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Operation Management

Contents
A Brief History of ISO....................................................................................................................3
The ISO Standardization Process....................................................................................................4
ISO 14000.......................................................................................................................................4
Brief History of Environmental Management Systems...................................................................5
Development of the ISO 14000 Series............................................................................................5
ISO 14001 Standard........................................................................................................................6
Basic Principles and Methodology..................................................................................................7
Plan Establish Objectives and Processes Required...................................................................7
Do Implement the Processes....................................................................................................7
Check Measure and Monitor the Processes and Report Results...............................................8
Act Take Action to Improve Performance of EMS Based on Results.......................................8
Continual Improvement Process.....................................................................................................8
Benefits...........................................................................................................................................9
Conformity Assessment................................................................................................................10
ISO 14001 and EMAS...................................................................................................................11
Complementarities and Differences..............................................................................................11
Changing from ISO 14001 to EMAS............................................................................................12
ISO 14001 Use in Supply Chains..................................................................................................12
Primary Purpose............................................................................................................................13
Potential Benefits..........................................................................................................................14
Potential Limitations.....................................................................................................................14
Who can use ISO 14000 Series?...................................................................................................14
Impact on Company......................................................................................................................15
What Resources are needed?.........................................................................................................16
Leadership.................................................................................................................................16
Proficiencies or Skills................................................................................................................16
Staff Time..................................................................................................................................16
Courses, Support, and Information............................................................................................16
Development, Ownership and Support......................................................................................16
List of ISO 14000 Series Standards...........................................................................................17
Operational Benefits......................................................................................................................17
Environmental Benefits.................................................................................................................18
Marketing Benefits........................................................................................................................18
Financial Benefits.........................................................................................................................18
REFRENCES................................................................................................................................19

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A Brief History of ISO


Standards are important in international trade because incongruent standards can be
barriers to trade, giving some organizations advantages in certain areas of the world.
Standards provide clear identifiable references that are recognized internationally and
encourage fair competition in free-market economies. Standards facilitate trade through
enhanced product quality and reliability, greater interoperability and compatibility, greater
ease of maintenance and reduced costs. ISO covers a wide variety of standards with the
exception of electrical and electronic engineering standards covered by the International
Electro technical Commission (IEC), telecommunication standards covered by the
International Telegraph Union (ITU) and information technology covered by JTC 1 (a joint
committee between ISO and IEC).
The organization which today is known as ISO began in 1926 as the International
Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). This organization focused
heavily on mechanical engineering. It was disbanded in 1942 during the Second World War
but was re-organized under the current name, ISO, in 1946.
Even the name of the organization is standardized. The name, "ISO" is not an
acronym but was derived from the Greek word "iso" meaning "equal". (The relation to
standards is that if two objects meet the same standard, they should be equal.) This name
eliminates any confusion that could result from the translation of "International Organization
for Standardization" into different languages which would lead to different acronyms.
ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized standard authorities,
each one representing one country. The bulk of the work of ISO is done by the 2700 technical
committees, subcommittees and working groups. Each committee and subcommittee is
headed by a Secretariat from one of the member organizations. The American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) is the United States representative to ISO. The ANSI ASC Z1/ASQ Standards Group coordinates the United States representation in the ISO Technical
Committees 176 and 207 which are concerned with the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 standards
respectively.

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The ISO Standardization Process


Each member body that has an interest in the work of a committee is entitled to be a
member of that committee. Standards are reached by consensus with each member
organization representing the interests of the vendors, manufacturers, consumers,
professionals, and government of its country.
Each standard goes through a six stage process before being published as an ISO
standard. The first stage is the proposal stage in which a need for a standard is determined
and members are identified who are willing to work on it. The standards then enter the
preparatory stage where a working draft of the standard is developed.
When the working draft is completed, it enters the committee stage and is sent out for
comments until a consensus is reached. The output of this stage is the Draft International
Standard (DIS). The DIS then enters the enquiry stage where it is circulated among all
member bodies and then voted upon. If a DIS does not receive 75% of the vote, it returns to
lower stages and work on it continues. If it passes the enquiry stage, it becomes a Final Draft
International Standard and enters the approval stage. During this stage it will again circulate
through all member bodies for a final vote and again it must pass this stage with 75% of the
vote. If the standard passes this stage, it enters the publication stage and is sent to the ISO
Central Secretariat for publication.

ISO 14000
ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists
to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the
environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable
laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually
improve in the above.
ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the
process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9000,
certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO
directly. The ISO 19011 audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000
compliance at once.
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The requirements of ISO 14001 are an integral part of the European Unions EcoManagement and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMASs structure and material requirements are
more demanding, foremost concerning performance improvement, legal compliance and
reporting duties.

Brief History of Environmental Management


Systems
The concept of an environmental management system evolved in the early nineties
and its origin can be traced back to 1972, when the United Nations organized a Conference
on the Human Environment in Stockholm and the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) was launched (Corbett & Kirsch, 2001). These early initiatives led to the
establishment of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) and the
adoption of the Montreal Protocol and Basel Convention.
In 1992, the first Earth Summit was held in Rio-de-Janeiro, and served to generate a
global commitment to the environment. In the same year, BSI Group published the world's
first environmental management systems standard, BS 7750. This supplied the template for
the development of the ISO 14000 series in 1996, by the International Organization for
Standardization, which has representation from committees all over the world (ISO)
(Clements 1996, Brorson & Larsson, 1999). As of 2010, ISO 14001 is now used by at least
223 149 organizations in 159 countries and economies.

Development of the ISO 14000 Series


The ISO 14000 family includes most notably the ISO 14001 standard, which
represents the core set of standards used by organizations for designing and implementing an
effective environmental management system. Other standards included in this series are ISO
14004, which gives additional guidelines for a good environmental management system, and
more specialized standards dealing with specific aspects of environmental management. The
major objective of the ISO 14000 series of norms is "to promote more effective and efficient
environmental management in organizations and to provide useful and usable tools - ones that
are cost effective, system-based, and flexible and reflect the best organizations and the best
organizational

practices

available

environmentally relevant information".


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for

gathering,

interpreting

and

communicating

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Unlike previous environmental regulations, which began with command and control
approaches, later replaced with ones based on market mechanisms, ISO 14000 was based on
a voluntary approach to environmental regulation (Szymanski & Tiwari 2004). The series
includes the ISO 14001 standard, which provides guidelines for the establishment or
improvement of an EMS. The standard shares many common traits with its predecessor ISO
9000, the international standard of quality management (Jackson 1997), which served as a
model for its internal structure (National Academy Press 1999) and both can be implemented
side by side. As with ISO 9000, ISO 14000 acts both as an internal management tool and as a
way of demonstrating a companys environmental commitment to its customers and clients
(Boiral 2007).
Prior to the development of the ISO 14000 series, organizations voluntarily
constructed their own EMS systems, but this made comparisons of environmental effects
between companies difficult and therefore the universal ISO 14000 series was developed. An
EMS is defined by ISO as: part of the overall management system, that includes
organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes
and resources for developing, implementing, achieving and maintaining the environmental
policy (ISO 1996 cited in Federal Facilities Council Report 1999).

ISO 14001 Standard


ISO 14001 sets out the criteria for an environmental management system. It does not
state requirements for environmental performance, but maps out a framework that a company
or organization can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. It can be
used by any organization that wants to improve resource efficiency, reduce waste and drive
down costs. Using ISO 14001 can provide assurance to company management and employees
as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved.
[4] ISO 14001 can also be integrated with other management functions and assists companies
in meeting their environmental and economic goals.
ISO 14001, as with other ISO 14000 standards, is voluntary (IISD 2010), with its
main aim to assist companies in continually improving their environmental performance,
whilst complying with any applicable legislation.

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Organizations are responsible for setting their own targets and performance measures,
with the standard serving to assist them in meeting objectives and goals and the subsequent
monitoring and measurement of these (IISD 2010).
The standard can be applied to a variety of levels in the business, from organizational
level, right down to the product and service level (RMIT University). Rather than focusing on
exact measures and goals of environmental performance, the standard highlights what an
organization needs to do to meet these goals (IISD 2010).
ISO 14001 is known as a generic management system standard, meaning that it is
relevant to any organization seeking to improve and manage resources more effectively. This
includes:

Single site to large multi-national companies


High risk companies to low risk service organizations
Manufacturing, process and the service industries;

governments
All industry sectors including public and private sectors
Original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers.

including

local

All standards are periodically reviewed by ISO to ensure they still meet market
requirements. The current version of ISO 14001 ISO 14001:2004 is under review as of
April 2012

Basic Principles and Methodology


Plan Establish Objectives and Processes Required
Prior to implementing ISO 14001, an initial review or gap analysis of the
organizations processes and products is recommended, to assist in identifying all elements of
the current operation and if possible future operations, that may interact with the
environment, termed environmental aspects (Martin 1998). Environmental aspects can
include both direct, such as those used during manufacturing and indirect, such as raw
materials (Martin 1998). This review assists the organization in establishing their
environmental objectives, goals and targets, which should ideally be measurable; helps with
the development of control and management procedures and processes and serves to highlight
any relevant legal requirements, which can then be built into the policy (Standards
Australia/Standards New Zealand 2004).
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Do Implement the Processes
During this stage the organization identifies the resources required and works out
those members of the organization responsible for the EMS implementation and control
(Martin 1998). This includes establishing procedures and processes, although only one
documented procedure is specified related to operational control. Other procedures are
required to foster better management control over elements such as documentation control,
emergency preparedness and response, and the education of employees, to ensure they can
competently

implement

the

necessary

processes

and

record

results

(Standards

Australia/Standards New Zealand 2004).


Communication and participation across all levels of the organization, especially top
management is a vital part of the implementation phase, with the effectiveness of the EMS
being dependant on active involvement from all employees (Federal Facilities Council Report
1999).

Check Measure and Monitor the Processes and Report


Results
During the check stage, performance is monitored and periodically measured to
ensure that the organizations environmental targets and objectives are being met (Martin
1998). In addition, internal audits are conducted at planned intervals to ascertain whether the
EMS meets the user's expectations and whether the processes and procedures are being
adequately maintained and monitored (Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 2004).

Act Take Action to Improve Performance of EMS Based


on Results
After the checking stage, a management review is conducted to ensure that the
objectives of the EMS are being met, the extent to which they are being met, that
communications are being appropriately managed and to evaluate changing circumstances,
such as legal requirements, in order to make recommendations for further improvement of the
system (Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 2004). These recommendations are
incorporated through continual improvement, plans are renewed or new plans are made, and
the EMS moves forward.

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Continual Improvement Process
The core requirement of a continual improvement process (CIP) is different from the
one known from quality management systems. CIP in ISO 14001 has three dimensions
(Gastl, 2009):

Expansion: More and more business areas get covered by the implemented

EMS.

Enrichment: More and more activities, products, processes, emissions, resources etc.

Get managed by the implemented EMS.

Upgrading: An improvement of the structural and organizational framework of the

EMS, as well as an accumulation of know-how in dealing with business related


environmental issues.
Overall, the CIP-concept expects the organization to gradually move away from
merely operational environmental measures towards a strategic approach on how to deal with
environmental challenges.

Benefits
ISO 14001 was developed primarily to assist companies with a framework for better
management control that can result in reducing their environmental impacts.
In addition to improvements in performance, organizations can reap a number of
economic benefits including higher conformance with legislative and regulatory requirements
(Sheldon 1997) by adopting the ISO standard. By minimizing the risk of regulatory and
environmental liability fines and improving an organizations efficiency (Delmas 2001),
benefits can include a reduction in waste and consumption of resources, and operating costs.
Secondly, as an internationally recognized standard, businesses operating in multiple
locations across the globe can leverage their conformance to ISO 14001, eliminating the need
for multiple registrations or certifications (Hutchens 2010). Thirdly there has been a push in
the last decade by consumers, for companies to adopt better internal controls, making the
incorporation of ISO 14001 a smart approach for the long term viability of businesses. This
can provide them with a competitive advantage against companies that do not adopt the
standard (Potoki & Prakash, 2005). This in turn can have a positive impact on a companys
asset value (Van der Deldt, 1997). It can lead to improved public perceptions of the business,
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placing them in a better position to operate in the international marketplace (Potoki &
Prakash 1997; Sheldon 1997). The use of ISO 14001 can demonstrate an innovative and
forward thinking approach to customers and prospective employees. It can increase a
businesss access to new customers and business partners. In some markets it can potentially
reduce public liability insurance costs. It can serve to reduce trade barriers between registered
businesses (Van der Deldt, 1997). There is growing interest in including certification to ISO
14001 in tenders for public-private partnerships for infrastructure renewal. Evidence of value
in terms of environmental quality and benefit to the taxpayer has been shown in highway
projects in Canada.

Conformity Assessment
ISO 14001 can be used in whole or in part to help an organization, for profit or notfor-profit, better manage its relationship with the environment. If all the elements of ISO
14001 are incorporated into the management process, the organization may opt to prove that
it has achieved full alignment or conformity with the international standard, ISO 14001, by
using one of four recognized options. These are:
1. Make a self-determination and self-declaration, or
2. Seek confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the
organization, such as customers, or
3. Seek confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organization, or
4. Seek certification/registration of its environmental management system by an external
organization.
ISO does not control conformity assessment; its mandate is to develop and maintain
standards.
ISO has a neutral policy on conformity assessment. One option is not better than the
next. Each option serves different market needs. The adopting organization decides which
option is best for them, in conjunction with their market needs.
Option 1 is sometimes incorrectly referred to as 'self-certify" or "self-certification".
This is not an acceptable reference under ISO terms and definitions, for it can lead to
confusion in the market. The user is responsible for making their own determination. Option
2 is often referred to as a customer or 2nd party audit, which is an acceptable market term.
Option 3 is an independent third-party process by an organization that is based on an
engagement activity and delivered by specially trained practitioners.
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This option was based on an accounting procedure branded as the EnviroReady
Report, which was created to help small and medium-sized organizations. Its development
was originally based on the Canadian Handbook for Accountants; it is now based on an
international accounting standard. The fourth option, certification, is another independent
third-party process, which has been widely implemented by all types of organizations.
Certification is also known in some countries as registration. Service providers of
certification or registration are accredited by national accreditation services such as UKAS in
the UK.

ISO 14001 and EMAS


In 2010, the latest EMAS Regulation (EMAS III) entered into force; the scheme is
now globally applicable, includes key performance indicators and a range of further
improvements. Currently, more than 4,500 organisations and approximately 7,800 sites are
EMAS registered.

Complementarities and Differences


ISO 14001s environmental management system requirements are an integral part of
EMAS. However, proponents of EMAS like to think of it as the most credible and robust
environmental management instrument on the market [citation needed], adding several
elements on top of the requirements of the international standard. Additional requirements
include:

Stricter requirements on the measurement and evaluation of environmental


performance against objectives and targets.

Government supervision of the environmental verifiers to ensure compliance with


environmental legislation

Strong employee involvement; EMAS organisations acknowledge that active


employee involvement is a driving force and a prerequisite for continuous and successful
environmental improvements. Most EMAS organisations introduce employee participation
schemes at all levels of the organisation to anchor the environmental management and audit
system in the organisation successfully.

Environmental core indicators creating multi-annual comparability within and


Between organizations
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Mandatory provision of information to the general public through the validated


environmental statement which is based on a comprehensive environmental impact
assessment

Registration by a public authority after verification and validation by an independent


And accredited/licensed environmental verifier.

Changing from ISO 14001 to EMAS


Organizations applying ISO 14001 only have to take a few steps to become registered
under EMAS: The two main differences involve an environmental review to identify
significant environmental aspects as well as publishing an environmental statement. Apart
from that, minor changes need to be made to a number of other elements during the process
of becoming EMAS registered.

ISO 14001 Use in Supply Chains


There are many reasons why ISO 14001 should be potentially attractive to supply
chain managers including the use of the voluntary standard to guide the development of
integrated systems, its requirement for supply chain members in industries such as
automotive and aerospace, the potential of pollution prevention leading to reduced costs of
production and higher profits, its alignment with the growing importance of corporate social
responsibility, and an ISO registered system may provide firms with a unique environmental
resource, capabilities and benefits that lead to competitive advantage.
Emerging areas of research are starting to address the use of this standard to show that
ISO 14001 registration can be leveraged across the supply chain for competitive advantage.
[8] By looking at ISO 14001 registered firms, information from the study compared different
amounts of integration and sustainability in the supply chain. Several research propositions
and an empirical framework posit the impacts of ISO 14001 on supply chain design.
The propositions include:
1. ISO registration leading to more proactive environmental management including process
And performance measurement related to sustainability across a supply chain;
2. That ISO registered plants with formal environmental management systems will have
Higher levels of communication required between OEMs and Tier I suppliers;
3. ISO registered plants with direct relationships to other registered plants in their supply
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Chain will have higher levels of waste reduction and cost efficiency than nonregistered
plants;
4. ISO registered plants with direct relationships to other registered plants in the supply
Chain will have sustainable practices and projects with better ROI than nonregistered firms;
5. ISO registered plants with direct relationships to other registered plants will have higher
Levels of customer relationship management and will be positively associated with greater
expansion opportunities and image than nonregistered plants;
6. ISO registered plants with direct relationships to other registered plants will have fewer
Issues with employee health and reduced numbers of safety incidents than nonregistered
plants;
7. ISO registered plants with a direct relationship to other registered plants will have a
Strong positive relationship between formal communication, training, monitoring/control
systems and firm performance; and
8. ISO registered plants with a direct relationship to other registered plants will have higher
Levels of involvement and communication, which will be positively related to more internal
and external integration with supply chain members.

Primary Purpose
The ISO 14000 Series gives the requirements for an environmental management
system and is one of more than 15,000 voluntary International Standards published by the
International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO).
It is primarily concerned with "environmental management". For the ISO, this means
what the organization does to minimize harmful effects on the environment of its activities. It
is not a product standard and does not give requirements for specific products or services;
rather, it provides a set of generic requirements for what the organisation must do to manage
the processes influencing the impact of the organisation's activities on the environment.
Implementation involves making production procedures explicit (say what you do),
documenting them, ensuring they are followed and checking they are effective. A quality
management system can be audited by an independent certification body as conforming to the
Standard (leading to an ISO 9001:2000 certificate), although this is not compulsory. The

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intention of ISO 14001:2004 is to provide a framework for an overall, strategic approach to
an organisation's environmental policy, plans and actions.
The Standard can be implemented by a wide variety of organisations, whatever their
current level of environmental maturity. However, a commitment to compliance with
applicable environmental legislation and regulations is required, along with a commitment to
continuous improvement. The standard has the aim of making it easier for small and mediumsized enterprises (SME's) to understand, set up and benefit from such systems.

Potential Benefits
ISO 14000 covers a wide range of requirements that may go beyond compliance and
legislation in seeking to improve the quality of the organizations environmental management
activities
ISO 14000 is one of the most nationally and an internationally known environmental
standard that affirms the independent approval of a management system designed specifically
to deliver high levels of customer satisfaction.
ISO 14000 can help organizations reduce waste, energy use and resources that can
help to reduce costs.
It has the potential to improve internal and external assurance and communication of
management and environmental impacts.
Potential Limitations

Pursuing the Standard has the potential to be expensive in terms of start-up and

Running costs can be time consuming to implement.

There is less flexibility than other tools and it is much more difficult to use in smaller parts or
for single issues.
Although it is used in a variety of public and private sector organizations, there are
Few examples of other social enterprises that have used the Standard and therefore

Implementing and drawing upon other organizations experiences and making

Comparisons may be difficult.

Elements of the management standard may pose difficulties in implementing

Within non-hierarchical organizations or non-traditional working structures such as cooperatives.

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Who can use ISO 14000 Series?
ISO 14000 standards are implemented by thousands of organizations internationally.it
is most widely used in the private and public sectors and by large organizations, but it can
also be used by small and medium sized organizations and the social enterprise sector.

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Impact on Company

What Resources are needed?

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Leadership
Senior individuals in an organization will need to be fully committed

Proficiencies or Skills
Training in understanding the Standards may be required. Actions taken to meet
implementation of the requirements are left to the organization itself, the organization then
needs to address the issues to comply with the standards

Staff Time
Whilst this may be vary depending upon the size of the organization and the level of
change that has to be implemented, estimates of between and 18 months to implement have
been changed

Courses, Support, and Information


The ISO website contains information on all aspects of the ISO 14000 family as well
as a Magical Demystifying Tour of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 and the ISO magazine, ISO
Management Systems, and other publications.

Development, Ownership and Support


The ISO is responsible for developing, maintaining and publishing the ISO 14000
family. The ISO is a non-governmental organization (NGO) network of the national standards
institutes of 150 countries with one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in
Geneva, Switzerland, that co-ordinate the system. It was created in 1947 and has a strategic
partnership with the World Trade Organization (WTO).The ISO does not itself audit or assess
the management systems of organizations.

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List of ISO 14000 Series Standards
ISO 14001 Environmental management systemsRequirements with guidance for
use
ISO 14004 Environmental management systemsGeneral guidelines on principles,
systems and support techniques
ISO 14015 Environmental assessment of sites and organizations
ISO 14020 series (14020 to 14025) Environmental labels and declarations
ISO 14030 discusses post production environmental assessment
ISO 14031 Environmental performance evaluationGuidelines
ISO 14040 series (14040 to 14049), Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, discusses preproduction planning and environment goal setting.
ISO 14050 terms and definitions.
ISO 14062 discusses making improvements to environmental impact goals.
ISO 14063 Environmental communicationGuidelines and examples
ISO 14064 Measuring, quantifying, and reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions.
ISO 19011 which specifies one audit protocol for both 14000 and 9000 series
standards together
Some of the benefits of implementing an ISO 14000 Environmental Management
System (EMS) in accordance with the ISO 14000 standards include:

Operational Benefits

Efficiency, discipline and operational integration with ISO 9000


Greater employee involvement in business operations with a more motivated

workforce
Easier to obtain operational permits and authorizations
Assists in developing and transferring technology within the company
Helps reduce pollution
Fewer operating costs
Savings from safer workplace conditions
Reduction of costs associated with emissions, discharges, waste handling, transport &

disposal
Improvements in the product as a result of process changes
Safer products

Environmental Benefits
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Minimizes hazardous and non-hazardous waste


Conserves natural resources - electricity, gas, space and water with resultant cost

savings
Prevents pollution and reduces wastage

Marketing Benefits

Demonstrates to customers that the firm has met environmental expectations


Meets potential national and international government purchasing requirements
Delivers profits from marketing "green" products
Provides a competitive marketing tool
Improves international competitiveness

Financial Benefits

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Improves the organizations relationship with insurance companies


Elimination of costs associated with conformance to conflicting national standards
Process cost savings by reduction of material and energy input
Satisfying investor / shareholder criteria
Helps reduce liability and risk
Improved access to capital

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REFRENCES

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en.wikipedia.org
mstcsb.blogspot.com
feri999.wordpress.com
www.sis.pitt.edu
www.proveandimprove.org
www.iso.org
www.tanzco.net
www.iisd.org
14000store.com
www.14000registry.com