US$ 8.5 Bn)

Exports 2014-15 (est.):

Rs. 10500 crore (US $ 1.7 Bn)

Top Indian Players

Net Sales as per the latest Profit & Loss Account available

Last Price


% Change

Net Sales
(Rs. cr)





Apollo Tyres





JK Tyre & Ind









Balkrishna Ind





TVS Srichakra









Govind Rubber















Modi Rubber





Tirupati Tyres