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4.1 Concept of potential function

4.2 Magnetic forces

It is desirable to introduce the concept of potential function,

the space derivative of which would give the field intensity.

The potential function must depend upon the sources of the

field as well as being single valued function of position.

In an e. s. system, equations governing Est at all points of

space;

Dst vf

From the source free equation; Est 0 Let Est V

To fix the value of V; take V 0 at

space;

V vf

for cons tan t 2 V vf / Poisson ' s scalar equqtion

under the condition V 0 at

Vat p Vp

vf dv

Space 4r

vf dv

1

for uniform

4 Space r

In an m. s. system, equations governing H at all points of

space;

H J

& B 0 B H

From the source free equation; B 0 Let B A

B A J

sin ce A A 2 A J

choose A 0 & A at for a sin gle valued function

vector potential A at all points of space;

2 A J

where

A 0 at

Jdv

A at p A p

Space 4r

Jdv

for un uniform

4 Space r

Jdv

for volume current

4 Space r

J L ds

4 Space r

Idl

4 Space r

Ap

Example 1

Idl

dA o

uz

4r

z

p

Cylindrica l coordinate s r 2 z 2

dA

I dl

Cartisian coordinate s r x 2 y 2 z 2

x

B A

Example 2

B A o

u

1

A

A

I

u

2

u u z

z

A A z

o I

Az

ln c

2

o I o

A uz

ln

2

hence

for

I

dA z

o

d

2

A z 0 at o

Neumanns formula

For a system of steady current circuits in a stationary linear

magnetic media;

B m, r

m, r

ds m

of closed path L cm

From

B A

m, r

Sm

L cm

of the closed path Lcm bounding Sm ;

A m, r

4

I r dl r

R

L cr

Lcr

Circuit m

Lcm

dlm

Circuit r

R

dlr

I

dl

r

r

dlm I r

m, r

4

R

L cm L cr

M m, r I r

Example

Mutual inductance between current circuits

a

dl

dl

1 2

M1,2

4 R

L c1 L c2

dI1

dI2

I

Lc2

dl1 dl 2

4 R

a L c2

Lc1

Example

Magnetic force between two parallel current filaments

Ia

Ba o

u

2 d

F ba

b I b dl b Ba

Ia

F ba I bdz u z o

u

2 d

b

Force on a moving charge

For an electric field E , the force on a charged particle q is

given by;

F qE

F is independent of the state of motion hence the name

electrostatic force on q.

For a magnetic induction vector B , the force on a charged

particle q moving with a velocity u, is given by;

F mag q u B

In a general electromagnetic field;

F q E u B Lorentz force equation

For a charge dq moving with a velocity u in a magnetic

induction vector B , the resulting force is given by;

d F dq u B

where u is the drift velocity;

V J B dv

d F J L B ds F J L B ds

S

d F Idl B F Idl B

L

d F J B dv F

B

dq

u

Permanent

Magnet

Example

Magnetic force on current loop in a magnetic field

Idl B

Lc

F I B Idl 0

Lc

Example

Magnetic force between two current circuits

I1

B1 o

u

2 R

La

I1

F AB I 2dR u R o

u

2 R

L

I1I 2 L a

o

Ln

uz

2

L

FCD

I2

b

I1

a

L

A

R

I1I 2 b

F DA o

uR

2 L

I1I 2 b

F BC o

uR

2 L a

I I

ab

F21 o 1 2

uR

2 L L a

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