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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS

GENERAL INFORMATION
Elram manufacture a wide range of actuators to cover a multitude of applications.
Furthermore each actuator may be fitted with various optional features such as manual
operation, starters, test points etc. As the application will determine the particular type
of actuator required, it is not possible to state here a general mode of operation.
Basically the electric motor drives a gear pump which pumps fluid via a valve system
into a hydraulic cylinder creating piston rod motion. The pump, valves, pipework and
cylinder are contained within the steel case which also acts as a hydraulic fluid
reservoir. Valves enabling the thrust and speed (on some machines speed control
valves are an optional extra) to be adjusted for each direction of travel, are either located
under a removable cover or with machines fitted with solenoids: in a valve manifold.
Generally when the motor runs and a solenoid (if fitted) is energised, the piston rod
moves and when the motor stops, the piston rod stops. A specific description of
operation is available for each actuator type and this should be read in conjunction
with the appropriate hydraulic circuit.
The drawings shown on pages 18-25 depict the more common actuator hydraulic
and electrical circuits. The information contained in the hydraulic components section,
pages10-17, will provide a key to following the hydraulic circuits which cannot be fully
understood until a basic understanding of the function of the individual components is
grasped.
As the actuators are totally sealed units and therefore do not 'breathe', a change of
fluid level and consequently pressure, takes place within the actuator case / reservoir
when the piston rod is moving. This is due to the differential area feature of the
cylinder, i.e. the volume behind the piston is greater than the volume in front of the
piston. When the piston rod extends, fluid enters the bore end of the cylinder and is
expelled from the annulus end and vice versa when the piston rod retracts. The
change in volume in either case is equal to the piston rod volume. The normal fluid
content for a particular actuator size is 5/6ths the internal case volume and this ratio
results in a maximum pressure change within the actuator case of + 0.2 bar. A fluid
level corresponding to 5/6ths the internal fluid volume is shown on the drawing
opposite and it will be seen that with the piston rod retracted the oil level is just above
the cylinder manifold block.

2 Type ZBG 159 Actuators fitted with FLP motors and solenoids: GWE Safety Friction
Arrestor for use in Coal Mines. The Elram actuators have been added to the manually
operated version which is already in wide use in Coal Mines so that the Arrestor may be
operated either automatically or at a distance.
Thrust Extend
0 Kgf (extended by deadweight)
Thrust Retract - 150 Kgf
Speed Extend 100 mm/sec
Stroke 2
Speed Retract - 100 mm/sec 250 mm Motor Rating 0.75 Kw.

The construction of an actuator will depend upon


the hydraulic circuit employed along with any
required optional features. Basically an actuator
comprises a fabricated, continuously welded steel
case incorporating removable access cover, drain
plugs and mounting arrangement. Inside the case is
located a gear pump, valve block, relief valves, speed
control valves, control valves, hydraulic cylinder,
fluid, pipework, fittings and seals. An electric motor of
any make or type and to suit any supply or
environment is flange mounted at one end of the
case and this, via a flexible coupling drives the gear
pump. The piston rod is constructed from CK 45 (EN
8) steel and hard chromed with a surface layer of
40-50 m.
A female type clevis is fitted to the
piston rod as standard. The external case surface is
de-greased, shot-blasted, primed, under-coated and
finished with one top coat of paint. Other types of
piston rod finish, clevis and case finish are
available upon request along with many optional
features, see page 6. Any recommended good
quality mineral oil* may be used (see Data Sheet No.
1/1 for further details). We can also cater for water in
oil emulsion, oil in water emulsion, water based
polyglycol, phosphate ester and chlorinated hydro
carbons. Elram must, of course, be advised regarding
the type of fluid preferred. For further details
regarding fluid, see Data Sheet No. 1/1.
1. Steel case/Fluid reservoir
2. Valve access cover
3. 0-ring
4.
Screws with spring washers
8.
Drain plugs
10. Motor
11. Studs with nuts and spring washers
14.
15.
16.
20.
21.
22.
23.
27.
29.
33.
36.
37.

Pump support plate


0-ring
Screws with spring washers
Coupling
Pump
0-ring
Screws with spring washers
Thrust (pressure relief) control valves
Flow (speed) control valves
Inlet valves
Cylinder
Piston

41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
61.
81.
100.

0-ring
Piston seals
Piston rod
Guide bush
0-ring
Piston rod seal
Seal ring
0-ring
Front cap
Scraper seal
Screws with spring washers
Clevis
Banjo connector
Fluid level