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Shanghai Jiao Tong University

ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Chapter 4: Motivation

Tang Weijun (Shanghai Jiao Tong University)

2006-4-10 © 2006 Tang Weijun http://www.drtang.org


ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Contact

Tang Weijun
Shanghai Jiao Tong University

E-mail:

URL:
http://www.drtang.org/

2 2006-4-10 © 2006 Tang Weijun http://www.drtang.org


ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Concepts and learning objectives

Key concepts:
Drivers
Subjective probability
Motivation (as an energizing process)
Motivation (as a decision-making process)
Empowerment
Self-actualization

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Concepts and learning objectives

Key concepts:
Job enrichment
High performance work systems
Expectancy theory
Motive
Valence
Motivating potential score

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Concepts and learning objectives

Learning objectives
Understand different ways in which the term motivation
is used.
Understand the nature of motives and motivation
processes as influences on behaviour.
Use expectancy theory and job enrichment to diagnose
organizational problems and to recommend solutions.
Explain the renewed interest in this field in the 1990s,
with respect to evolving link between organization
strategy and high performance work systems.

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Motives as goals of human behaviour

Motivation is the internal psychological process of


initiating, energizing, directing and maintaining
goal-directed behaviour.
Intimidation is one way to get somebody to do what you
want them to do.
Motivation is abroad concept which covers individual
preferences for particular forms of action, strength of
response, and persistence.
Our behaviour is purposive, and we behave as we do
because we choose.

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Motives as goals of human behaviour

Motivation is used to refer to:


The goals that people have, or the outcomes they want.
The cognitive processes, or decision-making processes,
that lead people to pursue particular outcomes or goals
in the first place.
The social processes through which some individuals try
to change the behaviours of others.
Here: goal-directed behaviour in pursuit of
particular outcomes, cognitive processes that
concern decision making, or social processes that
involve influence attempts.

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Motives as goals of human behaviour

If our motive are innate, then we may be able to do


little to change them.
We have a strong need for survival.
Altruism can overcome personal safety needs in
extraordinary circumstances.
Biological forces are basic determinants of the
behaviour of most of us, most of the time.

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Drives and motives

Drives are innate, biological determinants of


human behaviour activated by deprivation.
Come with the body, and indirectly influence behaviour
Motive are learned needs, which influence our
behaviour by leading us to pursue particular goals
because they are socially valued.
Much of what we do is clearly influenced by the ways of
thinking and behaving typical of the society.
The distinction between drives and motives is
summarized in the form of page 71.
Innate cognitive drivers in the form of page 72.

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Maslow’s need hierarchy

Biological needs.
Safety needs.
Affiliation needs.
Esteem needs.
The need to know and to understand.
Aesthetic needs.
Self-actualization needs.
The need for transcendence, a spiritual need.

D figure in page 73.

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Maslow’s need hierarchy

The biological and safety needs are essential to


human existence.
Self-actualization and “transcendence” are ultimate
human goals.
Fully satisfied and self-actualized people are rare.

The need hierarchy has 5 interesting properties in


page 74.
How to reach the need hierarchy: figure in page 75.

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Maslow’s need hierarchy

Maslow did not intend this hierarchy to be regarded


as a rigid description of the development of human
motivation.
Two main problems:
It is difficult to see how it can predict behaviour.
This psychological theory is more like a social
philosophy.
Maslow’s work has been extremely influential, and
has stimulated a lot of further thinking. Most
important, it is useful to explain the motives.

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Motives as individual decision-making process

Motivation can also be defined as the cognitive,


decision-making process through which the
individual chooses desired outcomes, and sets in
motion the actions appropriate to their achievement.
Motivation theories are divided into two broad and
opposing groups, each dominated by a different
philosophical perspective on human nature.

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Motives as individual decision-making process

Valence is the degree of preference that an


individual has for a particular outcome. (Noted as V)
Subjective probability is the individual’s expectation
that particular behaviour will lead to particular
outcomes. (Noted as E)
Expectancy theory is a theory of motivation which
argues that the strength or “force” (Noted as M) of
an individual’s motivation to act in a particular way
can be expressed as Expectancy Equation: M=E*V

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Motives as individual decision-making process

Only when both the terms in the expectancy


equation are positive will the motivating force be
positive.
The full calculation thus has to take into account all
the values – positive, neutral and negative – that
the individual places on the range of outcomes.
The higher M value should tell us which behaviour
the individual will adopt.

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Motives as individual decision-making process

Expectancy theory suggests how some goals,


through experience, may come to be desirable for
the individual. It has been influential in stimulating
research, and in providing a tool for diagnosing
and helping to resolve organizational problems.

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The social process of motivating others

Motivation in an organizational setting is a social


process in which some members try to influence
others, to work harder, work smarter, work more
effectively.

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ORGNIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Taylor’s scientific management

Decide on the optimum degree of task


fragmentation.
Decide the one best way to perform each part of
the work efficiently.
Train employees to carry out these simple and
fragmented tasks precisely in the one best way that
has been identified.

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The advantages of task fragmentation

Employees do not need expensive and time-


consuming training.
Specialization in one small task makes employees
very proficient through repetition.
Lower pay can be given for such unskilled work.
Some of the problems of achieving controlled
performance are simplified.

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The disadvantages of task fragmentation

The worker can be extremely repetitive and boring.


The individual’s contribution to the organization is
meaningless and insignificant.
Monotony leads to apathy, dissatisfaction and
carelessness.
The employee develops no skills that might lead to
promotion.

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Job enrichment

Job enrichment is a technique for broadening the


experience of work to enhance employee need
satisfaction and to improve work motivation and
performance.
The experience of work can affect the individual’s
perception of the terms of the expectancy equation.
The design of an individual’s job determines both
the kinds of rewards available and what the
individual has to do to get those rewards.

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Job enrichment

Job design can affect the outcomes that the


individual values.
The design of jobs can have a significant impact on
the terms of the expectancy equation.

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Job characteristics model

The job characteristic model sets out the links


between the features of jobs, the individual’s
experience of those features and the results in
terms of motivation, satisfaction and performance.
D figure in page 87.

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Job characteristics model

Jobs can be analyzed in terms of five core


dimensions:
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
Autonomy
Feedback

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Motivating potential score

The motivating potential score for the particular job


is the result of the following equation, where the
values of each of the variables have been
measured using the Job Diagnostic Questionnaire:
MPS=[(skill variety + task identity + task
significance)/3]*autonomy*feedback

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Motivating potential score

Job Diagnostic Questionnaire


This questionnaire asks employees to respond to
questions about aspects of their work, and of their
reactions to it.
For each question, a seven-point scale runs from “very
little” through “moderate” variety or autonomy, to “very
much”.

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Motivating potential score

The five core dimensions stimulate the three


psychological states critical to high work motivation,
job satisfaction and performance.
Experienced meaningfulness.
Experienced responsibility.
Knowledge of results.

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Motivating potential score

How the motivating potential of jobs can be


improved by applying five implementing concepts.
Combining tasks.
Forming natural work units.
Establishing client relationships.
Vertical loading.
Opening feedback channels.

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Motivating potential score

The events led to satisfaction:


Achievement
Advancement
Recognition
Growth
Responsibility
The work itself

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Motivating potential score

The events led to dissatisfaction:


Salary
Status
Company policy
Security
Supervision
Working conditions

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Motivating potential score

Herzberg’s seven vertical job loading factors to


achieve job enrichment.
Remove controls
Increase accountability
Created natural work units
Provide direct feedback
Introduce new tasks
Allocate special assignments
Grant additional authority
Written more than applied in practice.

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Empowerment, high performance system

Empowerment is the term given to organizational


arrangements that allow employees more
autonomy, discretion and unsupervised decision-
making responsibility.
Automation and intense competition require
employees to work cooperatively, sharing
information to solve problems, caring for customers
and colleagues.

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Empowerment, high performance system

Maccoby’s five new social character types:


Expert
Helper
Defender
Innovator
Self-developer

D form in page 94.

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Empowerment, high performance system

Maccoby considered higher proportion of those


under 40 are self-developers, called “the new
generation”.
Clear management commitments on responsibilities and
rewards.
Opportunities for expression, challenge and development.
Increased business understanding and involvement.
Teamwork combined with individual growth.
Fair and meaningful rewards.
Reasons, information, to be included, to know why.

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Empowerment, high performance system

A high-performance work system is a form of


organization that operates at levels of excellence
far beyond those of comparable systems.
What is a high-performance work system?
Page 96.
Tom Peters argues that traditional “kick ass and
take names” style of supervision has to change.
The change in the supervisory role has been
described as a transition from “policeman to coach”.

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Assessment

Quality of working life (QWL) &. The empowered


igh-performing team approach
D form in page 99.
The line of argument
D figure in page 100.
The application of autonomous team working
Four points in page 100.

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The End

THANK YOU!

© 2006 TANG Weijun


Shanghai Jiao Tong University

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