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EE 221

Circuits II
Chapter 13
Magnetically Coupled Circuits

Magnetically Coupled Circuits


13.1 What is a transformer?
13.2 Mutual Inductance
13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit
13.4 Linear Transformers
13.5 Ideal Transformers
13.6 Applications
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13.1 What is a transformer?


It is an electrical device designed on the basis of
the concept of magnetic coupling.
It uses magnetically coupled coils to transfer
energy from one circuit to another.
It is the key circuit element for stepping up or
stepping down ac voltages and currents,
impedance matching, isolation, etc.

13.2 Mutual Inductance

It is the ability of one inductor to induce a voltage across


a neighboring inductor,
Mutual inductance is measured in henrys (H).

di
v1 L1 1
dt

di1
v2 M 21
dt

di
v2 L2 2
dt

v1 M 12

di2
dt

13.2 Mutual Inductance

If a current enters the dotted terminal of the first


coil, the reference polarity of the voltage in the
second coil is positive at the dotted terminal.

Illustration of the dot convention.

13.2 Mutual Inductance


Series connection of two mutually coupled inductors;
(a) series-aiding connection, (b) series-opposing
connection.

v ( L1

di
di
di
di
M ) ( L2 M )
dt
dt
dt
dt

L L1 L2 2M
(series - aiding connection )

v ( L1

di
di
di
di
M ) ( L2 M )
dt
dt
dt
dt

L L1 L2 2M
(series - opposing connection
)
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Problem 1:

13.2 Mutual Inductance

Time-domain
analysis of a circuit
containing coupled
coils.

Frequency-domain
analysis of a circuit
containing coupled
coils
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13.2 Mutual Inductance


Example 1
Calculate the phasor currents I1 and I2 in the circuit shown
below.

Ans:

I1 13. 49.4A; I 2 2.914A


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13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit (1)

The coupling coefficient, k, is a measure of the magnetic


coupling between two coils; 0 k 1.

M
L1 L2

The instantaneous energy stored in the circuit is given by

1 2 1 2
w L1i1 L2i2 Mi1i2
2
2
(+) if both currents enter or leave the dotted sides
(-) if one current enters the dotted side and the other
current leaves dotted side.
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13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit


Example 2
Consider the circuit below. Determine the coupling
coefficient. Calculate the energy stored in the coupled
inductors at time t = 1sec if v = 60cos(4t +30) V.

Ans: k=0.56; w(1)=20.73J


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Problem 20:

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13.4 Linear Transformer Reflected Impedance

V1

V2

Linear Transformer refers to a case where the


inductances L1 and L2 and mutual inductance M are
constant.

V R1 I1 ( jL1 I1 jMI 2 )
( R2 Z L ) I 2 ( jL2 I 2 jMI1 )

V
I1

Z in

(M ) 2
R1 jL1
R1 jL1 Z ref
( jL2 R2 Z L )
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13.4 Linear Transformer


Example 3
In the circuit below, calculate the input impedance and current I1.
Take Z1=60-j100, Z2=30+j40, and ZL=80+j60.

Ans:

Zin 100.14 53.1; I1 0.5113.1A


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13.4 Linear and Ideal Transformer

Voltage Ratio (ignore resistances)

V2
jMZ L

V1 jL1 ( jL2 Z L ) (M ) 2

Current Ratio
I2
jM

I1 jL2 Z L

In case of unity coupling (i.e., k =1) and very large


inductances,
V2 j L1 L2 Z L

V1
jL1Z L

L2
L1

I 2 j L2 L1

I1
jL2

L1
L2
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13.4 Ideal Transformer

The inductance L is proportional to the number of turns


squared.
L=10-3N2r2/(228r+254l)

In case of an ideal Transformer,

V2 j L1 L2 Z 2

V1
jL1Z 2
I 2 j L2 L1

I1
jL2

L2
aN 22 N 2

n
2
L1
aN1
N1

L1 N1 1

L2 N 2 n
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13.5 Ideal Transformer

An ideal transformer is a unity-coupled, lossless transformer


in which the primary and secondary coils have infinite selfinductances.

V2 N 2

n
V1 N1

I 2 N1 1

I1 N 2 n

V2>V1 step-up transformer


V2<V1 step-down transformer
(a)
(b)

Ideal Transformer
Circuit symbol

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13.5 Ideal Transformer


Example 4
An ideal transformer is rated at 2400/120V, 9.6 kVA, and has 50 turns
on the secondary side.
Calculate:
(a) the turns ratio,
(b) the number of turns on the primary side, and
(c) the current ratings for the primary and secondary windings.
Ans:
(a) This is a step-down transformer, n=0.05
(b) N1 = 1000 turns
(c) I1 = 4A and I2 = 80A
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Problem 36

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13.6 Applications

Transformer as an isolation device to isolate ac supply


from a rectifier

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13.6 Applications

Transformer as an isolation device to isolate dc


between two amplifier stages.

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13.6 Applications

Transformer as a matching device

Using an ideal transformer to match


the speaker to the amplifier

Equivalent circuit

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13.6 Applications
Example 5
Calculate the turns ratio of an ideal transformer
required to match a 100 load to a source with
internal impedance of 2.5k. Find the load
voltage when the source voltage is 30V.

Ans: n = 0.2; VL = 3V

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13.6 Practical Electric Utility transformers


Used to step-up or step-down the voltage

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Ideal Auto-Transformer
Auto-transformers are used in cases where the voltage
ratio is less than 2.
Note that there is only one winding, the primary and
secondary side share part of this winding.
There is no electrical isolation between the primary and
secondary sides.
The apparent power rating of an auto-transformer is often
much higher than a two-winding transformer of the same
size (see example 13.10)

3-Phase Transformer