You are on page 1of 168

Agricultural Science & Technology Facility Guidelines

Agricultural Science & Technology Facility Guidelines Catalog No. 9006

Catalog No. 9006

COMPLIANCE STATEMENT

TITLE VI, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964; THE MODIFIED COURT ORDER, CIVIL ACTION 5281, FEDERAL DISTRICT COURT, EASTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS, TYLER DIVISION

Reviews of local education agencies pertaining to compliance with Title VI Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with specific re- quirements of the Modified Court Order, Civil Action NO. 5281, Federal District Court, Eastern District of Texas, Tyler Di- vision are conducted periodically by staff representatives of the Texas Education Agency. These reviews cover at least the following policies and practices:

(1)

acceptance policies on student transfers from other school districts;

(2)

operation of school bus routes or runs on a non-segregated basis;

(3)

nondiscrimination in extracurricular activities and the use of school facilities;

(4)

non discriminatory practices in the hiring, assigning, promoting, paying, demoting reassigning, or dismissing of fac-

(5)

ulty and staff who work with children; enrollment and assignment of students without discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin;

(6)

nondiscriminatory practices relating to the use of a student's first language; and

(7)

evidence of published procedures for hearing complaints and grievances.

In addition to conducting reviews, the Texas Education Agency staff representatives check complaints of discrimination made by a citizen or citizens residing in a school district where it is alleged discriminatory practices have occurred or are occurring.

Where a violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act is found, the findings are reported to the Office for Civil Rights, De- partment of Health, Education and Welfare.

If there is a direct violation of the Court Order in Civil Action No. 5281 that cannot be cleared through negotiation, the sanc- tions required by the Court Order are applied.

TITLE VII, CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964; EXECUTIVE ORDERS 11246 AND 11375; TITLE IX, 1973 EDUCATION AMENDMENTS; REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 AS AMENDED; 1974 AMENDMENTS TO THE WAGE-HOUR LAW EXPANDING THE AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1967; AND VIETNAM ERA VETERANS READJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1972 AS AMENDED IN 1974.

It is the policy of the Texas Education Agency to comply fully with the nondiscrimination provisions of all federal and state laws and regulations by assuring that no person shall be excluded from consideration for recruitment, selection, appointment, training, promotion, retention, or any other personnel action, or be denied any benefits or participation in any programs or activities which it operates on the grounds of race, religion, color, national origin, sex, handicap, age, or veteran status (except where age, sex, or handicap constitute a bona fide occupational qualification necessary to proper and efficient administration). The Texas Education Agency makes positive efforts to employ and advance in employment all protected groups.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Reproduction prohibited without written permission. Instructional Materials Service Texas A&M University 2588 TAMUS College Station, Texas 77843-2588

2001

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

Jim Nelson, Commissioner of Education

Arturo Almendarez, Deputy Commissioner Programs and Instruction

Robert Muller, Associate Commissioner Continuing Education and School Improvement

Alfredo Acevedo, Managing Director Continuing Education

Ann Pennington, Division Director Career and Technology Education

Terry Phillips, Director Agricultural Science and Natural Resources Education

Mona Corbett, Program Specialist Agricultural Science and Natural Resources Education

Kenny Edgar, Program Specialist Agricultural Science and Natural Resources Education

Donna Meyer, Program Specialist Agricultural Science and Natural Resources Education

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FACILITY STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Special appreciation is given to the following individuals who served in the development of this docu- ment. This publication is a reflection of the ideas and experience of these professional in educators and industry.

Curry Allen, Tuscola Josh Anderson, Leander Dr. Mike A. Barrera, McAllen Reece Blinco, San Marcos Brian Brawner, R&B Aquatics, Boerne Rene Cantu, Sr., Edinburg Glen Conrad, TruGreen Landcare, Bryan Joe Costanza, J.A. Costanza & Associates Engineering, Inc., Deer Park Dr. Joe Dettling, IMS, College Station Dr. John Dillingham, IMS, College Station Marshall Eaton, Tuscola Kenny Edgar, Austin Kirk Edney, IMS, College Station Dr. Craig Edwards, IMS, College Station Larry Ermis, IMS, College Station Marsha Goodwin, Dallas Dr. Davey Griffin, TAMU-College Station Gina Hale, Orange Grove Dr. Randy Harp, TAMU-Commerce Dr. Billy Harrell, SHSU, Huntsville L.W. (Billy) Hartman, Orange Grove Janet Hayes, Deer Park Tom Heffernan, Poteet Don Henson, Goldthwaite Mike Horn, Prodigene, Inc. College Station

Dr. Jinny Johnson, TAMU-College Station Tim Knezek, IMS, College Station Joe Liles, Holland Kevin Lynch, Splendora John Mack, San Antonio Tom Maynard, Austin Judy McLeod, College Station Roy Mills, Nacogdoches Chris Morgan, Flower Mound Dr. Joe Muller, SHSU, Huntsville Mickie Ohlendorff, Pearland Lisa Pieper, College Station Pat Real, Converse Ronel Roberts, Victoria Bobby Rosenbusch, Florence Javier J. Saenz, Weslaco Dr. Lon Shell, SWTSU, San Marcos Joe Skinner, Garland Marty Spradlin, Daingerfield Michael Tondre, San Antonio Dwayne Walters, James E. Blakeman & Associates, Inc., Navasota Janelle Watson, Klein Tim Wyatt, Plano Bobby Yates, Elgin Keith Zamzow, IMS, College Station

ii

Table of Contents

Forward

1

Introduction

.................................................................................................................................

3

Summary of Agriscience and Technology Programs in Texas

5

General Recommendations for Facilities Common to All Agriscience Programs

7

Safety and Security

27

Students with Disabilities

33

Recommended Facility Standards

.............................................................................................

37

Leadership Development and Technology

....................................................................

39

Mechanized Agriculture Food and Fiber

................................................................................................

49

...............................................................................

91

.................................................................................................................

105

Agricultural Biotechnology

Horticulture

Environmental and Natural Resources

Aquaculture

.....................................................................................................

117

Forestry

137

Food Technology – Meats Processing

139

Work-Based Learning – Agribusiness

149

Project/Research Laboratory

.......................................................................................

151

Summary

.................................................................................................................................

161

iii

FORWARD

This publication offers ideas, suggestions, and recommendations of industry professionals, school ad- ministrators, architects, safety consultants, agricultural science and technology teachers, and curriculum specialists. The purpose of this document is to provide the planning committee with information that might otherwise be overlooked. It cannot account for the local needs of every school district. As a re- sult, planning activities should not be limited to suggestions found in this document. Instead, utilize this publication as a reference to begin the planning phase of the expansion program.

There are no state standards for an agricultural science and technology department. There is no law or code that specifically dictates agricultural science and technology facility standards. Publication of this document is not to imply that school districts must comply with information provided. There are state statues or codes that do mandate such areas as classroom size. Where sections discuss mandates, this publication identifies state statues or codes that are law. They are identified within the document and the school district must meet those specified requirements.

As a courtesy, this document can be accessed at the Instructional Materials Service (IMS) Web site. The online document contains links to the photographs contained in this document. Access the IMS Web site at http://www-ims.tamu.edu. Further questions or comments regarding this document can be ad- dressed by calling Instructional Materials Service at (979) 845-6601.

1

INTRODUCTION

The suggestions offered in this guide are the re- sult of an advisory committee comprised of ag- ricultural science and technology teachers, school administrators, and industry representa- tives. Many facilities were reviewed. The mis- sion of the advisory committee was to offer rec- ommendations for facilities within the entire Agricultural Science and Technology (AST) curriculum.

It is the purpose of this publication to offer timely information to planners based on experi- ences of the members of the committee. Early use of this publication will allow time for plan- ners to consider these recommendations while the district is still in the planning stage of the project.

The Agricultural Science and Technology cur- riculum makes a diverse selection of semester, agricultural industry, and work-based learning courses available to students. These courses are grouped into seven systems, each of which of- fers the student a field of study in an occupa- tional area. This educational format for the ag- riscience program promotes interest in the study of agriculture. School districts have reason to evaluate their district’s need for an agriscience program. In existing programs, the district may choose to upgrade facilities chosen. Where ag- ricultural education courses are not offered, the district may choose implementation of an Agri- cultural Science and Technology program.

CURRICULUM DESIGN

The choices available to a school district are very diverse. Seven systems comprise the AST program:

Leadership Development

Agribusiness Marketing and Management

Mechanized Agriculture

Food and Fiber

Horticultural Environmental and Natural Resources Value-added and Food Processing

The AST curriculum is divided into two catego- ries. Students have the option of enrolling in agricultural school-based learning (SBL) or work-based learning (WBL) classes. School- based learning involves each system and is comprised of both agriscience and agricultural industry curricula. Agriscience courses are ½- credit semester courses. Agricultural industry curricula offer students the opportunity to enroll in one, two, or three-credit courses. The WBL programs offer junior and senior students an op- portunity to enroll in agricultural cooperative training, rotations, shadowing, or internship.

Each AST system has special facility and equipment requirements that should be consid- ered before implementation. The local school district has the responsibility of conducting a needs assessment study to determine the type of curriculum suited for their clientele. The find- ings of the study should give the district the di- rection needed to begin the planning stage. Re- gardless of the system or systems selected, this publication is designed to assist the school ad- ministration, the agricultural science and tech- nology teachers, the architects, and others in- volved in the facilities planning.

3

The curriculum design and facility planning factors are

Current/future instructional offerings,

Number of teachers,

Enrollments,

Special needs of students, and

Safety considerations.

Planning should extend beyond the current pro- gram status. Long-range planning should ac- count for all areas of instruction within all sys-

tems. Planners should consider the following perspectives regarding long-range planning.

Community needs,

Expansion of curriculum and system offer-

ings, Potential increases in enrollment,

Additions to the agricultural science faculty,

Emergence of new technologies, and

Student interests.

4

SUMMARY OF MINIMUM RECOMMENDED SPACE ALLOCATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE FACILITIES IN TEXAS

Teacher

 

AST

AST/WBL

AST/APM

AST/Hort

AST/GAM

Units

 

Combination

Combination

Combination

Combination

One

Square feet

Square feet

Square feet

Square feet

Square feet

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r

 

1200

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

350

– paint

 

1600

– g.h.

350

- paint

 

600

– h.h.

 

Two

3000

– laboratory

3000

– laboratory

4200

– laboratory

3000

– laboratory

3000

– laboratory

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

350

– paint

 

350

- paint

1600

– g.h.

350

- paint

   

600

– h.h.

 

Three

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(2) 750 c.r.

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

1600

– s.o.r.

1600

– s.o.r.

1600

– s.o.r.

1600

– s.o.r.

1600

– s.o.r.

350

– paint

 

350

– paint

1600

– g.h.(2)

350

– paint

   

600

– h.h.

 

Four

4200

– laboratory

4200

– laboratory

5400

– laboratory(1)

4200

– laboratory

4200

– laboratory

(3) 750 c.r.

(3) 750 c.r.

(3) 750 c.r.

(3) 750 c.r.

(3) 750 c.r.

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

1700

– s.o.r.

1700

– s.o.r.

1700

– s.o.r.

1700

– s.o.r.

1700

– s.o.r.

350

– paint

 

350

– paint

1680

ea.– g.h.(2)

350

– paint

   

600

– h.h.

 

Five

4800

– laboratory

4800

– laboratory

6000

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

(4) 750 c.r.*

(4) 750 c.r.*

(4) 750 c.r.*

(4) 750 c.r.*

(4) 750 c.r.*

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

(one additional if needed)

1800

– s.o.r.

1800

– s.o.r.

1800

– s.o.r.

1800

– s.o.r.

1800

– s.o.r.

350

– paint

 

350

– paint

1600

– g.h.(2)

350

– paint

   

600

– h.h.

 

AST – Agricultural Science & Technology

**

see page

WBL – Work-based Learning

***

APM – Agricultural Power & Machinery

(1)

see page If more than two sections of Ag

Hort – Horticulture GAM – General Agricultural Mechanics c.r. – classroom

(2)

Power & machinery are offered, additional stall space will be needed. If more than two sections of Horticulture are offered, an

s.o.r. – storage, office, restroom, inc. g.h. – greenhouse h.h. – headhouse m.l. – meats lab

(3)

additional 400 sq. ft. of greenhouse space will be needed If more than two sections of Meats Processing are offered, an additional 600 sq. feet of meats laboratory space will be needed

Extra size recommendation due to inclusion of technology requirements, media devices, and related equipment.

5

SUMMARY OF MINIMUM RECOMMENDED SPACE ALLOCATIONS FOR AGRICUTLURAL SCIENCE FACILITIES IN TEXAS

- Continued -

Teacher

AST/AP

 

AST/Aqua

 

AST/MP

AST/AR Com-

Units

Combination

Combination

Combination

 

bination

One

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1000

– c.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

   

1200

– m.l. **

 

Two

3000

– laboratory

3000

– laboratory

3000

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

(2) 750 – c.r.

750 – c.r.

 

(2) 750 – c.r.

750 – c.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

1500

– s.o.r.

1200

– s.o.r.

   

1200

m.l. **

 

Three

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

3600

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

(2) 750 – c.r.

(2) 750 – c.r.

(one

(2) 750 – c.r. (one

(2) 750 – c.r. (one

(one additional if

additional if needed)

additional if

additional if needed)

needed)

1600

– s.o.r.

needed)

1200

– s.o.r.

1600

– s.o.r.

 

1600

– s.o.r.

 
 

1200

m.l. ** (3)

Four

4200

– laboratory

4200

– laboratory

4200

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

(3) 750 – c.r.

(3) 750 – c.r.

(one

(3) 750 – c.r. (one

(3) 750 – c.r. (one

(one additional if

additional if needed)

additional if

additional if needed)

needed)

1700

– s.o.r.

needed)

1200

– s.o.r.

1700

– s.o.r.

 

1700

– s.o.r.

 
 

1200

m.l. ** (3)

Five

4800

– laboratory

4800

– laboratory

4800

– laboratory

2400

– laboratory

(4) 750 – c.r. (one

(4) 750 – c.r. (one

(4) 750 – c.r. (one

(4) 750 – c.r. (one

additional if

additional if needed)

additional if

additional if needed)

needed)

1800

– s.o.r.

needed)

1200

– s.o.r.

1800

– s.o.r.

 

1800

– s.o.r.

 
 

1200

– m.l. ** (3)

AP – Animal Production

**

see page

Aqua - Aquaculture

***

MP – Meats Processing

(1)

see page If more than two sections of Ag

AR – Agricultural Resources c.r. – classroom s.o.r. – storage, office, restroom, inc.

(2)

Power & machinery are offered, additional stall space will be needed. If more than two sections of Horticulture are offered, an

g.h. – greenhouse h.h. – headhouse m.l. – meats laboratory

(3)

additional 400 sq. ft. of greenhouse space is needed. If more than two sections of Meats Processing are offered, an additional 600 sq. ft. of meats laboratory space is needed.

Extra size recommendation due to inclusion of technology requirements, media devices, and related equipment.

6

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE FACILITIES

INTRODUCTION

The agricultural science and technology (AST or agriscience) classroom is the center of the pro- gram’s facilities. All courses use the classroom for some part of their curriculum. The AST classroom should be part of the main high school building or the career and technology complex. Its design should allow for integration of the various systems of the agriscience cur- riculum. In addition to serving the needs of high school students, the design should accommodate adult education classes and other community activities.

The design should also consider the needs of the disabled or handicapped. Many occupations within the agriscience curriculum lend them- selves to those individuals with physical limita- tions. In designing educational facilities to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act, the school district provides the physical surroundings for handicapped students to re- ceive training in the industry of agriculture. Proper identification/signage in the classroom is important for special needs students and will make the facilities accessible to visually handi- capped students.

A major factor in the development of an AST facility is safety. This consideration should be applied to all aspects of the total agriscience cur- riculum. Safety concerns account for every as- pect of the programs from mechanized agricul- tural work with power equipment to hazardous materials handling in agricultural biotechnology to proper lighting in the technology department. Any attempt to reduce costs when planning a facility should not result in less than safe sur- roundings for the students or faculty.

The curriculum design and facility planning factors are

Current/future instructional offerings,

Number of teachers,

Enrollments,

Special needs of students, and

Safety considerations.

Planning should extend beyond the current pro- gram status. Long-range planning should ac- count for all areas of instruction within all sys- tems. Long-range planning should consider

Community needs,

Expansion of curriculum and system offer-

ings, Potential increases in enrollment,

Additions to the agricultural science faculty,

Emergence of new technologies, and

Student interests.

To ensure the elimination of architectural barri- ers in all new construction and substantial reno- vation of public buildings (in excess of $50,000), the law requires that plans be ap- proved by the Architectural Barriers Office of the State Department of Licensing and Regula- tion in Austin. The website for this agency is found at the end of this section. Layout and de- sign of the total agricultural science facility should meet or exceed minimum standards, where established, by the Texas Education Code. A science lecture/laboratory room re- quires 50 square feet of free space per student, with a minimum free space of 1,200 square feet. The free space recommendations for agricultural science laboratories are exclusive of machinery and equipment areas.

7

EARLY CONSIDERATIONS

The design of this facility should accommodate anticipated growth within the department. Ad- ditional students, an increase in faculty, and new curricula will require adequate space. Planning for such expansion at this stage will facilitate implementation at a later date.

Location

It is recommended that the agricultural science facility be connected to or adjacent to the main high school building or career and technology complex and be of similar architectural design and construction.

Since the agricultural science program is an in- tegral part of the total educational program of a school, considerable thought and careful study should be given to locating the facility. In addi- tion to the instruction given to in-school stu- dents, commodity producers and other related groups in the community will receive organized instruction in the facility. All groups that will receive instruction in the facility should be con- sidered when selecting the site.

The site should be easily accessible for school patrons and provide parking spaces. The build- ing should be a single story facility or the AST facility should be located on the first floor of a multi-story building. This will allow for easy movement in to and out of the shop and class- room. Such a design will also reduce ADA de- sign considerations. The area around the facility should be well drained.

The main entrance should be open to the out- side. When incorporated into a career and tech- nology building, the area should be designed so that noise will not disrupt other classes. The building should provide use to both sexes and to students with disabilities.

Adjacent vs. Separate Facilities

The designing architect or the school district administration may have little option as to whether the agriscience facility is connected to

8

the main school building or exists as a separate facility. The following offers advantages to each situation.

Advantages of the Agricultural Science depart- ment connected to the main high school build- ing:

  • 1. The agricultural science department would be more convenient for administrators, teachers, and students.

  • 2. During inclement weather, it would not be necessary for students to leave the main building to attend classes.

  • 3. It would tend to unite the agricultural sci- ence department more closely with the to- tal high school program.

  • 4. Facilities for all programs in the high school would be comparable.

  • 5. It would be more convenient for custodial and maintenance service.

  • 6. The cost of installing heating and cooling systems might be decreased.

  • 7. The cost of utilities might be reduced.

Advantages of a Separate Agricultural Science facility.

  • 1. Possibly noise created in the agricultural sci- ence laboratory would cause less disturbance to other classes.

  • 2. Some areas of learning in agricultural sci- ence create undesirable odors. For example, animals may be temporarily housed at the agricultural science department for teaching purposes. An agricultural science facility separated from the main building would lessen the likelihood of any odors reaching the main high school building.

  • 3. Agricultural science students often partici- pate in external learning activities. A sepa- rate agricultural science building would re- duce disturbance to other classes created by movement to and from these activities.

In some, cases, the separation of the classroom and laboratory may be necessary. This situation should be avoided if possible; however, if this situation is necessary, a covered walkway should be provided between the laboratory and classroom to protect students from the weather.

The facility should be designed to prevent stu- dent segregation on the basis of race, color, na- tional origin, sex, or handicapping condition.

Foundation

The foundation should be concrete, with a thickness and reinforcement that provide maxi- mum strength in both beam and nonbeam areas of the slab. The concrete mixture should be strong enough to support heavy machinery and equipment. The laboratory floor surface should be sealed to provide durability, ease of cleaning, and a vapor barrier. In the open space area, some facilities have chosen to incorporate flush- fitting machinery tie-downs into the laboratory floor. Tile or carpet is the recommended cov- ering for classroom and office areas. Floor cov- erings are less stressful for feet and legs, allow- ing for health considerations.

Water Supply and Drainage

Water lines should be installed around the pe- rimeter of the laboratory, near overhead doors, and on the outside apron area. In addition, the wash area and restrooms will require a water supply. A water supply calls for drainage throughout the facility. The laboratory floor, restrooms, locker area, and any outdoor facilities all require drainage. Floor drains and their as- sociated systems should meet all Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. In the laboratory, they should fit into a level floor to allow for project layout. All outlets should flow into an outside trap before entering the storm sewer or into an approved septic system.

Location Summary

Factors that should be considered in locating the agricultural science facility are:

  • 1. Availability of campus space

    • (a) Space should be available for antici- pated growth.

    • (b) An area adjacent to the building should be available for conducting demon- strations, parking equipment, and out- side storage.

  • 2. Accessibility to school patrons.

  • 3. Parking space.

  • 4. Ground level and drainage.

    • (a) The building should be a single story facility or located on the first floor of a multi-story building.

    • (b) Building should be located in a well- drained area

    • (c) No steep inclines or ramps should be located at laboratory entrances.

    • (d) There should be very little slope at the entrance serving large, overhead doors.

  • 5. Building design.

    • (a) The main entrance should be open to the outside.

    • (b) The building should be designed to re- duce disturbance to other classes.

    • (c) The building should provide equal ac- cess.

  • 6. Facility size.

  • CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT

    The classroom should contain at least 1,000 square feet of floor space. A width of 25 feet is considered adequate for a single classroom. The preferred width is 26 to 28 feet. In a two- teacher department, 750 square feet per class- room is adequate. A width of 40 feet is consid- ered adequate for the laboratory with a 1:1½ width-to-length ratio.

    9

    The total classroom environment should be large enough to meet the needs of the largest group to utilize the facility. Where classrooms are used for adult education programs and FFA meetings, space requirements may need to be increased to accommodate these groups. With multi-teacher departments, a removable sound- proof partition can provide access to a larger meeting area. Departments with this classroom arrangement should have 9-foot-high ceilings. In schools with more than two-teacher depart- ments, classrooms should be provided to meet the needs of all classes. All AST classrooms should be part of the total AST facility.

    In programs having three or more teachers, ad- ditional classrooms should be provided when the schedule requires all teachers to meet classes during the same period.

    Where computer stations are part of the class- room, an additional 15 square feet per unit is needed. A handicapped station should provide a workspace of 20 square feet. This may make it necessary to provide a room wider than the pre- ferred dimensions.

    Desks or tables for the classroom should be ac- cording to the teacher’s preference. Some teachers prefer individual desks for student management. Stools or chairs should also be the teachers preference. Furniture in classroom should accommodate a minimum of 24 students. Furniture to accommodate special needs stu- dents should be considered.

    The classroom should contain built-in storage cabinets around the edges of the room. Where computers are incorporated into the classroom, counter tops should provide space for at least six computer stations. Raised cabinets should be installed for storage areas. Built-in cabinets with locks will provide secure storage for the television, videocassette recorder, and additional audio-visual equipment. It is recommended that each classroom have a television mounted on ceiling-mounted rack.

    The architect should design a climate-controlled environment that provides the maximum venti- lation with the minimum amount of humidity. Humidity will damage electronic equipment. Certain molds that grow in humid areas can also be a threat to student and teacher health. If the heating and cooling system does not adequately control air moisture, a dehumidifier should be installed to bring humidity to a safe level.

    Classroom lighting designed by the architect should consider both computer and audio/visual use and the needs of students with visual dis- abilities. This may require conditions where a light remains on even though main classroom lights may be turned off. Electrical duplex out- lets, 120-volt – 20-amp, should be located no less that 8 feet apart on the walls. Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) and surge protection should be provided to all outlets in the depart- ment. Technology equipment located in the classroom may require additional electrical out- lets and networking as well as Internet connec- tions.

    The department should maintain a li- brary/resource area that is accessible to each classroom. In addition, each classroom should have a 4’x 8’ area with shelving and magazine racks for magazines, pamphlets, and reference books. A sink and work counter is desirable in each classroom for diverse curriculum offerings such as floral design and food technology.

    The design of the total facility should provide maximum use of window space into the labora- tory area for visibility. Windows should be made of safety glass.

    Humidity

    In certain areas, humidity can present a serious problem. In addition to promoting the growth of mold in the air ducts, on clothes and books, it can also cause serious health problems. Air conditioning systems should also dehumidify the air. In especially humid areas, a dehumidi-

    10

    fier can be installed if air conditioning units can not significantly reduce humidity levels.

    Ventilation

    Ventilation is an important consideration for the entire facility but especially the laboratory. Arc welding and oxyacetylene areas generate large amounts of waste gases that need to be removed from the facility. If noxious gases are present, a special ventilation system may be necessary. It may be necessary to consult the TNRCC to de- termine if exhaust fumes and gases require spe- cialized systems.

    The Council on Educational Facility Planning, International (CEFPI) prefers that facility plan- ners follow the latest American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) recommendations on Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning & Re- frigeration (HVAC&R). ASHRAE Standard 62 (1999) is entitled “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality,” and these standards should be applied. ASHRAE Standards handbooks are updated on a four-year cycle. ASHRAE and CEFPI Web sites are found at the end of this section.

    Texas Administrative Code, Title 25, Part I, Chapter 297 describes the Voluntary Indoor Air Quality Guidelines.

    These guidelines present a set of three voluntary recommendations, which are as follows:

    Develop guidelines for initial program de- velopment, a management plan, and school board review for program status and future needs of public schools;

    Develop a written preventive maintenance plan for a healthy learning environment for students; and,

    Recommend considerations for students with allergies or chemical intolerance, for food handling, garbage storage and disposal, smoking, and reporting of conditions that are not conducive to air quality.

    Refer to Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, ANSI Z49.1:1999, available from the American Welding Society or the American National Standards Institute, whose web site is found at the end of this section.

    If general mechanical ventilation is provided, a minimum exhaust rate of 1,000 CFM per welder should be provided. When individual exhaust systems are used, the general ventilation re- quirement of the laboratory can be reduced.

    An individual ventilation system should provide at least 100 CFM per arc welding station and 200 CFM per oxyacetylene welding/cutting sta- tion (Table 1). Placing exhaust ports for the noxious gases at the work level and not above the operator’s head will prevent exhaust fumes from moving past the welder’s face. Portable ventilation units are available from various ven- dors. Table 1 will aid in planning local exhaust systems.

    Table 1: Exhaust System Planning

    Distance from

    Minimum air

    Duct diame-

    arc or torch

    flow

    ter

    (CFM)*

    (inches)**

    4” – 6”

    150

    3

    6” – 8”

    275

    3

    ½

    8” – 10”

    425

    4

    ½

    10” – 12”

    600

    5

    ½

    *

    Increase by 20% for hoods without flanges

    ** To nearest ½ inch based on velocity of 4000 fpm in duct

    For further information regarding ventilation in welding applications, refer to ANSI/AWS Standard F3.1-89, Guide for Welding Fume Control. This document is also available from Global Engineering Documents.

    Engine exhaust ventilation situations can effec- tively use local forced ventilation systems in- volving flexible hoses. These hoses attach to engine exhaust and are required for tractor maintenance stations. Table 2 provides infor- mation for use in planning an engine exhaust system.

    11

    Table 2: Engine Exhaust System Parameters

       

    Minimum

    CFM per ex-

    diameter of

    Engine

    haust pipe

    flexible duct

    (inches)

    Up to 200 hp

    100

    3

    Over 200 hp

    200

    4

    Diesel

    400

    Chalkboard – Dry-Erase Board – White Board – Projection Board

    A 4-foot by 16-foot magnetic board of high quality should be located at the front of the classroom. A magnetic dry erase board should also be located in the laboratory. A dry erase board serves as an excellent projection surface. Each classroom should have at least one dry eraser board, 3’x 12’ mounted 36 inches from the floor. Dry erase boards are preferred instead of chalkboards. Chalkboards discouraged. Dust created by the chalk creates health concerns and is harmful to computers and electronic equip- ment.

    Bulletin Board

    At least one 4’x 4’ bulletin board area should be provided. The bulletin boards should be of ade- quate size and available in the classrooms and laboratory. Bulletin boards, while permitting normal instructional usage, should be placed so that they attract the attention of persons entering or leaving the rooms.

    Communication Systems

    Each agriscience facility, classroom, and labo- ratory should be equipped with a communica- tion system to receive messages via the school intercom. This should include a paging system. The facility should include multiple telephone line outlets in both the office and the laboratory. A supplemental ringer to the laboratory should be equipped with an on/off switch. A cordless telephone, dedicated FAX line, and Internet ac- cess would increase communication access in the laboratory.

    Power Outlets

    Grounded duplex outlets, 120V – 20A, should be provided about midpoint in each wall, 12 inches from the floor, on both sides, at the front center and at the rear center in the classroom.

    Additional outlets should be provided for com-

    puter workstations. GFCI protection should be

    provided at the circuit breaker.

    Bookcases, Magazine Racks, and Bulletin Storage

    Sectional bookcases with glass front panels or open shelves are satisfactory for storing books. Usually, four 3-foot-long sections will be ade- quate. Multi-teacher departments may require additional units.

    A magazine rack built with adjustable shelves 12 to 18 inches wide and at a slight angle is nec- essary to properly display magazines. The rack should have approximately 20 linear feet of space either in tiers or continuous form.

    Sufficient space should be provided for storing and filing teaching materials. Agricultural sci- ence teachers use many methods, and a specific filing method is not recommended. However, if “pigeon-hole” cases are used for filing, it is rec- ommended that sliding or folding doors be pro- vided for covering the “pigeon-holes.”

    MultiMedia Equipment

    A wall mounted projection screen with both re- flective (video projection) and nonreflective (overhead) surfaces should be installed in each classroom. Blackout screen or blinds should be provided for windows.

    Sink and Work Counter

    A sink and work counter should be placed in the classroom. The work counter should have elec- trical outlets with GFCI protection in the imme- diate vicinity.

    12

    Office Space

    The agriscience teacher needs sufficient office space to conveniently store official records and correspondence, develop and store instructional materials, hold private conferences with admin- istrators, teachers, parents, and students, and meet with small groups of adults.

    Each department should provide office space to the faculty. A single-teacher department should have 120 square feet of space. Add 80 square feet for each additional teacher. Add still an- other 15 square feet for each computer station in the office.

    Office design should limit personnel access. The office should not be a hallway from the classroom to the laboratory or any other area in the facility. Certain security considerations also apply. However, the office should have easy access to both the classroom and the laboratory. Safety glass paneling should be located in the walls of the teacher’s office to permit observa- tion of the classroom and laboratory from the office. Visibility is very important for safety and student management.

    The office should contain a desk and chair, stor- age, file cabinets, and at least two visitor chairs. Electrical duplex outlets, 120-volt – 20-amp, should be located no less that 6 feet apart on all of the walls. Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) and surge protection should be provided to all outlets. The lighting for the office should be similar to that in the classroom. The office should have current communications technology (i.e., a telephone with both local and long dis- tance service) and be equipped with voice mail or answer machine capabilities.

    The agricultural science teacher’s office should carry the same status as any other professional’s office. It should contain locking files, a secure computer, telephone, and related equipment. Doors should be equipped with locks. Office ventilation should be considered when planning the facility. Central air and heat is desirable in

    13

    the office as well. A restroom adjacent to the office is also desirable.

    STORAGE

    Storage is an important consideration when planning a facility. Agriscience teachers use many teaching aids in their instructional deliv- ery. These include overhead and video projec- tors, slide projectors, charts, items for demon- stration, and numerous specimens. In a single- teacher department, a minimum of 150 square feet should be provided for storage. In multiple- teacher departments, at least 200 square feet is desirable.

    A storage area adjoining, but separate from, classroom and office areas and equipped with metal shelving units is needed for storing FFA equipment and supplies. It should be near office and accessible to classroom(s). Its design should accommodate textbooks, curriculum materials, and audio/visual equipment. A small, counter-top refrigerator should be available for storage of medicines, or for laboratory activity, or any supplies requiring cool storage.

    RESTROOM FACILITIES

    Restroom facilities should be available and eas- ily accessible for male and for female students. An agricscience facility may be part of a larger career and technology center. Where this is the case, restroom facilities may be shared by all programs.

    Where the agriscience facility is independent of other departments, separate restroom facilities should be available. Size and accommodations will depend on the number of students that have access to the facility. In a restroom for males, two urinals and one toilet should be sufficient. In a restroom for females, two toilets should be adequate. It is recommended that requirements of the ADA be followed when designing these facilities.

    Where departmental restroom facilities are pro- vided, a shower and locker area is optional. A

    locker area is not necessary since most students do not change clothes for laboratory activities. While these features are not a necessary item in the facility, some school districts, especially those with school-based learning laboratory courses, do make them available to the students. If lockers are included, they should of the ex- panded metal type. Lockers should be secured with locks. If a changing area is provided, benches should be permanently installed. Stu- dents will need a storage area for their materials, supplies, and personal items. Laboratory tables are available with storage compartments under- neath. This storage should provide easy access for students and maximize space.

    Students should have access to an area where they can clean up after laboratory activities are complete. An easy-access wash area in the labo- ratory should be available.

    FURNISHINGS

    When considering furnishings, several options are available. Recommendations for furnishings have been discussed earlier in this document. The teacher should decide what type of furniture will be available for the students in a standard classroom setting. However, if a laboratory is incorporated into a classroom setting, it may be necessary to make special arrangements. For example, a biotechnology laboratory should

    contain counter top tables of an inert material common to science laboratories. These tables can also be used in the standard classroom.

    Tables and chairs are recommended for the classroom rather than individual desks or arm- chairs. Table should not be attached to the floor so that they can be rearranged for various class- room activities and individual learning styles. An industrial quality table 30 inches wide, 60 inches long, and 30 inches high should be pro- vided with matching chairs for each two student in the largest class. The teacher should be pro- vided with a lecture stand of convenient height to permit reference to notes and other teaching materials from a standing position.

    FLOOR PLANS

    Attached to this section are example floor plans currently in use by Agricultural Science De- partments. These represent examples only and are not included to suggest that these are model classrooms. Departmental configurations are given for one-teacher, two-teacher, and multi- teacher departments. You may contact Instruc- tional Materials Service, 2588 TAMUS, College Station, Texas 77843-2588 if your planning committee is interested in any of the configura- tions. We will assist you in contacting the school that provided the plans for this publica- tion.

    14

    Figure 1. Sample floor plan of a Single Teacher Agricultural Science and Technology Department. 15

    Figure 1. Sample floor plan of a Single Teacher Agricultural Science and Technology Department.

    15

    Figure 2. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Economedes High School, Edinburg, Texas. 17

    Figure 2. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Economedes High School, Edinburg, Texas.

    17

    Figure 3. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Jim Ned High School, Tuscola, Texas. 19

    Figure 3. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Jim Ned High School, Tuscola, Texas.

    19

    Figure 4. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Nikki Rowe High School, McAllen, Texas. 21

    Figure 4. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Nikki Rowe High School, McAllen, Texas.

    21

    Figure 5. Agricultural Science and Technology, Dumas High School, Dumas, Texas. 23

    Figure 5. Agricultural Science and Technology, Dumas High School, Dumas, Texas.

    23

    Agricultural Science and Technology Facility Photographs

    25

    SAFETY AND SECURITY

    INTRODUCTION Security Aspects

    A security system is essential to the entire facil- ity. Safety and security concerns are vital con- siderations in the development of a new pro- gram or addition to an existing one. The system should include building/intruder considerations, external motion detectors, and timed security lighting. The agricultural science laboratory is an instructional area. In districts that do permit random entry by maintenance personnel, a spe- cial lock with one-key access is recommended.

    Where as this section does not go into explicit detail, it does identify issues for consideration by the planners. All phases of instructional pro- grams should consider safety of the participants as well as safety of the facilities. Key elements to a sound safety program should include

    Safe design of the facility,

    Emergency escape or protective shelter,

    Safe work procedures (Student and Instruc- tor),

    Procedures for emergency response,

    Equipment for emergency response, first aid, and protection from hazards,

    Safety training for school personnel, stu- dents, and visitors, and

    Proactive evaluation of facilities and proce- dures to identify and correct deficiencies.

    SECURITY

    Security is another form of safety, which more specifically refers to the threat of criminal or civil violators. The elements to consider for protection will include school personnel, stu- dents, facilities, information, and physical as- sets. Schools should have an emergency action plan, which includes security. This

    section is a reminder to include security as part of overall program management.

    FACILITY SECURITY

    Maintaining a secure facility begins in the plan- ning stages and carries into set up and operation. Security includes issues of intruders, building lock down, inventory, and fire and smoke alert systems. Early planning for the facility will ad- dress

    Intruder alarm,

    Procedures to handle unauthorized intruders,

    Building security lock down procedures and key control,

    Control facility access,

    Property engraving,

    Inventory control,

    Security cameras/taping system, and

    Fire/smoke alarms (audible and visual).

    PERSONNEL SECURITY

    Security of all personnel in the department should be a major consideration to early plan- ners. From notification systems to stu- dent/teacher ratios, personnel security measures will work to enhance an overall secure environ- ment. These measures include

    Supervision/student-teacher ratio,

    Student and personnel identification,

    Controlling facility access,

    Communications, and

    Emergency lighting.

    INFORMATION SECURITY

    Information security includes storage of infor- mation, procedures to control and authorize ac- cess to that information, and a reliable back up system for information. Considerations for in-

    27

    formation control range from passwords on per- sonal computers to locks on files.

    SPECIFICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Safety considerations are the responsibility of all participating parties. Basic facility safety should primarily rest with the designing architect. The architect’s design should include specifications and recommendations from all federal, state, and local agencies. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

    National Building Code (NBC)

    National Electric Code (NEC)

    National Fire Protection Association

    (NFPA) Texas Department of Health (TDH)

    Texas National Resources Conservation

    Commission (TNRCC) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    Meeting the minimum requirements of the asso- ciated agencies should only be the beginning of safety measures. Additional recommendations by professionals and examples that set prece- dents should be considered to further enhance the facility and operations. This publication has begun such an enhancement process by con- sulting with the following groups and publica- tions:

    Experienced teaching professionals

    Professional safety consultants

    Manufacture’s representatives

    Code of Federal Regulations

    Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

    APPLICABLE SAFETY LAW

    At the time of this publication, OSHA governs neither the school personnel nor students. Still, the associated safety standards are considered reasonable. Therefore, compliance of these

    standards is recommended to further enhance a safe environment and instructional procedures.

    School personnel are subject to the Texas Haz- ard Communications Act of 1985 and the Texas Health and Safety Code (also see the HAZCOM section within this publication).

    One general guide to safety regulations and pro- cedures is the “Texas Safety Standards-K through 12,” available from the Texas Education Agency. Along with a general overview, the publication contains numerous requirements.

    EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND EVACUATION

    Safety programs should include procedures for emergency situations as well as all necessary equipment.

    Planners should develop procedures that include but are not limited to

    Emergency medical care,

    Minor first aid,

    Fire,

    Notifying authorities,

    Weapons,

    Violence,

    Bomb threat,

    Drugs and alcohol, and

    Natural disaster and weather.

    Evacuation procedures should include

    How to leave the premises,

    Where to assemble, and

    Where and how to take shelter when dan- gerous situations arise (e.g., tornado).

    The developers of these procedures should also consider all pertinent locations where instruction may occur. These include, but are not limited to, the main facility, greenhouses, farms, ranches, lakes, and field trip locations.

    28

    SAFETY AND HAZARD MANAGEMENT

    The management of safety and potential hazards is an ongoing process. Once procedures are es- tablished they will need to be continually re- vised and taught. Anytime a new machine or task is introduced, there should be an analysis conducted to evaluate the potential risks and ap- propriate safeguards. In addition, routine safety inspections should occur to confirm compliance and identify potential hazards. Such inspections may be performed with the help of checklists, which are available in the “Texas Safety Stan- dards” publication or may be obtained from the National Safety Council (NSC) and OSHA.

    Hazards will occur within the school and espe- cially the agricultural science department. Once a hazard is identified the follow strategies should be incorporated. First, eliminate the haz- ard if possible. If the hazard cannot be elimi- nated, an attempt should be made to reduce the exposure using engineering controls. Where engineering cannot fully reduce the hazard, it will be necessary to use procedural controls. If the previous options are not viable, personal protective equipment (PPE) may be used as a last resort (See below). This is only if such equipment provides adequate protection from the hazard. If the PPE does not provide ade- quate protection, the task should not be at- tempted.

    PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

    PPE describes numerous devices which, when worn, protect against hazards. These products include but are not limited to

    Gloves,

    Hardhats,

    Hearing protection,

    Respirators,

    Clothing,

    Shoes, and

    Eye and face protection.

    HAZARDOUS COMMUNICATIONS (HAZCOM)

    The contents of this section refers to the Texas Administrative Code, Title 25, Part 1, Chapter 502, Hazardous Communications Act.

    The requirements of HAZCOM are designed to inform both school personnel and students about the conditions associated with chemicals and other products which may be hazardous if used or misused. This law is directed toward school personnel, yet item one (1) below is also re- quired for students. It is recommended the first three sections be extended to students. The four main sections are as follows:

    • 1. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for each hazardous product must be current and readily available within the facility. This applies to any hazardous product with which students or personnel may have contact.

    • 2. All containers must have a label that clearly and accurately identifies the content and hazard.

    • 3. An education and training program along with a written program must be established and conducted.

    • 4. Employers must post and maintain notices informing the employee of their rights under the Hazardous Communications Act.

    ILLUSTRATIONS

    Following this section on the website are photo- graphs that represent selected safety concerns that are part of the agricultural science and tech- nology department. Each illustration contains a caption that further explains the photograph.

    29

    Safety and Security Photographs

    31

    STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

    INTRODUCTION

    Students are entitled to nondiscriminatory edu- cation on the basis of disability. Definitions of “disability” and a “qualifying individual” are in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Handbook (EEOC-BK-19). The definition “qualified individual with a disability” is in sec- tion 201(2) of the act. Under the protection of the ADA, any qualified individual with a dis- ability shall be allowed to participate in the benefits or services of any private entity. Public schools by definition are a public entity. As such, they are mandated to provide handicapped students with access to any program or curricu- lum the school district provides to all students.

    The ADA should be a major resource in the planning, design, and implementation of facili- ties needed to serve special needs in each agris- cience course of study. It will be less expensive to construct facilities with the necessary ac- commodations than to redesign or refit existing facilities. Granted, it is not possible to predict every need that may arise. Still, with careful planning, many of the design and construction considerations may be addressed prior to letting of bids.

    It is not the purpose of this section to provide an in-depth analysis of the Americans with Dis- abilities Act. Instead, this section is to bring attention to selected parts of the ADA and chal- lenge the designer to consider ADA require- ments during the planning stage.

    DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

    First, it is mandated that any new construction or altered facility after January 26, 1992 must comply with Section 35.151 of the ADA. This section establishes two standards for accessible new construction and alteration. The school district may choose conformance with the Uni- form Federal Accessibility Standards

    33

    (UFAS) or with the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) for Buildings and Facilities. Additionally, Section 204(b) of the ADA states that title II regulations must be consistent with section 504 regulations of the Rehabilitation Act and with the ADA. The Department of Justice has determined that a public entity should be entitled to choose to comply with either ADAAG or UFAS.

    There are eight Federal agencies listed in Sec- tion 35.190(b)(1)-(8). Two have particular con- cern to the Agricultural Science and Technology program. The Department of Agriculture [35.190(b)(1)] has the responsibility for the im- plementation of subpart F of this section. It ad- dresses all programs, services, and regulatory activities relating agricultural production, in- cluding extension services.

    The Department of Education [35.190(b)(2)] has the same responsibility to all programs, services, and regulatory activities relating to the operation of elementary and secondary education systems. If any discrepancy arises between any two agen- cies, section 35.190(c) provides that the Assis- tant Attorney General shall determine which one of the agencies shall be the designated agency for purposes of that complaint.

    Public Law 105–17 is the Individuals with Dis- abilities Education Act. Title I, Section 101 are amendments to this act. Part A of this title is General Provisions. It includes Section 6129(a)(5), Least Restrictive Environment. In this section, the law in general states that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with dis- abilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled. The law stipulates that special education classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational envi-

    ronment can only occur when the nature or se- verity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with the use of sup- plementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. Compliance with this law specifi- cally stipulates that disabled students with the ability to function in a classroom or laboratory setting must be provided with the environment that allows them the ability to participate in routine activities.

    ACCESSIBLE ROUTES

    Included in this section are space factors to con- sider when planning a facility. Wheelchair

    clearance issues regarding doorway width and depth, pathways, and forward and side reach are addressed. Not all of the standards are included in this document. Additional standards are in the Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook.

    ILLUSTRATIONS

    Following this section on the website are photo- graphs that represent selected ADA concerns that are part of the Agricultural Science and Technology department. Each illustration con- tains a caption that further explains the photo- graph.

    34

    Students with Disabilities Facility Photographs

    35

    RECOMMENDED FACILITY STANDARDS

    The scope of the Agricultural Science and Technology curriculum provides students a va- riety of career opportunities within its seven systems. Classroom facilities may be similar for the different systems, but laboratory and in- structional equipment requirements can vary. General facility recommendations discussed earlier in this document are generic in nature. The recommendations that follow are specific to each system or instructional area within a sys- tem.

    Regardless of the systems of instruction, a school district should plan for some type of learning laboratory. This can serve the mecha- nized agriculture curriculum specifically or it can be designed to serve multiple system labo- ratory needs.

    The importance of stressing safety and ADA considerations to the architect in the early plan- ning stages of the total AST facility cannot be overemphasized.

    SCHOOL BASED LEARNING LABORATORIES

    The state Agricultural Science and Technology curriculum offers fields of study that require

    special laboratory facilities. The mechanized agriculture laboratory can be utilized by most of the other systems. However, fumes from weld- ing equipment are lethal to aquatic species when aquaculture facilities are in the same area. A meat science laboratory requires facilities that can be easily cleansed with hot water. A regular mechanized agriculture laboratory environment cannot accommodate these needs. The horti- culture system should have a greenhouse to fully meet the needs of the curriculum. Still, a labo- ratory is necessary apart from the greenhouse. This area can be used for floral design activities or demonstration work. A study of the recom- mendations for specific laboratory requirements should provide planners and designers with in- formation needed to maximize use of space.

    ILLUSTRATIONS

    Following this section are photographs that rep- resent selected facility concerns that are part of the agricultural science and technology depart- ment. Each illustration contains a caption that further explains the photograph.

    37

    LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS

    Recommended Class Size:

    24 students

    Preferred:

    20 students

    INTRODUCTION

    These two systems are grouped together because they use much of the same equipment. Class- room needs are similar and technology equip- ment can easily be utilized in both systems.

    Technology is rapidly becoming an important tool for teachers in agriscience classrooms and a major course of study for students. The imple- mentation of technology in agriscience includes both computer and audio/visual curriculum. This section will focus only on the computer and video projection aspects of classroom and laboratory instruction. This section will also address the technology needs of the classroom setting.

    Technology is changing at such a rapid pace that it is difficult to make specific statements about the technologies that are available for imple- mentation into the classroom. Because of this, recommendations for technology education in agriscience will be generalized.

    The implementation of technology into the ag- riscience curriculum can take one of two direc- tions. First, the school district may choose to incorporate the computer laboratory into the regular agriscience classroom setting. Second, the school district may choose to develop a technology center or laboratory separate from the regular classroom. Both options are dis- cussed in this technology section.

    The school district should provide the hardware and software necessary to equip the agriscience department. In addition, considerations for Internet use are discussed in this section.

    DEPARTMENTAL EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY EQUIPMENT

    A teacher presentation station should be part of the technology laboratory. If a separate class- room is available, this may be a designated sta- tion. Where a technology laboratory is part of the classroom or classrooms in an agriscience department, a portable unit can be shared.

    The teacher presentation station should have the following technological equipment.

    Computer

    Video projection equipment

    • 1. Data projector capable of accepting audio and video from other sources (such as VCR or DVD) with a quality projection screen.

    • 2. LCD panel and high quality overhead projector with quality projection screen.

    • 3. Video scan converter and large screen

    television(s). The technology laboratory should have com- puter stations. Each station should have Local Area Network (LAN) and Internet access with the following:

    Unique user ID and password for each user.

    Virus protection software at all stations.

    Read/execute only on program files.

    Metering software to ensure software license

    compliance. Safeguards against adding additional soft- ware without approval.

    39

    All classroom computers should be networked with access to printers. The technology labora- tory should have

    A high-speed, monochrome printer,

    A digital camera,

    A color scanner,

    A portable computer and printer for on site presentation use,

    A portable data projection unit and screen for off-site presentations, and

    A video cassette recorder.

    SOFTWARE

    Software applications vary with the instructor’s confidence and skill level with each program. Still, certain types of programs should be avail- able. A graphical user interface based operating system, such as Windows™ or the MacIntosh™ Operating System, should be available on each computer. This provides easy access to pro- grams on the computer. Virus protection is es- sential to provide a margin of safety for the computer and the network. A Web browser should be installed to allow quick and easy ac- cess to the Internet.

    Several application suites are available. Each program should readily accept data from other programs in the suite. This package should contain the following

    Word processing program,

    Spreadsheet program,

    Database program, and

    Presentation graphics program.

    A graphics editor allows the user to manipulate, enhance, or create illustrations or photos for use in presentations or publications. The programs vary in price and capability. A computer aided design (CAD) program should be available for drawing plans for student constructed projects. This type of software varies greatly in applica- tion use from the very basic to the most com- prehensive. An HTML editor is still another program useful to a technology class. This pro-

    40

    gram allows the user to develop Web sites for display on the Internet.

    There are a variety of software programs avail- able for the Agricultural Science and Technol- ogy program from Instructional Materials Serv- ice, Texas A&M University. Of these programs, the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) record-keeping software will provide a means for students to maintain records for class credit. The National FFA also provides access to a va- riety of software programs.

    INFRASTRUCTURE

    The infrastructure is a total package of the am- bient needs in the technology laboratory. The infrastructure includes

    Electrical fixtures, Networking,

    Lighting, Climate control,

    Furniture, and Media.

    Electrical Fixtures

    Design of the technology laboratory should in- clude 120-volt outlets along the walls. These should be at desk height. Surge protection should be provided. This can be applied to each computer station or to each circuit in the labo- ratory. Where a technology laboratory is incor- porated into a regular classroom, additional outlets may be necessary. As with any electrical fixture construction, all wiring must meet state and local codes for the structure where they are installed.

    Networking

    Networking allows all computers to send and receive files. Files can be transferred to other computers, to the printer, or to a projection de- vice. Networking is accomplished by using category 5 unshielded twisted pair cabling. Conduit and raceway is the preferred method of installation. It is also possible to establish a

    wireless networking system. Each system, wireless or cable, has its advantages and disad- vantages.

    Network servers, hubs, switches, and other communications equipment should be isolated in a climate-controlled, restricted area where possible.

    Lighting

    Lighting in a technology laboratory is a major consideration. Fixtures should be recessed to reduce glare. The lights should be equipped with an adjustable intensity switch. Zone con- trol is also necessary. This will allow the in- structor to produce variable light intensity throughout the room as needed. A room without windows is preferred. If windows are part of the design, light from the outside should be blocked.

    Climate Control

    Technology equipment and software is sensitive to heat and humidity. Also, computers and other hardware will generate additional heat. Thus, the technology laboratory should be equipped with climate controls. Independent temperature controls should be installed for each room containing computers and other heat- generating equipment. If the air conditioning system does not reduce humidity levels ade- quately, a de-humidifier may be necessary to provide the proper environment.

    Special considerations apply where the technol- ogy laboratory is incorporated into the regular classroom setting. In most of these situations, the classroom setting is adjacent to or nearby the mechanized agricultural laboratory. This type of laboratory will generate fumes, smoke, and dust. These products are harmful to technology equipment. The air supply serving the mecha- nized agricultural laboratory should be segre- gated from the room containing the technology equipment and software.

    Still another consideration is climate control during holidays and summer. This equipment

    41

    requires a climate-controlled environment 24- hours a day, 365 days a year. Without a con- stant environment, technology equipment can be adversely affected.

    Furniture

    The furniture used in a technology laboratory must meet ergonomic standards. This includes desks with an adjustable-height keyboards and adjustable chairs. Each computer workstation should be a minimum of 30 inches deep and 42 inches wide, allowing room for the monitor, keyboard, texts, notebooks, and additional mate- rials. Texas Safety Standards recommends 15 square feet per computer station, 12 square feet per monitor/VCR/video disc player, and 20 square feet per physically impaired student sta- tion.

    For students requiring special space, width, and height requirements, workstations should be planned with flexibility. Some systems, such as those used to edit video, may require a double monitor system. This would require a larger work area. Additional tables should be avail- able as work areas. These areas should be free of all technology equipment.

    Media

    A variety of media equipment should be avail- able, including but are not limited to

    A computer,

     

    A television,

    A VCR player/recorder,

    A DVD player,

    A data projector,

    Digital cameras (still and motion),

    A projection screen (seamless construction and 1.3 x height for most applications), and

    Marker

    boards

    (dry

    erase

    with

    nonglare

    matte finish).

     

    Each piece of equipment should be cataloged and the serial number should berrecorded.

    TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY

    A technology laboratory should allow 36 square feet per student at the secondary level, which will equal 900 square feet for a maximum class enrollment of 24 students. All construction should be in accordance with local and state building codes and meet all ADA requirements.

    INCORPORATED TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY

    An incorporated technology laboratory is one that is included in a regular classroom setting. In this setting, an estimated 15 square feet per computer station, 12 square feet per moni- tor/VCR/video disc player, and 20 square feet per physically impaired student station should be added to the classroom space requirements. When adding a technology laboratory to an ex- isting classroom, the total space requirements of that classroom should not be reduced.

    FLOOR DIAGRAM AND ILLUSTRATIONS

    Attached to this section is a floor diagram of a technology laboratory. It is provided only as an example of how a laboratory may be configured.

    It is not intended to suggest that this is an idea classroom layout.

    The photographs at the end of this section repre- sent facilities currently in use by the school dis- tricts identified in the caption of each picture. If any of these scenes interest the planning com- mittee or architect, please contact the school for details. If you cannot locate the school, contact Instructional Materials Service and we will be glad to provide assistance.

    REFERENCES

    Several publications are available for additional information to use in the preplanning stage. In addition to these hardcopy references, resource personnel with existing technology labs and computer specialists are valuable resources.

    ILLUSTRATIONS

    Following this section are photographs that rep- resent selected technology laboratory concerns that are part of the agricultural science and tech- nology department. Each illustration contains a caption that further explains the photograph.

    References

    Texas Safety Standards: Kindergarten through Grade 12. Education Agency, 2000.

    Austin, TX: Charles A. Dana Center, Texas

    Hubbard, George U., Larry W. Lucas, Kathleen M. Holmes, and Paul Hons. Designing the Technology Infrastructure for Schools. 2nd ed. The Texas Center for Educational Technology. n.d.

    CIT Services, Cornell University. (2001). [Online]. Available:

    Remis, Peggy and Carl Hoagland. Telecommunications Applications Handbook for Teachers Grades K- 12. St. Louis, MO. 1997.

    Frech, Marshall.

    The Basics of Telecommunications Networks for Schools: A Guide for the Non-

    technical Reader. St. Louis, MO. 1997.

    Technology Advisory Committee

    Tim Knezek, Curriculum Specialist, Instructional Materials Service, College Station, TX Ronel Roberts, Career and Technology Specialist, Region III Service Center, Victoria, TX Tom Heffernan, Retired Agriscience Teacher, Poteet, TX Lisa Pieper, AST Teacher, A&M Consolidated HS, College Station, TX Tom Maynard, Executive Director, Texas FFA Association, Austin, TX

    42

    Figure 6. Sample technology classroom floor plan. 43

    Figure 6. Sample technology classroom floor plan.

    43

    Figure 7. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Orange Grove High School, Orange Grove, Texas. 45

    Figure 7. Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Orange Grove High School, Orange Grove, Texas.

    45

    Leadership and Technology Photographs

    47

    MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE

    Recommended Class Size:

    25 students

    Preferred:

    15 students

    INTRODUCTION

    National Electric Code (NEC) Specifica-

    Occupational Safety and Health Act

    The mechanized agriculture system is composed of five major focus areas: construction and maintenance, power and machinery, electrifica-

    The maximum number of students enrolled in a

    tions, and

    (OSHA) requirements.

    tion, structures, and soil and water management. The recommendations presented in this docu- ment represent the needs for the total instruc- tional program as well as technical semester courses and school-directed laboratory courses.

    mechanized agriculture course should not ex- ceed the number of students that can be offered safe and effective instruction. The advisory committee suggests a recommended maximum class size of 25 students, with a preferred en-

    Planners should also reference such authorities as the Southern Building Code (SBC) or other locally adopted building codes. It should be noted that these building codes outline mini- mum, not optimum, standards. Minimum standards should never be interpreted to rep- resent optimum standards.

    The recommended starting point is to design the mechanized agriculture laboratories to meet the instructional requirements for Agricultural Sci- ence 221 – Introduction to Agricultural Me-

    rollment of 15 students for any mechanized ag- riculture course. Texas Administrative Code 61.103 defines the maximum number of stu-

    chanics and build from there based on a variety of additional considerations. These considera- tions include but are not limited

    dents that can be offered safe and effective in- struction in a high school classroom as 25.

    Curriculum design (pathways offered),

    Flexibility,

    Long-range growth needs of the mechanized

    Basic Floor Plan,

    agricultural technology program should be con- sidered when planning facilities. In addition,

    Safety Components,

    other departmental systems may require space

    Future Expansion,

    for particular program needs. It becomes the

    Complementary Skills, and

    responsibility of the agricultural science teacher

    Total Instructional Components.

    to be aware of program needs and convey that information to the responsible party.

    FLEXIBILITY

    Facilities must comply with all minimum state, county, local, and municipal codes. All archi- tectural drawings and construction practices must meet or exceed all applicable building codes.

    These codes and compliance requirements may include

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) re- quirements,

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes,

    49

    The design of the entire agricultural science fa- cility should respond to change. Without change, the program can become unresponsive to the students and they will lose interest. These changes require the facility to be adaptable and flexible. Flexibility of design allows for changes in curriculum design to be introduced without loss of instructional space.

    BASIC FLOOR PLAN

    This section includes a table of recommenda- tions for minimum space allocation in mecha-

    nized agriculture laboratories based on the num- ber of teachers in the agricultural science pro- gram and course offerings in the agricultural science curriculum. A laboratory should meet certain minimum space standards for group in- structional areas or project assembly areas. This does not include the operating space require- ments for equipment or space for other parts of the facility such as restroom, office, and storage areas.

    SPACE ALLOCATIONS

    The information in the following tables is given to show the space allocation for specific areas within the agriscience facility. Table 3 provides recommendations for space needs for storage, office, restroom, and other areas. These are rec- ommendations for a one-teacher department. Additional space will be needed for multiple teacher departments. See pages 4 and 5 for

    more details. Table 4 provides recommend- ations for special features included in a labora- tory facility. The amount of space needed for each piece of power equipment in the agricul- tural science facility is provided in Table 5.

    Since the shape and interior arrangement of a building affects building utilization patterns and available space, the school official responsible for facilities planning should become familiar with the space needs for each area and piece of equipment. The facilities planner should con- sider several building shapes and interior ar- rangements before selecting a plan. Many expe- rienced agricultural science teachers report that supervising students and arranging equipment is much easier in a rectangular laboratory. A width of 40 feet or more, and a width-to-length ratio of 1:1½ is recommended for the agricul- tural science facility.

    Table 3. Summary of Required Storage, Office, Restroom, and Support Areas.

    Classroom Storage Space

    • 150 square feet

    Office

    Single teacher 120 square feet Each additional teacher 80 square feet

    Tool Room for Laboratory

    • 200 square feet

    Lab Supplies and Shop Materials Storage

    • 300 square feet*

    Restroom, Boys and Girls (each)

    • 100 square feet**

    Shower Room

    20 square feet**

    Locker/Dressing Area

    • 175 square feet**

    (exposed area for ease in monitoring)

    Lumber/Metal Storage Racks

    • 100 square feet

    Approved Paint Facility

    • 350 square feet

     

    TOTAL

    1,695 square feet

    *

    It is recommended that each facility have externally vented, approved cabinets

    **

    or store rooms for the storage of combustible materials These may be combined.

    50

    Table 4. Special Features Recommended for Inclusion in the Laboratory Facility.

    Emergency eyewash and drench shower (minimum)

    16 square feet

    Student wash-up area (in laboratory)

    50

    square feet

    Hazardous materials/waste storage

    50

    square feet

    Facilities shall meet the requirements of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. For physically impaired students, 20 square feet per student station should be allocated.

    DETERMINING THE SIZE AND LAYOUT OF THE LABORATORY

    State and local program needs and objectives should be used to determine the size of the labo- ratory and the machines to be placed in the fa- cility. Planning should also allow for future ad- ditions of machines and equipment.

    The following are suggested steps for planning the equipment layout in the shop.

    • 1. Determine specific laboratory areas (this in- cludes wood, metal fabrication, small en- gines, electricity, plumbing, construction and assembly).

    • 2. Choose equipment based on safety, conven- ience, flow pattern for materials, and access to assembly areas.

    • 3. Determine free area (safety zone) needed for each piece of equipment.

    • 4. Determine which machines to be located along the walls (these include radial arm saw, cut-off saw, drill presses, grinders, and arc welders).

    • 5. Locate machines along walls and provide safety zones.

    • 6. Locate machines in open areas, and use power islands to provide the most efficient use of available floor space.

    • 7. Provide assembly areas for project layout and construction and for placement of wood- and metal-working tables as needed (assem- bly areas inside shop should be 750 to 1500 square feet).

    51

    • 8. Mark safety zones in the shop. The ma- chines and equipment should be located in a manner that will require a person to cross a yellow line to get to a machine. A person should be able to enter and exit the labo- ratory at any door without crossing a yellow line. There should be aisles between separate safety zones for foot traffic and movement of materials. Refer to IMS Catalog #4624, Safety Color Coding for the Shop for information regarding safety zones and color coding.

    In determining the safe floor space requirements or safety zones needed for machines and equip- ment, a designer should consider

    Use of the machine,

    The dimensions of materials that will be handled,

    The flow of material through the machine, and

    The safety space needed for the operator.

    COMPLIMENTARY SKILLS

    Facilities planned for use in one instructional system can be easily incorporated into other systems. Facility requirements for various sys- tems can complement each other. For example, a school may plan to include course offerings in the horticulture system in its curriculum. A horticulture program does not require a mecha- nized agriculture laboratory as part of the pre- requisite facilities. However, horticulture does require some knowledge of skills that include electricity, plumbing, and small engine mainte-

    nance and repair. Access to a mechanized agri- culture laboratory will be useful in the horticul- ture program. The facilities planning process should take into account complementary skills found in the various systems. A mechanized agriculture laboratory should be adaptable and accessible to a range of courses in other systems of the agricultural science curriculum.

    METHOD OF DETERMINING SAFE FLOOR SPACE FOR MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT

    In addition to student space, each piece of equipment also has a safe floor space designated area based on the dimensions of the equipment and it’s typical use.

    The table saw is used to rip lumber up to 16 feet long, and to cut 4’x 8’ sheets of plywood. Free areas of 16 feet before and behind the saw, 8 feet to the left of the blade, and 4 feet to the right of the blade indicate that a safety zone of 420 square feet is necessary (12’x 35’ = 420 square feet).

    The radial-arm saw is used primarily to crosscut lumber up to 16 feet long and may be used to rip lumber. Free areas of 16 feet on the right side of the blade, 10 feet on the left side of the blade, and 4 feet in front of the saw for the operator indicates that a safety zone of 182 square feet is necessary (7’x 26’ = 182 square feet).

    Table 5: Recommended Safe Floor Space Needs for Selected Equipment

    Equipment

    Free Space Dimensions in feet

    Free Space Area in square feet

    Abrasive/cold cut-off saw

    7’x 32’

    224

    Air compressor

    5’x 5’

    25

    Arc welder

    5’x 7’

    35

    Band saw, metal cutting

    10’x 34’

    340

    Band saw, vertical

    8’x 12’

    96

    Computer station

    3’x 5’

    15

    Drill press

    13’x 22’

    286

    Grinder, pedestal or bench

    8’x 9’

    72

    Metalworking table

    11’x 16’

    176

    Monitor/VCR/videodisc player

    3’x 4’

    12

    Oxyacetylene rig & cutting table

    8’x 24’

    192

    Pipe bender

    15’x 25’

    370

    Radial arm saw

    7’x 6’

    182

    Sander, combination

    10’x 12’

    120

    Table saw

    12’x 35’

    420

    Woodworking table

    12’x 13’

    156

    52

    This list may be modified or adapted, based on various pieces of equipment. For exam- ple, a district will need to plan for safe floor space needs when purchasing an iron- worker, bender, or other large piece of equipment.

    When planning floor layout for large power tools, allow for dead floor space behind tools (i.e., drill press, radial arm saw, and grinders). To optimize safe floor space, it is often wise to position these types of equipment against walls or columns.

    This list may be modified or adapted, based on various pieces of equipment. For exam- ple,

    53

    54

    54

    55

    55

    56

    56

    SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE LABORATORY The Texas Department of Health, Austin, TX, has developed

    SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE LABORATORY

    The Texas Department of Health, Austin, TX, has developed safety standards for most occu- pations. Questions pertaining to laboratory safety should be directed to this department (the TDH web site is listed at the end of this sec- tion). Agricultural science facilities should be designed and managed with safety as a principal consideration. Several recommendations for improving safety in agricultural science facility are discussed in this section.

    SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

    Texas Education Code, Title 19, Chapter 247. The Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educators. Among other things, this leg- islation requires teachers to

    Comply with all written local board policies, state regulations, and applicable state and federal laws; and,

    Make all reasonable efforts to protect stu- dents from conditions that are detrimental to learning, physical health, mental health, or safety.

    57

    Safety concerns must be considered to fully plan for a facility that does not jeopardize the safety of students, teachers, or visitors. The safety of students in the laboratory is not just a matter of supervision. The facility must provide the fea- tures necessary to provide a safe learning envi- ronment and allow for action to be taken when problems arise. Specific safety issues will re- ceive more detailed discussion later in this sec- tion.

    The student/teacher ratio is a major concern that affects facility size. It is important to remember that larger class enrollments require more space in the laboratory. However, larger classes tend to reduce the opportunity for the instructor to provide safe and effective instruction and super- vision to all students. The inability to properly supervise students threatens the safe and effec- tive learning environment by increasing the pos- sibility of student injury. Programs with spe- cial-needs students and substandard facilities should work to further decrease student ratios. Mechanized agriculture professionals in indus- try, secondary education, and higher education agree that the preferred student/teacher ratio does not exceed 15:1. Realizing, however, the conflicts that can occur in scheduling, some schools will opt for a higher ratio. The maxi- mum student/teacher ratio recommended by the group is 25:1. This number is contingent on

    adequate space, available equipment, special needs of students enrolled, and the course of in- struction. Schools can face serious liability is- sues when exceeding this recommendation.

    The mechanized agriculture curriculum is de- signed to provide instruction to the students re- garding safe practices in the laboratory and with equipment and supplies. The laboratory should contain equipment and supplies that will allow students to learn safely. There should be emer- gency response lighting and alarms in the class- room and laboratory areas. The facility should be equipped with manually operated pull-type activators that will generate an immediate emer- gency warning. These devices may be used for any panic situations (i.e., fire, police, and vio- lence). These signal devices should contain both lights and audible warnings. Evacuation route signs should be posted in each interior room with routes marked and clearly visible when the emergency lighting is active. “Panic hardware” should be on all personnel doors. These activators should be clearly marked and have unrestricted access. All exterior doors should be mounted to swing to the outside. This allows for ease of evacuation in case of emer- gency.

    Beyond these considerations, safety factors that must be a part of every laboratory include

    Easily accessible first aid kit,

    Safety signs & posters prominently dis- played,

    Easily accessible eye wash area, emergency shower, and suitable floor drain,

    Easily accessible fire extinguishers/ suppres- sant systems,

    Easily accessible shunt-type emergency dis- connect and,

    Smoke, heat, and carbon monoxide detec- tors, installed and operational.

    Texas Education Code, Title 19, Chapter 37. Discipline: Law and Order

    58

    This legislation states that teachers may remove a student from the classroom or laboratory setting and send that student to the principal’s office for disruptive be- havior in order to maintain effective dis- cipline and a safe learning environment.

    Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    PPE describes numerous devices, which may be worn as a last resort to protect against hazards. These products include gloves, hardhats, hearing protection, respirators, clothing, shoes, and eye/face protection. Each task within the learn- ing environment should be analyzed to deter- mine the possible hazards. In each instance, the hazard should be eliminated. PPE should be used only as a last resort and only if it can pro- vide adequate protection. Every laboratory should maintain an array of personal protective equipment (PPE) for each student.

    Texas Education Code, Title 19, Chapter 38,

    Section 38.005 states each teacher and student must wear industrial-quality eye protective de- vices (safety glasses or goggles) in appropriate situations as determined by school district pol- icy. Local districts must adopt rules defining when eye protection should be worn and the type required for specific conditions.

    Texas Administrative Code, Title 25, Part I, Chapter 295, SUBCHAPTER F. Standards for

    Face and Eye Protection in Public Schools. The provisions of this chapter “apply to all teachers and students in Texas public schools that par- ticipate in certain vocational, industrial arts, and chemical-physical courses or laboratories where potentially hazardous operations exist.”

    Legislation stipulates:

    Local school boards and administrators fur- nish eye protection suitable for the type of activity;

    Eye protection be worn when there is a rea- sonable probability of bodily injury;

    Eye protection be kept clean and in good repair; and,

    Teachers and students who wear corrective lenses must be provided goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles.

    Special eye and face protection should be pro- vided when machines or operations present po- tential eye or face injury, such as flying material, splashed chemicals, and hot products. Eye and face protective equipment should meet the re- quirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, Z87.1. One source for this document is Global Engi- neering Documents. The GED web site is listed at the end of this section. Safety glasses and goggles must be stored in germicidal cabinets or disinfected regularly.

    Students may be expected to provide their own protective, natural-fiber clothing such as over- alls, coveralls, and denim jeans and shirts. Schools may choose to provide shop coats and aprons.

    Comfort

    When considering safety issues, comfort should also figure into the facilities planning process. Students in uncomfortable learning situations tend to get careless, which can lead to injury. Improving the ergonomic aspects of the labora- tory area can effectively reduce stress and de- crease the opportunity for injury.

    In providing a safe, comfortable learning labo- ratory environment for students, some consid- erations include:

    Restrooms and locker/dressing areas;

    Community wash areas;

    OSHA compliant guarding on all equipment;

    Noise/sound reduction control;

    Commercial/industrial quality tools and

    equipment, and Commercial/industrial quality building and building paraphernalia.

    Design considerations should locate equipment based on potential noise levels. Good planning will place “noisy and/or dirty” laboratory areas away from the classroom(s). For example, sta- tionary abrasive saws and air compressors should be located away from the classroom. The noise associated with such equipment can detract from classroom instruction. Planning should also include the placement of welding areas. Chipping and grinding activities and as- sociated noise levels can also detract students in adjoining classrooms.

    Flammable and Combustible Liquids

    Mechanized agriculture laboratories use a vari- ety of chemicals that include oil, solvents, paint, pesticides, and fuels. Many of these materials are flammable and require the use of a fireproof storage facility. Where possible, this facility should be separate from any source of fire or flame. It should also be ventilated, or in a well- ventilated area.

    Only approved containers and portable tanks should be used for storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. Flammable liquids should be transported and dispensed us- ing a metal container with a self-closing lid, or “safety can”. Flammable liquids should always be kept in closed containers when not actually in use.

    A maximum of 25 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids should be stored in a room that does not meet National Fire Protection As- sociation (NFPA) specifications for an approved storage cabinet. No more than 60 gallons of flammable or 120 gallons of combustible liquids should be stored in any one NFPA approved storage cabinet. No more than three NFPA ap- proved storage cabinets may be located in a sin- gle storage area.

    59

    Inside storage rooms should be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Where an automatic extinguishing system is provided, it should be designed and installed in an approved manner. Materials that react with water and create a fire hazard should not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids. Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms should be NFPA-approved for Class 1, Hazard- ous Locations. Every inside storage room should be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhausting system. In every inside room, one clear aisle at least three feet wide should be maintained.

    Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking should be posted in service and refu- eling areas.

    Further safety information regarding flammable and combustible materials may be found in OSHA regulations, subpart §1926.155. The web site for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration is found at the end of this sec- tion.

    Hazard Communication (HAZCOM)

    This paragraph references the Texas Adminis- trative Code, Title 25, Part I, Chapter 502, Haz- ard Communication Act.

    The requirements of HAZCOM are designed to inform both school personnel and students about the hazards associated with chemicals and other products that may be hazardous if misused. This law is directed toward school personnel, yet item one (1) below is also required for stu- dents. It is recommended that the first three (3) sections be extended to students.

    The four (4) main sections are:

    • 1. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) must be current and readily available within the facility, for each hazardous product to which the individual may be exposed.

    • 2. All containers must be clearly and accurately labeled with regards to the contents and haz- ard.

    • 3. An education and training program must be established along a written program.

    • 4. Employers must post written notices in- forming the employee of their rights under the Hazard Communications Act.

    In addition to “plain language” labeling, the NFPA has established the following labeling system for communicating hazards.

    Inside storage rooms should be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Where

    Copyright © 1996, National Fire Protection Asso- ciation, Quincy, MA 02269. This warning is in- tended to be interpreted and applied only by the properly trained individuals to identify fire, health, and reactivity hazards of chemicals. The user is re- ferred to certain limited number of chemicals with recommended classifications in NFPA 49 and NFPA 325 that would be used as a guideline only. Whether the chemicals are classified by NFPA or not, anyone using the 704 system to classify chemi- cals does so at their own risk.

    Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists

    Exposure to toxic gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists at a concentration above those speci- fied in the “Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants” of the American Council of

    60

    Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), should be avoided.

    Administrative or engineering controls must be implemented whenever feasible to comply with Threshold Limit Values (TLV).

    When engineering and administrative controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, pro- tective equipment or other protective measures should be used to keep the exposure of persons to air contaminants within the limits prescribed. Any equipment and technical measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygien- ist or other technically qualified person.

    Fire Protection

    Information regarding fire protection may be found in OSHA standards, subpart §1926.155. NFPA regulations also apply.

    Portable fire extinguishers suitable to the condi- tions and hazards involved should be provided and maintained in an effective operating condi- tion. (1999 Standard Fire Prevention Code, 608.3.4, Standard Fire Prevention Code

    2904.2.7)

    Portable fire extinguishers should be given maintenance service at least once a year with a durable tag securely attached to show the main- tenance or recharge date.

    In storage areas, clearance between sprinkler system detectors and the top of storage areas varies with the type of storage. For combustible materials stored over 15 feet but not more than 21 feet high in solid piles, or over 12 feet but not more than 21 feet high in piles that contain horizontal channels, the minimum clearance should be 36 inches. The minimum clearance for smaller piles or for noncombustible materi- als should be 18 inches between the sprinkler system and the top of the stored materials.

    61

    Illumination

    Construction areas, ramps, runways, corridors, offices, laboratories, and storage areas should be lighted adequately (Table 6).

    Table 6: Recommended levels of illumination

    Foot-candles

    Area or Operation

    30

    Storage and restroom

    70–100

    Classroom and office

    50–75

    General laboratory

    100

    Bench work

    Facility planners may refer to either ANSI/IES standard #RP7-91 (industrial lighting) or ANSI/IES standard #RP3-88 (educational fa- cilities lighting) for further information. These standards may be purchased from Global Engi- neering Documents.

    Medical Services and First Aid

    The school should ensure the availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health.

    First aid supplies should be readily available and appropriate for the most likely injuries. The ba- sic inventory of first aid supplies, as recom- mended by ANSI Standard Z308.1 Minimum Requirements for Workplace First Aid Kits, consist of

    Absorbent compress - 1

    Adhesive bandage - 16

    Adhesive tape - 1” & 2”

    Antiseptic swab - 10

    Burn treatment - 6

    Gloves, pair - 2

    Sterile pads - 4

    Triangular bandage - 1

    Additional contents may include:

    Antiseptic towelettes - 4

    Bandage compresses 2 - 4

    Bandage compresses 3 - 2

    Bandage compresses 4 - 1

    Cold pack - 2

    Eye covering - 1

    Eye wash - 2

    Eye wash & covering - 2

    Roller bandage, 4” - 1

    Roller bandage, 2” - 2

    To insure that appropriate quantities adequate items are selected a physician should be con- sulted.

    A safety eye wash and deluge shower should be part of the first aid/safety area. The eye protec- tion germicidal cabinet can also be located here, as well as other types of personal protective equipment.

    The laboratory should maintain a Right to Know center. This is a Hazard Communications area that should include a file of material safety data sheets (MSDS) for all chemicals in the class- room, laboratory, or office. This safety center should have a supply of container labels that meet NFPA guidelines. Where toxic fumes may occur, facility planners should follow OSHA, TNRCC, and EPA regulations for the manage- ment of these fumes.

    Use of Compressed Air

    The air compressor and associated piping for the facility should be sized to provide maximum anticipated compressed-air demand.

    Each outlet for compressed air service should be provided with pressure regulators and a conden- sation removal device. Condensation removal can be accomplished by placing cutoff valves above and below each compressed air outlet. Outlets designed for use with pneumatic tools (i.e., air drills, air grinders) should be equipped with automatic oilers.

    Compressed air used for cleaning should not exceed 30-lb. psi at point of use. Applications for use of compressed air should be equipped with effective chip guarding measures, and op-

    62

    erators should use appropriate personal protec- tive equipment (PPE).

    Abrasive Grinding

    All abrasive wheel bench and pedestal grinders should be provided with safety guards that cover the spindle ends, nut and flange. The safety guards should be strong enough to withstand the effects of a bursting wheel.

    An adjustable work rest plate of rigid construc- tion should be used on pedestal and bench grinders and with fixed base, offhand grinding machines. The work rest plate should be kept adjusted to a maximum clearance of 1/8 inch between rest and wheel.

    All abrasive wheels should be closely inspected before and during mounting to ensure they are free from defects. Performing a “ring test” after installation will ensure that they are free from defects. See “ring test” under 29 Code of Fed- eral Regulations (CFR) 1910.215.

    Cylinders and Compressed Gases Used in the Mechanized Agricultural laboratory

    The mechanized agriculture laboratory com- monly used a variety of compressed gasses dur- ing the course of instruction. Gasses most likely to be present in a laboratory facility are:

    Oxygen;

    Acetylene;

    Propane (LPG);

    Argon; Carbon dioxide Nitrogen; and, Branded fuel gasses.

    Most of these gasses are flammable, and all are under high pressure. Requirements for the safe storage of these gasses can be found in the latest editions of the “Standard Fire Prevention Code” and “National Fire Protection Association” pub- lications. Another useful reference is the latest edition of the Standard Building Code. The American Welding Society offers a publication

    entitled “Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes” that should be referenced in planning a mechanized agriculture laboratory. Contact information for these organizations is found at the end of this section.

    Compressed gas cylinders should be kept away from excessive heat, should not be stored where they might be damaged or knocked over by passing or falling objects, and should be stored at least 20 feet away from highly combustible materials. Cylin- ders should be properly secured with a non- flammable device (e.g., chain) when in use and secured with a nonflammable device when in storage.

    Cylinders designed to accept a valve protection cap should have the cap properly attached ex- cept when the cylinder is in use or is connected for use. Some cylinders use a shielded valve area for protection.

    Acetylene cylinders should only be stored and used in a vertical valve-end-up position. These cylinders contain a liquid, which can escape into the regulator and hose if the valve is opened while the tank is lying flat or at an angle.

    Oxygen cylinders in storage should be separated from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials (especially oil or grease) by a minimum distance of 20 feet or by a noncombustible barrier at least five feet high having a fire-resistance rating of at least ½ hour.

    Drill Press

    The V-belt drive of all machines and equipment, including the usual front and rear pulleys, should be guarded to protect the operator from contact.

    Hand Tools

    Schools should not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. Electric power tools should either be approved double insulated