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Research Methodology

Theoretical Background

Case Study

Data Analysis and Interpretation






One definition of advertising is: "Advertising is the non-personal communication of information
usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified
sponsors through the various media."(Bovee, 1992, p. 7) From this definition, one can see that
advertisements (ads) are placed on purpose. This is a three-tier which comprises: of introducing a
product, generating new customers and attempting to stimulate and sustain consumer
consumption (Bovee, 1992, p.9).
Advertising is paid communication through a non-personal medium in which the sponsor is
identified and the message is controlled.
Variations include publicity, public relations, product placement, sponsorship, underwriting, and
sales promotion. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages: television, radio,
movies, magazines, newspapers, the internet, and billboards. Advertisements can also be seen on
the seats of grocery carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, and on the sides of buses, or heard
in telephone hold messages or in-store PA systems nearly anywhere a visual or audible
communication can be placed.
Advertising clients are predominantly, but not exclusively, for-profit corporations seeking to
increase demand for their products or services. Other organizations that frequently spend large
sums of money on advertising include political campaigns, interest groups, and religionsupporting organizations. Other non-profit organizations are not advertising clients, and rely
upon free channels, such as public service announcements. The advertising industry is large and
Consumer, in todays marketplace has the opportunity to choose between several available
alternatives in almost every product category. With increasing competition, changing consumer
behavior advancement of technology, The need for advertising is growing even more for the
organizations to reach out to its customers in the best possible way and build the long term
relations with them. Advertising today is an important item on the top management agenda. The
foremost reason, of course, is the increase in size of advertising expenditures. In many cases,
advertising has become the third, second, and in a few cases, the largest item in the corporate

budget. Keener competition, together with expanded plant capacity, has forced a greater reliance
on advertising to maintain or increase volume and profit.
The consumers have very definite ideas about the media and their advertising content. They
believe for example that newspapers are the best source of shopping information, the best source
of information about sources of entertainment and that they contain the most useful
advertisements of the four media included in this study. They also feel that newspaper
advertisements are the most truthful and informative, and would be least willing to give up the
advertising content of the newspaper when compared to the other media.

History of the print media Advertisement

Commerce, social trends and technology have all played a role in the history of print advertising.
The evolution of print advertising revolutionized the way manufacturers and retailers sold
products, and progressed into a major revenue source for publishers. Rooted in simple handbills
and newspaper listings, print advertising embraced technology, and today continues to offer new
venues for promoting causes and products.
New World
In 1609, an ad appeared in a British newspaper advertising migration opportunities to America.
England embraced importation of goods during the 17th century, with advertisements promoting
items such as Chinese porcelain, Indian spices and Persian rugs. Print ads often appeared as
handbills, and brands did not yet exist. Advertisements often included long text descriptions that
explained the origin and use of products.
Colonial America
The Boston News-Letter published the first newspaper ad in Colonial America, which announced
the sale of an estate in Oyster Bay, Long Island, in 1704. Publisher Benjamin Franklin founded
the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1729, which included pages for advertisements. By the end of the
18th century, the first daily newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, had hit the
streets in Philadelphia.
Newspaper Age

The 19th century marked the age of newspaper expansion and the further evolution of print
advertising. Benjamin Day established the Sun newspaper in 1833. It had a circulation of 30,000
by 1837. New York City hosted the first advertising agents' convention during the 19th century,
and John Wanamaker established the first full-time advertising job at his department store in
1880. By the close of the 19th century, large corporations had fully embraced print advertising,
with Proctor and Gamble budgeting $11,000 to advertise its Ivory soap product. Munsey's
Magazine revolutionized publishing during 1893 by reducing its newsstand and subscription
prices to experiment with advertising as a primary source of revenue.

Consumer Era
Print advertising in the 20th century established the age of consumerism. W.K. Kellogg
advertised corn flakes in six newspapers in 1906, and was operating with a national advertising
budget of $1 million by 1915. Print advertising met its first opponent in 1920, when the first U.S.
radio station, KDKA, went on the air in Pittsburgh. Two years later, the first radio commercials
sold for $50 per time slot. Print advertising had a new outlet with the founding of Life magazine
in 1936, which became the first publication to make $100 million per year from advertising.
While Life created a milestone for advertising sales, radio advertising sales surpassed magazine
advertising revenue in 1938. One year later, television entered the market. By 1941, New York
City alone had 7,500 television sets Eventually, television would lead the way in advertising

Some newspaper which publish in Bhopal

Dainik Bhaskar Daily news paper, Patrika newspaper, Dainik Jagran newspaper,
Dainik navdunia, Navbharat Times, Peoples Samachar, Raj express, Haribhoomi, Navbharat,
Dainik Agniban, Dabang Dunia, Jan Jan Jagran, Pradesh Today evening newspaper, Sandhya
prakash, Sahara, Jansatta, Economics Times, The Times of India, Hindustan, Chronicle and Free
press etc.

Some Magzines
Aha zindagi, India Today, Grah luxmi, Abhivyakti, Vatvriksha, Chakmak, Champak, Bharat
Darsan, Anubhuti, Hans, Grihsobha, Akhand jyoti, Chandamama, Kadambini, Kalyan and Jan
Jan tak etc.

Advertising Effectiveness the degree to which the objectives of an advertisement or advertising
campaign have been achieved; the effectiveness is commonly gauged by measuring the effect on
sales, brand awareness, brand preference.

In communication, media (singular medium) are the storage and transmission channels or tools
used to store and deliver information or data. It is often referred to as synonymous with mass
media or news media, but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any

The beginning of human communication through artificial channels, i.e. not vocalization or
gestures, goes back to ancient cave paintings, drawn maps, and writing.
The Persian Empire (centred around present-day Iran) played an important role in the field of
communication. They devised what might be described as the first real mail or postal system,
which is said to have been developed by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great (c. 550 BC) after
his conquest of Media. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well
documented, and the service was (later) called angariae, a term that in time turned to indicate a
tax system. The Old Testament (Esther, VIII) makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of
Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions.
The word communication is derived from the Latin root communicare. This was due to the
Roman Empire also devising what might be described as a mail or postal system, in order to
centralize control of the empire from Rome. This allowed for personal letters and for Rome to
gather knowledge about events in its many widespread provinces. More advanced postal systems
later appeared in the Islamic Caliphate and the Mongol Empire during the Middle Ages.
The adoption of a dominant communication medium is important enough that historians have
folded civilization into "ages" according to the medium most widely used. A book titled "Five
Epochs of Civilization" by William McGaughey (Thistlerose, 2000) divides history into the

following stages: Ideographic writing produced the first civilization; alphabetic writing, the
second; printing, the third; electronic recording and broadcasting, the fourth; and computer
communication, the fifth. The media affects what people think about themselves and how they
perceive people as well. What we think about self image and what others should look like comes
from the media.
While it could be argued that these "Epochs" are just a historian's construction, digital and
computer communication shows concrete evidence of changing the way humans organize. The
latest trend in communication, termed smartmobbing, involves ad-hoc organization through
mobile devices, allowing for effective many-to-many communication and social networking.

Electronic media
In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by
providing new media for long distance communication. The first transatlantic two-way radio
broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analogue and digital media:

Analog telecommunications include traditional telephony, radio, and TV broadcasts.

Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication, telegraphy,

and computer networks.

Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger
numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mail, Internet forums, and
teleportation). On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor oneto-many communication (television, cinema, radio, newspaper, magazines, and also

Social impact
Media technology has made communicating increasingly easier as time has passed throughout
history. Today, children are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a
general understanding of the various technologies available. The internet is arguably one of the
most effective tools in media for communication. Tools such as e-mail, MSN, Facebook etc, have
brought people closer together and created new online communities. However, some may argue

that certain types of media can hinder face-to-face communication and therefore can result in
complications like identity fraud.
In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media (such as television) and print media (such as
newspapers) are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced
societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically
advanced societies.
Media, through media and communications psychology, has helped to connect diverse people
from far and near geographical location. It has also helped in the aspect of on- line/ internet
business and other activities that has an on-line version. All media intended to affect human
behavior is initiatied through communication and the intended behavior is coucned in
psychology. Therefore, understanding media and communications psychology is fundamental in
understanding the social and individual effects of media. The expanding field of media and
ocmmunications psychology combines these established disciplines in a new way.
Timing change based on innovation and efficiency may not have a direct correlation with
technology. The information revolution is based on modern advancements. During the 19th
century, the information "boom" exploded with advancement of postal systems, increase in
newspaper accessibility, as well as schools "modernizing". These advancements were made due
to the increase of people becoming literate and educated. The methodology of communication
although has changed and dispersed in numerous directions based on the source of its
sociocultural impact. The sociopsychomedia effect coined by media and learning psychologist
Bernard Luskin applies the sociocultural implications of media to society and human behavior.


Advanced learner define research as a careful investigation or inquiry specially through
search for new facts in any branch of knowledge
Redman and Mory define research as a systematized efforts to gain new knowledge

In todays world, what is the impact of advertisement on young generation and the living
standards of people.

To find out the impact of advertisement on youngsters.
To find out the role of brand personalities in moulding the behavioral pattern.
To find out the level of effectiveness while creating a brand image.
To test the effectiveness of advertisers in increasing the sales and liking of a particular brand..
For this study I have surveyed Dainik Jagran (Nav dunia) / Dainik Bhaskar, Bhopal .This is a
descriptive type of research study.

All the sources of data used in this study are primary source of data.



The method used for data collection is through direct interview and the
instrument used is a questionnaire.
SAMPLING PLAN : Dainik Jagran (Nav dunia) / Dainik Bhaskar, Bhopal.

: 70

Sampling Unit

: customers of Dainik Jagran (Nav dunia) / Dainik Bhaskar, Bhopal..

Sampling Method

: Judgment sampling

Sampling size

: 70

Area : Dainik Jagran (Nav dunia) / Dainik Bhaskar, Bhopal. Bhopal.


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