Lecture 5

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Lecture 5

© All Rights Reserved

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Lecture 5

Math review: vectors

http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/PHY2130/

announces the Winter 2013 opening of

on Monday, January 14 in

Room 172 of Physics Research Building.

Undergraduate students taking PHY2130 will be able to get assistance in this

Center with their homework, labwork and other issues related to their physics

course.

The Center will be open from Monday, January 14until the end of the semester.

Lightning Review

Last lecture:

1. Motion in one dimension:

average acceleration: velocity change over time interval

instantaneous acceleration: same as above for a very small

time interval

free fall: motion with constant acceleration due to gravity

Review Problem: You are throwing a ball straight up in the air. At the

highest point, the balls

(1) velocity and acceleration are zero

(2) velocity is nonzero but its acceleration is zero

(3) acceleration is nonzero, but its velocity is zero

(4) velocity and acceleration are both nonzero

Used

space

Coordinate system (frame) consists of

a fixed reference point called the origin

specific axes with scales and labels

instructions on how to label a point relative to

the origin and the axes

Cartesian

Plane

polar

also

called rectangular

coordinate system

x- and y- axes

points are labeled (x,y)

origin and reference

line are noted

point is distance r from

the origin in the

direction of angle ,

ccw from reference line

points are labeled (r,)

opposite side

sin =

hypotenuse

adjacent side

cos =

sin

hypotenuse

opposite side

tan =

adjacent side

Pythagorean

2

Theorem

c = a +b

Find: another side

sides!

Slide 13

height of building

,

dist .

height = dist . tan = (tan 39.0 )(46.0 m) = 37.3 m

tan =

Quantities

Scalar

magnitude only (temperature, length,)

Vector quantities need both magnitude (size) and

direction to completely describe them

(force, displacement, velocity,)

Represented by an arrow, the length of the arrow is

proportional to the magnitude of the vector

Head of the arrow represents the direction

Vector Notation

When

When dealing with just the magnitude of a

vector in print, an italic letter will be used: A

Properties of Vectors

Equality

of Two Vectors

magnitude and the same direction

Movement

of vectors in a diagram

without being affected

Negative

Vectors

same magnitude but are 180 apart (opposite

directions)

A

= -B

Resultant

Vector

of vectors

Adding Vectors

When

be taken into account

Units must be the same

Graphical Methods

Use scale drawings

Algebraic

Methods

More convenient

(Triangle or Polygon Method)

Choose

a scale

Draw the first vector with the appropriate length

and in the direction specified, with respect to a

coordinate system

Draw the next vector with the appropriate length

and in the direction specified, with respect to a

coordinate system whose origin is the end of

vector A and parallel to the coordinate system

used for A

Continue

drawing the

vectors tip-to-tail

The resultant is drawn

from the origin of A to the

end of the last vector

Measure the length of R

and its angle

Use the scale factor to

convert length to actual

magnitude

When

vectors, just keep

repeating the process

until all are included

The resultant is still

drawn from the origin

of the first vector to

the end of the last

vector

When

vectors, you may use the

Parallelogram Method

All vectors, including the

resultant, are drawn from

a common origin

The remaining sides of the

parallelogram are sketched

to determine the diagonal, R

Vectors

obey the

Commutative Law

of Addition

The order in which the

vectors are added

doesnt affect the

result

Vector Subtraction

Special

case of vector

addition

If A B, then use A+

(-B)

Continue with standard

vector addition

procedure

by a Scalar

The

The magnitude of the vector is multiplied or divided by the

scalar

If the scalar is positive, the direction of the result is the

same as of the original vector

If the scalar is negative, the direction of the result is

opposite that of the original vector

Components of a Vector

Components of a Vector

A

component is a part

It is useful to use

rectangular components

These are the projections of the

vector along the x- and y-axes

Vector

components:

A = Ax + Ay

What are

Ax

and

Ay ?

Components of a Vector

The

whose hypotenuse is A

Ay

2

2

1

A = A x + A y and = tan

Ax

The x-component of a vector

is the projection along the x-axis

Ax = A cos

The

y-component of a vector

is the projection along the y-axis

Ay = A sin

Then,

A = Ax + Ay

Ay

previous equations are valid only if is

measured with respect to the x-axis

The components can be positive or negative and

will have the same units as the original vector

The

Example 1

A golfer takes two putts to get his ball into the hole once he is on the green. The

first putt displaces the ball 6.00 m east, and the second, 5.40 m south. What

displacement would have been needed to get the ball into the hole on the first putt?

Given:

x1= 6.00 m (east)

x2= 5.40 m (south)

Solution:

6.00 m

Pythagorean theorem

2

Find:

5.40 m

2. Find angle:

R=?

5.40 m

= tan 1 ( 0.900) = 42.0

6.00 m

= tan 1

Adding Vectors Algebraically

Choose

vectors v1, v2,

Find the x- and y-components of all the vectors

Add all the x-components

This gives Rx:

Rx = v x

Add

Ry = v y

Magnitudes of vectors

pointing in the same

direction can be added

to find the resultant!

Use

magnitude of the Resultant:

2

x

R = R +R

Use

2

y

direction of R:

= tan

Ry

Rx

Example:

A girl delivering newspapers covers her route by traveling 3.00

blocks west, 4.00 blocks north, then 6.00 blocks east. How far

did she move from her original position?

Subtraction of Vectors

A vector is a quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction.

Position is an example of a vector quantity.

example of a scalar quantity.

30

Example: Vector A has a length of 5.00 meters and points along the x-axis.

Vector B has a length of 3.00 meters and points 120 from the +x-axis.

Compute A+B (=C).

B

C

120

A

31

Example continued:

opp

sin =

hyp

adj

cos =

hyp

sin opp

tan =

=

cos adj

B

By

60

Bx

sin 60 =

By

120

A

B

Bx

cos60 =

Bx = Bcos60 = (3.00 m )cos60 = 1.50 m

B

and Ax = 5.00 m and Ay = 0.00 m

32

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