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In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), tube, or thermionic valve or

valve (in British English) is a device controlling electric current through a vacuum in a sealed
container. The container is often thin transparent glass in a roughly cylindrical shape.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and
electrical power.
Following its development in the early 1950s, the transistor revolutionized the field of
electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers
COBOL /kobl/ is one of the oldest programming languages, primarily designed by Grace
Hopper. Its name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language, defining its
primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and
The COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-oriented programming and other
modern language features.[
Fortran (previously FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that
is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed
by IBM at their campus in south San Jose, California[1] in the 1950s for scientific and
engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and
has been in continual use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as
numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics,
computational physics and computational chemistry. It is one of the most popular languages
in the area of high-performance computing [2] and is the language used for programs that
benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.
Fortran (the name is a blend derived from The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating
System) encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the
language while usually retaining compatibility with previous versions
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a
microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor
material, normally silicon. This can be made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from
independent components.
Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have
revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home
appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by
the low cost of producing integrated circuits.
ICs can be made very compact, having up to several billion transistors and other electronic
components in an area the size of a fingernail. The width of each conducting line in a circuit
(the line width) can be made smaller and smaller as the technology advances; in 2008 it
dropped below 100 nanometers and in 2013 it is expected to be in the tens of nanometers.
A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on
a single integrated circuit (IC),[1] or at most a few integrated circuits.[2] It is a multipurpose,
programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to

instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of

sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and
symbols represented in the binary numeral system.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is technology and a branch of computer science that studies and
develops intelligent machines and software. Major AI researchers and textbooks define the
field as "the study and design of intelligent agents",[1] where an intelligent agent is a
system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of
success.[2] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955,[3] defines it as "the science and
engineering of making intelligent machines".
The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning,
learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[6]
General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals.[7