(Operations Management ²I Project)

Submitted by: (PGDM 2009-2011, Section C, Group 2) Anuj Das (U109107) Anup Merkap (U109108) Ashutosh Didwania (U109109) Binay Prasanna Jena (U109110) Biswajit Ku. Mahapatra (U109111) Chiranjit Mandhata (U109112)


We hereby declare that the below work is original and comprises only of our own work and effort, and that this report has not been submitted in part or in full to fulfil the requirements of any other subject or course. Wherever we have used other sources of information, due acknowledgement has been made.


We, take this opportunity to thank Prof. Winfred S. William for his constant support and encouragement. Without his encouragement and valuable inputs with the operation management concepts, we would not have been successful in completing the project. We hope the report to have met its intended objectives.

1 Introduction 2 Analysis of the operations area curriculum in top Indian B-Schools 2.1 IIMs 2.2 ISB 2.3 NITIE 2.4 SIOM 2.5 SPJIMR 2.6 SJSoM 2.7 XLRI 2.8 FMS 2.9 JBIMS 3 Analysis of the operations area curriculum in top US B-Schools 3.1 Stanford University 3.2 Harvard Business School 3.3 The Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania 3.4 Kellogg School of Management Northwestern University 3.5 MIT Sloan Management 3.6 Michigan School of Business 3.7 University of Chicago Booth School of Business 3.8 University of Notre Dame 3.9 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington 3.10 UCLA Anderson School of Management 3.11 USC Marshall School of Business 3.12 Fisher College Ohio State University 4 Comparative Analysis 5 References

Operations Management is the analysis and the study of the various business process that includes the productions of goods and services and making sure that the business operations are efficient as well as effective in meeting customer s expectation. It involves managing the process that takes an input, transforms it and finally gives an output. These days operations management is becoming an important concern and the managers are expected to be well versed with the intricacies of it. Outside India, operation management is viewed as a bare necessity. This trend is growing in India as well. This project aims at comparing the various operations management curriculum followed in India and other foreign B- Schools.

Indian Institute(s) of Management (IIMs)
Following is the consolidated list of courses offered at IIMs in the core functional Operations area: Operations Management I & II Project Management Supply Chain Management Service Operation Management Production and Inventory Control Manufacturing planning and Control Quality Management Material Management Operations Research Logistics Management Material Requirement Planning Business Applications and Game Theory Service Business Healthcare and Services Six Sigma Manufacturing System Design Operations Strategy Management Game Business Modelling and Simulation Optimization Models for Industry Cellular Manufacturing JIT Operations Technology Strategy Infrastructure Management

Operations Management curriculum is intended to serve the needs of diverse industrial sectors ranging from manufacturing, services, IT and consulting. The curriculum equips students with necessary skills and knowledge to manage, design, analyze and improve the operation systems in various business sectors. Understanding of productive factors, its components, contributions and interactions with other functional areas is the key to addressing strategic and tactical operational issues. The core courses, OM-I & II, Operations Research, Project Management (offered at all IIMs) intends to provide students with basic understanding of manufacturing and service industries, creating an interest with regard to Operations Management as a functional area, using quantitative and qualitative tools and techniques to design, analyze and improve subfunctions involved in Production and Operations. OM-I aids in strategic decision making, while OM-II informs regarding tactical and operational issues. Operations Research provides an analytical framework to better decision making by incorporating mathematical models for analysis of complex situations, helping build more productive systems through outcome prediction and risk estimation. Project Management course intends to impart an understanding of reasons behind failure of projects and familiarising students with project management tools and techniques which include technology in general and computers in particular. Effective planning and management of supply chains can help in realization of substantial market benefits and cost savings. These core courses are significant to address basic operational issues, hence have been included in core courses to provide all managers with basic awareness regarding operational issues and help their decision making. Key insights in this aspect are provided by the courses Supply Chain Management and Logistics Management, which provide inputs regarding operations, design, management and control of supply chains as integrated systems. The course addresses inventory and vendor management aspects, customer value and focus, integration and transformation using IT. In view of current potential of manufacturing industry, specialized courses like Manufacturing System Design (which includes use of techniques, technology and tools for analysis and design of manufacturing systems), Operations Strategy (which focuses on strategic aspects of

design and management of operations and explores linkages between operations and other functional areas) have been seen in some of these institutes. The course Quality Management uses focus on control of processes and products and quality conformance, further a specialized course Six Sigma (offered in few IIMs) emphasizes on Lean Management in Production, Operations, Facilities, Quality, Supply Chain and Project Management. The course Manufacturing Planning and Control seeks to fine tune the advanced concepts pertaining to control and planning of manufacturing operations, familiarizing course participants with current problems regarding production and inventory management. It deals with capacity planning, material requirement planning, production planning. On these lines advanced concepts are covered through courses like Material Requirement Planning, Cellular Manufacturing, etc. Typical courses like Material Management (taught in IIM-L Term I) deal with role of material management in business, acclimatising students with computer based tools regarding Material Planning and Control. In the tough times of business being considered a war, such cost saving measures awareness requires greater attention from managers. Certain IIMs include a course on business modelling and simulation which primarily focuses on expressing business process and strategies in terms of the collaborative business activities and behaviour. These days with increase in powerful and cheap computers such courses assist the young managers in the decision making process. Same goes the logic behind the course Optimization Models for industry which aims at developing an apt model for a business that would take in to account the business environment prevalent, the inventory in hand and other forces that decide the fate of the industry. Another course which is a relatively new course is Game Theory and its various business applications. Game theory tries to mathematically capture the behaviour in various strategic situations. These include various sub heads like fuzzy logic, linear programming approach, mixing game with strategies and information available. Just in time operation is yet another streamlined operation management technique which enables the manager to take decisions to reduce the variability in demand where in the manufacturing is done close to time of consumption. Companies like GE, Toyota have devised this technology and therefore this subject finds it place in the course curriculum. There are some few courses which are very restrictive to certain IIMs like Health Care & Cellular Manufacturing in IIM Bangalore and infrastructure management in IIM Indore. Bangalore, also better known as Silicon Valley of India, has been witnessing vast growth in service sector and various IT peripherals. Inclusions of such courses give the student clear insight on these sectors and help them devise strategies for any operational issues emerging in these sectors. Since Indore is a middle tire city with lots of opportunity of infrastructural growth, Infrastructure Management course would not just help them in getting placement but also help the city grow in the longer run. Service Business and Service Operation Management courses deal with managing human capital in the best possible way. The prime focus is to increase service processes by using various tools for process improvement. Thus we can see that proximity to industry and well as few local factors and growth potential of ambient feeder industries determining the courses of a few IIMs in core operations area. Cross functional Courses A manager is rendered incomplete in the long run without cross functional skills. Although he is expected to specialize in a functional stream still awareness in other functional areas renders considerable advantage to manager s skills. Current industry scenario of cut throat competition requires reciprocal response from academic end to provide theoretical insights as well as glance into cross functional areas of business. Following cross functional courses are being offered in IIMs: Functional Area* [Operations along with *] IT/Systems Enterprise Resource Planning Course Name

Strategy Marketing Information Technology Systems Marketing IT/Systems Strategy Quantitative Methods Quantitative Methods Quantitative Methods Quantitative Methods

Operations Research and Executive Decision Making Operations Research in Marketing IT services and Electronic Commerce Managerial Application of System Dynamics Sourcing and Procurement Technology Strategy Modelling for Management Decision Making Advanced Methods of Data Analysis Statistical Methods in Data Analysis Probabilistic Decision Making Model and its Managerial Application Production and Quantitative Methods

With more number of professionals intending to own businesses, Operational issues need to be handled from scratch. Hence such a scenario is addressed through the courses Manufacturing Systems Design and Managerial Application of System Dynamics. These courses apprise students regarding methodology of System Dynamics while attending to the cross functional system dynamics areas of marketing and distribution, management control and finance, research and development and social systems. Probabilistic approach to decision making with an eye towards risk mitigation and strategic estimations is addressed through the course Operations Research and Executive Decision Making. In current industry scenario, this gains significance since it addresses potential risk factors for a business while approaching the same through a quantitative model. With IIMs being reputed to produce the best managerial breeds of the country, such a course is based on the changing demands of industry with respect to risk taking and effective decision making and providing a rational, quantitative approach as opposed to a discretionary, intuitive approach. With business houses integrating their operations in terms of functional areas, geographies, etc the course Enterprise Resource Planning is significant. It facilitates enterprise wide issue handling through use of information technology based tools, thus providing a common portal for handling issues across the organization rather than unit wise issue addressing as practised earlier. Introspection into products, processes, etc has been the buzzword with recessions and slumps looming large all around. This instigates courses like Sourcing and Procurement and Operations Research in Marketing which intend to optimize costs in procurement, distribution channels. Life has been made easier with all pervasive and fast expanding benevolent technology all around. Potential for all such facilitation comes under the academic purview of such courses. Study of all operations courses has a prerequisite of quantitative tools and techniques that accounts for the unpredictability associated with the functional area. Thus the spill of functional area overlap with Quantitative Methods (or Statistical Analysis) is evident in the courses Production and Quantitative Methods, Probabilistic Decision Making Model and its Managerial Application, Statistical Methods in Data Analysis and Advanced Methods of Data Analysis. In fact the revered IIM-A has clubbed the functional area of Operations Management and Quantitative Methods to cater to this facet of industry demand.

Indian School of Business, Hyderabad (ISB)

Following is the consolidated list of courses offered (including core and elective courses) for the PGP course at ISB Quantitative Methods Statistical Methods Management Decisions New Product Management for Decision Models & Optimization Global Operations Management Operations Management Logistics and Management Supply Chain

Strategic Management Operations Strategy


Pricing and Revenue Optimization

Service Operations Management Managerial Accounting Decision Making and


Students come to the ISB from diverse educational backgrounds and industries. The intake policy of ISB is so designed that it prefers candidates with 2 years of full-time experience. The entire one year course is designed to optimize the performance of professionals who have worked in the industry for 2 years or more. The inclusion of courses like Global Operations Management (GOM), Strategic Performance Management (SPM), Pricing & Revenue Optimization (PRO), New Product Management (NPM) distinguishes the Operations course of ISB from other premier B-schools in India. ISB is ranked very high internationally and it has got a strong international presence in the form of its tie-ups with various foreign universities and courses like GOM lend an international perspective to the operations courses at ISB. Courses like SPM are very specialized courses with a sharp focus on the Strategic Management area. With today s business scenario across the globe demanding agile and shrewd strategists, these courses go a long way in grooming the students to face the present day challenges. Also cross functional courses like PRO & NPM give the students a different perspective to the various domain specific subjects. NPM, which is cross-functional course delving into various angles of marketing, entrepreneurship and operations, trains the budding entrepreneurs at ISB to make an in-depth study into the various aspects of marketing and operations while launching a new product. Such courses are the academic USPs of ISB.

National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai (NITIE)
NITIE, better known for its operations management, aims at creating knowledge base for developing business model and ensuring sustainable growth. With a strong industry interface, NITIE also has strong linkage with the govt. organization, institutions and other universities. Following are the courses offered in NITIE Enterprise Resource Planning Manufacturing and Resource Planning Procurement Management and Enterprise Operations Planning and Control Materials Management Logistics Management Introduction Engineering Operations to industrial


Production and Management Facilities Planning

Advanced Production and Inventory Management Systems Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems International Purchasing and

Maintenance Management

OR modeling in SCM

Supply Management Project Management Work System Analysis Quality Management Work System Design Supply Chain Management

NITIE has strong set of operations management courses that include 13 core courses and 7 other electives. st Most of which is covered in the 1 year itself. This shows NITIE s conscious effort of creating young manager aware of various operational technicalities. Apart from the various common courses, NITIE has a set of certain streamlined courses, one of which is Computer integrated Manufacturing Systems that demonstrates the use of computer in manufacturing sector. The CIM system allows the integration of the separated traditional process through computers. NITIE also introduces its manager to the industrial engineering and make them alert of the problems faced in the industry. Another interesting course is the study of international purchasing and supply management. With the increase in globalization and reduction in the trade barriers there is an increase in the need of managers who understand the international purchasing and supply behavior. This helps NITIE attract new foreign players into the market. The application of operations research in Supply chain is yet another inclusion of operations course in NITIE s curriculum. Advanced production and inventory management aims at educating the managers about the advanced production techniques and innovative ways of managing inventory. Work system is yet another cross functional venture which primarily focuses on understanding the IT enables systems in organizations.

Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management, Pune (SIOM)
Following are the consolidated list of courses offered (including core and elective courses) at SIOM Operations Management Supply Chain Management Materials Management Master Planning of Resources Project Management Operations Planning Scheduling and

Quality Management Technology Management Execution Operations and Innovation

Six Sigma World Class Manufacturing and Services Management Software Project Management

Operations in Service Industry Environment Management and Energy




Operations in Financial Services

Retail Operations Management Manufacturing Management Facilities Planning Managing Innovation Automation and

Marketing Operations Productivity Techniques Maintenance Management Operations Planning and Control Systems

E-business Operations Operations Research SAP-ERP International Logistics

SIOM s focus on Empowering Excellence in Operations is evident right from the programmes offered at the institute. In addition to PGDBM program, specialised operations focussed programs like MBA-Operations and Advanced Diploma in Manufacturing Management (ADMM) are being pursued at SIOM. Nature of courses

prevalent at SIOM presents insights regarding the nature and scale of operations focussed industries that it caters to. Possessing a strategic location, Pune, proximity to the financial capital of India, flourishing of IT parks, blooming of manufacturing units are the factors behind the typical courses on offer in SIOM. Specialised courses like Retail Operations Management, Software Project Management, Operations in Financial Services, etc provide ample evidence of the college customizing its courses to address needs of the industry. Greater focus on inculcating innovation and process improvement is evident through the course offerings Productivity Techniques, Managing Automation and Innovation, Facilities Planning, etc. Graduates from the college are absorbed by the budding industries in automobile, biotechnology, mechanical, pharmaceutical, IT sector which have mushroomed in this particular belt. Operations in Financial Services is a typical course that focuses on the cross functional area of finance and operations, considering the proximity to financial hub Mumbai. Service and logistics aspect of Operations is addressed through the thoroughly specialised courses of Maintenance Management, International Logistics, Master Planning of Resources, Technology and Innovation Management, etc.

S. P. Jain Institute of Management & Research (SPJIMR)
This college is among the top private B- Schools of India and is known for its academic rigor and course structure. The courses offered in Operations in this college are pretty general and provides a holistic view of the industrial sector. Some of the courses offered under operations management are as follows: Basic of Supply Chain Management and Logistics Master Planning of Resources Advanced Management Supply Chain Operational Strategy

Detailed Scheduling and Planning

Execution Operation




Strategic Resources



Enterprise Resource Planning

Strategic Cost Management

Quality in Business Processes and Manufacturing World Class Manufacturing

Project Management

Simulation of Business Processes

Operations Management

Quantitative Method

Here Supply Chain is given a huge importance. The reason behind this might be the fact that it is located in Mumbai where most companies have their head quarters and seek professionals having sound knowledge in Supply Chain. These days the number of foreign companies visiting the college has also increased and thus World Class Management becomes a part of its curriculum. Strategic Cost Management, a combination of finance and operation is something that is different and it includes various techniques to achieve one of the most prime objectives of OM minimizing cost. They also lay emphasis on the execution and control of operation in day to day job. The execution and control of operation is again an important part of their curriculum apart from the usual operation management courses. Other than this they also have devised certain simulation game to develop more insights while simultaneously enjoying it. Some of these games include beer game (a game developed by MIT Sloan people involving key concepts of Supply Chain), people express game and theory of constraints game. These games on just create the participants interest towards operation management but also give them insights in tackling certain critical issues that may crop up during their professional career.

Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management, IIT Bombay (SJSoM)

List of courses offered at SJSoM, IIT-B are as below: Operations Management Management of Technology Services Engineering Management Large Scale Optimization Business Forecasting and

Decision Models in Management Analysis and Modelling of Risk and Uncertainty Project Management

Simulation of Business Systems Quality Management

Innovation Management

Technology Assessment



Manufacturing Strategy Maintenance Management

Design Management Logistics and Management Supply Chain

Materials Management Technology Evaluation, Negotiation and Acquisition Service Operations Management

World Class Manufacturing System

Technology Systems, Environment and Policy Business Development Entrepreneurship

Industrial Marketing

Management of Change

Engineering Project Management

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Management Business and Policy


Unified and integrated approach to business process management is gradually gaining steam over individual expertise in functional areas of systems, marketing, finance or operations. A clear understanding of all business functions can aid effective decision making. At SJSoM, IIT-B the focus is on providing a holistic approach to all business issues, which is evident in the number of cross functional courses being pursued in the institute. Few typical courses include Analysis and Modelling of Risk and Uncertainty, Technology Evaluation, Negotiation and Acquisition, Industrial Marketing, Business Entrepreneurship Development, Design Management, etc. The courses show a clear inclination towards quantitative approach. The stature of the institute IIT, Bombay, its international standing and expectations from institute trigger introduction of courses like Management International Business and Policy, World Class Manufacturing System, etc. A factor that needs to be accounted for the nature of courses is that students enrolled in the institute are engineers only; hence there is a analytical, quantitative approach to the programs conducted. Service Operation Management has been included in the curriculum considering the location wise perspective financial capital of India and huge number of business houses operating from the region. Design Management, Innovation and Entrepreneurship and Business Entrepreneurship Development cater to the pulse of the current professionals entrepreneurship.

Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur (XLRI)
Another college of equal importance is XLRI. Though it is known for its Human Resource and labour relation study, its operation is as extensive as any other course is. Following are courses offered as part of Operations Management: Operations Management Production Management Quantitative Technique

Advanced Inventory Control E-Business

Advanced Operations Research Enterprise Resource Planning

Demand and Business Forecasting Logistics and Management Supply Chain

Materials Management Service Operations Management Technology Management

Production Planning and Control Total Quality Management Theory of constraints

Project Management Supply Chain Analytics

Besides the 3 core courses in the 1 year, it has a range of other core subjects and elective offered. One important observation is that, unlike other B-Schools where in demand and business forecast becomes just a part of a course, in XLRI it is a course in itself. Another important observation is here, in here service operations management is just a 1.5 credit course and is devoted 15 hours of class room study. Whereas theory of constraints, which is just a simulation course in S P Jain, is taken up in full throttle at XLRI. This course is designed to help the organization achieve its goal and also taking into account that for an organization to achieve its objective there are some constraints which the organization need to overcome. E-Business gives an insights to the use of internet in business which is a fast growing trend in today s world. Technology management which is also included in strategic management domain focuses on the various techniques adopted to manage technology and to check obsolescence. The XLRI students are also taught about the advanced techniques used in Inventory control and in operations research. This also includes the practical analysis of such topics in the real time scenario. Such elaborate course structure have had help XLRI in attracting good companies over the year.


Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi (FMS)
Following is the consolidated list of courses offered (including core and elective courses) for the MBA (Full Time) at FMS Materials Management Operations Research Total Quality Management Logistics & Management Supply Chain Production Planning and Control Goal Programming in Management

Transportation Management Production and Management Operations

Service Operations Management Management of Public Distribution System

Quantitative Methods Business Process Re-engineering

FMS offers another full time course called MBA (MS), which caters to the courses in Management of Services. This course is designed to lay special emphasis on the Services sector in each functional domain. So the courses taught in the Operations domain include Total Quality Service, Environment & Safety Management, Operations Strategy, etc. The course also offers sector specific electives in specific sectors like financial services, healthcare services, hospitality & transportation services; IT enabled services, which prepares professionals specifically for the bigger challenges in the service industry. With service industry making big waves in today s world, operations courses have been included in these sector specific courses to acquaint students with the nuances of the specific sectors.

Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai (JBIMS)
Following table enlists the courses offered under operations functional area at JBIMS: Materials Management Human Resource Planning Product and Service Management Productivity Techniques Production Planning and Control Systems Operations Management Environment Management Quality Management Decision Science Strategic Information Technology Management Management Control Systems Project Management Quantitative Models in Operations Entrepreneurship Management Enterprise Planning Systems

Operation area curriculum intends to provide students with the required analytical and multifunctional management skills. Effective management encourages development of leadership and team skills, along with the technical skills catered through logistics and operations management. Persistent industry demands (due to the location being Mumbai) are being addressed through the traditional courses incorporated in the curricula. Present day trend in industry instigates introduction of courses like Enterprise Planning Systems that address integration of units across business. Trend among the student population initiates courses like Entrepreneurship Management, Product and Service Management, etc. Focus on quality aspect of operation, which is indispensable, is attended through courses like Quality Management. Certain typical courses are observed in this institute like Strategic Information Technology Management, Environment Management which address the present concerns regarding environment and climate, where production and operation techniques has a major say in affairs.

Stanford University
Operation courses at Stanford, Stanford are provided by the Department of Operations, Information, and Technology. Hence, apart from the core operations courses it also provides courses in modeling and decision making, technology management and in other areAs like health, biomedical and environment management. The various courses offered are: OPERATIONS Operations Business Process Design Supply Chain Management and Analytics Value Chain Strategies DECISION MAKING & MODELING Data Based Decision Making Data and Decisions Modeling for Quantitative Analysis Advanced Modeling Seminar Global Operations Revenue Optimization Supply Chain Management and Technology

TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT Technology and Markets Technology Management OTHER COURSES OFFERED Biodesign innovation course Modeling Health Care Systems Homeland Security: Operations, Strategy and Implementation Environmental Science for Managers and Policy Makers Field Trips to Grassroots Innovators in Health Care: Improving Access and Outcomes for the Under-served The core operations course focuses on the various managerial issues arising in operations of both manufacturing and service industries. Business Process design focuses on the business processes through which real work is accomplished, such as product development, order fulfillment, and customer service. Global operations emphasizes on how global and international companies can overcome the geographical, cultural, and organizational barriers, and leverage the strengths of the network to create values, and how these companies may use different ways to manage operations in different regions to take full advantage of the local strengths and limitations. The courses on supply chain management and its analytics and development through technology and value addition provide means to use the available methods to improve the efficiency of the supply chains and benefit the buyers, sellers and other players in the network. Revenue optimization combines the use of information technology, statistical forecasting, and mathematical optimization to make tactical decisions about pricing and product availability. Modelling for quantitative analysis provides basic skills in quantitative modeling, using Excel as the instructional medium. The applications covered include production and capacity planning, investment management, and portfolio optimization. Data based decision making focuses on collecting, organizing, and using data as an aid to making managerial decisions, while Data and decision emphasizes on analyzing risks and formulating sound decisions in uncertain environments. The technological management courses are intended to provide students who do not have significant background in technology with an appreciation for managerial issues related to Informational Technology (IT) within a typical firm, not necessarily in the technology sector. The courses discuss how value is delivered by IT solutions, what must be done by a firm to realize this value, and whether an advantage bestowed by technology is sustainable. As per the technical side, students are introduced to reliability, security , complexity, and scalability via some common IT solutions. Enumerating on organizational side, costs of adaptation,risks, difficulties with implementation, and decision architectures enabled by IT are studied. Also the focus is now more on the business opportunities through internet and online transactions. The department also provides quite a few courses in health management that study the recent developments in health care modelling, and hands-on experience of some of these grassroots innovations through field trips to a local public hospital and a non-profit product incubator. In the bio-design innovation course the students develop a comprehensive solution to a medical need while the seminar on future of health examines the various factors affecting health care sector in next five years. Electronic Business and Commerce Technology for Managers

Harvard Business School
At the Harvard Business School operations area is covered by the Technology and operations management (TOM) department. The courses offered enable students to develop the skills and concepts needed to ensure the ongoing contribution of a firm's operations to its competitive position and helps them to understand the complex processes underlying the development and manufacture of products as well as the creation and delivery of services through process analysis, cross-functional and cross-firm integration, product development, information technology and technology and operations strategy. The courses offered are:

Business and the environment operations strategy managing innovation

Building and sustaining a successful enterprise inventive breakthroughs commercializing science managing medicine and

Co-ordinating supply chains



leading innovation ventures managing service operations

The topics for the field study seminars are: a. Building green businesses b. Understanding and influencing operations as an investor Business and the Environment focuses on identifying opportunities to create business value from environmental and sustainability issues, and executing on these opportunities through special focus on global climate change and the firm stressing on Voluntary greenhouse gas reduction targets, carbon credits and offsets, partnerships with non-governmental organizations. Building and sustaining a successful enterprise studies the challenges of building and managing an enduring, successful company or renewing the vitality of an existing organization, from the point of view of the general manager. Operations Strategy attracts students pursuing careers in either operating companies (manufacturing or services) or professional service firms (e.g., consulting, private equity, venture capital, and investment banking) who require a deeper understanding of how operating models impact competitive performance. It explains how operations determines the competitive positioning of the firm and determines if a company's operating system represents a source of competitive advantage (or disadvantage) and how to make the initial decisions about the design of an operating system (e.g., scope of activity, capacity planning, and approaches to quality improvement) and adapt an operating system to changing competitive conditions. Managing Service Operations (MSO) focuses on how firms can deliver excellent service while achieving business success and it explains the deep understanding of customers, competitors, and the firm's internal mechanisms. With US healthcare market undergoing widespread change and because of its complexity and fragmented nature, the study of the healthcare sector becomes important. Hence the department provides a course on managing medicine. Managing Innovation (MI) explains the critical elements of designing and developing innovative products and services, how these can be configured, and how the results are managed. Inventing breakthroughs and commercializing science is a very unique course as its students are from Harvard s schools of business, medicine, science, public health, law engineering and government, the focus being on inventing breakthroughs, working with other professionals and moving research from lab to market place while leading innovative ventures provides tools to identify, evaluate and manage these ventures. The field studies expose the students to the battleground of operations and help them understand operations from the perspectives of the investors, public policy makers, researchers and practitioners.

The Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania
The area of operations at Wharton is handled by the department of Operations and Information Management. The very name of the department explains the integration of IT into the field of operations management and the importance given to it in the various courses provided at Wharton. The department provides majors in operations and Information Management and Information: Strategy and Economics. Also a joint major is provided in marketing and operations management. In the area of Operations management the courses offered are: a. Operation courses:

Quality and Production

Supply chain Management

Operational Performance Analysis

Product Design and Development

Innovation, Problem Solving, and Design

Integrating Marketing and Operations

Operations Strategy and Process Management

Service Operations Management

Retail Supply Chain Management

Retail Supply Chains: Design and Management

Global Supply Chain Management

Advanced Study Projects in Operations and Information Management

b. Information systems

Information Systems Engineering

Decision Support system

Systems Analysis, Implementation



Information: Industry Competitive Strategy



Business Transformation

Financial Information Systems/Advanced Topics in Information Strategy

c. Decision Process Courses: Decision

Decision Support Systems

Managerial Decision Making

models and Uncertainty Negotiations
Mathematical Modeling and Its Application in Finance d. Other courses offered:

Risk and Crisis Management
Risk Analysis Management & Environmental

Enabling Technologies Electronic Markets

Operations Management In Health Care Telecommunications Competitive Strategy Technology and

Risk Analysis Management



Environmental Sustainability and Value Creation

The core courses available are Quality and Production, Supply chain management, and Decision models and Uncertainty. While quality and production focuses on describing processes, measuring lead time and capacity, removing bottlenecks, and recent ideas about restructuring processes for increased performance, Supply chain management explains how to assess the appropriate level of supply flexibility for a given industry and explore strategies for economically increasing a firm s supply flexibility. Operational Performance Analysis develops an integrated model linking operational performance measures to financial value and looks for techniques for improving performance. The course on product design and development provides the student with a number of tools and concepts necessary for creating and managing

product development processes. The courses on supply chain management stress on both global supply chains and retail supply chains. The industries considered include shoes and apparel, consumer electronics, food and auto. The service sector commands the largest pie in most industrial economies. In the U.S., for example, it accounts for approximately 70% of GDP and 80% of employment. Hence a course on service operations management is also provided. Integrated marketing and operations covers topics that span marketing and operations management like channel management, supply chain design, product variety management and service operations pricing and control. Information Systems Engineering focuses on the process of reengineering various business processes by the use of information technology. Systems Analysis, Design, and Implementation deals with designing, developing and managing large complex systems, required for internet based e-commerce and other processes. Business transformation is intended to prepare students for leadership roles in dynamic and rapidly evolving industries, and for careers in strategic consulting. Decision models and uncertainty seeks to introduce simple models and ideas that provide powerful qualitative insights about a large spectrum of managerial problems through linear and integer programming, decision making under uncertainty, and simulation. Decision support systems familiarizes the students with the various emerging fields like artificial intellige nce, neural network, genetic algorithm, etc. A course on electronic markets explains the use of technology to source services from global providers and strategic technological platform and technology-enabled precision pricing techniques. Risk Analysis & Environmental Management explains risk assessment, risk perception and risk management in dealing with uncertain health, safety and environmental risks including the threat of terrorism, while Environmental Sustainability and Value Creation stresses various issues with innovation, implementation and diffusion of environmentally sustainable technologies and emphasizes the role of NGOs. With both healthcare and telecommunications sectors undergoing tremendous changes world over with use of modern technology a couple of courses are provided focusing on the managerial implications of these developments and how to develop a competitive strategy in these sectors is stressed.

Kellogg School of Management North-western University
Majors in operations management at Kellogg is provided by the Department of Managerial Economics and Decision Sciences. Apart from Operations, the department also provides majors in Analytical Consulting, Decision Sciences, Entrepreneurship and Innovation and Managerial Economics. The operation major has been designed with two specific career paths in mind: consulting and general management and is the most appropriate major for a consultant or general manager to learn about the daily cross-functional management of the firm. All the electives in the operations major take an interdisciplinary view and interface with finance (for investing and financial evaluation), marketing (appropriate delivery channels and customer management), organizational behaviour and strategy. The courses offered in Operations management are:

Analytical Consulting Lab Operations Strategy Service Operations Operational Risk Innovation Management Process

Spreadsheet Decisions



Managerial Inventory Management Revenue Optimization Stochastic Foundations Business and Nanotechnology

Logistics and Supply Chain Management Disruptive Technology & Business Models Business Vision vs. Technology Delivery

The Analytics Consulting Club provides opportunity for students interested in developing deep skills in analytics while Spreadsheet modelling for managerial decisions focuses on structuring, analyzing and solving managerial decision problems on Excel spreadsheets. Inventory management examines the methods of material procurement, production planning and inventory control for improving economy, productivity and customer service. Operations strategy examines the impact on the net present value of the firm. With services playing a key role in American and world economy the course on services operations focuses on improving service productivity and management of service quality. Stochastic Foundations provide the doctoral students the foundations of applied probability and stochastic modelling. In a stagnant and highly fragmented market, reengineering of the older business model is the norm of the day and disruptive technology and business model focuses on turning conventional business into e-enabled business with technology being the catalyst for change. Business vision vs technology delivery provides solution for the miscommunication between business goals based on technology and their implementation. With nanotechnology being considered the technology of the future, a course on its application to business objectives is also offered by the department. And finally a course on innovation process management explores methods and processes for managing innovation activities in a manner that enhances efficacy and minimizes the risk of new product or service offering failure.

MIT Sloan Management
Courses offered in MIT Sloan Management are as follows

Case Studies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Logistics Systems

International Management



Introduction Management



Management of Services: Concepts, Design, and Deliver Operations Strategy

Management of Supply Networks for Products and Services Product Design and Development

Manufacturing System and Supply Chain Design Proseminar in Manufacturing Supply Chain Planning

Research Project in Manufacturing The Theory Management of Operations

Seminar in Operations Management Workshop Management in Operations

The case studies in logistics and supply chain management covers the strategic, management and operating issues in contemporary logistics and integrated supply chain management focusing on logistics strategy, supply chain restructuring and change management, and distribution, customer service and inventory policy. International supply chain management provides an overview of international marketing, international finance and supply chain interface, global strategy for logistics and supply chain models, role of government intervention and regulations (including border crossings, local content laws, etc.), the role of ports and airports in international product movements and the economics of international air and ocean carriers. Management of Services explores the difference between service and manufacturing operations, and the degree of distinct management skills and tools required. Management of Supply Networks for products and Services focuses on analysis, design and management of supply networks for products and services. Operations Strategy provides unifying framework for analyzing strategic issues in manufacturing and service operations. The course analyzes relationships between manufacturing and service companies and their

suppliers, customers, and competitors and covers decisions in technology, facilities, vertical integration, human resources and other strategic areas. Product design and Development covers modern tools and methods for product design and development covering product planning, identifying customer needs, concept generation, product architecture, industrial design, concept design, and design-for-manufacturing. Pro-seminar in Manufacturing provides an integrative forum for operations and manufacturing students and is the focus for projects in leadership, service, and improvement. Supply chain planning delves on effective supply chain strategies for companies that operate globally, with priority on how to plan and integrate supply chain components into a coordinated system. Thus the courses offered have a global perspective and hence the students doing these courses find it easy to adapt to the various leading manufacturing companies working across the globe.

Michigan School of Business
The department of Operations and Management Science at the Michigan school of business offers the following courses:

CORE ELECTIVES Linear Programming Supply Chain Analytics Projects in Healthcare

Operations Management

Applied Business Statistics

Manufacturing and Supply Operations Supply Chain Management Tauber Institute Team Project

Project Management Logistics Independent Study Project

The core Operations management course offers a framework for systematically examining and understanding operations management issues and exposes students to important tools and practices useful in managing manufacturing and service production systems. The other core course of Applied Business Statistics explains various statistical concepts through the use of business applications. The elective Linear Programming deals with formulation of problems from various sectors using mathematical model of linear programming and solving them by use of various computer programs. While manufacturing and supply operations covers the basic concepts and techniques of inventory management based on a system of manufacturing laws known as Factory Physics , Project Management focuses on strategies and tools useful in management of non-repetitive business activities like construction, new product development and market introduction, consulting engagements, and organization restructurings, that include work breakdown structure, network representation, PERT/CPM models and analysis, Gantt charts, time and cost models, PM software, and probabilistic analysis, and strategy consideration dealing with uncertainty, resource constraints, dealing with shared and requested vs. commanded and dedicated resources and milestone management. Supply chain management and Supply Chain analytics aim to develop an understanding of key devices of supply chain performance and their interrelationship with firm strategy with emphasis given to tools and skills necessary to develop solutions for a variety of supply chain design problems and inter-firm and intra-firm coordination issues. The later introduces students to decision support models (using optimization and simulation techniques like forecasting, aggregate planning and resource allocation decisions, economies of scale and computation of transfer prices and revenue management) that are most frequently used in logistics and supply chain applications. Logistics trains students in the various aspects of logistics management. like the management of inventory, facilities, warehousing and transportation, with in-depth study of these individual

elements as well as examination of integrated logistics strategy and network design, sustainability in logistics, international logistics and globalization, competition and co-ordination, role of information flow and IT. The department also provides projects in healthcare in collaboration with clinicians at the UM Medical Centre to meet significant needs in the hospital. Tauber Institute Team Project is a paid, multi-disciplinary team project under faculty direction at an industry site. The projects, ranging from high-level strategic analysis and positioning, to detailed work flow issues for a specific product line, are highly challenging operations-related assignments with both business and engineering aspects.

University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Not all courses offered were mentioned in the official website of the institute. The courses mentioned are just samples of the various courses offered. The area of operations management provides the following courses:

supply chain strategy and practice managerial decision modelling managing service operations

operations strategy and performance analysis revenue management

The emphasis, thus, is on study of how the management decisions and daily working of the company affect each other encompassing the effect not only on operational decisions, but also on other areas like human resource, finance and marketing. While supply chain strategy and practice focuses on methods to improve flow of materials and information through the network of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and retailers and the management decisions relating to its optimization, operations strategy and performance analysis stresses on developing an integrated model linking operational performance measures to financial value and identify techniques to improve operational performance, both collectively and individually. Revenue management deals with identifying, formulating solving and implementing systems for pricing and revenue optimization with limited resources and information. Managerial decision making helps to learn to structure complex managerial problems, analyze options and make decisions through use of analytical tools like optimization, simulation, and decision trees to examine managerial decision models applicable in resource allocation, risk analysis and sequential decision-making through time. Management Service operations draws idea not only from operations management, but also from consumer behaviour, marketing, and strategy to develop a Service Model encompassing - the Service Offering, the Funding Mechanism, the Employee Management System, and the Customer Management System - to analyze both existing and new services.

University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame situated in Notre Dame, Indiana, and USA is among the top twenty national universities in the United States. Responding to challenge of lack of exposure to innovation process or utilization of intellectual property for the creation of dynamic companies and enterprises among most science and engineering student, it conducts Masters of Science program, ESTEEM (Engineering, Science and Technical Entrepreneurship Excellence Master s program) to pool in innovators and entrepreneurs with command over technology and business practices. This is where renowned author in field of Operations Management, Lee J Krajewski practised his trade. The Operation Management module consists of six 1-credit courses

Financial mathematics modeling basics


Statistical methods

Quality planning, forecasting, decision-making, and project management

Supply chain management

Research and development management for large-scale, high-technology projects Principles of operations research important in high-technology / high-growth ventures

The Planning course focuses on quality planning, forecasting and project management as an aid to scheduling and controlling technology projects, R&D costs while highlighting Six Sigma and Lean Planning. While Supply Chain management stresses on the qualitative and quantitative features of the basic components in organizational point of view, the Operations Research Models course focuses on minimising risk and yet improving performance in R&D companies and start-ups using models in terms of deterministic modelling (linear programming, Simplex Method)and probabilistic modelling (Markov chains, queuing theory, inventory theory).The course on Statistical Methods focuses on the problems faced by large R&D organizations as well as small, high-tech companies by providing an overview of statistics both non-parametric and parametric statistics including probability, random variables, probability distributions, expectation with a more comprehensive treatment of hypothesis testing, linear regression and correlation . Besides the university also provides two specialised courses. Financial Mathematics utilizes sophisticated mathematical models and algorithms to interpret operations and the financial positions of the R&D and engineering-based enterprises for use in the business sector. Research and Development Management focuses on studying issues involved in management of R&D and its functional relationship to employees, corporate structure, and society, as well as the functional characteristics of breakthrough technologies, small venture expansion via technological innovation. All these courses are designed keeping in view the high density of technology companies in the region. The world-class nanoelectronic research being conducted at the University Of Notre Dame s Centre for NanoScience and Technology is a fillip for such companies to set base here .In addition the setting up of Innovation Park, a technology park at Notre Dame that facilitates commercialization for many forms of research backed by business-friendly economic development policies has allowed mushrooming of many research oriented companies and fast racked many entrepreneurial setups.

Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington
The Kelley School of Business is a prominent American business school and one of fourteen academic units of Indiana University. It offers Operations courses both in undergraduate and MBA programs. The BS in supply chain management provides a broad-based curriculum in strategies and techniques for effective management of supply chains, while an MBA major in supply chain & operations complemented by supply chain and global management academy offers students various insights into the process. Renowned author F Robert Jacobs has been professor here. A specialised MS in global supply chain management for working professionals involving three intensive career-focused Academy weeks with a mixture of personal mentoring, live case studies, and access to executives and alumni augment the college s offerings. International Business Environments Logistics and Distribution Project Management International Business Operations Enterprise Resource Management Supply Chain Management and Technologies International Competitive Strategy Strategic Sourcing Independent Study in Operations Management International Management Business Process Design Independent Study International Business

The Undergraduate students in the Department of Operations and Decision Technologies can major in Information and Process Management, Supply Chain Management, Operations Management and a co-major

in technology management. Some of the courses offered are Business Development Application Business Process Management Collaboration Workflow and Technology Infrastructure Supply Management Chain Data Management Supply Chain Management : Sourcing Enterprise Architecture

Operations Processes

Supply Chain Management : Logistics and Distribution

Integration of Systems and Business

Decision Support Systems

While the Supply Chain Management focuses on managing flow of m aterial in the distribution and manufacturing stages of the supply chain using material planning and execution systems including topics like computer/software systems for demand management and forecasting techniques, inventory control systems materials and capacity requirements and planning systems in manufacturing. Supply Chain Management: Sourcing comprehensively examines the purchasing function in industrial firms including sourcing (domestic and international), specifications, and standards, quality assurance and reliability, contract and pricing practice and ethics. Operations Processes focuses on study of the processes by which products are created and delivered to customers that include throughput (the rate of product delivery), flow time (the time it takes to deliver that product), and inventory. Decision Support Systems enumerates on how to develop mathematical models used to improve decision-making within an organization with elaborate cases based on actual management situations. Collaboration and Workflow provides an introduction to the enterprise business processing with particular emphasis on SAP enterprise software applied to global processes. Workflow systems integrate people, processes, and technology, collectively known as organizational structure, business objects and business processes... The course covers an in-depth exploration of SAP s Webflow technology, SAP s BPM architecture known as NetWeaver, and map processes with Intalio s BPMS, which lays over SAP s NetWeaver to demonstrate how global organizations perform business process management over traditional ERP systems. Much of the courses are designed keeping in mind the global scope of supply chain management and the flattening of the global market and the impact of supply chain practices cross a variety of industries and career function.

UCLA Anderson School of Management
UCLA Anderson School of Management is one of eleven professional schools at the University of California, Los Angeles and ranked among the country s top-tier programs offering degrees to full-time, part-time, executive MBA and Ph.D. students. Renowned author Elwood S Buffa was one of the founding directors of the Executive MBA Program here. The Decisions, Operations and Technology Management (DOTM) area focuses on operations management in the service and manufacturing sectors as the primary means for executing strategy, criticality of operations to the firm's competitive success and maps the connections at the firm level with other key organizational functions such as design, finance and marketing. DOTM seeks to combine the process view of operations with analytical approaches in conducting R&D for facilitating opportunities in consulting, hightechnology, retail and entrepreneurial ventures. Some of the courses offered either as foundation, sequel or specialised courses are : Data Analysis, Statistics, and Decision Making Supply Chain Management Decision Analysis Operations Management Technology Managerial Model Building Statistical Methods in Management Decision Sciences Model Special Topics in Management

Global Operations Strategy Managing Entrepreneurial Operations

Data Analysis and Management Decisions under Uncertainty Special Topics in Decisions, Operations and Technology

Technology Management

Quantitative Methods for Managers

Management Operations and Technology Management: Systems, Strategies, and Policies

The courses are elaborately designed and segments students based on their target sector of service sector or manufacturing sector or high-technology companies in either service or manufacturing or of a cross-functional nature. For instance Managing Entrepreneurial Operations is an Integrative course that explores operating issues involved in managing entrepreneurial enterprises, building on methodologies, principles and concepts provided in requisite functional and strategic core courses. Extensive case studies and readings develop skills and a philosophical basis for applying managerial concepts to entrepreneurial operations. Special Topics in Decisions, Operations and Technology Management focuses on application of specialized knowledge to operational problems including topics like Strategy for Information Intensive Industries, Empirical Research in Operations Management, Analytical Methods of Operation Research, Introduction to Management in the Information Economy and Models for Medical Management. While Special Topics In Management concern in-depth examination of problems or issues of current concern in management including E-Business and Supply Chains, Electronic Commerce, Topics in Mathematical Programming, "Competition, Markets and Power" and High-Tech Marketing. The Global Operations Strategy course studies the challenges of operating globally in a range of industries, including software, consulting, automotive, textile, etc. and having a strategic perspective throughout.

USC Marshall School of Business
The Marshall School of Business is a leading business school at the University of Southern California, the largest among USC's 17 professional schools. Renowned author Richard B. Chase, Justin Dart Professor of operations Management taught at this institute. The college provides doctoral students with the quantitative and analytical skills needed to conduct research and develop theory in Information System and Operations Management through its Department of Information and Operations Management. The prerogative is on understanding the different aspects, trade-offs and driving forces behind business processes and the impact of information systems on the organization and its business. While Information systems deal with organizational and technical systems and economic activities used to leverage information within and across organizations, Operations Management addresses issues of supply chain management, production, distribution and logistics, retailing and service industries. The common goal is to better manage business organizations and business processes for strategic and operational advantage. Students address problems and opportunities linking information technologies (IT) and business issues as the networked digital environment gets transformed. The topics include the design of electronic value chains, electronic commerce and markets, software markets and piracy, privacy and security, knowledge management and emergent processes, collaboration in virtual teams and across enterprises, and dynamic IT capabilities and vigilant information systems in fast-response environments. An integrated framework to study entire supply chains of global organizations, dealing with strategic procurement, outsourcing, inventory theory, distribution and logistics, forecasting, dynamic pricing and bargaining is facilitated. Some of the courses offered are Organizational Behaviour Probalistic Models in Operations Management Current Research in Operations Management Linear Programming and Extension Economics Information Systems Elements of Stochastic Processes Behavioural ISR Optimization Models in Operations Management

California is the land of Hollywood and Silic on City. So the entire entertainment industry and software industry headquarter is based here. The duality of Information and Operations Management allows new ways of managing active digital content and improving the way digital recordings,videogame softwares and the entire IT industry s operational efficiency can be significantly enhanced. Significant foreign competition, shorter product and service life-cycles, better-educated and quality-conscious consumers, and the capabilities of new technology have helped elucidate the importance of operations in these sectors.

Fisher College Ohio State University
The Fisher College in The Ohio State University is among the top ten public graduate and undergraduate Bschools in the USA. In fact Fisher College is ranked third in the US for its leadership in supply chain management. On the lines of innovation it prepares managers for leadership in the emerging, rapid and continuous improvement environment found in leading service and manufacturing companies. Worldwide respected author Larry P Ritzman was a Professor in this university. Some of the courses offered here are Logistics Management Operations Planning and Control for Supply Chain Management Six Sigma Projects Analysis & Design of Logistics Systems Global Sourcing Re-engineering Corporation the

Six Sigma Principles Matching Supply Demand

Service Quality Management Customer Driven Manufacturing in the Global Market

Implement/Managing Lean Processes Field Problems Logistics in

Producing Change in Organizations Entrepreneurship and Business Plan Development


Strategic Design of Operations/Logistics Systems

Supply Chain Management

Services Marketing and Management

Service/Quality Management

Building Professional Services in Product Companies

Advanced Analysis


Supply chain management focuses on the management of the relationships between firms in the supply chain with curriculum geared to a cross-functional, process oriented framework with further studies focusing heavily on implementation issues .The Six Sigma Management track aims at imparting functional and practical knowledge on process improvement. It provides grounding in complementary approaches to continual improvement and giving a managerial context for operational efficiency. The Entrepreneurship courses impart the necessary skills to design business plans, identify new business opportunities and deal with venture capital and private equity. The region is known for its robust industry clusters and research discoveries and a flurry of research centres and universities across Ohio mushrooming in due course. With the identification of the state s first innovation hub r long-standing local initiatives aimed at creating jobs would be re-energized and young companies would have access to talent, investment capital and business advice. And with the region advertising itself heavily as a knowledge neighbourhood and setting up of more knowledge centres within a hub makes these courses indispensable.

India is known for its intellectual capital and has been producing sharp minds since time immemorial. And when it comes to the Operations Management followed in the Indian B-Schools, India has been keeping abreast with the rest of the world. Certain courses like cellular technology as followed in IIM Bangalore are followed in some of the foreign B-Schools as well. Use of IT in conjunction with operations management is now becoming a growing trend in Indian B-Schools as well. But unlike the foreign B-Schools that primarily focus on the practical applicability and using various state-of-the-art technologies to demonstrate concepts, Indian BSchools still continue with the traditional method of teaching. In comparison to the Indian B- Schools, the foreign B- Schools provide courses in operations management integrated with information technology. The emphasis is clearly on the use of modern tools, techniques and technology for improving the operations management, performance analysis, decision making and supply chain management. The courses are offered keeping a wider global prospective in view and cater to the need of international students. The design of the courses and the curriculum fosters innovation among the students and the field studies help them understand operations from the perspective of the investors, researchers, practitioners and analysts. Courses on environment sciences are provided by many b-schools as concerns on environmental hazards are on a rise and green business is the norm of the day. With the healthcare industry in US undergoing major changes, courses in medicine and healthcare management are offered by most b-schools. Specialized courses on Telecommunications management, nanotechnology, technology for managers, biomedical engineering and homeland security against terrorism and natural hazards are also provided by many top B-schools keeping in touch with the technological trends and contemporary global needs and scenario. Also it is seen in very few locations of Indian subcontinent that the courses offered are taken in regards to the place the college is in as a result of which the individual moves to other places in search of better opportunities. Moreover, they seek those works where they can apply what they have learnt which they normally do not get after passing from many Indian B-schools. Such is not the case in foreign B- Schools which provide courses based on the industries in the region.

India is growing very fast and many global companies have already established a significant portion of their business in India. Our companies are also spreading their wings onto foreign soils. Most of the IT-based processes are outsourced to India. Thus, it is natural to expect India to be among the leaders in operations management. However this is not the case and Indian B-schools are still quite some miles behind the ones abroad even though there is no dearth of quality talent among the research scholars and faculties in our business schools. The course curriculum, thus, needs to be revamped as per the modern times and specialized courses ought to be introduced that attract more talented students and help contribute to the development of the sectors as well.

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