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Modelling and Control of Wind Turbines

Jasmin Martinez
September 21, 2007

Supervised by: Prof. Pistikopoulos


Dr. Kouramas

A thesis submitted to Imperial College London in partial fulfilment of the


requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Process Systems Engineering and
for the Diploma of Imperial College

Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology


Imperial College London
London SW7 2AZ, UK

Abstract
In recent years, wind turbines have become an acceptable alternative for electrical
energy generation by fossil or nuclear power plants, because of the environmental and
economic benefits. Still, much research remains to be done in order to improve wind
turbines behaviour and make them more profitable and reliable.
This work covers the modelling of wind turbines for power system studies. The
operation of horizontal, variable speed wind turbines with pitch control was
investigated. Complexities of various parts of a wind turbine model, such as
aerodynamic conversion, drive train and generator representation were analyzed. The
mathematical equations describing the dynamic behaviour of a wind energy system
were successfully simulated in gPROMS. The wind turbine model was further tested
upon step changes in the wind velocity as well as the blade pitch angle, confirming
the need of power control.
Based on the obtained wind turbine model, a power control structure was developed
that takes into consideration the dynamical aspects of the wind turbine as well as
constraints. An explicit parametric controller, a novel control method, was designed
using MATLAB and the Parametric Optimization (POP) software. A simple explicit
optimal control law was constructed that allows the on-line implementation via simple
linear function evaluations. The controller was implemented using gO:MATLAB and
the simulation results show that the controller accurately adjusts the blade pitch angle
to set the wind turbine power output to its reference value.

Acknowledgments
First of all I wish to thank my parents for being an example and encouraging me
throughout my studies, making this thesis possible. I am also grateful to my favourite
sister, Cami.
I acknowledge Prof. Pistikopoulos and Dr. Kouramas for their supervision, advice and
contribution for the success of this work. I am indebted to Mark Pinto and Lin
Zhenhua for their help with gPROMS and gO:MATLAB.
Special thanks to my friends at Imperial College, who made this thesis an enjoyable
experience.
Financial support for this work was provided by Programme Alban.
Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude for the constant support, patience
and love that I received from Nico.

Contents

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................ 2
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................................................................................... 3
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................ 4
LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................................ 6
LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................................. 7
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 8
1.1
1.2
1.3

WORK MOTIVATION............................................................................................................... 8
WORK OBJECTIVE .................................................................................................................. 9
THESIS OUTLINE .................................................................................................................... 9

CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................... 11


2.1 WIND TURBINE DEVELOPMENT AND TYPES OF TURBINES ............................................................ 11
2.1.1 Wind Turbine History........................................................................................................... 11
2.1.2 State-of-the-art Technologies ............................................................................................... 12
2.1.2.1 Definition of a Wind Turbine ....................................................................................................... 12
2.1.2.2 Aerodynamic Lift and Aerodynamic Drag Wind Turbines .......................................................... 12
2.1.2.3 Horizontal-axis and Vertical-axis Wind Turbines ........................................................................ 12
2.1.2.4 Variable-speed and Constant-speed Wind Turbines ..................................................................... 15

2.1.3 Power Control...................................................................................................................... 17


2.1.3.1 Stall Control ................................................................................................................................. 17
2.1.3.2 Pitch Control ................................................................................................................................ 18
2.1.3.3 Active Stall Control...................................................................................................................... 19

2.2 WIND FARMS ................................................................................................................................ 19


2.2.1 Wind Farm Definition and Siting ......................................................................................... 19
2.2.1.1 Definition of Wind Farm .............................................................................................................. 19
2.2.1.2 Wind Farm Siting ......................................................................................................................... 20

2.2.2 Wind Farm Control .............................................................................................................. 21


2.2.2.1 Centralised Control Structure ....................................................................................................... 22
2.2.2.2 Decentralised Control Structure ................................................................................................... 22
2.2.2.3 Partly Centralised, Partly Decentralised Control Structure .......................................................... 22

2.2.3 Requirements for the Interconnection of Wind Farms to the Power System ........................ 23
2.2.3.1 Active Power Control ................................................................................................................... 23
2.2.3.2 Frequency Control ........................................................................................................................ 23
2.2.3.3 Voltage Control ............................................................................................................................ 23
2.2.3.4 Tap Changers ............................................................................................................................... 24
2.2.3.5 Wind Farm Protection .................................................................................................................. 24
2.2.3.6 Modelling Information and Verification ...................................................................................... 24
2.2.3.7 Communication and External Control .......................................................................................... 24

CHAPTER 3. WIND TURBINE MODELLING ............................................................................... 26


3.1 MODELLING OF THE BLADES ......................................................................................................... 27
3.2 MODELLING OF THE DRIVE TRAIN ................................................................................................. 29
3.3 MODELLING OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR ....................................................................... 30
3.3.1 Model assumptions............................................................................................................... 31
3.3.2 0dq reference frame ............................................................................................................. 32
3.3.3 Per unit system ..................................................................................................................... 32
3.3.4 Asynchronous generator model............................................................................................ 33
3.3.4.1 Model including stator transients ................................................................................................. 34
3.3.4.2 Model neglecting stator transients ................................................................................................ 35

3.4 MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN GPROMS ................................................................................. 36


3.4.1 Modelling in gPROMS ......................................................................................................... 36
3.4.2 Simulation results................................................................................................................. 37
3.4.2.1 Base case ...................................................................................................................................... 38
3.4.2.2 Wind velocity step change ........................................................................................................... 40
3.4.2.3 Blade pitch angle step change ...................................................................................................... 41

CHAPTER 4. WIND TURBINE CONTROL .................................................................................... 42


4.1 POWER CONTROL .......................................................................................................................... 42
4.2 EXPLICIT PARAMETRIC CONTROLLER ............................................................................................ 42
4.2.1 Model identification ............................................................................................................. 46
4.2.2 Explicit parametric controller design .................................................................................. 47
4.2.3 Controller implementation (gO:MATLAB) .......................................................................... 50
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK............. 54
5.1 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS THESIS ................................................................................................... 54
5.2 FUTURE WORK RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................. 55
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 56
APPENDICES ...................................................................................................................................... 61

List of Figures
FIGURE 1. VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINE [WIND-WORKS, 2007] ......................................................... 13
FIGURE 2. HORIZONTAL-AXIS AND VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES CONFIGURATIONS [SCOTTISH
EXECUTIVE, 2007] ......................................................................................................................... 13
FIGURE 3. KEY COMPONENTS OF A HORIZONTAL-AXIS UPWIND TURBINE [NPOWER RENEWABLES, 2007]
...................................................................................................................................................... 14
FIGURE 4.

C p V S.

FOR A TYPICAL WIND TURBINE [DE MONTFORT UNIVERSITY, 2007] ................... 16

FIGURE 5. C p VS. TIP-SPEED RATIO AND PITCH ANGLE FOR A TYPICAL WIND TURBINE WITH PITCH
CONTROL [BALAS ET AL, 2006] ..................................................................................................... 19

FIGURE 6. ONSHORE WIND FARM [ACTNOW, 2007] ............................................................................... 20


FIGURE 7. OFFSHORE WIND FARM [ARTHUS-BERTRAND, 2007] ............................................................. 21
FIGURE 8. WIND TURBINE SCHEME [BOUKHEZZAR ET AL, 2005] ............................................................ 26
FIGURE 9. ANALYTICAL APPROXIMATION OF Cp ( , )

CHARACTERISTICS (

= 2.09 RAD/S, R =35M);

BLADE PITCH ANGLE IN DEGREES [LUBOSNY, 2003] ...................................................................... 28

FIGURE 10. DRIVE TRAIN DYNAMICS [BOUKHEZZAR ET AL, 2005] ......................................................... 29


FIGURE 11. THE WINDINGS IN THE ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR [LUBOSNY, 2003] .............................. 31
FIGURE 12. WIND TURBINE CURRENTS ................................................................................................... 39
FIGURE 13. WIND TURBINE ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE AND SLIP RATIO .............................................. 39
FIGURE 14. WIND TURBINE POWER ......................................................................................................... 40
FIGURE 15. POWER OUTPUT TOWARDS WIND VELOCITY STEP CHANGE ................................................... 40
FIGURE 16. POWER COEFFICIENT TOWARDS BLADE PITCH ANGLE STEP CHANGE .................................... 41
FIGURE 17. POWER OUTPUT TOWARDS BLADE PITCH ANGLE STEP CHANGE ............................................ 41
FIGURE 18. PARAMETRIC CONTROLLER STRATEGY ................................................................................ 44
FIGURE 19. SIMULINK OVERALL WIND TURBINE MODEL ......................................................................... 45
FIGURE 20. SIMULINK AERODYNAMIC MODEL ........................................................................................ 45
FIGURE 21. SIMULINK DRIVE TRAIN MODEL............................................................................................ 46
FIGURE 22. SIMULINK INDUCTION GENERATOR MODEL .......................................................................... 46
FIGURE 23. PROJECTION OF THE CONTROLLER REGIONS IN Pt 1 t 1
FIGURE 24. PROJECTION OF THE CONTROLLER REGIONS IN Pref

t 1

FIGURE 25. PROJECTION OF THE CONTROLLER REGIONS IN Pref Pt 1

SPACE ...................................... 49
SPACE

..................................... 49

SPACE ...................................... 50

FIGURE 26. GPROMS WIND TURBINE MODEL EXECUTING WITHIN MATLAB ........................................ 51
FIGURE 27. GO:MATLAB POWER PROFILE ............................................................................................ 52
FIGURE 28. GO:MATLAB BLADE PITCH ANGLE PROFILE ...................................................................... 53

List of Tables
TABLE 1. VARIABLES WITH A KNOWN VALUE, VARIABLES WITH AN UNKNOWN VALUE AND NUMBER OF
EQUATIONS FOR WIND TURBINE MODEL ......................................................................................... 37

TABLE 2. WIND TURBINE PARAMETERS [LUBOSNY, 2003], [MARTINS ET AL, 2007] ............................... 38
TABLE 3. CONTROL DESIGN VARIABLES .................................................................................................. 47

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Work Motivation


Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energies in the world. The
generation of wind power is clean and non-polluting; it does not produce any byproducts harmful to the environment.
Nowadays, modelling is the basic tool for analysis, such as optimization, project,
design and control. Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from
conventional generators, and therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to
integrate wind power into the power system. According to [Lubosny, 2003], in the
case of power systems with classical sources of energy analysis, the modelling is
relatively simple because the models of objects and controllers are well known and
even standardized; the data are available. But in the case of wind turbine modelling,
researchers meet problems related to the lack of data and lack of control-system
structures due to strong competition between wind turbine manufacturers. This leads
to the situation in which many researchers model the wind energy conversion systems
in relatively simple form, almost neglecting the control systems, which significantly
influence the reliability of the analytical results.
Classical techniques such as proportional (P), integral (PI) and derivative (PID)
controllers are typically used to regulate wind power. But by assuming the wind
turbine operating in steady state conditions, most of the previous work regarding wind
turbine control does not take into consideration the dynamical aspects of the wind and
the turbine, which have strong non-linear characteristics [Balas et al, 2006]. Advances
in wind turbine technology made necessary the design of more powerful control
systems, to improve wind turbines behaviour and make them more profitable and
reliable [Boukhezzar et al, 2005]. However, as stated in [Balas et al, 2006]
Controlling modern turbines to minimize the cost of wind energy is a complex task,
and much research remains to be done to improve controllers. An interesting
characteristic of wind energy systems is that wind speed determines the point of
operation; it simply defines the available amount of energy that can be converted into
electricity. The wind cannot be controlled; in other words the system is driven by
noise, which makes wind turbine systems essentially different from most other
systems. This explains the need for robust controller design [Bongers et al, 1992].
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On the other hand, theoretically, the electrical output from a wind turbine should be
smooth and non-fluctuating [Butterfield et al, 2001]. But electricity generated from
wind farms can be highly variable on different time scales: from hour-to-hour, daily
and seasonally. This represents a considerable challenge when incorporating wind
power into a grid system, since in order to maintain grid stability energy supply and
demand must remain in balance.

1.2 Work Objective


The main objective of this work is to contribute to the topic of wind energy systems
modelling and control by developing an accurate model for a wind turbine and based
on this model contemplate control issues.
The scientific objectives of this research include the following:

Modelling and dynamic behaviour investigation of the aerodynamic,


mechanical and electrical parts of a variable speed wind turbine equipped with
an induction generator and blade pitch angle control.

Simulation of the overall wind energy system in gPROMS.

Formulation of an explicit parametric controller in MATLAB/ Parametric


Optimization (POP) software.

A parametric controller is a novel control method that has been recently applied to a
number of processes. This work aims at exploiting the properties of explicit
parametric control and demonstrate the potential benefits of this control method for
wind turbines.
The wind turbine configuration considered throughout this work is an aerodynamic
lift, 3 blade, horizontal-axis, variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbine.

1.3 Thesis Outline


The thesis is divided into five chapters including this introduction chapter. The paper
is structured as follows.
Chapter 2 contains a background on theoretical fundamentals regarding wind turbines
and wind farms. The first part gives an overview of the wind turbine history and
development. The main types of wind turbines and their configurations are explained

in detail. Furthermore, the different power control techniques available to control the
wind turbine power output are exposed. Wind farms are introduced and classified
accordingly to their siting. The main wind farm control structures are described and
the requirements for the interconnection of wind farms to the power system are
discussed.
Chapter 3 presents detailed mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour
of a wind energy system, including aerodynamic, mechanical and electrical parts.
Simulation results of the overall wind turbine model are given for a base case, as well
as for wind speed and blade pitch angle step changes.
Chapter 4 contains the formulation of an explicit parametric control strategy for a
wind turbine. The properties and potential benefits of this control method for wind
energy systems are investigated. Moreover, the controller is implemented and tested.
Finally, Chapter 5 provides conclusions on the research done and offers
recommendations for future work.

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Chapter 2. Background and Literature review


This chapter is aimed at presenting a review on the wind turbines and wind farm state
of the art technologies.

2.1 Wind Turbine Development and Types of Turbines

2.1.1 Wind Turbine History


Wind-powered machines have been used by humans for thousands of years. Until the
20th century wind power was used to provide mechanical power to pump water or to
grind grain. The earliest recorded windmills are vertical-axis mills and were used in
Afghanistan in the seventh century BC. Horizontal-axis windmills are found in
historical documents from Persia, Tibet and China around 1000 AD. From Persia and
the Middle-East, the horizontal-axis windmill spread across Europe in the 12th century,
where windmill performance was constantly improved; by the 19th century a
considerable part of the power used in the industry in Europe was based on wind
energy. Industrialisation then led to a gradual decline in windmills, as the use of
fluctuating wind energy was substituted by fossil fuel fired engines which provided a
more consistent power source [Ackermann et al, 2000].
In the 1970s, with the first oil price shock, the modern era of wind turbine generators
began, focusing in producing electricity instead of mechanical energy. Conventional
methods to generate electricity burn fuel to provide the energy to drive a generator,
creating pollution, acid rain and contributing to global warming. In recent years there
has been a growing interest in wind energy power systems because of the
environmental benefits and the economic benefits of fuel savings [Fujita et al, 2006].
The wind is a clean source and it will never run out. Wind energy technology is
developing fast; turbines are becoming cheaper and more powerful, bringing the cost
of renewably-generated electricity down [British Wind Energy Association, 2006];
The cost of generating electricity from wind has fallen almost 90% since the 1980s
[Karrari et al, 2005]. Nowadays, wind energy is one of the most important sustainable
energy resources and has become an acceptable alternative for electrical energy

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generation by fossil or nuclear power plants [Bongers at al, 1992]. A list of wind
turbines manufacturers can be found in Appendix 1 [Energy Source Guides, 2007].

2.1.2 State-of-the-art Technologies

2.1.2.1 Definition of a Wind Turbine


A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into
mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a
pump or grinding stones, the machine is called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is
then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator. Utility-scale
turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to several megawatts [EERE, 2007].

2.1.2.2 Aerodynamic Lift and Aerodynamic Drag Wind Turbines


There are two different types of wind energy conversion devices: those which depend
mainly on aerodynamic lift and those which use mainly aerodynamic drag.
High speed turbines rely on lift forces to move the blades. To generate electricity
from a wind turbine, it is usually desirable that the driving shaft of the generator
operates at considerable speed (1500 revolutions per minute). This, together with the
higher aerodynamic efficiency of lift devices, means that turbines which rely in
aerodynamic drag are not commonly used [Jenkins et al, 1997].

2.1.2.3 Horizontal-axis and Vertical-axis Wind Turbines


Wind turbines can further be classified into horizontal-axis or vertical-axis. The
earliest windmills in antiquity rotated about a vertical axis and they were driven by
drag. Modern vertical-axis turbines use vertical symmetrical airfoils and the driving
force is produced by lift developed by the blade in the moving air stream. The only
vertical-axis turbine which has been manufactured commercially at any volume is the
Darrieus machine, named after the French engineer Georges Darrieus who patented
the design in 1931. The conventional Darrieus turbine has curved blades connected at
the top and at the bottom and rotates like an egg whisk [Harrison et al, 2000], as
illustrated in Figure 1.

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Figure 1. Vertical-axis wind turbine [Wind-Works, 2007]

Vertical-axis wind turbines have the advantages that no tower is needed, they operate
independently of the wind direction (a yawning mechanism is not needed) and heavy
gearboxes and generators can be installed at ground level. But they have many
disadvantages: they are not self-starting, the torque fluctuates with each revolution as
the blades move into and away from the wind, and speed regulation in high winds can
be difficult. Vertical-axis turbines were developed and commercially produced in the
1970s until the end of the 1980s. But since the end of the 1980s the research and
production of vertical-axis wind turbines has practically stopped worldwide
[Ackermann et al, 2000].
At present, horizontal-axis wind turbines dominate the market; Figure 2 illustrates the
different configuration between a horizontal-axis and a vertical axis turbine.

Figure 2. Horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines configurations [Scottish Executive,


2007]

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A horizontal-axis wind energy conversion system mainly consists of [Harrison et al,


2000]:

The rotor blades, which extract the kinetic energy present in the wind and
transform it into mechanical power.

The nacelle, with a power control system that limits and conditions the
extracted power; a gear box that transfers the load and increases the rotational
speed to drive the generator; and an electrical system which converts the
mechanical energy into electrical energy.

A tower that supports the nacelle.

The major components of a modern horizontal-axis wind turbine are shown in Figure
3.

Figure 3. Key components of a horizontal-axis upwind turbine [npower renewables, 2007]

The yaw mechanism turns the turbine so that it faces the wind. Sensors are used to
monitor wind direction and the tower head is turned accordingly.
Wind turbines can have three, two or just one rotor blades. Two or three blades are
usually used for electricity power generation. Two blades cost less than three blades,
but they need to operate at higher rotational speed than three-bladed wind turbines. As
a result, the individual blades need to be lighter and hence more expensive on a two14

bladed turbine [McNerney et al, 1993]. Besides, three-bladed turbines are generally
accepted as more aesthetic than two or one bladed turbines. Hence, turbines with three
blades dominate the wind industry.

2.1.2.4 Variable-speed and Constant-speed Wind Turbines


A final distinction is whether the rotor is allowed to run at variable speed or
constrained to operate at constant speed. In the early 1970s wind turbines usually
operated at constant speed. That means that regardless of the wind speed, the wind
turbines rotor speed is fixed. Constant speed wind turbines allow the use of simple
generators whose speed is fixed by the frequency of the electrical network. For
variable speed wind turbines, a power electronic frequency converter is required in
order to connect the variable-frequency output of the wind turbine to the fixed
frequency of the electrical system. Although the power electronics needed for variable
speed wind turbines are more expensive, this type of turbines can spend more time
operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency than constant speed turbines [Balas et
al, 2006]. This can be seen clearly if the performance coefficient, C p of a wind turbine
is plotted against the tip speed ratio, .
The tip speed ratio, , is defined as the ratio between the speed of the tips of the
blades of a wind turbine and the speed of the wind

vTIP
R
=
vWIND
v

(2. 1. 1)

where is the blades angular velocity (rad/s), R the rotor radius (m) and v the wind
speed (m/s).
The coefficient of performance, Cp , is defined as the fraction of energy extracted by
the wind turbine of the total energy that would have flowed through the area swept by
the rotor if the turbine had not been there
Cp =

PEXTRACTED
PWIND

(2. 1. 2)

The coefficient of performance C p has a theoretical optimum of 0.59. Only a portion


of the power in the wind can be converted to useful energy by a wind turbine. The
power available for a wind turbine is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the air

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as it passes through the rotor. This maximum theoretical C p was first formulated in
1919 by Betz and applies to all types of wind turbines.
It is conventional to plot the variation of the performance coefficient, C p , against the
tip speed ratio, , rather than against the wind velocity, as this creates a
dimensionless graph. A typical C p vs. curve is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. C p Vs.

for a typical wind turbine [De Montfort University, 2007]

This curve illustrates that the maximum value of C p is only reached for a specific
(approximately 6 in this example). For a fixed-speed wind turbine, where is
constant, this corresponds to a particular wind speed. For all other wind speeds the
efficiency of the turbine is reduced [Jenkins et al, 1997]. The aim of variable-speed
wind turbines is to always run at optimal efficiency, keeping constant the particular
that corresponds to the maximum C p , by adapting the blades velocity to the wind
speed changes. Hence, variable speed wind turbines are designed to operate at
optimum energy efficiency, regardless of the wind speed.
On the other hand, due to the fixed-speed operation for constant speed turbines, all
fluctuations in the wind speed are transmitted as fluctuations in the mechanical torque
and then as fluctuations in the electrical power grid [Ackermann, 2005]. This,
together with the increased energy capture obtained by using a variable-speed wind
turbine provides enough benefit to make the power electronics (frequency converter)

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cost effective [Balas et al, 2006]. Therefore, the wind industry trend is to design and
construct variable-speed wind turbines.

2.1.3 Power Control


The kinetic energy in a flow of air through a unit area perpendicular to the wind
direction is

1 2
v per mass flow rate. For an air stream flowing through an area A the
2

mass flow rate is A v , therefore the power in the wind is equal to

1
1
P = ( A v ) v 2 = A v 3
2
2

(2. 1. 3)

where is the air density (kg/m3), A the area (m2) and v the wind speed (m/s), and
P the power of the wind (watts or J/s).
From equation 2.1.3, the power available from the wind is a function of the cube of
the wind speed. That means that a doubling of the wind speed gives eight times the
power output from the turbine. Therefore, turbines have to be designed to support
higher wind loads than those from which they can generate electricity, to prevent
them from damage.
Wind turbines reach the highest efficiency at a wind speed between 10 and 15m/s.
Above this wind speed, the power output of the rotor must be controlled to reduce
driving forces on the rotor blades as well as the load on the whole wind turbine
structure [Ackermann et al, 2000]. High winds occur only for short periods and hence
have little influence in terms of energy production but, if not controlled, they would
dominate the design and cost of the drive train and the generator [Harrison et al, 2000].
Accordingly, all wind turbines are designed with a type of power control. There are
different ways to control aerodynamic forces on the turbine rotor and therefore limit
the power in high winds in order to avoid damage to the wind turbine [Ackermann,
2005].
Three options for the power output control are currently used:

2.1.3.1 Stall Control


Stall control is the simplest, cheapest and most robust control method [Ackerman,
2005]. It has long been the preferred control method for small and medium sized
Danish commercial turbines [Harrison et al, 2000] and it is also known as passive
17

control, since there are no moving parts to adjust: it is the inherent aerodynamic
properties of the blade which determine power output. The twist and thickness of the
rotor blade vary along its length in a way that turbulence occurs behind the blade
whenever the wind speed becomes too high. This turbulence means that less of the
energy in the air is transferred, minimising power output in higher speeds [British
Wind Energy Association, 2006]. In other words, the design of the blades
aerodynamic causes the rotor to stall (lose power) when the wind speed exceeds a
certain level. Thus, the aerodynamic power of the blades is limited.
The disadvantages of this control method are low efficiency at low wind speeds, and
no assisted start-up [Ackermann, 2005]. Besides, this type of control requires the use
of a constant speed turbine which, as already explained, has lower energy efficiency
than the variable speed turbine.

2.1.3.2 Pitch Control


The blades of pitch controlled wind turbines can be turned out or into the wind as the
power output becomes too high or too low, respectively; the angle of the rotor blades
can be actively adjusted by the control system in order to shed the unwanted power.
Pitch control is relatively fast and can be used to limit the rotor speed by regulating
input aerodynamic power flow [Butterfield et al, 2001].
The main advantages of this type of control are good power control (power kept close
to the rated power in high winds), assisted start-up and emergency stop. Besides, stall
controlled turbines have to be shut down beyond a certain speed, whereas pitch
controlled turbines can adjust the angle of the blades to reduce the aerodynamic forces.
A disadvantage that may be considered is the complexity arising from the pitching
mechanism of the blades [Ackermann, 2005].
In Figure 5, the change of the C p - curve as the pitch angle is adjusted is shown. In
low and medium wind speeds, the pitch angle is regulated to allow the wind turbine to
operate at its optimum condition. In high wind speeds, the pitch angle is increased in
order to shed some of the aerodynamic power and maintain the rotor speed within a
controllable limit. As pitch angle increases, the wind turbine operates at lower
efficiency [Butterfield et al, 2001].

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Figure 5.

C p Vs. Tip-Speed Ratio and Pitch angle for a typical wind turbine with pitch control

[Balas et al, 2006]

Nowadays, large wind turbines are increasingly being operated with pitch control
systems [Harrison et al, 2000].

2.1.3.3 Active Stall Control


As the name indicates, active stall control is a combination of the two techniques
explained above. At low and medium wind speeds, the blades are pitched similar to a
pitch-controlled turbine; when the wind turbine reaches rated capacity, the turbine
will pitch in the opposite direction in order to make the blades go into a deeper stall
[Ackermann et al, 2000].

2.2 Wind Farms

2.2.1 Wind Farm Definition and Siting

2.2.1.1 Definition of Wind Farm


A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location and used for the
generation of wind power electricity. Installing several turbines in groups at a site
leads to large-scale utilisation of wind energy. This has operation, maintenance as
well as economic advantages. Any wind energy project will incur fixed costs such as
19

the preparation of the environmental statement, legal fees and project management
costs. They are largely independent of the size of the wind farms, so it is desirable to
spread them over as large a project as possible [Jenkins et al, 1997]. This had led to
the construction of large wind farms, some of them having as many as 150 wind
turbines [EERE, 2007] and an output of hundreds of megawatts [Ackermann, 2005].

2.2.1.2 Wind Farm Siting


Wind farms can be classified by the location in which they are installed:

Onshore developments (Figure 6), where wind farms are constructed inland,
usually in hilly or mountainous regions to favour windy conditions.

Figure 6. Onshore wind farm [ActNow, 2007]

Offshore developments (Figure 7), where wind farms are installed in the sea,
at least 10 kilometres away from the land. This is attractive because of higher
wind speeds over the sea but mainly because of the reduced environmental
impact. The major disadvantage of this type of wind farm development is the
higher cost involved in terms of foundations, power collection cables,
installation and maintenance [Jenkins et al, 1997].

20

Figure 7. Offshore wind farm [Arthus-Bertrand, 2007]

2.2.2 Wind Farm Control

The trend in the wind energy industry is to install wind turbines in large
concentrations with hundreds of megawatts of power capacity. Wind farms of this
size are often connected directly to the transmission grid, replacing traditional power
plants. This means that wind turbines are required to behave as active controllable
components in the power system. Such large wind farms need to meet very high
technical demands, such as to perform frequency and voltage control, to regulate
power and provide quick responses during transient and dynamic situations in the
power system. The traditional wind turbines, where the active power is controlled by
a simple pitching of the blades, do not have such control capabilities and cannot
contribute to power system stability as will be required. Power electronic technology
will therefore become more and more attractive for large wind farms that will have to
fulfil future high demands [Ackermann, 2005].
There are currently several research activities in progress in order to develop the
electrical control of such wind farms. Many control methodologies are being
investigated and some are already being implemented in practice. Depending on how
the power electronic devices are used inside a wind farm, there are different topology
options, each with its particular advantages and disadvantages [Ackermann, 2005]:

21

2.2.2.1 Centralised Control Structure


In this type of control structure there is a central power electronic converter. The
advantage of such structure is that the internal behaviour of the wind turbines is
separated form the grid behaviour, and thus the wind farm is robust to possible
failures of the grid. The disadvantage of this concept is that all wind turbines are
rotating with the same average angular speed and not at an individual optimal speed,
therefore giving up some of the features of the variable-speed concept, for each
individual turbine. Furthermore, this type of centralised control structure is difficult to
design, sometimes leading to complex optimisation problems [Ackermann, 2005].
In this type of control methodology, there is a hierarchical structure with both a
central control level and a local control level. The central wind farm control level
controls the power production of the whole farm by sending out reference power
signals to each individual wind turbine, while the local wind turbine control level
ensures that the reference power signal sent by the central control level is reached
[Blaabjerg et al, 2006].
The main trend of wind turbines/wind farms is clearly a variable speed operation and
attention is drawn to wind farms with centralised automatic control, which
intermediates a wind farm production conditioned by the system operators demands
[Blaabjerg et al, 2006].

2.2.2.2 Decentralised Control Structure


In this type of configuration, each turbine in the wind farm has its own frequency
converter and its own control system. This configuration has the advantage that each
wind turbine can operate at its optimum level with respect to its local wind conditions
[Ackermann, 2005].

2.2.2.3 Partly Centralised, Partly Decentralised Control Structure


This solution has not been implemented in practice yet [Ackermann, 2005].
Another option to these typical wind farm control structures is the use of a highvoltage DC link as power transmission, where all wind turbines are connected to the
same power converter, and the entire wind farm is connected to the public supply grid
though another power converter. These two converters are connected to each other
through a long link cable [Ackermann, 2005].
22

2.2.3 Requirements for the Interconnection of Wind Farms to the Power System

The integration of large scale wind farms into the grid can have severe impacts on the
power system operation. Traditionally, wind turbines were not required to participate
in frequency and voltage control; however, in recent years, wind farm performance in
the power system has gained attention. Consequently, some grid codes have been
defined to specify the steady state and dynamic requirements that wind turbines and
wind farms must meet in order to be connected to the grid [Chan, 2005].
This section provides an overview of the relevant technical interconnection
regulations for wind power systems. The main requirements, directed towards
distribution network companies, wind turbine manufacturers and network operators,
are:

2.2.3.1 Active Power Control


In theory, power production and consumption have to be in balance within a power
system. Changes in power supply or demand can lead to a temporary imbalance in the
system and affect operating conditions of power plants as well as consumer. In order
to avoid long-term unbalanced conditions the power demand is predicted and power
plants adjust their production. The requirements regarding active power control of
wind farms aim to ensure a stable frequency in the system, to prevent overloading of
transmission lines an ensure compliance with power quality standards [Ackermann,
2005].

2.2.3.2 Frequency Control


In the power system, the frequency is an indicator of the balance or imbalance
between production and consumption. For normal power system operation, the
frequency should be close to its nominal value; in Europe this corresponds to a
frequency range of 47-52 Hz. In the case of an imbalance between production and
consumption, primary and secondary control is used to return to balanced system.
[Ackermann, 2005].

2.2.3.3 Voltage Control


Utility and customer equipment are designed to operate at a certain voltage rating. On
the local level, voltage variations are the main problem associated with wind power.
23

This can be the limiting factor on the amount of wind power which can be installed
[Chen, 2005]. Voltage regulators and the control of reactor power at the generators
and consumption connection points is used in order to keep the voltage within the
required limits and avoid voltage stability problems [Ackermann, 2005].

2.2.3.4 Tap Changers


Tap-changing transformers are used to maintain predetermined voltage levels. This is
achieved by alternating the transformer-winding ratio [Ackermann, 2005].

2.2.3.5 Wind Farm Protection


Recommendations for the connection of wind farms to distribution networks usually
include the disconnection of wind farms in the case of a fault in the network. However,
this does not apply for large wind farms, for which an immediate disconnection would
put additional stress on the already troubled system.
After severe disturbances, several transmission lines may be disconnected and part of
the network may be isolated, leading to an imbalance between production and
consumption in this part of the network. As a rule, wind farms are not required to
disconnect, as long as certain voltage and frequency limits are not exceeded.
Undervoltages/overvoltages and overfrequency/underfrequency after a fault can also
damage wind turbines and associated equipment. The protection system of the wind
farm should therefore be design to pursue two goals [Ackermann, 2005]:
-To comply with requirements for normal network operation and support the network
during and after a failure.
-To secure wind farms against damage from impacts originating from faults in the
network.

2.2.3.6 Modelling Information and Verification


The interaction between wind farm and power system during faults in the power
system is usually verified through simulations [Ackermann, 2005].

2.2.3.7 Communication and External Control


In most regulations, the wind farm owner is required to provide the signals necessary
for the operation of the power system, such as: voltage, active power, reactive power,
operating status, wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature and pressure,
24

generator transformer tap position, regulation capability, frequency control status,


abnormalities and external control possibilities [Ackermann, 2005].
It is important to note that interconnection regulations vary considerably and it is
difficult to find a general technical justification for the different technical regulations
that are currently in use worldwide. Many of the differences in the technical
regulations are caused by different wind power penetration levels and different power
system robustness depending on the countries [Ackermann, 2005].

25

Chapter 3. Wind Turbine Modelling

Modelling is a basic tool for analysis, such as optimization, project, design and
control. Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from
conventional generators, and therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to
integrate wind power into the power system. Models utilised for steady-state analysis
are extremely simple, while the dynamic models for wind energy conversion systems
are not easy to develop. Dynamic modelling is needed for various types of analysis
related to system dynamics: stability, control system and optimization.
Referring to [Lubosny, 2003], in the case of power systems with classical sources of
energy analysis, the modelling is relatively simple because the models and controllers
of the processes are well known and even standardized; the data are available. But in
the case of wind turbine modelling, researchers face problems related to the lack of
data and lack of control-system structures due to strong competition between wind
turbine manufacturers. This leads to the situation in which many researchers model
the wind energy conversion systems in relatively simple form, almost neglecting the
control systems, which significantly influence the reliability of the analytical results.
Modern wind turbine generator systems are constructed mainly as systems with a
horizontal axis of rotation, a wind wheel consisting of three blades, a high speed
asynchronous generator (also known as induction generator) and a gear box.
Asynchronous generators are used because of their advantages, such as simplicity of
construction, possibilities of operating at various operational conditions, and low
investment and operating costs. The wind turbine under study falls under this category
and is also equipped with a blade pitch angle control system, which enables the power
generated by the wind turbine to be controlled. A typical wind energy conversion
system is displayed in Fig. 8.

Figure 8. Wind turbine scheme [Boukhezzar et al, 2005]

26

The wind turbine model, consisting of the aerodynamic, drive train and electrical
generator model is described next. These models are proposed by [Lubosny, 2003],
[Martins et al, 2007] and [Lei et al, 2006]. A list of the wind turbine variables
symbols and units used throughout the model definition can be found in Appendix 2.

3.1 Modelling of the blades

As pointed out in Chapter 2, the wind turbine blades extract the kinetic energy in the
wind and transform it into mechanical energy. The kinetic energy in air of an object of
mass m moving with speed v is equal to
E=

1
m v2
2

(3. 1. 1)

The power in the moving air (assuming constant speed velocity) is equal to
Pw =

dE 1 2
= m v
dt 2

(3. 1. 2)

where m is the mass flow rate per second. When the air passes across an area A (e.g.
the area swept by the rotor blades), the power in the air can be computed as
Pw =

1
A v3
2

(3. 1. 3)

where is the air density. Air density can be expressed as a function of the turbine
elevation above sea level H

= 0 1.194 10 4 H

(3. 1. 4)

where 0 = 1.225 kg/m3 is the air density at sea level at temperature T=298K.
The power extracted from the wind is given by
1
PBLADE = Cp ( , ) Pw = Cp ( , ) A v 3
2

(3. 1. 5)

The power factor has a maximum theoretical value equal to Cp=0.593.


The rotor power coefficient is usually given as a function of two parameters: the tipspeed ratio and the blade pitch angle (in degrees). The blade pitch angle is
defined as the angle between the plane of rotation and the blade cross-section chord.
And the tip speed ratio is defined as

m R
v

(3. 1. 6)

27

where m is the angular velocity of the rotor and R the rotor radius (blade length).
The rotor torque Tw can be computed as
Tw =

PBLADE

1
Cp ( , ) A v 3
= 2

(3. 1. 7)

The area covered by the blades is given by


A = R2

(3. 1. 8)

Substituting Eq. 3.1.8 into Eq. 3.1.7 leads to


1
Cp ( , ) R 2 v 3
Tw = 2

(3. 1. 9)

Based on previous research, the power coefficient Cp can be defined as a function of


the tip-speed ratio and the blade pitch angle as follows
1

C 6

1
Cp ( , ) = c1 c 2 c3 c 4 x c5 e

(3. 1. 10)

with defined as
1

1
0.035

+ 0.08 1 + 3

(3. 1. 11)

while the coefficients c1-c6 are proposed as equal to: c1=0.5, c2=116, c3=0.4, c4=0,
c5=5, c6=21 (x is not used here because c4=0).
According to [Lubosny, 2003] an example of the power coefficient ( Cp ( , ) )
characteristics computed taking into account equations 3.1.10 and 3.1.11 and the
above parameters c1-c6 for a given rotor diameter, rotor speed and for various blade
pitch angles is presented in Figure 9.

Figure 9. Analytical approximation of Cp ( , ) characteristics ( = 2.09 rad/s, R =35m);


blade pitch angle in degrees [Lubosny, 2003]

28

3.2 Modelling of the drive train

The drive train (mechanical parts) of a wind turbine system in general consists of a
blade pitching mechanism, a hub with blades, a rotor shaft (relatively long in wind
energy conversion systems with asynchronous generators) and a gearbox with
generator. The drive train model presented in this paper includes the inertia of both
the turbine and the generator. The moment of inertia of the wind wheel (hub with
blades) is about 90% of the drive train total moment, while the generator rotor
moment of inertia is equal to about 10%. At the same time, the generator represents
the biggest torsional stiffness.
The acceptable and common way to model the drive train of a wind turbine in power
system operation analysis is based on the assumption of two lumped/masses only: the
generator (with gearbox) mass and the hub with blades (wind wheel) mass [Lubosny,
2003]. The structure of the model is presented in Figure 10.

Figure 10. Drive train dynamics [Boukhezzar et al, 2005]

The equation of motion of the induction generator is given by


Hg

d g
dt

= Te +

Tm
n

(3. 2. 1)

Additionally, since the wind turbine shaft and generator are coupled together via a
gearbox, the wind turbine shaft system should not be considered stiff. To account for

29

the interaction between the windmill and the rotor, an additional equation describing
the motion of the windmill shaft is adopted
H m

d m
= Tw Tm
dt

(3. 2. 2)

The mechanical torque Tm can be modelled with the following equation


Tm = K

+ D

g m
n

d
= g m
dt

(3. 2. 3)

(3. 2. 4)

where n is the gear ratio, is the angle between the turbine rotor and the generator
rotor, m , g , H m and H g are the turbine and generator rotor speed and inertia
constant, respectively, K and D are the drive train stiffness and damping constants, Tw
is the torque provided by the wind (from section 3.1) and Te is the electromagnetic
torque.

3.3 Modelling of the asynchronous generator

The mechanical power of the wind turbine is converted into electric power by an
alternating current (AC) generator or a direct current (DC) generator. The AC
generator can be either a synchronous machine or an induction (asynchronous)
machine. The latter is most widely used in the wind power industry and was selected
for this project. The electrical machine works on the principle of action and reaction
of electromagnetic induction. The resulting electromechanical energy conversion is
reversible. The same machine can be used as a motor for converting mechanical
power into mechanical power or a as generator for converting mechanical power into
electric power.
As pointed out by [Lubosny, 2003], it is assumed that the asynchronous generator,
also called induction generator, has three-phase stator armature winding (AS, BS, CS)
and a three-phase rotor winding (AR, BR, CR) as shown in Fig. 11. The stator is the
outer stationary member and the rotor is the inner rotating member of the machine.
The rotor is mounted on bearings fixed to the stator. In the electromagnetic structure
of the induction generator, when the stator winding is supplied with three-phase
current (waveforms of equal amplitude, displaced in time by one-third of a period), a

30

rotating magnetic field is produced. The angular speed of the rotating magnetic field
is called the synchronous speed, s . The relative speed between the rotating field and
the rotor induces a current in the rotor. The resulting magnetic field interacts with the
stator field to make the rotor rotate in the same direction. In this case, the machine
acts as a motor since, in order for the rotor to rotate, energy is drawn from the electric
power source. However, if an external mechanical torque (in this case the wind torque)
is applied to the rotor to drive it beyond the synchronous speed, then electrical energy
is pumped to the power grid, and the machine will act as a generator [Dorf, 2000].
An induction machine needs no electrical connection between the stator and the rotor.
Its operation is entirely based on electromagnetic induction. The absence of rubbing
electrical contacts and simplicity of its construction make the induction generator a
very robust, reliable, and low-cost machine.

Figure 11. The windings in the asynchronous generator [Lubosny, 2003]

3.3.1 Model assumptions

The mathematical model of an asynchronous generator for power system analysis is


usually based on the following assumptions [Lubosny, 2003]:

The stator currents are positive when flowing towards the network.

The real and reactive power are positive when fed into the grid.

31

The stator and rotor windings are placed sinusoidally along the air-gap as far
as the mutual effect with the rotor is concerned.

The stator slots cause no appreciable variations of the rotor inductances with
rotor position.

The rotor slots cause no appreciable variations of the stator inductances with
rotor position.

Magnetic hysteresis and saturation effects are negligible.

The stator and rotor windings are symmetrical.

The capacitance of all the windings can be neglected.

More detailed modelling usually encounters difficulties in getting appropriate data.


Additionally, for machine modelling, such a type of model is adequately precise.

3.3.2 0dq reference frame

The set of equations of the asynchronous generator model is usually converted into a
model related to an arbitrarily set reference frame: the machine is converted into the
so-called 0dq reference frame model. The dq axis representation of induction
generator is used for simulation, taking flux linkage as basic variable [Jangamshetti et
al, 2006]. It is based on fifth-order two axis representations. Mathematical
transformations are used in the analysis and simulation of three-phase systems, mostly
to decouple variables, to facilitate the solution of difficult equations with time-varying
coefficients. Parks transformation [Slemon, 1989] decouples and rotates the stator
variables into a dq reference frame. The positive d-axis of the dq frame is aligned with
the magnetic axis of the field winding, that of the positive q-axis is ahead in the
direction of rotation or lead the positive d-axis by / 2 . ds and qs correspond to stator
direct and quadrature axes; dr and qr correspond to rotor direct and quadrature axes.

3.3.3 Per unit system

As stated in [Weedy et al, 1998], in electrical engineering the per unit (p.u.) system is
the expression of system quantities as fractions of a defined base unit quantity. These
fractions are called per unit and the p.u. value of any quantity is defined as

32

value in p.u. =

actual value (in any unit)


base or reference value in the same unit

Parameters of electrical generators are often specified in terms of per unit.


Calculations are simplified because quantities expressed as per unit are the same
regardless of the voltage level. Similar types of apparatus will have impedances,
voltage drops and losses that are the same when expressed as a per-unit fraction of the
equipment rating, even if the unit size varies widely. Although the use of p.u. values
may at first sight seem a rather indirect method of expression there are several reasons
for using a per-unit system:

the use of the constant

per unit quantities are the same on either side of a generator, independent of

3 is reduced in three-phase calculations.

voltage level.

by normalizing quantities to a common base, both hand and automatic


calculations are simplified.

Referring to [Slootweg et al, 2001] it is difficult to calculate the per unit value of the
power extracted from the wind, because aerodynamic and mechanical wind turbine
characteristics such as rotor diameter and wind velocity come into play. Therefore the
asynchronous generator equations are given in the per unit system (p.u.), and the
aerodynamic and drive train equations in the standard international units.

3.3.4 Asynchronous generator model

An appropriate model of the induction generator is the most complicated part of the
total wind generation model. The model of such a system is well described in many
books and papers [Karrari et al, 2005].
Two main induction generator models are used when performing power system
dynamic studies [Martins et al, 2007]:

A detailed model which includes electromagnetic transients both in the stator


and the rotor circuits, containing four electromagnetic state variables. This
model is also known as the fifth order model.

33

A simplified model which neglects stator transients, containing two


electromagnetic state variables. This model is sometimes referred in the
literature as the third order model, accounting for the two electric state
variables and the generator speed.

The following is a brief description of both models.

3.3.4.1 Model including stator transients

To be able to simulate the induction generator and wind generation system, an


equation relating Vds , Vqs , the stator direct and quadrature axis voltages, to I ds , I qs ,
the stator direct and quadrature axis currents, is required.
The complete model of an asynchronous generator, expressed in a 0dq reference
frame rotating at synchronous speed and taking positive currents going out from the
machine, consists of the following equations:

Magnetic fluxes

ds = X s I ds + X m I dr

(3. 3. 1)

qs = X s I qs + X m I qr

(3. 3. 2)

dr = X r I dr + X m I ds

(3. 3. 3)

qr = X r I qr + X m I qs

(3. 3. 4)

Voltages

Vds = Rs I ds + s qs

Vqs = Rs I qs s ds

d ds
dt

d qs

0 = Rr I dr + s s qr

0 = Rr I qr s s dr

dt
d dr
dt

d qr
dt

(3. 3. 5)

(3. 3. 6)

(3. 3. 7)

(3. 3. 8)

where the sub indexes (s,r) stand for the stator and rotor quantities, respectively, and
the sub indexes (d, q) stand for the components aligned with the d- and q- axis in a

34

synchronous rotating reference frame. Variable represents the magnetic flux


linkage, V the voltage and I the current. In the case of the traditional induction
machine, the rotor voltage Vdr and Vqr is equal to zero, since the current is only fed
into the stator. Variables s and g are the synchronous and generator rotor speed,
respectively.
The slip of the rotor, s, is defined as follows
s=

s g
s

(3. 3. 9)

The slip is positive in the motoring mode and negative in the generating mode.
The electric parameters of the machine Rs , X s , X m , Rr and X r stand for the stator
resistance and reactance, mutual reactance and rotor resistance and reactance,
respectively.
The electrical torque is given by
Te = qr I dr dr I qr

(3. 3. 10)

The developed torque Te is positive for motoring operation and negative for
generation operation.
Finally, the wind turbine active, reactive and apparent power output are given by the
following equations
Pactive = Vds Ids + Vqs I qs

(3. 3. 11)

Qreactive = Vqs I ds Vds I qs

(3. 3. 12)

P = Vds Ids + Vqs I qs + Vqs I ds Vds I qs

(3. 3. 13)

3.3.4.2 Model neglecting stator transients

For power system transient studies, the inclusion of the network transients and
generator stator transients increases the order of the overall system model, thus
limiting the size of the system that can be simulated. Furthermore, a small time step is
required for numerical integration resulting in an increased computational time. For
these reasons, it has become conventional to reduce the order of the generator and
neglect the network transients for stability analysis [Ekanayake et al, 2003]. Different
methods for reducing the generator equations are discussed in [Wasynezuk et al,
1985]. For this project, a standard method of reducing the order of the induction
generator model was considered where the rate of change of stator flux linkage is

35

neglected. This is common when performing stability simulations [Martins et al,


2007]. It is done by neglecting terms

d qs
d ds
and
in Equations 3.3.5-3.3.6, which
dt
dt

is equivalent to assuming infinitely fast electromagnetic transients in the stator


windings.
Rearranging equations 3.3.1-3.3.13 leads to the following simplified model

ds = X s I ds + X m I dr

(3. 3. 14)

qs = X s I qs + X m I qr

(3. 3. 15)

dr = X r I dr + X m I ds

(3. 3. 16)

qr = X r I qr + X m I qs

(3. 3. 17)

Vds = Rs I ds + s qs

(3. 3. 18)

Vqs = Rs I qs s ds

(3. 3. 19)

0 = Rr I dr + s s qr

0 = Rr I qr s s dr
s=

d dr
dt

d qr
dt

s g
s

(3. 3. 20)

(3. 3. 21)

(3. 3. 22)

Te = qr I dr dr I qr

(3. 3. 23)

Pactive = Vds Ids + Vqs I qs

(3. 3. 24)

Preactive = Vqs I ds Vds I qs

(3. 3. 25)

P = Vds Ids + Vqs I qs + Vqs I ds Vds I qs

(3. 3. 26)

3.4 Modelling and simulation in gPROMS

3.4.1 Modelling in gPROMS

The mathematical equations above consist of a mixed set of ordinary differential and
algebraic equations that express the wind turbines physical laws of conservation of
energy and momentum.
36

A state of the art software application, gPROMS, which enables the user to specify
the order of polynomial and the number of points for discretisation of the spatial
domain was used here for dynamic simulation. The software gPROMS is an equation
oriented modelling system used for building, validating and executing models. The
wind turbine model described in sections 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 was implemented in
gPROMS. Details can be found in Appendix 3.
In table 1, the variables with a known value, the variables with an unknown value and
the number of equations for the wind turbine are given.

Wind turbine model


Known variables

, v , Vds , Vqs

Unknown variables

Te , Tm , Tw , g , m , ds , qs , dr ,

qr , I ds , I dr , I qs , I qr , s , , Cp ,
, , P
Number of equations

19 (Appendix 3)

Table 1. Variables with a known value, variables with an unknown value and number of
equations for wind turbine model

The table above shows that the number of unknown variables equals the number of
equations for the wind turbine model. Therefore the number of degrees of freedom is
equal to zero, and a simulation of the wind energy conversion system can be run.

3.4.2 Simulation results

The wind turbine parameters used for the simulation are given in Table 2.

Parameter

Value

Rotor radius, R

25

Air density,

1.225

37

Aerodynamic coefficients, c1-c6

c1=0.5, c2=116, c3=0.4, c4=0, c5=5,


c6=21

Gear ratio, n

65.27

Damping, D

1E6

Stiffness, K

6E7

Rotor inertia, H m

1.6E6

Generator inertia, H g

35.184

Stator resistance, Rs

0.0121

Stator reactance, X s

0.0742

Mutual reactance, X m

2.7626

Rotor resistance, Rr

0.0080

Rotor reactance, X r

0.1761

Synchronous speed, s

Table 2. Wind turbine parameters [Lubosny, 2003], [Martins et al, 2007]

It is important to note that for simulation purposes, the initial conditions were taken as
steady state (all time derivatives equal to zero).

3.4.2.1 Base case

Wind turbines usually operate at a wind velocity between 5 m/s to 25m/s. Since the
rated power is achieved at a wind velocity around 10 m/s, the wind velocity was set to
10 m/s for the base case. The transmission system and some portions of the
distribution system are operated at voltages in the kilovolt (kV) range. Therefore Vds
and Vqs were assigned a value of 1000 V. The blade pitch angle was set to zero in
the base case, which translates in capturing all the available power from the wind. The
simulation was run in gPROMS for 10 hours; results are shown in the following
graphs.

38

400

30

300

20

200

10

100

0
-100 0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

-10

-200

-20

-300

S t at o r cu r r e n t ( A )

R o t o r cu r r e n t ( A )

W i nd turbi ne currents

-30

-400
T ime ( s)

Idr

Iqr

Ids

Iqs

Figure 12. Wind turbine currents

The electromagnetic torque and the generator rotor slip are plotted in Fig. 13. As
expected, they have negative values in the generating mode.

W i nd turbi ne el ectrom ag neti c torque and sl i p rati o

-1000

0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

-0.2

-2000

-0.4

-3000

-0.6

-4000

-0.8

S lip r at io

E le ct r o m ag n e t ic
t o r q u e ( N .m )

T ime ( s)
Elecromagnetic Torque

Slip ratio

Figure 13. Wind turbine electromagnetic torque and slip ratio

39

The wind turbine output power is presented in the figure bellow.

Wind turbine power


60000
Power (W)

50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

Time (s)
Power

Figure 14. Wind turbine power

3.4.2.2 Wind velocity step change

In order to observe how the wind velocity affects the wind turbine output power, a
simulation was run modifying the wind speed. The initial wind speed was set to 8m/s
for 10 hours, and then increased up to 10m/s for another 10 hours. Figure 15 shows
that an increment in the wind speed results in a higher output power.

49300

10

49200

49100

49000

48900

48800

48700

W in d V e lo c it y
( m /s )

12

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

P o w er (W)

Power output towards wi nd vel oci ty s tep chang e

70000

T im e ( s )

Wind Velocity

Power

Figure 15. Power output towards wind velocity step change

40

3.4.2.3 Blade pitch angle step change

The response of the wind turbine towards a blade pitch angle step change is shown in
Figures 16 and 17. Figure 16 illustrates how an increment in the blade pitch angle
accurately translates in a reduction of the wind power coefficient.

12

0.25

10

0.2

0.15

Cp

Beta (degrees)

Power coefficient towards blade pitch angle step change

0.1

4
2

0.05

0
0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

120000

Time (s)

Beta

Cp

Figure 16. Power coefficient towards blade pitch angle step change

Figure 17 shows that the angle of the rotor blades can be adjusted in order to shed the
unwanted power. When the wind speed becomes too high, a control structure could
increase the blade pitch angle in order to reduce the aerodynamic power.

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

49500
49000
48500
48000
47500
47000
46500
0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

Powe r (W)

B e t g a ( de g r e e s)

Power output towards bl ade pi tch ang l e s tep chang e

120000

T ime ( s)
Beta

Power

Figure 17. Power output towards blade pitch angle step change

41

Chapter 4. Wind Turbine Control

4.1 Power control

As explained in section 2, the energy from the wind is not constant and the wind
turbine power output is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, which causes the
generated power to fluctuate. In general, the electrical power should be smooth and
non-fluctuating. Therefore, in order to reduce fluctuation, a blade pitch control
strategy can be developed. With pitch control, the power captured ( PBLADE ) from the
wind power ( Pw ) can be controlled by a pitch actuator. As the wind speed increases,
the power generated by the wind turbine also increases. Once the maximum rated
power is reached, the pitch angle is increased (pitch-to-feather) to reduce the power
coefficient and hence the aerodynamic power.
As stated in section 3, the inputs for the wind turbine model are the wind velocity v
and the blade pitch angle . The wind velocity is a disturbance variable; it changes
constantly and cannot be controlled. On the other hand, the blade pitch angle is a
manipulated variable. It can be adjusted in order to reduce the unwanted power when
the wind speed becomes too high.

4.2 Explicit parametric controller

Classical techniques such as proportional (P), integral (PI) and derivative (PID)
controllers are typically used to regulate the pitch angle of a wind turbine.
Nevertheless, as stated in [Balas et al, 2006], controlling modern turbines to minimize
the cost of wind energy is a complex task, and much research remains to be done to
improve controllers. Referring to [Bemporad et al, 2002], model predictive control
has become the accepted standard for complex constrained multivariable control
problems in the process industries. Although in the 1970s industry started
implementing model predictive control for many type of processes, considerable
research still needs to be carried out regarding the implementation of this type of
control for wind turbines [Brosilow et al, 2002]. The main advantage of this control
strategy is that it takes into account constraints (such as economic considerations or
operating conditions), which are usually not considered by the investigations done in

42

wind energy systems. A model predictive controller predicts the future behaviour of a
process using a reduced model, and finds the control actions necessary for regulating
the process solving an optimal control problem on a receding horizon. The goal of the
optimization problem is to bring the system to the target regulation set point y * in an
optimal way, while satisfying all constraints. The optimization satisfies possible
constraints and bounds on the states y and inputs u . These constraints can include,
for example, limited control authority and bounds on the blade pitch command and its
rates, or maximum values of important parameters of the system that need not be
exceeded. Model predictive control is a form of control in which the current control
action is obtained by solving, at each sampling instant, a finite horizon open-loop
optimal control problem, using the current state of the process as the initial state
[Mayne et al, 2000].
An important drawback of model predictive control is that it requires on-line
computational effort, which limits its applicability to relatively slow and/or small
problems. A solution to the implementation problem of model predictive control is
given by using novel parametric programming techniques. Parametric programming is
an advanced mathematical programming method for solving optimization problems;
model predictive controllers obtained via parametric programming are usually
referred to as parametric controllers or explicit controllers. This technique [Bemporad
et al, 2002] allows to move all the computations necessary for the implementation of
the model predictive control off-line, while preserving all its other characteristics,
thus increasing the range of applicability of model predictive control. The
optimization problem of the model predictive control is solved off-line and the
optimization variable (in this case the blade pitch angle) is obtained as a function of
the parameters of the process such as the output, states and set points. The feasible
region of the parameters space is also obtained.
In general any optimization framework in engineering problems can be described
mathematically as
z ( ) = min f ( x ) + d T y
x, y

(4. 2. 1)

s.t. g (x ) + Ey b + F

min max

43

x X Rn

y Y {0,1}

Rs
where y is a vector of binary variables, x a vector of continuous variables, f a
scalar of continuous differentiable function of x , g a vector of continuous
differentiable function of x , is a vector of parameters, b and d are constant vectors.
Parametric optimization obtains z and x as explicit functions z ( ) , x( ) of and
the regions CR ( ) where these functions are valid. By treating the process operating
variables as parameters, the optimization problem of the model predictive control is
solved off-line by parametric optimization to obtain the optimal solution as an optimal
mapping of the operating variables. The on-line implementation of model predictive
control is then reduced to a simple function evaluation at each sampling time instant.
The parametric controller design strategy is shown in Figure 18. The main advantage
of using explicit parametric controllers is that as the operating conditions of the
process fluctuate there is no need to re-optimize since the optimal solution is already
given as a function of the set of operating conditions. Hence, parametric controllers
can be implemented on inexpensive hardware with inexpensive and less complicated
software. This has been successfully demonstrated on several continuous processes
[Panga et al., 2005]. More details of parametric control can be found in [Bemporad et
al, 2002] and [Pistikopoulos et al, 2002].

Figure 18. Parametric controller strategy

44

This work attempts to design a parametric controller for the power output of a wind
turbine, by regulating the pitch angle of the blades. The parametric controller was
built in MATLAB. For this reason, the wind turbine model was directly transposed to
the

MATLAB/Simulink

software.

An

overview

of

the

implemented

MATLAB/Simulink model is given in Figures 19-22. All blocks can be internally


described with their mathematical relations, defined in section 3.

Figure 19. Simulink overall wind turbine model

Figure 20. Simulink aerodynamic model

45

Figure 21. Simulink drive train model

Figure 22. Simulink induction generator model

4.2.1 Model identification

The parametric controller was developed by first obtaining a linear input/output ARX
polynomial representation of the wind energy system. This was done by importing the
simulation data of the wind turbine power and blade pitch angle into MATLAB and
representing the data in the system identification toolbox. The sampling time for the
data acquisition was 1 second. The mathematical description of the resulting ARX
model was:
A(q) y (t ) = B(q) u (t ) + e(t )

(4. 2. 2)

46

q 1 y (t ) = y (t 1)

(4. 2. 3)

with A(q ) = 1 q 1

(4. 2. 4)

and B (q ) = 219.3 + 219.3 q 1

(4. 2. 5)

The modelling mismatch, e(t ) , was neglected for the design of the controller.

4.2.2 Explicit parametric controller design

The following model predictive controller formulation is considered for the wind
energy system:
J = min

Ut +1,...UN

t =1

Q ( y t y ref ,t ) + t =1 Ru t2
2

(4. 2. 6)

s.t. ARX model (defined in section 4.2.1)

u t = u t u t 1
0 u t 90
0 y t 50000

Q = 50 , R = 1 , = 10 3 , N = 5
where y is the controlled variable (wind turbine power output P in W), u is the
manipulated variable (blade pitch angle in degrees), is a positive optimization
variable incorporated to perform constraint softening in the presence of output
infeasibility, and N (prediction horizon), Q (output cost), R (control moves
suppression weight) are the tuning parameters. The values of the constraint bounds
(determined by the wind turbine design specifications) along with the tuning
parameters are given in Table 3.

P low

P up

low

up

Values

50000

90

Tuning

50

10 3

Constraints

parameters
Values

Table 3. Control design variables

47

The specifications of the parametric controller are to reduce the tracking error
between the output and the optimal power and satisfy the constraints imposed on the
parameters of the wind energy system. The only information needed to solve equation
4.2.6 and compute the control action u (t ) ( (t ) ) are the values of the elements of the
state vector x . This vector comprises the past input and output values and the future
set-point of the output power spanned until the end of the prediction horizon

t 1

x = Pt 1

Pset po int

(4. 2. 7)

The solution of this problem is obtained using recently developed algorithms [Dua et
al, 2002] and the Parametric Optimization (POP) software (property of ParOS Ltd). It
consists of a set of explicit linear expressions for the optimal value of the optimization
variable in terms of the parameters and a set of regions in space where those
expressions are valid. This mapping features an output feedback control law for the
wind turbine as it directly relates the control action (current (t ) ) to the controlled
output ( P ). The solution gave a polyhedral partition of the state-space into 21 regions.
For example in region 1, the expression for the control law (manipulated variable) is:

= [1 0.0045579 - 0.0045579 ] ,
1

-1

- 2.4358e - 014

2.4358e - 014

-1
if
1

0.0045579
- 0.0045579
1
-1
0
0
-1
1
0
0

- 0.0045579

0.0045579

-1

0
*x
0

-1

90
0
219.4

219.4
0

90
47034

2966
47034

2966

(4. 2. 8)

A two dimension projection of the controller regions, by fixing Pset po int , is given in
Figure 23.

48

Figure 23. Projection of the controller regions in Pt 1 t 1 space

Similar 2D plots of the polyhedral space partition are given in Figures 24 and 25, by
fixing Pt 1 and t 1 respectively.

Figure 24. Projection of the controller regions in Pref t 1 space

49

Figure 25. Projection of the controller regions in Pref Pt 1 space

4.2.3 Controller implementation (gO:MATLAB)

For the controller implementation, the measured output value y (t ) and the values of
the past output/input variables and future set-point are substituted into the set of the
inequalities for each region. If all the inequalities are satisfied, the region where the
parameters lie is identified. Then, the processor substitutes the parameter values to the
obtained optimal control function to calculate the value of the blade pitch angle that
needs to be adjusted.
Since the wind turbine model was built in gPROMS and the parametric controller was
designed in the MATLAB environment, a link was created in order to connect these
two programmes and implement the controller. gO:MATLAB, licensed as an optional
component of the gPROMS family, allows an entire gPROMS model to be called as a
single function from inside MATLAB, enabling to solve a complex set of algebraic
and ordinary differential equations within a single call. gO:MATLAB avoids the need
for existing models to be simplified and rewritten for the MATLAB environment.
Therefore, the validated, detailed gPROMS wind turbine model was called as a

50

MATLAB function for use in control analysis and design. The model was exported
from gPROMS using a simple export facility, which packages the model and all the
solvers and support software required for its solution within MATLAB. For this
purpose, a schedule was created in the gPROMS process entity that introduces the
communication protocols that defined the data to be exchanged with MATLAB
(Appendix 5).
Data exchange was implemented on the gPROMS side using the gPROMS Foreign
Process Interface (FPI). This was carried out by using the FPI GET and SEND
statements:

The GET statement is used to read data from MATLAB for input to the
gPROMS simulation.

The SEND statement is used to send simulation results from gPROMS to


MATLAB.

The FPI communication schedule was implemented using a task entity which is itself
called by the Process Entity. Details can be found in Appendix 6.
The gO:MATLAB function was called inside the MATLAB environment using the
syntax: gOMATLAB. The script file is shown in Appendix 7. Figure 26 presents the
gPROMS wind turbine model executing correctly within MATLAB.

Figure 26. gPROMS wind turbine model executing within MATLAB

51

The explicit parametric controller was successfully implemented using gO:MATLAB.


Results are plotted in Figures 27 and 28. Once the maximum rated power is reached,
the blade pitch angle is increased to reduce the power coefficient and hence the
aerodynamic power. The figures illustrate how in less than one minute the blade pitch
angle is adjusted by the controller in order to set the wind turbine power output to the
reference value.
As explained in section 2, as the wind speed increases, the turbine extracts more
power from the wind. Above 10-15 m/s wind speeds, the power output of the rotor
must be controlled to reduce driving forces on the rotor blades as well as the load on
the whole wind turbine structure.
As shown in the graphs bellow, once the rated power is achieved, the controller
accurately increments the blade pitch angle to shed some of the unwanted power and
prevent the wind turbine from damage.

Power profile
49,500

49,000

Power (W)

48,500

48,000

47,500

47,000

46,500

20

40

60

80

100
120
Time (s)

140

160

180

200

Figure 27. gO:MATLAB power profile

52

Blade pitch angle profile


0.012

Blade pitch angle (degrees)

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

20

40

60

80

100
120
Time (s)

140

160

180

200

Figure 28. gO:MATLAB blade pitch angle profile

53

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations for future work


5.1 Contributions of this thesis

A wind energy conversion system consisting of the blades, mechanical parts and
induction generator was modelled. Using the presented model, the output power for
wind turbines was simulated in a simple way in gPROMS. To test the performance of
the proposed model, wind turbine responses both to a step increase in wind speed and
blade pitch angle were simulated. In both cases, the proposed model gave valuable
insight into the performance of the variable speed wind turbine. As expected, the
power generated increases with the wind speed, confirming the need of some sort of
power control. On the other hand, an increment in the blade pitch angle proved to
shed the aerodynamic power. As a normal dynamic simulation time step was adopted,
this model was proven to be computationally efficient.
Based on the obtained rigorous wind turbine model, a blade pitch angle control
strategy for output power levelling was developed. An explicit parametric controller
was formulated using MATLAB and the Parametric Optimization (POP) software.
The controller design was based on an input-output ARX model and a predictive
optimization problem formulation. The controller was derived off-line by recasting
the current and past control input and process output together with the future
reference trajectory as a set of parameters. Then parametric optimization was used to
derive a mapping of the control actions in the parameter space. The solution gave a
polyhedral partition of the state-space into 21 regions. Hence, a simple explicit
optimal control law was constructed that allows the on-line implementation via simple
linear function evaluations. The controller was successfully implemented using
gO:MATLAB, a tool for calling the wind turbine gPROMS model from inside
MATLAB. The simulation results show that the parametric controller performs well,
accurately adjusting the blade pitch angle in order to set the power output to the
reference value, in less than one minute.
Although a comparison of the parametric controller with classical control techniques
such as PI was not made, an important advantage of the parametric controller over
standard controllers is worth mention. The PI controller is designed to operate for the
nominal operating conditions. When a perturbation of the nominal operating
conditions occurs, re-optimization of the PI parameters is required to cope with the
54

new scenario. On the contrary, the explicit parametric controller does not need reoptimization since the optimal solution is already a function of the set of operating
conditions. Thus, for any change in the operating conditions the explicit parametric
controller can successfully produce a control action to counteract for these changes.

5.2 Future work recommendations

The results obtained during this investigation are encouraging. The potential benefits
of parametric control for wind energy systems were analysed; it appears that this
control method allows for smooth wind turbine operation. However, a comparison of
this control method with classical PI controllers would be desirable to demonstrate if
substantial performance improvement of the parametric controller approach over
standard controllers is possible.
Furthermore, validating the developed wind turbine model and parametric controller
with an experimental real-time implementation on an actual turbine would be very
valuable. Moreover, this study is limited to the available data, and further validation
of the model with other wind turbines, other operating points and different
disturbances would be advisable. For instance, this study can be improved by taking
into account wind gusts and other practical problems.
The inclusion of the power electronics, converter, inverter, rectifier, capacitor,
transformer and grid connection would make the wind energy system model more
complete. Further research includes modelling and control of a group of
interconnected wind turbines or wind farm.
It should be noticed that the design of the parametric controller did not take into
account any robustness requirements. Since this work is a first attempt to develop an
explicit controller for a wind turbine, the design of a robust explicit controller is
recommended as future work.

55

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60

Appendices

Appendix 1
List of wind turbines manufacturers [Energy Source Guides, 2007]:

ABB Ltd.- Wind turbine generators

Bergey Windpowers

DeWind

Ecotcnia sccl- Spanish manufacturer

Electric Energy Ltd- UK manufacturer of small wind turbines

Emergya Wind Technologies

Enercon GmbH, Germany- wind turbines up to 6 MW

Eoltec, France- wind turbines from 6 KW to 250 KW

Gamesa Corporacin Tecnolgica

Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd

General Electric, through its subsidiary GE Energy

Martifer Group, Portugal

Nordex

Pauwels Trafo Belgium/Ireland- Major wind turbine generator transformer


manufacturers

REpower, Germany- wind turbines up to 5 MW

Selsam Innovations/Superturbine Inc., California- multi-rotor wind turbines

Siemens Wind Power A/S (formerly Bonus Energy A/S)

Southwest Windpower

Suzlon Energy Ltd

Vergnet french manufacturer of wind turbines from 5 KW to 250 KW

Vestas Wind Systems, Denmark- the worlds largest wind turbine producerwind turbines up to 4.5 MW

Wind Harvest- manufacturers of straight bladed, vertical-axis wind turbines

Win WinD Oy- manufacturer of 1 and 3 MW turbines based in Finland

61

Appendix 2

Wind turbine variables symbols and units

Symbol

Variable

Units

wind speed

m.s-1

air density

kg.m-3

rotor radius

area covered by blades

m2

Pw

power in the wind

P BLADE

aerodynamic power extracted by blade

Tw

aerodynamic torque

N.m

tip speed ratio

no units

pitch angle

degrees

Cp ( , ) power coefficient

no units

rotor speed

rad.s-1

generator speed

rad.s-1

Te

generator (electromagnetic) torque

N.m

Tm

mechanical torque

N.m

Tw

wind torque

N.m

Hm

rotor inertia

kg.m2

Hg

generator inertia

kg.m2

damping

Nm.rad-1.s-1

stiffness

Nm.rad-1

angle between turbine rotor and generator rotor rad

gear ratio

no units

magnetic flux

p.u.

current

amperes

voltage

volts

slip ratio

no units

62

inductance

p.u.

reactance

p.u.

synchronous speed

p.u.

Pactive

active power

Preactive

reactive power

apparent power

63

Appendix 3

gPROMS wind turbine model

#####################################################################
Model Entity
###################################################################################
PARAMETER
Rho
AS
REAL
R
AS
REAL
Rs
AS
REAL
Xs
AS
REAL
Xm
AS
REAL
Rr
AS
REAL
Xr
AS
REAL
Ws
AS
REAL
Hg
AS
REAL
Hm
AS
REAL
K
AS
REAL
D
AS
REAL
C1
AS
REAL
C2
AS
REAL
C3
AS
REAL
C5
AS
REAL
C6
AS
REAL
VARIABLE
Te
Tm
Tw
Wg
Wm
FLUXds
FLUXqs
FLUXdr
FlUXqr
Ids
Idr
Iqs
Iqr
Vds
Vqs
S
Theta
Cp
V
Lamda
Beta
P
Q

AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS

Torque
Torque
Torque
AngularSpeed
AngularSpeed
Flux
Flux
Flux
Flux
Current
Current
Current
Current
Voltage
Voltage
Ratio
Angle
Ratio
Speed
Ratio
Ratio
Power
Power

64

Gama

AS

Ratio

EQUATION
# Induction Generator model
FLUXds=Xs*Ids+Xm*Idr;
FLUXqs=Xs*Iqs+Xm*Iqr;
Vds=-Rs*Ids+Ws*FLUXqs;
Vqs=-Rs*Iqs-Ws*FLUXds;
FLUXdr=Xr*Idr+Xm*Ids;
FLUXqr=Xr*Iqr+Xm*Iqs;
0=-Rr*Idr+S*Ws*FLUXqr-$FLUXdr;
0=-Rr*Iqr-S*Ws*FLUXdr-$FLUXqr;
Te=FLUXqr*Idr-FLUXdr*Iqr;
S=(Ws-WG)/Ws;
P=Vds*Ids+Vqs*Iqs+Vqs*Ids-Vds*Iqs;
#2 mass drive train model (mechanical parts)
Hg*$Wg=Te+Tm/n;
Hm*$Wm=Tw-Tm;
Tm=K*(Theta/n)+D*((Wg-Wm)/n);
$Theta=Wg-Wm;
#aerodynamic model (blades)
Tw=(0.5*Rho*3.1416*(R^2)*Cp*V^3)/Wm;
Cp=C1*(C2/Gama-C3*Beta-C5)*exp(-C6/Gama);
Gama=1/((1/(Lamda+0.08*Beta))-(0.035/(1+Beta^3)));
Lamda=Wm*R/V;

#####################################################################
Process Entity
###################################################################################
UNIT
Turbine AS windturbine
SET
Turbine.Rs
Turbine.Xs
Turbine.Xm
Turbine.Rr
Turbine.Xr
Turbine.Ws
Turbine.Hg
Turbine.Hm
Turbine.K
Turbine.D
Turbine.R
Turbine.n
Turbine.Rho
Turbine.C1
Turbine.C2
Turbine.C3
Turbine.C5

:=0.0121;
:=0.0742;
:=2.7626;
:=0.0080;
:=0.1761;
:=1;
:=35.184;
:=1.6E6;
:=6E7;
:=1E6;
:=25;
:=65.27;
:=1.225;
:=0.5;
:=116;
:=0.4;
:=5;

65

Turbine.C6

:=21;

ASSIGN
Turbine.V
Turbine.Beta
Turbine.VQS
Turbine.VDS

:=10;
:=0;
:=1000;
:=1000;

INITIAL
STEADY_STATE
SOLUTIONPARAMETERS
REPORTINGINTERVAL :=100;
SCHEDULE
Continue for 3600*10

66

Appendix 4

Parametric Optimization (POP) software (property of ParOS Ltd) to derive


wind turbine explicit parametric controller
% Minimum values for u (pitch angle) and y (power)
vnom= [0];
ynom= [47033.97];
% Number of inputs
mpc.nu = 1;
% Output and control horizon
mpc.hy= [5];
mpc.hc= [5];
mpc.bMismatch = 0;
% Upper and lower bounds for y
mpc.y_up = [50000] - ynom;
mpc.y_low= [0] - ynom;
% Upper and lower bounds for u
mpc.u_up= [90] - vnom;
mpc.u_low= [0] - vnom;
mpc.bLimitDU =[1];
mpc.DU_up = [1];
mpc.DU_dn = [1];
mpc.wu = [0];
mpc.yridx=[1];
% Q value
mpc.wy=[50];
% R value
mpc.wdu = [1];
% Rho value
mpc.rho = [1e-3];
mpc.termul = 10;
mpc.lin_mv= [0];
% mpc.e_penalty = [0];
% mpc.sp_prof{1}=[{1:mpc.hy}];
% mpc.sp_prof{1}=[{1:mpc.hy}];
% Define wind turbine model
m.A = [1 -1];
% Enter A(q) here

67

m.B = [-219.4 219.4];


m.na = [1];
m.nb = [2];
m.nk = [0];

% Enter B(q) here


% Enter order of A(q)
% Enter order of B(q)
% Enter time delay here

arxm = m; % The arx model is stored with the name arxm: this is needed later
% Parameters low and upper bounds
t_low = [mpc.u_low mpc.y_low mpc.y_low];
t_up = [mpc.u_up mpc.y_up mpc.y_up];
% Procedure for parametric controller calculation
[mpver, trans] = arx2qp(arxm, mpc);
cri = mpqp2(mpver, bound2constr(t_low,t_up), zeros(length(t_low),1), 10000);
psol = cri;
inQP = inv(mpver.Q)*trans.P';
nt = length(t_low);
for i=1:length(cri)
% x = v - inv(Q)P't;
%psol(i).X = cri(i).X(:,1:nt+1) - [inQP; zeros(size(inQP,1),1)];
psol(i).X = cri(i).X(:,1:nt+1) - [inQP zeros(size(inQP,1),1)];
%
psol(i).X(:,1:nt) = cri(i).X(:,1:nt) - inQP;
% constant term unchanged
end
% Algorithm ends and the variable psol contains the solution
save windturbine psol

68

Appendix 5

gPROMS process entity schedule to exchange data with MATLAB


UNIT
Turbine AS windturbine
SET
Turbine.Rs
Turbine.Xs
Turbine.Xm
Turbine.Rr
Turbine.Xr
Turbine.Ws
Turbine.Hg
Turbine.Hm
Turbine.K
Turbine.D
Turbine.R
Turbine.n
Turbine.Rho
Turbine.C1
Turbine.C2
Turbine.C3
Turbine.C5
Turbine.C6

:=0.0121;
:=0.0742;
:=2.7626;
:=0.0080;
:=0.1761;
:=1;
:=35.184;
:=1.6E6;
:=6E7;
:=1E6;
:=25;
:=65.27;
:=1.225;
:=0.5;
:=116;
:=0.4;
:=5;
:=21;

ASSIGN
Turbine.V
Turbine.Beta
Turbine.VQS
Turbine.VDS

:=10;
:=0;
:=1000;
:=1000;

INITIAL
STEADY_STATE
SOLUTIONPARAMETERS
gRMS := OFF;
FPI
:= "eventFPI";
ReportingInterval := 1 ;
SCHEDULE
sequence
gMATLAB(wind is Turbine)
end

69

Appendix 6
gPROMS task entity to exchange data with MATLAB
PARAMETER
wind as MODEL windturbine

SCHEDULE
SEQUENCE
while True Do
sequence
GET
wind.Beta;
END
continue for 1
SEND
wind.A;
END
end
end
END

70

Appendix 7

gO:MATLAB script file


gOMatlab('startONLY');
gOMatlab('select', 'varpitch', 'varpitch');
gOMatlab('simulate', 'varpitch');
ee=1;
%Length of each simulation interval
L=1;
%Number of results from gPROMS
M=21;
%Number of control regions
N=5;
%Number of control horizons
y=0;
u=0;
Uout=zeros(N,1);
count=0;
%to calculate how many regions are being met
ReturnMatrix=zeros(1,L+1);
%exports the simulation results from gPROMS to MATLAB
Time=0;
tempu=u;
tempy=y+47033.97;
while Time <=200
i=1;
while i<=M
if psol(i).cr.A*[u;y;2193]<=psol(i).cr.b
Uout=psol(i).X*[u;y;2193;1];
disp ('***********find feasible region************')
count=count+1;
break;
end
i=i+1;
end
ReturnMatrix(1,:)=gOMATLAB('evaluate',[Uout(N)],L);
y=ReturnMatrix(1,1)-47033.97;
u=Uout(N);
tempu=[tempu u];
tempy=[tempy y+47033.97];
Time=Time+ee;
end
plot(tempu);
figure
plot(tempy);
count
Time
gOMATLAB('stop');

-min(y)

71