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The differences between IS0 10628 ISO/IEC 14617 and ANSI/ISA 5.1 2009 and the implications to neutral data exchange between P&ID’s as to the use of ISO 15926. (First Draft still under construction)

From Hindrik Koning Date 20-03-2014 To Fiatech PCA Proteus 2 To Fiatech PCA Instrumentation & Control SIG. To USPI team To ISO SC184/WG3ST General

Summary

In view of the development of ISO 15926 on the neutral data exchange it is in general strongly advised to reduce the number of all possible standards supported, as inter- operatability requires a unreasonable amount of work at the first time but even more as the standards comes in the five years review and update period. This is specially applicable to the standards referring to the indication of control and instrumentation on P&ID’s as some of the functional codes cannot be mapped two ways in all the different engineering phases. Also many other items are troublesome to maintain, all reasons to look into it.

The “recent version” of the ISO 10628 / IEC 14617 and the reconfirmation of the ANSI/ISA 5.1 in 2009(from ANSI/ISA-5.1-1984) on the indication of Instrumentation on P&ID’s made a comparison and positioning of the two documents to the two represented P&ID worlds worthwhile, we also will briefly touch VGB work (European power industry) and we briefly will touch the VGB work as we know it of the KKS, we will exclude the KKS way of designation in this first attempt to master the subject.

The ISO went even more and more over to a rather pure functional engineering method and functional recording of it on the P&ID. At the same time we conclude the ANSI/ISA has more materialized or single function oriented way of engineering and the recording thereof. This results in the following picture

ISO: FIRC

ISA: FT-FI-FR-FC

The translation seem easy but as there are no stringent rules to make the letter combinations

(we humans also like to test others with there own inventions)

This positions of ISO is in conceptual engineering / FEED and the ISAdetail engineering as in the EPC work.(For basic engineering both can be used to the rules of EPC and principal. In the past the rules for instrument identification where not to thight, a rule based transition between the two system was not possible.

A designation system standard specifies how to name an object in the plant, and how to refer to it with relative names on printed documentation like diagrams and data listings. Power plant designation system standards like KKS [27] later RDS PP and IEC 61346 [13] provide three major aspects:

There is no need to use them all three in full blown together

1) Function aspect – the function and functional organization of a modeled system 2) Location aspect – the physical locations of subsystems and components 3) Product aspect – the assembly structure of the system implementation.

This document will in his first appearance only deal with the Functional aspect as indicated in the upper part of the balloons on P&ID’s

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The differences between IS0 10628 ISO/IEC 14617 and ANSI/ISA 5.1 2009 and the implications to neutral
 

Table of content.

   

1.

Introduction

  • 1.0 Contents and Function of the P&ID

  • 1.1 ISA way of working

 

1.2 ISO way of working

 
  • 1.3 VGB (KKS) and the Power Industry way of working

The letter codes (identification) annotation , the Symbols for instruments on P&ID’s Identification and Reference Designation

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2.2

Conclusion to Identification Characters/Letters

2.2.2,The application of the ISO 10628 and ISO 14617 for instrument symbols

2.2.1.The application of the ANSI/ISA 5.1 2009.

Rule based engineering from functional engineering as in ISO to materialized engineering more developed in ANSI/ISA 5.1

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3.1.The conventional Instrumentation Analog (pneumatic electronic) Digital

3.2.

DCS Shared Displays/ Shared Control

3.3.Systems with (mainly) Field busses. 3.4.No additional effect of Wireless transmission to the designation

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Conversion of functional Diagrams to Materialized Diagrams Explanation

  • 4.1. Functional and Physical Objects - the big picture(Hans Teijgeler)

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Plant break down structures and equipment designations.

5.0.A few lines from the OGI Pilot Demo

  • 5.1 Standard equipment breakdown structure and coding forcomponents

  • 5.2 Technical information about the KKS (RDS-PP )power plant classification system

  • 6. Harmonization work of VBG to ISO Reference Designation System for Power Plants RDS-

PP

  • 7. Documentation of the design

 

7.0

7.0

Document Management ISA and ISO

7.1.

7.1.

Documentation

Documentation

Specific ISA

7.1. Documentation Specific ISA Comment [h1]:

Comment [h1]:

  • 7.2 Documentation ISO/IEC

 

Comment [h2]:

  • 7.3 Documentation Power Industry

 

Annex 1 The symbols as per ISO 10628, ANSI-ISA 5.1 and ISA

Annex 1.1 The ISO 60617 ISO 14617 all symbols Annex 1.2 The ISA recognizes different types of performers of the functions to be executed, to location and systems Annex 1.3 Powergeneration to VGB and KKS or RDSPP Annex1.4 Review of Standards Henrik Johansen

 

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1 Introduction

A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is a diagram in the process industry which shows the piping of the process flow together with the installed Process equipment, piping (and components) and instrumentation.

1.0 Contents and Function of the P&ID

1 Introduction A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing ( P&ID ) is a diagram in the <aprocess industry which shows the piping of the process flow together with the installed Process equipment, piping (and components) and instrumentation. 1.0 Contents and Function of the P&ID An example of a P&ID .to ISA mainly I&C is indicated For processing facilities, it is a pictorial representation of • Key piping and instrument details • Control and shutdown schemes • Safety and regulatory requirements • Basic start up and operational information List of P&ID itemsInstrumentation and designations • Mechanical equipment with names and numbers • All valves and their identifications • Process piping, sizes and identification • Miscellanea - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers and • swaggers • Permanent start-up and flush lines Flow directions • Interconnections references • Control inputs and outputs, interlocks • Interfaces for class changes • Computer control system input • Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others For all systems (methods of generating P&ID’s) to be discussed we have the functional indication in the upper part of the baloon. The lower pa rt will give a designation, sequence number, a break down oriented number or multi coded as , functional, product, location (KKS). 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-14" src="pdf-obj-2-14.jpg">

An example of a P&ID.to ISA mainly I&C is indicated

For processing facilities, it is a pictorial representation of

Key piping and instrument details

Control and shutdown schemes

Basic start up and operational information

List of P&ID itemsInstrumentation and designations

Mechanical equipment with names and numbers

All valves and their identifications

Process piping, sizes and identification

Miscellanea - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers and

swaggers

Permanent start-up and flush lines Flow directions

Interconnections references

Control inputs and outputs, interlocks

Interfaces for class changes

Computer control system input

Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others

For all systems (methods of generating P&ID’s) to be discussed we have the functional indication in the upper part of the baloon. The lower part will give a designation, sequence number, a break down oriented number or multi coded as , functional, product, location (KKS).

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1 Introduction A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing ( P&ID ) is a diagram in the <aprocess industry which shows the piping of the process flow together with the installed Process equipment, piping (and components) and instrumentation. 1.0 Contents and Function of the P&ID An example of a P&ID .to ISA mainly I&C is indicated For processing facilities, it is a pictorial representation of • Key piping and instrument details • Control and shutdown schemes • Safety and regulatory requirements • Basic start up and operational information List of P&ID itemsInstrumentation and designations • Mechanical equipment with names and numbers • All valves and their identifications • Process piping, sizes and identification • Miscellanea - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers and • swaggers • Permanent start-up and flush lines Flow directions • Interconnections references • Control inputs and outputs, interlocks • Interfaces for class changes • Computer control system input • Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others For all systems (methods of generating P&ID’s) to be discussed we have the functional indication in the upper part of the baloon. The lower pa rt will give a designation, sequence number, a break down oriented number or multi coded as , functional, product, location (KKS). 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-123" src="pdf-obj-2-123.jpg">

The functional part is way more uniformed than the designation part, that has a lot of different theoretical and practical backgrounds

  • 1.1 ISA way of working

= A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is defined by the ISA A diagram which shows the interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process. In the process industry, a standard set of symbols is used to prepare drawings of processes. The instrument symbols used in these drawings are generally based on International Society of Automation (ISA) Standard S5. 1.

Not the whole S5.1 standard is applicable on the P&ID, the SAMA diagrams, Signal processing function block symbols, Electrical schematic symbols have nothing to do on the P&ID. The title of ANSI/ISA-5.1-2009 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification is not consistent with the content of the document

  • 1.2 ISO way of working

= The primary schematic drawing used for laying out a process controlinstallation.P&IDs play a significant role in the maintenance and modification of the process that it describes. It is critical to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, as well as how these systems connect. During the design stage, the diagram also provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations, such as a Hazard Analysis and Operability Study commonly pronounced as HAZOP.

The ISO 10628 itself does not contain I&C symbols but refers to IEC 10417 or IEC 60617.

ISO 10628-2:2012 defines graphical symbols for the preparation of diagrams for the chemical and petrochemical industry. It is a collective application standard of the ISO 14617 series

  • 1.3 VGB (KKS) and the Power Industry way of working

Also here the systems (methods of generating P&ID’s) to be discussed we have the

functional indication in the upper part of the baloon.

The lower

part will give a designation, sequence number, a break down oriented number or multi coded

as , functional, product, location (KKS).

The functional part is in line with the others, designation part as in the KKS or RDS is uniform for power plants (same equipment in same place) of course less to Oil & Gas and the process industry.

[1]

ISO 10628:1997, Flow diagrams for process plants — General rules

[2]

IEC 60050-351, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary — Part 351: Control

[3]

technology (IEC 65/324/CDV:2003) IEC 61346-2, Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products —

[4]

Structuring principles and reference designations — Part 2: Classification of objects and codes for classes IEC 81714-3, Design of graphical symbols for use in the technical documentation of

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The functional part is way more uniformed than the designation part, that has a lot ofInternational Society of Automation (ISA) Standard S5. 1. Not the whole S5.1 standard is applicable on the P&ID, the SAMA diagrams, Signal processing function block symbols, Electrical schematic symbols have nothing to do on the P&ID. The title of ANSI/ISA-5.1-2009 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification is not consistent with the content of the document 1.2 ISO way of working = The primary schematic drawing used for laying out a process control i nstallation.P&IDs play a significant role in the maintenance and modification of the process that it describes. It is critical to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, as well as how these systems connect. During the design stage, the diagram also provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations, such as a Hazard Analysis and Operability Study commonly pronounced as HAZOP. The ISO 10628 itself does not contain I&C symbols but refers to IEC 10417 or IEC 60617. ISO 10628-2:2012 defines graphical symbols for the preparation of diagrams for the chemical and petrochemical industry. It is a collective application standard of the ISO 14617 series 1.3 VGB (KKS) and the Power Industry way of working Also here the systems (methods of generating P&ID’s) to be discussed we have the functional indication in the upper part of the baloon. The lower pa rt will give a designation, sequence number, a break down oriented number or multi coded as , functional, product, location (KKS). The functional part is in line with the others, designation part as in the KKS or RDS is uniform for power plants (same equipment in same place) of course less to Oil & Gas and the process industry. [1] ISO 10628:1997 , Flow diagrams for process plants — General rules [2] IEC 60050-351, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary — Part 351: Control [3] technology ( IEC 65/324/CDV:2003 ) IEC 61346-2, Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products — [4] Structuring principles and reference designations — Part 2: Classification of objects and codes for classes IEC 81714-3 , Design of graphical symbols for use in the technical documentation of 4 " id="pdf-obj-3-80" src="pdf-obj-3-80.jpg">

products — Part 3: Classification of connect nodes, networks and their encoding

Below you will find a same type of P&ID to ISO

products — Part 3: Classification of connect nodes, networks and their encoding Below you will findPump with tank pid Below you will find a similar type of P&ID to ISA 5 " id="pdf-obj-4-8" src="pdf-obj-4-8.jpg">

Below you will find a similar type of P&ID to ISA

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products — Part 3: Classification of connect nodes, networks and their encoding Below you will findPump with tank pid Below you will find a similar type of P&ID to ISA 5 " id="pdf-obj-4-14" src="pdf-obj-4-14.jpg">
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2The letter codes (identification) annotation, the Symbols for instruments on P&ID’sIdentification and Reference Designation

Based on Standard ANSI/ISA S5.1 and ISO 14617-6, the P&ID is used for the identifi-cation of
Based on Standard ANSI/ISA S5.1 and ISO 14617-6, the P&ID is used for the identifi-cation
of measurements within the process. The identifications consist of up to 5 letters. The first
identification letter is for the measured value, the second is a modifier, 3rd indicates
passive/readout function, 4th - active/output function, and the 5th is the function modifier.
Column 3
Column 4
Column 5
Column 2
Letter
Column 1 (Measured
value)
(Readout/Passive
(Output/active
(Function
(Modifier)
function)
function)
modifier)
A
Analysis
Alarm
B
Burner, combustion
User choice
User choice
User choice
C
User's choice (usually
conductivity)
Control
Close
D
User's choice (usually
density)
Difference
Deviation
E
Voltage
Sensor
F
Flow rate
Ratio
G
User's choice (usually
gaging/gauging)
Gas
Glass/gauge/viewing
H
Hand
High
I
Current
Indicate
J
Power
Scan
K
Time, time schedule
Time rate of
change
Control station
L
Level
Light
Low
Middle /
M User's choice
intermediate
N
User's choice (usually
torque)
User choice
User choice
User choice
O
User's choice
Orifice
Open
P
Pressure
Point/test connection

Q

R

S

T

U

Quantity Totalize/integrate Totalize/integrate

Radiation Speed, frequency Safety Temperature Multivariable

Record

Multifunction

  • V Vibration, mechanical analysis Weight, force

W

X

User's choice (usually X-axis on-off valve as XV)

Y

Event, state,

presence

Y-axis

Well or probe

Accessory devices,

unclassified

Z

Position, dimension Z-axis

Switch

Transmit

Run

Stop

Multifunction

Valve or damper

Unclassified

Auxiliary devices

Actuator, driver or unclassified final control element

Unclassified

ANSI/ISA 5.1 2009.

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2The letter codes (identification) annotation, the Symbols for instruments on P&ID’sIdentification and Reference Designation Based on
2.2 Conclusion to Identification of the Characters/Letters 8
2.2 Conclusion to Identification of the Characters/Letters 8

2.2 Conclusion to Identification of the Characters/Letters

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2.2 Conclusion to Identification of the Characters/Letters 8

In the letter code, the first letter defining the main process variable of the control function as in functional design (conceptual design or initial part of feed), or of the all the equipment parts in the control loop are the same. The second character the variable modifier are almost the same, except that ISO now thus not define the Z for a switch in a Safety Instrumented System ???? a comic’

2.2.1.The application of the ANSI/ISA 5.1 2009.

Feedback of ISA 5.1 applications shows the use of many balloons (one balloon for each applicable function in a loop). The Standard still confirms to a materialized design, rather than

the functional design in ISO 10628 and

ISO 14617
ISO 14617

for instrument symbols

In the letter code, the first letter defining the main process variable of the control function

2.2.2,The application of the ISO 10628 and ISO 14617 for instrument symbols

This standard start purely functional, when all functions are allocated to the P&ID in the one single balloon much of the letter combination identification is making up

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In the letter code, the first letter defining the main process variable of the control function
Chemical industry and Power plants (functional engineering) In the two examples below we compare the functional

Chemical industry and Power plants (functional engineering) In the two examples below we compare the functional codes as in the upper part of the baloons for a chemical plant and the same for power plants and we see this part is functional exact the same (Temperature measurement, indication, control and recording)

The number part (designation) in chemical industry The number part is different as 401 could read area 4 and sequence nr 01 in the chemical plant.

Chemical industry and Power plants (functional engineering) In the two examples below we compare the functional

Functional engineering and functional coding The characters in the bottom part of the balloon in the Kraftwerk (powerplant) example is of different nature, it gives the function of the unit it belongs to LAC35 and gets sequence BT001 in “all” the power plants.So not the function code of the control loop but of a set off equipment it belongs to

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Chemical industry and Power plants (functional engineering) In the two examples below we compare the functional
note PIC and P result in a double code =LAC35BP001 is a KKSCode 11

note PIC and P result in a double code

=LAC35BP001 is a KKSCode

note PIC and P result in a double code =LAC35BP001 is a KKSCode 11

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note PIC and P result in a double code =LAC35BP001 is a KKSCode 11

3 Rule based engineering from functional engineering as in ISO or DIN to materialized engineering more developed in ANSI/ISA 5.1

Below we see examples from the ISO DIN mechanisms standard and alternatives, The use of +and – for high and low is in the frame we live not required, this tipe of information is copied to many other applications, we should not use all different alternatives.

3 Rule based engineering from functional engineering as in ISO or DIN to materialized engineering more
3 Rule based engineering from functional engineering as in ISO or DIN to materialized engineering more

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3 Rule based engineering from functional engineering as in ISO or DIN to materialized engineering more
But we need the other way around when talking from functional engineering to materialized engineering, this

But we need the other way around when talking from functional engineering to materialized engineering, this will be discussed below.

The rule based translation from the functional examples (so we talk only about the function code as in the upper part of the balloon) above (old DIN 19227 ISO 10628 and ISO 10417 ??? to the more materialized ANSI/ ISA is doable

In the table next page below we see a number of letter combinations that are the same as in ISO as ISA.

Our problem is only in ISO’s pure functional notation where different functions of a control diagram/control loop (not a loop diagram) are given in one balloon,

The different functions as we find in a control loop areTransmitter (sensor) alarms switches controllers alarms switches actors, as hardware but functionally speaking we should talk about Transmission, alarming switching controlling alarming and acting or correctingthis will appear in one balloon but for interoperatability reasons we should be able to read it back and forward to other systems, this of course to systems that do basic and detailing engineering by conversion to the components, performers of those functions

The next question is how is the sequence of the functions (in the main) balloon including the question how do we designate the functions to the later added performers. When they will get their own “equipment” type balloon

♥ IEC:2008(E) CONTROL TECHNOLOGY –RULES FOR THE DESIGNATION OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 1 Scope and object This
♥ IEC:2008(E)
CONTROL TECHNOLOGY –RULES FOR THE DESIGNATION OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS
1 Scope and object
This International Standard is applicable to measurement technology. It defines rules for the
unambiguous designation of different types of measuring instruments and of measuring
instrument features with the intention of enabling unambiguous technical communication over
language 62419boundaries.
The scope of this International Standard is
– the adaptation of the designation of measuring instruments and of measuring instrument
features to the state of science by designating them according to the measuring quantity
or the measuring task instead of the unit, and

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But we need the other way around when talking from functional engineering to materialized engineering, this
– the adaptation of the designation of measuring instruments and of measuring instrument features to the
– the adaptation of the designation of measuring instruments and of measuring instrument
features to the terms given in the ISO/IEC Guide 99 (VIM).
..
component in compound terms. This is consistent with the objective of standardization,
It is strongly recommended that “……
measuring instrument” is used as secondary
namely uniformity, especially since the meaning of other secondary components, e.g.
“indicator”, “gauge”, “meter”, is no more descriptive than that of the standard component in
this context. For exceptions see 4.1 and A.2.
The ambiguous secondary component “
...
secondary components “… sensing element”, “
sensor” shall not be used. In its place one of the
...
detector”, “
transformer”, “
...
transducer”,
...
on the task of the functional unit being termed. The definitions for detector (detecting device),
transformer, transducer and transmitter are given in IEC 60050-351.
“… transmitter”, “
...
measuring instrument” or “
...
measuring chain” shall be used, depending

Power plant

ISO/TS 16952-10:2008 contains sector-specific stipulations for structuring principles and reference designation rules on technical products and technical product documentation of power plants.

It applies in combination with ISO/TS 16952-1, IEC/PAS 62400 and VGB B 101 for the classification of systems and objects, and for function-, product- and location-specific designation of technical products and their documentation for power plants.

It specifies the designation blocks for the clear identification and localization of the technical products, which are used for their labeling in the plant, for their designation in technical documents and for the designation of the technical documents as well.

3.1. The conventional Instrumentation Analog (pneumatic electronic) Digital

Also in the past we could expect a lot of alarms, alarm inflation was something to recognized and managed

– the adaptation of the designation of measuring instruments and of measuring instrument features to the

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– the adaptation of the designation of measuring instruments and of measuring instrument features to the
15
15
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3.2. DCSShared Displays/ Shared Control

Some instruments are part of a Distributed Control System (DCS) where a specific controller or indicator can be selected from many others but shown in one location (like a terminal screen)

In the control room in the plant not accessible

3.2. DCSShared Displays/ Shared Control Some instruments are part of a Distributed Control System (DCS) where
3.2. DCSShared Displays/ Shared Control Some instruments are part of a Distributed Control System (DCS) where

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3.2. DCSShared Displays/ Shared Control Some instruments are part of a Distributed Control System (DCS) where

3.3. Systems with (mainly) Fieldbusses.

Parallel with the introduction of the field bus the associated “smart” transmitters. Nothing special, but this type of electronics opens also the way to numerous alarms of different types, transmitted to the operation stations in a central control room.

3.3. Systems with (mainly) Fieldbusses. Parallel with the introduction of the field bus the associated “smart”

The detailed Functional Control Diagram shows an increase of the functions

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3.3. Systems with (mainly) Fieldbusses. Parallel with the introduction of the field bus the associated “smart”
The picture below gives an impression on the number of alarms 18

The picture below gives an impression on the number of alarms

The picture below gives an impression on the number of alarms 18

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The picture below gives an impression on the number of alarms 18
19

19

19
20
20

20

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3.4. No additional effect of Wireless transmission to thedesignation

3.4. No additional effect of Wireless transmission to thedesignation The functional designation and the materialized designation

The functional designation and the materialized designation (the things you can kick are not affected by the use of wireless transmission

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3.4. No additional effect of Wireless transmission to thedesignation The functional designation and the materialized designation
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4 Conversion of functional Diagrams to Materialized Diagrams Explanation

Functional Unit

Technical Solution

(the "design")

(the "hardware")

4.1. Functional and Physical Objects - the big picture Hans Teijgeler / latest revision on 20 April 2013

4 Conversion of functional Diagrams to Materialized Diagrams Explanation - = <a href=ClassOfFunctionalObject Functional Unit - = ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject Technical Solution (the "design") (the "hardware") 4.1. Functional and Physical Objects - the big picture Hans Teijgeler / latest revision on 20 April 2013 July 2010, rev. 18 Nov. 2010, rev. 22 Dec. 2010, rev. 11 Feb. 2011, rev. 10 May 2012 Introduction The activities around the implementation of ISO 15926 are, for the most, bottom-up, which is good for a quick deployment. This document tries to sketch a scenario for true lifecycle information management on the basis of ISO 15926. The design of a plant is, in principle, not different from the design of a car or airplane. Just the number of copies is different. Where a car design is used to produce up to millions of such a car, a plant design usually (not always) results in one plant. Sometimes multiple plants or parts thereof are built according a plant design (e.g. in cases of parallel "trains", and in cases the design of a process licensor is being used). The objects handled in the design process are classes, resulting in a car class (e.g. Mercedes 300SEL) or airplane class (e.g. Boeing 747), with numerous variant classes, due to customer requirements. All components of such a design are classes as well. Process design The design of a plant starts with process design. In essence this is ClassOfActivity - centric, with instances of ClassOfStream as input and output, and instances of ClassOfFunctionalObject as the participants whose function, once materialized, it is to execute the activity to the stream(s). *) Not a Part 2 entity type, shall be in the RDL as a subclass of ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject. This functional process design results in documents like a PFD (Process Flow Diagram) and Heat and Material Balances. Derived from that the "Process Conditions" for equipment, piping, and instrumentation are produced. Functional and Plant Design Although disputed by some, the concept of the so-called Hamburger Model , designed by WimGielingh et al in 1988, explains this: 23 " id="pdf-obj-22-20" src="pdf-obj-22-20.jpg">

July 2010, rev. 18 Nov. 2010,

rev. 22 Dec. 2010, rev. 11 Feb. 2011, rev. 10 May 2012

Introduction

The activities around the implementation of ISO 15926 are, for the most, bottom-up, which is good for a quick deployment. This document tries to sketch a scenario for true lifecycle information management on the basis of ISO 15926.

The design of a plant is, in principle, not different from the design of a car or airplane. Just the number of copies is different. Where a car design is used to produce up to millions of such a car, a plant design usually (not always) results in one plant. Sometimes multiple plants or parts thereof are built according a plant design (e.g. in cases of parallel "trains", and in cases the design of a process licensor is being used).

The objects handled in the design process are classes, resulting in a car class (e.g. Mercedes 300SEL) or airplane class (e.g. Boeing 747), with numerous variant classes, due to customer requirements.

All components of such a design are classes as well.

Process design

The design of a plant starts with process design. In essence this is ClassOfActivity-centric, with instances of ClassOfStream *) as input and output, and instances of ClassOfFunctionalObject as the participants whose function, once materialized, it is to execute the activity to the stream(s).

*) Not a Part 2 entity type, shall be in the RDL as a subclass of ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject.

This functional process design results in documents like a PFD (Process Flow Diagram) and Heat and Material Balances. Derived from that the "Process Conditions" for equipment, piping, and instrumentation are produced.

Functional and Plant Design

Although disputed by some, the concept of the so-called Hamburger Model, designed by WimGielingh et al in 1988, explains this:

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4 Conversion of functional Diagrams to Materialized Diagrams Explanation - = <a href=ClassOfFunctionalObject Functional Unit - = ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject Technical Solution (the "design") (the "hardware") 4.1. Functional and Physical Objects - the big picture Hans Teijgeler / latest revision on 20 April 2013 July 2010, rev. 18 Nov. 2010, rev. 22 Dec. 2010, rev. 11 Feb. 2011, rev. 10 May 2012 Introduction The activities around the implementation of ISO 15926 are, for the most, bottom-up, which is good for a quick deployment. This document tries to sketch a scenario for true lifecycle information management on the basis of ISO 15926. The design of a plant is, in principle, not different from the design of a car or airplane. Just the number of copies is different. Where a car design is used to produce up to millions of such a car, a plant design usually (not always) results in one plant. Sometimes multiple plants or parts thereof are built according a plant design (e.g. in cases of parallel "trains", and in cases the design of a process licensor is being used). The objects handled in the design process are classes, resulting in a car class (e.g. Mercedes 300SEL) or airplane class (e.g. Boeing 747), with numerous variant classes, due to customer requirements. All components of such a design are classes as well. Process design The design of a plant starts with process design. In essence this is ClassOfActivity - centric, with instances of ClassOfStream as input and output, and instances of ClassOfFunctionalObject as the participants whose function, once materialized, it is to execute the activity to the stream(s). *) Not a Part 2 entity type, shall be in the RDL as a subclass of ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject. This functional process design results in documents like a PFD (Process Flow Diagram) and Heat and Material Balances. Derived from that the "Process Conditions" for equipment, piping, and instrumentation are produced. Functional and Plant Design Although disputed by some, the concept of the so-called Hamburger Model , designed by WimGielingh et al in 1988, explains this: 23 " id="pdf-obj-22-60" src="pdf-obj-22-60.jpg">
Hamburger Model This can be applied at all composition levels, from the entire plant down toClassOfFunctionalObject Functional Unit - = ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject Technical Solution (the "design") (the "hardware") You’re pretty close to understanding the concept. Now the engineering groups (Process, Mechanical, Control Systems, Electrical, and Piping) translate this process design into P&IDs (Piping and Instrument Diagrams) and specifications for all plant items. If you look at the specification/data sheet for P101, you see things like: • service description (what does it do in the context of the plant?) • functional requirements, for process equipment often expressed in term of process • conditions physical requirements, such as materials, pressure and temperature ratings, corrosion • allowances, etc protection against hazards (weather, explosion, fire, human exposure, etc) • connections (process, electrical) • testing requirements • references to other documents and standards • etc All of them are criteria for membership of the class P101. Most of these requirements are based on the place and role that P101 has in the plant design. If the process design and/or plant design changes, we may need a different P101 class, with its definition recorded in a revised specification/data sheet. 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-2" src="pdf-obj-23-2.jpg">

Hamburger Model

This can be applied at all composition levels, from the entire plant down to components.

If you read:

Functional Unit

Technical Solution

(the "design")

(the "hardware")

You’re pretty close to understanding the concept.

Now the engineering groups (Process, Mechanical, Control Systems, Electrical, and Piping) translate this process design into P&IDs (Piping and Instrument Diagrams) and specifications for all plant items.

If you look at the specification/data sheet for P101, you see things like:

service description (what does it do in the context of the plant?)

functional requirements, for process equipment often expressed in term of process

conditions physical requirements, such as materials, pressure and temperature ratings, corrosion

allowances, etc protection against hazards (weather, explosion, fire, human exposure, etc)

connections (process, electrical)

testing requirements

references to other documents and standards

etc

All of them are criteria for membership of the class P101.

Most of these requirements are based on the place and role that P101 has in the plant design. If the process design and/or plant design changes, we may need a different P101 class, with its definition recorded in a revised specification/data sheet.

24

Hamburger Model This can be applied at all composition levels, from the entire plant down toClassOfFunctionalObject Functional Unit - = ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject Technical Solution (the "design") (the "hardware") You’re pretty close to understanding the concept. Now the engineering groups (Process, Mechanical, Control Systems, Electrical, and Piping) translate this process design into P&IDs (Piping and Instrument Diagrams) and specifications for all plant items. If you look at the specification/data sheet for P101, you see things like: • service description (what does it do in the context of the plant?) • functional requirements, for process equipment often expressed in term of process • conditions physical requirements, such as materials, pressure and temperature ratings, corrosion • allowances, etc protection against hazards (weather, explosion, fire, human exposure, etc) • connections (process, electrical) • testing requirements • references to other documents and standards • etc All of them are criteria for membership of the class P101. Most of these requirements are based on the place and role that P101 has in the plant design. If the process design and/or plant design changes, we may need a different P101 class, with its definition recorded in a revised specification/data sheet. 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-86" src="pdf-obj-23-86.jpg">

And if a member of the P101 class had already been installed, we may need another pump. If the existing installed pump complies with those new criteria for membership, it can stay in situ, if not we have to obtain and install another PhysicalObject that does comply with the revised P101 class.

Hans Teijgeler / latest revision on 20 April 2013

Detailed Engineering & Plant Design

In this phase of the project the requirements, as defined by the Process Engineers, are the basis of so-called Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). These schematic diagrams depict the required networks of piping and instrumentation of the plant to be built. The equipment and instrumentation items, shown with symbols, are interconnected.

Next the technical disciplines work on their detailed engineering, such as:

Electrical One-line Diagrams for power generation and distribution Logic Diagams Instrument Loop Diagrams P&IDs for equipment auxiliary systems (e.g. lube and seal oil systems) the Piping Group starts building their 3D models, thereby detailing the geometry of the plant and the piping connections. In this phase of the project we need to be able to generate and collect data about all these things, but there is nothing tangible yet. We deal here with what ISO 15926 calls "FunctionalPhysicalObject"s. SAP calls them Function Places. The definition in ISO 15926- 2 for them is:

"A FunctionalPhysicalObject is a PhysicalObject that has functional, rather than material, continuity as its basis for identity".

Functional physical objects ("FPO") often get a tag number, or equipment number, or line number, but by far not all FPOs get one (e.g. an elbow in a (pipe)line normally doesn't get one, unless we need to store information that is specifically about that elbow, such as a material certificate).

As can be seen on above diagram, a particular FPO is a member of a ClassOfFunctionalObject. The latter is a very generic class, such as PUMP FUNCTION. The definition of ClassOfFunctionalObject is:

"A ClassOfFunctionalObject is a ClassOfArrangedIndividual that indicates the function or purpose of an object."

EXAMPLE Pump, valve, and car are examples of ClassOfFunctionalObject. Particular models of pump, valve, car, etc are instances of ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject that are specializations of these instances of ClassOfFunctionalObject.

The role of Specification ("data sheet')

Let us focus now on our proverbial pump P-101. Its story is typical for most equipment and other hardware.

The Mechanical Engineers write a Pump Specification, based on a set of process data that has been derived from the process design done by the Process Engineers. That specification also covers all sorts of requirements by the authorities and the future plant owner (e.g. required overcapacity). A specification is the definition of a ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject of which the particular FPO is a member.

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And if a member of the P101 class had already been installed, we may need anotherFunctional Physical Object vs. Materialized Physical Object Hans Teijgeler / latest revision on 20 April 2013 Detailed Engineering & Plant Design In this phase of the project the requirements, as defined by the Process Engineers, are the basis of so-called Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). These schematic diagrams depict the required networks of piping and instrumentation of the plant to be built. The equipment and instrumentation items, shown with symbols, are interconnected. Next the technical disciplines work on their detailed engineering, such as: Electrical One-line Diagrams for power generation and distribution Logic Diagams Instrument Loop Diagrams P&IDs for equipment auxiliary systems (e.g. lube and seal oil systems) the Piping Group starts building their 3D models, thereby detailing the geometry of the plant and the piping connections. In this phase of the project we need to be able to generate and collect data about all these things, but there is nothing tangible yet. We deal here with what ISO 15926 calls "FunctionalPhysicalObject"s. SAP calls them Function Places. The definition in ISO 15926- 2 for them is: • • • • • "A FunctionalPhysicalObject is a PhysicalObject that has functional, rather than material, continuity as its basis for identity". Functional physical objects ("FPO") often get a tag number, or equipment number, or line number, but by far not all FPOs get one (e.g. an elbow in a (pipe)line normally doesn't get one, unless we need to store information that is specifically about that elbow, such as a material certificate). As can be seen on above diagram, a particular FPO is a member of a ClassOfFunctionalObject. The latter is a very generic class, such as PUMP FUNCTION. The definition of ClassOfFunctionalObject is: "A ClassOfFunctionalObject is a ClassOfArrangedIndividual that indicates the function or purpose of an object." EXAMPLE Pump, valve, and car are examples of ClassOfFunctionalObject. Particular models of pump, valve, car, etc are instances of ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject that are specializations of these instances of ClassOfFunctionalObject. The role of Specification ("data sheet') Let us focus now on our proverbial pump P-101. Its story is typical for most equipment and other hardware. The Mechanical Engineers write a Pump Specification, based on a set of process data that has been derived from the process design done by the Process Engineers. That specification also covers all sorts of requirements by the authorities and the future plant owner (e.g. required overcapacity). A specification is the definition of a ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject of which the particular FPO is a member. 25 " id="pdf-obj-24-46" src="pdf-obj-24-46.jpg">

Because that FPO is already a member of the instance of ClassOfFunctionalObject "PUMP FUNCTION", the above ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject shall be a subclass of "PUMP FUNCTION".

A specification is sent to, say, three suppliers with a request for quotation (see below). It details all requirements for the piece of hardware that we want to buy.

The role of the P&ID

The pump symbol by itself does not reveal much news. It is the place and function of that pump in the context of the plant network that tells what the role of that pump really is.

The fact that a P&ID (co-)defines a ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject is because you can build more than one plant from the same P&ID. Think about parallel trains in a plant, or about P&IDs of process licensors.

Having said that, nothing stops a software supplier to generate FPOs on the basis of the P&ID. That is very useful when defining the connectivity of all FPOs. Manually that is undoable, and certainly not maintainable.

Procurement
Procurement

The yellow part of above diagram deals with the physical world. Suppliers can specify their instances of ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject as entries in their catalogs. Next to that they have other documentation that relates to these classes.

A task of the Procurement group, together with the related technical disciplines, is to make a selection of the offered goods (and services), by comparing them with the requirements as set forth for the FPOs. That is not always easy and certainly hard to automate.

But once the decision has been made that, in this case, the offered pump meets those requirements, and then this can be put on record by creating a ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject that is a class-of-temporal-part of the offered ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject AND of the requirements ClassOfInanimatePhysicalObject. This is in fact a class of function place.

This should be done not only for the successful bidder, but also for any other bidder, if so applicable. By doing so it will be easy to find an alternative in case of problems with the successful bidder/supplier.

26

Because that FPO is already a member of the instance of ClassOfFunctionalObject "PUMP FUNCTION", the above

5 Plant break down structures and equipment designations.

A purely logicalreasoningis a Standard equipment breakdown structure is equal equipment designations.

5.0. A few lines from the OGI Pilot Demo

TCTJL's role as the lead EPC for the Downstream OGI Pilot, involves developing and managing the Intelligent P&ID’s(SP PID) and associated Engineering reference data set

(Equipment, Valve, Instrument lists, Line

Designation
Designation

Table and P&ID Legend & Symbol

drawings etc.) making the data available in XML format utilizing the new SmartPlant PID ISO

15926 Export utility released by Intergraph in April 2012.

Watching the demo you will see a P&ID go from three organizations, representing 3 EPC

contractors, get bent and spindled in the middle, and finally to an IBM application that does -- something(?) Here we will show you where the information ends up and why this is revolutionary AVEVA many P&ID vendors participating. "Shows how interoperable we all are" AVEVA acting as second EPC. This is like a project with multiple contractors. Multiple formats of P&ID but what we want all the data to end up in the proper place. Proteus based on XMpLant 3.3.3. Part of Fiatech project years ago Bentley part. Bentley provided the same information as from INGR and AVEVA, but in a different format. Comes in two parts. Part 8 OWL and ecXML.

UniSA

OWL. items, identifiers, properties, equipment types,

breakdown structure.

ecXML. topology, piping connections, flow direction, geometry.

It seems this subject requires more thoughts as it is one of the carriers of ISO 15926

5.1 Standard equipment breakdown structure and coding forcomponents

EPRI has developed a standard equipment breakdown structure and coding forcomponents in combustion turbine or combined-cycle generation units. This standardized listing and accompanying diskette can be used for indexing equipment history files, as a basis for a more detailed equipment capitalization, or to facilitate information sharing on equipment reliability problems. Overall, this EPRI project establishes the basis for accurately monitoring the availability and reliability of combined-cycle plants at all equipment levels.

Background

Across the electric power generation industry, there exist multiple sets of gas turbine equipment breakdown structures and codes. These codes, however, are either manufacturer specific (no generic) or have insufficient structural detail to meet many utility needs. For example, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission furnishes a list of equipment that can be capitalized in terms of taxes, but it lists only major components. In another example, there seems to be no consistency in the way equipment is defined for indexing plant maintenance history files, thus making it difficult to share experiences from plant to plant. The purpose of this EPRI research, therefore, was to devise a standard equipment breakdown structure and coding with sufficient detail to meet such needs and to form the basis for a standard.

Objective

To develop and publish a standard equipment breakdown structure and coding for gas

turbine and combined-cycle generation equipment.

Approach

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5 Plant break down structures and equipment designations. A purely logicalreasoning is a Standard equipment breakdown

The project team was comprised of gas turbine design specialists as well as senior gas turbine and combined-cycle plant operations and maintenance management personnel. The team determined that a standard equipment breakdown structure and coding should feature the following characteristics: (1) sufficient but not excessive detail to meet utility plant needs; (2) generic information that covers all manufacturers' equipment; (3) a hierarchical design with respect to equipment function to facilitate reliability analysis and reporting; and (4) rationalized information with respect to other equipment coding systems such as the European coding standard--Power Plant Designation System (KKS). Major equipment manufacturers reviewed the coding structure and nomenclature to ensure completeness and accuracy.

Results

EPRI's standard equipment breakdown structure and coding provides an approach for accurately monitoring the impact of a component failure, maintenance action, or repair and replacement strategy on plant availability. This listing also provides a basis for accumulating historical operational and failure information that can be used to assess equipment problems from a reliability, availability, and maintainability perspective. The standard equipment breakdown structure and coding has been adopted by the Operational Reliability Analysis Program (ORAP), which is an industry wide reliability database on gas turbine and combined-cycle equipment. Over the past year, Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (AML&P) and Florida Power and Light (FP&L) have used the

structure and coding for reporting gas turbine and combined-cycle reliability data. AML&P used the listing as a basis for a more detailed capitalization of its gas turbine equipment and documented increased income of $1.8 million, in part, due to the new coding (EPRI Innovator IN-103307). FP&L used the structure and coding to index its plant maintenance history files. Two manufacturers have adopted the coding internally for describing their own equipment breakdown structures.

EPRI Perspective

EPRI has developed an equipment breakdown structure and coding to standardize and facilitate data collection and reporting. The hierarchical structure is flexible, allowing for changes such as new emissions controls and more complex combined-cycle power plants. In all, the listing provides a uniform, consistent organization of outage and maintenance events reported directly by users of the various equipment. The primary objective is to help power

plant personnel accurately attribute frequency of events, event durations, and corrective actions to specific plant components. Tests have shown that the standard equipment breakdown structure and coding is effective and easy to use. EPRI recommends its application throughout the industry to improve plant-to-plant and utility-manufacturer communications. Establishing the equipment breakdown structure and coding as an industry wide standard is a key goal.

5.2 Technical information about the KKS power plant classification system

The KKS power plant classification system is a system for identifying plants, systems, subsystems, equipment items, electrical and I&C cabinets, and buildings and rooms, depending on viewpoints of the plant operating companies. Application of the KKS classification system is specified and prescribed by the guidelines of VGB PowerTeche.V.

Note:

Not only the KKS power plant classification system can do so but any coherent system will do for Oil Gas and the Process Industry, as the content (all the troublesome work) of the more uniform Power Industry is not to be copied

A designation according to the KKS classification system comprises a 15 to 17-character combination of letters and numerals. The letters are usually used for classification of the systems and units. The numerals are usually used for numbering.

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The project team was comprised of gas turbine design specialists as well as senior gas turbine
The KKS makes a distinction between 3 types of designation: • Process-related designation for identifying systems

The KKS makes a distinction between 3 types of designation:

Process-related designation for identifying systems and equipment items in the power plant process

Point of installation designation for identifying points and positions of installation within electrical engineering and I&C engineering systems

Location designation for identifying structures (buildings) and rooms

The KKS makes a distinction between 3 types of designation: • Process-related designation for identifying systems

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The KKS designation has an invariable structure based on breakdown levels. The level of detail of

The KKS designation has an invariable structure based on breakdown levels. The level of detail of the designation increases from left to right. The structure of the breakdown levels is alphanumeric. In the explanation below, A stands for letters and N for numerals. A blank is inserted between the breakdown levels. In the point of installation designation, the breakdown symbol "." (period) is inserted between breakdown levels 1 and 2.

The KKS designation has an invariable structure based on breakdown levels. The level of detail of

Breakdown level 0 - Overall plant

The first breakdown level refers to the overall plant and merely numbers it. It consists of a numeral and a letter. This identifies the generating unit

Breakdown level 1 – Function or system designation

The second breakdown level denotes functions, systems, or subsystems of a generating unit. It consists of 3 letters and 2 numerals with an optional leading numeral. The letters are defined according to a function key for the systems in generating units. The first letter (from the left) denotes the main systems (so-called main groups), the following letters then denote the further subdivision into subgroups. The two numerals that follow are counters and are referred to as F N numbering.

Breakdown level 2 – Equipment unit designation

The third breakdown level refers to an equipment unit in the subgroup. It consists of 2 letters and 3 numerals. The letters are assigned according to a defined equipment unit key for power plants. The first letter denotes a group of equipment units; the following letter then denotes the further subdivision into subgroups. The numerals that follow are counters for numbering.

Breakdown level 3 - Component / signal designation

The fourth breakdown level denotes an equipment item (component) or signal designation in the equipment unit. It consists of 2 letters and 2 numerals. The letters are assigned according to a defined component key. The first letter denotes a group of equipment items; the following letter then denotes the further subdivision into subgroups. The numerals that follow are counters for numbering. In the case of a signal designation, defined assignment is pos sible, e.g. XB01 is the “open” feedback signal of a valve actuator. XB51 is the “not open” feedback signal of the same actuator; XB02 is the "CLOSED" feedback signal and therefore XB52 is the "not CLOSED" feedback signal.

Example of application of the power plant classification system

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31

31

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6. Harmonization work of VBGto ISOReference Designation System for Power Plants RDS-PP

The technical standard is based on the basic principles of international standards and takes into account nearly all the KKS structures. Around 90% of the code letters in the KKS function key were transferred to the new system key. KKS aggregate and equipment key will be replaced in the new reference designation system by a standard in which the code letters are standardized globally for specialist areas and sectors. These code letters do not unfortunately always match the KKS-specifications. There are tools available for comparing RDS-PP to KKS and for performing the required conversion from KKS to RDS-PP. These tools support the transfer of the KKS function key to the RDS-PP system key and from the aggregate and equipment key to the code letters in the international standard. The article depicts the development of the new reference designation system from the pointof view of standardization, describes the main features, mentions offers of support by the VGB “Reference designation and plant documentation” working panel and provides recommendations for future use.

6. Harmonization work of VBGto ISOReference Designation System for Power Plants RDS-PP The technical standard is

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6. Harmonization work of VBGto ISOReference Designation System for Power Plants RDS-PP The technical standard is
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33
33

33

33
34

34

34
35

35

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7. Documentation of the design

7.0. Document Management in ISA and ISO

7.0. Document Management in ISA and ISO ArtrA Document Management System A key requirement for a

ArtrA Document Management System

A key requirement for a 3D Plant Asset Management (PLM) and Asset Lifecycle Management (ALM) system is the ability to link electronic documentation to CAD or BIM models, allowing O&M staff to quickly access and maintain all the information pertaining to the building or facility. ArtrA Librarian is an electronic Document Management System (EDMS) for process plant and Building Information Models (BIMs). Its unique structure allows it to be used in a manner that suits the multiple disciplines and engineering processes that are used during design, construction, installation and commissioning. ArtrA Librarian EDMS has been specifically developed to run with 3D CAD or BIM systems for the efficient handover of project

information.

ArtrA Librarian

Librarian is a complete document management system and provides sophisticated but easy to use tools for managing and linking documents to a model. Librarian uses ArtrA tags and

CAD attributes in 3D process plant & BIMs to create document links with its SQL database.

ArtrA manages documents by their properties (author, date etc.), categories (O&M, installation, isometric, weld report, defects, etc.) and disciplines (piping, instrumentation, architectural, structural, etc.) and is ideally suited to the process planning and AEC document control environment.

7.0. Document Management in ISA and ISO ArtrA Document Management System A key requirement for a

36

7. Documentation of the design 7.0. Document Management in ISA and ISO ArtrA Document Management System
   

Link documents to search results

ArtrA's method of linking documents and information to a model is unique, flexible and efficient. The process is simple; once a document is in the Librarian an interrogative search is

made on the model such as “find all valves on the steam system".

The results are found, listed and identified graphically in the model. Then, a document or group of documents is dragged and dropped from the Librarian onto the results list and automatically linked to the entire results. The next time an O&M person runs a search, or just browses to one of the valves, all the linked documents will be available.

Document search & Tag filtering

 

Librarian provides the tools for advanced search and filtering of documents and tags.

Documents can be found quickly based on title, author, category, publisher, properties, and user-defined filters. Filter Tag views based on property values and attachment status.

Link documents to search results ArtrA's method of linking documents and information to a model is
Link documents to search results ArtrA's method of linking documents and information to a model is

7.1.

7.1.

Documentation

Specific ISA

7.1. Documentation Specific ISA Comment [h3]:

Comment [h3]:

 

Comment [h4]:

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

 

The Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) is the master design document For a process. Using symbols and word descriptions it defines the equipment, piping, instrumentation and indeed, the control system. It is also the key to other documents. For example, instrument tag numbers are shown on a P&ID. The instrument tag number is the key to finding additional information about any specific device on many other documents. The same is true for (pipe)line and equipment numbers. For a P&ID, see Chapter 2, Figure 2-21. Developing P&IDs is a very interactive process. Specialists designing electrical, control systems, vessels, mechanical equipment and piping, and even civil and structural designers for some processes, all provide input into their development. Each specialist group puts information on the drawing in a standardized way, adding details as they become available. Properly used, the P&ID is the primary coordination document for design, the premier training tool for operations and records the history of the process design of any facility.

We will discuss symbols and tag numbers in greater detail in Chapter 2.Briefly, a symbol defines the type of instrument, and the instrument tag number identifies the device. An instrument tag number consists of a few letters that describe the function of the device, plus a combination of anumber and letters that uniquely identify it. There will be more discussionon this later. See Figure I-2 for an example of an instrument that might be shown on aP&ID. The circle shows a field-mounted instrument located on a pipe. The“PG” further describes the device as a pressure indicator or gauge. In thisinstance, sequential numbering is used. Since the gauge is the first ofits type on the P&ID, the instrument number “1” is added. The nextpressure gauge in this numbering system would have the tag number“PG-2”. Some tag numbers are much more complex. See Figure I-3 for a very complex tag number: “10-PDAL-01A-1A1.” The prefixesand suffixes further define the location of the instrument and are used to maintain the uniqueness of the loop number.

Instrument List or Index

 

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The Instrument List or Instrument Index is a list of the data related to a Facility’s control system components and, possibly, their functions. Instrument Indexes are organized using the alphanumeric tag numbers of the control system devices. They reference the various documents that contain the information needed to define the total installation. Instrument Indexes are discussed in Chapter 3. The terms list and index are essentially interchangeable. 10 Instrumentation and Control Systems Documentation

The Instrument List or Instrument Index is a list of the data related to a Facility’s
The Instrument List or Instrument Index is a list of the data related to a Facility’s

Figure I-3: Typical Instrument Identification/Tag Number - 10-PDAL-01A-1A1

From ANSI/ISA-5.1-2009

The general term database is also used. It has many definitions in the ISA Dictionary. The most simple is: any body of information. The control systems design group personnel place tag numbers on the P&ID and enter them into the Instrument List or database for tracking. This is done for control purposes because, on a large project, there may be many P&IDs— perhaps one hundred or more—plus thousands of tag-marked devices. Since each device serves a specific function, all devices’ status must be tracked until they are installed during construction, their operation has been verified during commissioning, and the plant has been accepted by the owner. Furthermore, each device must be uniquely tracked so its configuration and measurement or control range are known, and many facilities capture the devices’ maintenance

38

The Instrument List or Instrument Index is a list of the data related to a Facility’s

history as well.

Specification Forms

Specification Forms (or Instrument Data Sheets) define each tag-numbered instrument with sufficient detail that a supplier can quote and eventually furnish the device. For a typical Specification Form, see Chapter 4, Figures 4-4, 4-5 and 4-6. More importantly, the Specification Form retains the critical information needed by control system technicians, such as the manufacturer, model number, range, power requirements and other features needed to define the device for maintenance. After tag numbers are entered on the Instrument Index or List, the control system design group starts a Specification Form for each tag-marked item. Developing these Specification Forms can be a major part of the control system design group’s effort. Specification Forms must be completed to secure bids from suitable suppliers, to purchase the items from the successful bidders, and to generate a permanent record of what was purchased.

Binary Logic Systems

There usually is some on-off or binary or discrete control in a continuous process plant control system. Discrete control is defined in the ISA Dictionary as on-off control. P&ID’s are excellent documents to define continuous control systems. Other methods are needed to define on/off control. ISA-5.1 and Chapter 6 include descriptions of many of these as does ANSI/ISA-5.06.01-2007 Functional Requirements Documentation for Control Software Applications. As the design progresses, the need to define on-off control will become evident. For instance, on a pulp and paper mill project, it may be necessary to isolate a pump discharge to prevent pulp stock from dewatering in the pipe if the pump

is shut down. An on-off valve is added to provide the isolation, but it is necessary

Introduction 11

to document why that device was added and what it is supposed to do. Since

this on-off control may affect many design groups, it is important to define it as early and as accurately as possible.

Loop Diagrams

A Loop Diagram is a schematic representation of a control loop, which in its idealized form is comprised of a sensing element (often called a transmitter), a control component (perhaps part of a shared display, shared control system), and a final control element (usually a control valve or a variable speed drive on a motor). It depicts the process connections, the instrumentation interconnection, connections to the power sources, and the signal transmission methods, whether pneumatic, electronic, digital or a combination thereof. For a typical Loop Diagram see Chapter 7, Figure 7-7. Finally, when all connection details are known and electrical design has progressed to the point that wiring connection points are known, the control systems design group can develop Loop Diagrams. These diagrams show all the information needed to install and check out a loop. Because these diagrams may repeat information that the piping and electrical design teams included on their drawings, it is critically important that the control systems design group coordinates closely with other disciplines.

Installation Details

Installation Details are used to show how the instruments are interconnected and connected to the process. They are also a primary coordination tool between disciplines. The details provide the means used to mount and support

39

history as well. Specification Forms Specification Forms (or Instrument Data Sheets) define each tag-numbered instrument with

the devices and the specific requirements for properly connecting them to the process. Installation Details are discussed in Chapter 8. The control systems design group develops Installation Details based on the specific requirements of the devices it has specified, along with any facility owner-driven requirements. The installation requirements needed for good operation and control are established by the instrument suppliers, by various industry groups and by the owners themselves. These requirements are then documented in the Installation Details. These details may be developed for the project, for the specific site, or possibly by the owner’s corporate entity.

Location Plans

Location Plans are orthographic views of the facility or process area, drawn to

scale, showing the locations of field mounted transmitters and control valves.

7.2 Documentation ISO/IEC (Corrigendum to IEC 61175 edition 2)

A method for presentation of the concatenations of reference designation sets has been introduced in IEC 61082-1 edition 2. This form of presentation have been used, in the same standard, also for concatenation of signal names to a reference designation (see IEC 61082- 1 item 7.1.8 and figure 52). The method was introduced to IEC 61082-1 after IEC 61175 edition 2 was published and therefore the method is not mentioned or used in this standard. The method, described in IEC 61082-1, of presenting concatenation of a signal name to the reference designation of the signal domain shown as a boundary frame in a circuit diagram is recommended to be used. Therefore the reader of this standard shall consider the reference designations shown in relevant figures (see list below) to be written as shown in figure 52 of IEC 61082-1 edition 2. Example: In figure 2b) of this standard shall the reference designation =MA1 be understood as written =MA1; (a semicolon added after the designation). This corrigendum is applicable for the following figures: Figure 2b), Figure 10b), Figure 13, Figure 14, Figure 20, Figure 21 and Figure B.3. This draft corrigendum was prepared but CO did not accept to deal with the changes as a corrigendum. CO instead proposed an amendment, but that has so far not been prepared. Considering that the Maintenance Result Date for IEC 61175 is already 2011, a MCR will be distributed suggesting a complete revision. This plenary meeting has also another issue to consider. The convener for MT 17 will in the beginning of 2011 retire on a pension and therefore a new convener is needed.

Diagrams, such as circuit diagrams and connection diagrams, for example for test circuits, shall be prepared in accordance with IEC 61082-1. Graphical symbols used in schematic diagrams shall be in accordance with IEC 60617 and ISO 14617. Reference designations and signal designations shall be in accordance with IEC 81346 and IEC 61175 respectively.

7.3 Documentation Power Industry

As already explained in the chapters above, the RDS-PP consists of several componentswhich are summed up again below, along with information on their status and the respective reference documents:

DIN 6779-10 Structuring principles for technical products and technical product documentation - Part 10: Power plants - most important national standard, replaces KKS guideline

40

the devices and the specific requirements for properly connecting them to the process. Installation Details are

(Beuth-Verlag) ISO/TS 16952-10 Technical product documentation – Referencedesignation system –Part 10:

Power Plants

  • - most important international standard, replaces KKS guideline,to be published in

Q1/2008(Beuth-Verlag)

DIN ISO/TS 16952-10 Kennzeichnungssystematik für technische Produkte und technischeProduktdokumentation – Teil 10: Kraftwerke

  • - German version of ISO/TS 16952-10to be published in Q1/2008, replaces DIN 6779-

10(Beuth-Verlag)

DIN 6779-2 Structuring principles for technical products and technical product documentation - Part 2: Letter codes - Main classes and subclasses of objects according to their purpose or task(Beuth-Verlag) IEC/PAS 62400: Structuring principles for technical products and technical product documentation - Letter codes - Main classes and subclasses of objects according to their purpose and task(Beuth-Verlag) VGB-B 101 RDS-PP Reference Designation System for Power Plants (system key),English version to be published in November 2007 (VGB PowerTech Service GmbH) VGB-B 116 RDS-PP Reference Designation System for Power Plants, Application explanations,to be published in December 2007 (German version) and April 2008 (English version)(VGB PowerTech Service GmbH) Software-Tool Supplementary information and an efficient way of experiencing the RDS-PP and the interrelations in designation and documentation by selected examples,to be published in April 2008 (VGB PowerTech Service GmbH)

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(Beuth-Verlag) ISO/TS 16952-10 Technical product documentation – Referencedesignation system –Part 10: Power Plants - most important

Annex 1 The symbols as per ISO 10628, ANSI-ISA 5.1 and ISO

Annex 1.1 The ISO 60617 ISO 14617 all symbols

Annex 1 The symbols as per ISO 10628, ANSI-ISA 5.1 and ISO Annex 1.1 The ISO

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Annex 1.2 The ISA recognizes different types of performers of the functions to be executed, to location and systems

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