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Progressing Cavity Pumps for

Aggressive Oil Applications


2010 SPE ATW Cancun

Presented by: Oscar Salazar

Outline
Introduction
Aggressive oil applications (aoa)
Problems in (aoa)
Materials engineering approach
Experimental
Field trials

PC pump Key Attributes


low CAPEX / OPEX
handle liquids, solids and gases
high overall system efficiency
low profile, low noise

Aggressive Oil?
light oil, above 35 API, often warmer
medium oils with aromatics
coal bed methane with CO2 gas.
light aromatics (benzene, xylene, toluene)
sour: CO2 + H2S
corrosion inhibitors, amines
chemical stimulation fluids

Severity depends on level of


combinations
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What Problems in AOA?


elastomer swell (liquid or gas)
high torque
reduced cavity volume
severe damage surfacing

elastomer/metal degradation
excessive hardening or softening
bond deterioration
corrosion (rotors, tube)

Low pump reliability


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Why Problems in AOA?


elastomer swelling caused by
physical contact with fluids
explosive decompression (CO2,H2S, N2, CH4)

degradation caused by
elastomer/metal chemical reaction
amines, corrosion inhibitors
water (Hydrolysis, salts, PH)
O2 (thermal degradation)
H2S
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Swelling by fluids
A physical phenomenon governed by
polymer-solvent solubility
temperature
solvent viscosity and shape
activity of multicomponent fluids
elastomer thickness
elastomer composition

Effect of water on elastomers


high water cut oil (> 90%), dilution effect
wide range of swelling in PC pump
elastomer selection is critical
Swell in water at 100o C, 7 days
Designation Vol swell (%)
Elastomer A
12.28
Elastomer B
4.00
Elastomer C
0.50
15.63
Elastomer D
19.50
Elastomer E
26.77
Elastomer F
Elastomer G
16.48
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Swelling: Effect of thickness


Medium nitrile swell in 30/70 Isooctane/toluene at RT, 3 days

Mass Change(%)

12.0%

10.0%

6.1%

8.0%

0.8%
Top Layer
Second Layer

6.0%

12 mm

0.8%

Middle Layer

Middle layer
4.0%

second layer
0.8%
6.1%

2.0%

Top layer

0.0%
0

10

12

14

16

18

Time (day)

Explosive Decompression (ED)


Failure shows blisters or cracks within elastomer

ED mechanism
gas dissolves and diffuses into elastomer
high pressure, absorbed gas at equilibrium
pressure releases, gas comes out of solution
pressure differential: gas expansion - swelling
at critical elastomer internal pressure: bubbles or
cracks are inevitable
internal pressure depends on elastomer
composition

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ED variables
a complex phenomena, too many variables
temperature
gas/fluid mixture
differential pressure magnitude
time of exposure
depressurization rate, dwell time
depressurization cycles
thickness, geometry, constraints
elastomer composition
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Historical Application.
fluid analysis + compatibility testing (sometimes)
select best elastomers
rotor sizing to accommodate swell (trial and error)
sizing iterations based on performance

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Materials Engineering
elastomer composition vs. critical properties
DOE
lab mixing and testing
manufacturing trials
full scale product testing
field testing
commercialization
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Materials Engineering.
a tool for design
balanced properties
compatibility tests
predictive rotor sizing
materials fit for service

New approach for aggressive oil


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Elastomer Development Example


tests under lab conditions
tests under aggressive crude oils and chemicals
explosive decompression tests
comparison with other elastomers
field trials

A fit for purpose elastomer


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RESULTS

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Swelling vs. aromatic content


3 day test, 50o C in Isooctane / Toluene blends
30.00
Elastomer C
Elastomer A

25.00

Elastomer B

%Vol

20.00

New
development

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

%Toluene
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Volume swelling aggressive fluids


rotating autoclaves, 7 days, ASTM D412
No

Location

1
Colombia
2
Romania
3
Africa
4 Czech Republic
5
Canada

Water
cut

API

15%
90%
30%
50%
38%

21
30-40
22
32.5
36

Aromatics
(%mol)
ND
ND
3%
ND
9%

BHT
DegC
48
50
60
50
48

BHP
(psi)
1500
2200
1500
1500
1100

% Volume swell
A
8.1
6.3
16.5
5.6
4.8

Hardness change
(pts)
A

2.7 NT -21.0 -6.0


1.3 NT -11.0 -2.0
7.4 21.7 -21.0 -6.0
0.9 NT -9.0 -2.0
2.2 9.8 -8.0 2.0

C
-3.0
NT
-3.0
NT
-13.0

A: elastomer A, std nitrile


B: elastomer B, new development
C: elastomer C, std nitrile
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Volumetric swelling in chemicals


corrosion inhibitor; alkylamine salt; 65o C; 1,000psi

%Vol.

20.00
18.00

Elastomer A

16.00

Elastomer B

14.00
12.00
10.00
8.00

New
development

6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
0

10

20
Time (hours)

30

40
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Explosive decompression tests


Mixture of gas 90%CH4 and 10% CO2
ED Testing Details according to Norsok M-CR-710 guideline
Average
Formulation Soak
Volume Hardness
time Pressure Depres rate Temp
Crack
Change change
(days) (Psi)
( psi/min)

Length
Elastomer A
3
1900
240
70
20.93
-1
4.3
Elastomer B
3
1900
240
70
7.35
-3
4.4

Elastomer A

Elastomer B

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Swelling by elastomer family


3 day test, 100o C, 1,000 psi
Clear Frac

Viton

Volume Change (%)


Mass Change (%)
Hardness Change (Shore A)

1.63
0.63

24.22
15.40

1.94
0.34

7.09
3.48

-1

-15

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HNBR A Elastomer B HNBR B

Clear Frac characteristics:


API: 41.8
aromatic content: 3.2%

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Field trials: Huila- Colombia


Problem
reduced life: less than 6 months.
high torque (seized rotors) after shut down
ED presence

operational conditions
API gravity: 21, water cut 15%
CO2: not determined
GOR: above 200 scf/bbl
BHT: 48o C, BHP: 1500 psi.

change to elastomer B, Model: 22-1500


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Field trials: Huila- Colombia


increased run from 180 days to 488 days
ED problems minimized

Elastomer A: 6 months

Elastomer B: 15 months
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Pengrowth Enchant - Canada


problem:
Inability to restart after shutdown
Rotor resizing several times a year (money $$$$)

operational conditions:
API gravity: 26.2, water cut 98%
CO2: 22% molar, H2S: 0.7%
GOR: 200 m3/m3 BHT: 30o C BHP: 100 psi.

change to elastomer B
pump model: 47-1500
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Pengrowth Enchant- Canada


1st pump: 9 1/2months
no torque problems
pump showed subsurface cracking at surface.
Discharge

2 more pumps with 360+ days run and no rotor


change
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Summary
PC pump elastomer limiting factor in AOA
swelling and ED are the main problem
elastomer can be engineered for AOA
fit for purpose elastomer:
simplify pump application process
improves performance
expands application range

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Questions????

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