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Chapter [4]

Magnetic Vector Potential


4.1 Concept of potential function
4.2 Magnetic forces

4.1 Concept of potential function


It is desirable to introduce the concept of potential function,
the space derivative of which would give the field intensity.
The potential function must depend upon the sources of the
field as well as being single valued function of position.

Electrostatic scalar potential


In an e. s. system, equations governing Est at all points of
space;
Dst vf

& E st 0 Dst Est

under the condition Est 0 at


From the source free equation; Est 0 Let Est V
To fix the value of V; take V 0 at

In an e. s. system, equations governing V at all points of


space;
V vf
for cons tan t 2 V vf / Poisson ' s scalar equqtion
under the condition V 0 at

Vat p Vp

vf dv
Space 4r

vf dv
1
for uniform
4 Space r

Magnetic vector potential


In an m. s. system, equations governing H at all points of
space;
H J

& B 0 B H

under the condition Bst 0 at


From the source free equation; B 0 Let B A
B A J

sin ce A A 2 A J
choose A 0 & A at for a sin gle valued function

In an m. s. system, equations governing the magnetic


vector potential A at all points of space;
2 A J
where

A 0 at

Poisson ' s vector equqtion

Jdv
A at p A p
Space 4r

Jdv

for un uniform
4 Space r

Jdv
for volume current
4 Space r

J L ds

for surface current


4 Space r

Idl

4 Space r

Ap

for filament current

Example 1

Differential current filament (electric dipole)

Idl
dA o
uz
4r
z
p

Cylindrica l coordinate s r 2 z 2

dA

I dl

Cartisian coordinate s r x 2 y 2 z 2
x

Spherical coordinate s u z cos u r sin u


B A

Example 2

Infinite current filament

B A o

u
1
A

A

I
u
2

u u z

z
A A z

o I
Az
ln c
2

o I o
A uz
ln
2

hence

for

I
dA z
o
d
2

A z 0 at o

Neumanns formula
For a system of steady current circuits in a stationary linear
magnetic media;

B m, r

m, r

ds m

Sm bounded by mth circuit


of closed path L cm

From

B A

m, r

Am,r dsm Am,r dlm


Sm

L cm

Where Am,r is the magnetic vector potential at the position of dlm


of the closed path Lcm bounding Sm ;


A m, r
4

I r dl r
R

L cr
Lcr
Circuit m
Lcm

dlm

Circuit r
R
dlr


I
dl
r
r

dlm I r
m, r

4
R

L cm L cr

M m, r I r

Example
Mutual inductance between current circuits
a

dl

dl
1 2

M1,2
4 R

L c1 L c2

dI1

dI2

I
Lc2

dl1 dl 2
4 R

a L c2

Lc1

Example
Magnetic force between two parallel current filaments

Ia
Ba o
u
2 d

F ba

b I b dl b Ba

Ia
F ba I bdz u z o
u
2 d
b

4.2 Magnetic forces


Force on a moving charge
For an electric field E , the force on a charged particle q is
given by;
F qE
F is independent of the state of motion hence the name
electrostatic force on q.
For a magnetic induction vector B , the force on a charged
particle q moving with a velocity u, is given by;

F mag q u B
In a general electromagnetic field;
F q E u B Lorentz force equation

Force on differential current element


For a charge dq moving with a velocity u in a magnetic
induction vector B , the resulting force is given by;
d F dq u B

In a conductor dq= dv, and J= u


where u is the drift velocity;

V J B dv
d F J L B ds F J L B ds
S
d F Idl B F Idl B
L

d F J B dv F

B
dq
u

Force between poles of a magnet

Permanent
Magnet

Example
Magnetic force on current loop in a magnetic field

Idl B

Lc

For uniform magnetic field

F I B Idl 0
Lc

Example
Magnetic force between two current circuits

I1
B1 o
u
2 R
La
I1
F AB I 2dR u R o
u
2 R
L

I1I 2 L a
o
Ln
uz
2
L
FCD

I2
b

I1
a

L
A
R

I1I 2 b
F DA o
uR
2 L
I1I 2 b
F BC o
uR
2 L a

I I
ab
F21 o 1 2
uR
2 L L a