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EE 221 Mutually Coupled Circuits

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Circuits II

Chapter 13

Magnetically Coupled Circuits

13.1 What is a transformer?

13.2 Mutual Inductance

13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit

13.4 Linear Transformers

13.5 Ideal Transformers

13.6 Applications

2

It is an electrical device designed on the basis of

the concept of magnetic coupling.

It uses magnetically coupled coils to transfer

energy from one circuit to another.

It is the key circuit element for stepping up or

stepping down ac voltages and currents,

impedance matching, isolation, etc.

a neighboring inductor,

Mutual inductance is measured in henrys (H).

di

v1 L1 1

dt

di1

v2 M 21

dt

di

v2 L2 2

dt

v1 M 12

di2

dt

coil, the reference polarity of the voltage in the

second coil is positive at the dotted terminal.

Series connection of two mutually coupled inductors;

(a) series-aiding connection, (b) series-opposing

connection.

v ( L1

di

di

di

di

M ) ( L2 M )

dt

dt

dt

dt

L L1 L2 2M

(series - aiding connection )

v ( L1

di

di

di

di

M ) ( L2 M )

dt

dt

dt

dt

L L1 L2 2M

(series - opposing connection

)

6

Problem 1:

Time-domain

analysis of a circuit

containing coupled

coils.

Frequency-domain

analysis of a circuit

containing coupled

coils

8

Example 1

Calculate the phasor currents I1 and I2 in the circuit shown

below.

Ans:

9

coupling between two coils; 0 k 1.

M

L1 L2

1 2 1 2

w L1i1 L2i2 Mi1i2

2

2

(+) if both currents enter or leave the dotted sides

(-) if one current enters the dotted side and the other

current leaves dotted side.

10

Example 2

Consider the circuit below. Determine the coupling

coefficient. Calculate the energy stored in the coupled

inductors at time t = 1sec if v = 60cos(4t +30) V.

11

Problem 20:

12

V1

V2

inductances L1 and L2 and mutual inductance M are

constant.

V R1 I1 ( jL1 I1 jMI 2 )

( R2 Z L ) I 2 ( jL2 I 2 jMI1 )

V

I1

Z in

(M ) 2

R1 jL1

R1 jL1 Z ref

( jL2 R2 Z L )

13

Example 3

In the circuit below, calculate the input impedance and current I1.

Take Z1=60-j100, Z2=30+j40, and ZL=80+j60.

Ans:

14

V2

jMZ L

V1 jL1 ( jL2 Z L ) (M ) 2

Current Ratio

I2

jM

I1 jL2 Z L

inductances,

V2 j L1 L2 Z L

V1

jL1Z L

L2

L1

I 2 j L2 L1

I1

jL2

L1

L2

15

squared.

L=10-3N2r2/(228r+254l)

V2 j L1 L2 Z 2

V1

jL1Z 2

I 2 j L2 L1

I1

jL2

L2

aN 22 N 2

n

2

L1

aN1

N1

L1 N1 1

L2 N 2 n

16

in which the primary and secondary coils have infinite selfinductances.

V2 N 2

n

V1 N1

I 2 N1 1

I1 N 2 n

V2<V1 step-down transformer

(a)

(b)

Ideal Transformer

Circuit symbol

17

Example 4

An ideal transformer is rated at 2400/120V, 9.6 kVA, and has 50 turns

on the secondary side.

Calculate:

(a) the turns ratio,

(b) the number of turns on the primary side, and

(c) the current ratings for the primary and secondary windings.

Ans:

(a) This is a step-down transformer, n=0.05

(b) N1 = 1000 turns

(c) I1 = 4A and I2 = 80A

18

Problem 36

19

13.6 Applications

from a rectifier

20

13.6 Applications

between two amplifier stages.

21

13.6 Applications

the speaker to the amplifier

Equivalent circuit

22

13.6 Applications

Example 5

Calculate the turns ratio of an ideal transformer

required to match a 100 load to a source with

internal impedance of 2.5k. Find the load

voltage when the source voltage is 30V.

Ans: n = 0.2; VL = 3V

23

Used to step-up or step-down the voltage

24

Ideal Auto-Transformer

Auto-transformers are used in cases where the voltage

ratio is less than 2.

Note that there is only one winding, the primary and

secondary side share part of this winding.

There is no electrical isolation between the primary and

secondary sides.

The apparent power rating of an auto-transformer is often

much higher than a two-winding transformer of the same

size (see example 13.10)

3-Phase Transformer

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