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EXPERIMENT 2

Adultration in sugar
AIM: To Detect The Presence of Adultration in Sugar.
REQUIREMENTS: Test tubes, Dil. HCl.
PROCEDURE: sugar is usually contaminated with
washing soda and other insoluble substance which are
detected as follows:

Adultration of chalk powder ,washing soda in


sugar.
To small amount of sugar in a test tube, add few drops
of dilute HCl. Briskeffervescence of CO2 shows the
presence of chalk powder of washing soda in the given
sample.

Adultration of various insoluble substance in


sugar.
Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it
with little water. Pure sugar dissolve in water but
insoluble impuries do not dissolve.

EXPERIMENT 3
Adultrations in chilli powder
AIM: To detect the presence of adultration in sample of
chilli.
REQUIREMENTS: Test tube ,dil. HNO3,KI solution.
PROCEDURE: common adultrants present in chilli
powder are red coloured lead salts,brick powder . they
are detected as follows.
Adultration of red lead salts in chilli powder .
To a sample of chilli powder ,add dil HNO3. Filter the
solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate.
Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli
powder .
Adultration of brick powder in red chilli
powder.
Add small amount of red chilli powder in a beaker
Containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom
while the pure chilli floates on the water.
Adultration of oil soluble coal tar colour in
red chilli powder.
Take 2 gms of samples in a test tube, add few ml of
solvent ether and shake .decant ether layer into a test
tube containing 2ml of dil. HCl. Shake it ,the lower acid
layer will be coloured distinctly pink to red indicating
presence of oil soluble colour.

EXPERIMENT 4
ADULTRATION IN TURMERIC
POWDER
AIM: To detect the presence of adultration in samples of
turmeric powder.
REQURIREMENTS: test tube, conc. HCl.
PROCEDURE: common adultrants present in turmeric
powder are Yellow lead salts, chalk powder. They are
detected as follows.

Adultration of yellow lead salts to turmeric


powder.
To a sample of turmeric powder, add conc. HCl.
Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of
yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder.
Adultration of chalk or yellow soap stone
powder to turmeric powder.
Take small amount of turmeric powder in test tube
containing water. Add a few drops of conc . HCl.
Effervescence will indicate presence of chalk or yellow
soap stone.

Adultration of starch or maize, tapioca,


wheat, rice, to turmeric powder.
A microscopic study reveals that only turmeric is yellow
coloured, big in size and has an angular structure .
while added starches are colourless and small in size as
compared to pure turmeric starch.