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Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9: Feedback Linearization

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Amirkabir University of Technology

Fall 2011

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

1/75

Feedback Linearzation

Input-State Linearization

Input-Output Linearization

Internal Dynamics of Linear Systems

Zero-Dynamics

Preliminary Mathematics

Diffeomorphism

Frobenius Theorem

Input-State Linearization

Control Design

Input-Output Linearization

Well Defined Relative Degree

Undefined Relative Degree

Normal Form

Zero-Dynamics

Local Asymptotic Stabilization

Global Asymptotic Stabilization

Tracking Control

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

2/75

Feedback Linearzation

I

transform a nonlinear system dynamics

into a (fully or partly) linear one, so that

linear control techniques can be applied.

cancels the nonlinearities in a nonlinear

system so that the closed-loop dynamics

is in a linear form.

Example: Controlling the fluid level in a

tank

fluid in a tank to a specified level hd ,

using control input u

the initial level is h0 .

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

3/75

Example Contd

I

The dynamics:

A(h)h(t)

=ua

I

I

I

I

where A(h) is the cross section of the tank and a is the cross section of

the outlet pipe.

Choose the equivalent input v : v = h where h = h(t) hd is error

level, a pos. const.

resulting closed-loop dynamics: h + h = 0 h 0 as t

I

I

p

2gh

Second term raises the fluid level according to the desired linear dynamics

If hd is time-varying: v = h d (t) h

I

h 0 as t

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

4/75

be simply applied to a class of nonlinear systems, so-called companion

form, or controllability canonical form:

x (n) (t) = f (x) + b(x)u

I

I

I

I

(1)

x is the scalar output;x = [x, x,

..., x (n1) ] is the state vector.

f (x) and b(x) are nonlinear functions of the states.

no derivative of input u presents.

(1)can be

presented

as controllability

canonical form

x1

x2

..

..

d

.

.

=

dt

xn1

xn

xn

f (x) + b(x)u

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

5/75

Feedback Linearzation

I

v = k0 x k1 x . . . kn1 x (n1)

(n)

v = xd k0 e k1 e . . . kn1 e (n1)

I

and the scalar b by an invertible square matrix.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

6/75

I

with

I

I

I

an encoder for measuring joint position

a tachometer for measuring joint velocity

follow desired position histories qdl (t) and

qd2 (t)

required to move along a specified path,

e.g., to draw circles.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

7/75

Using

the Lagrangian

the robotic dynamics

equations

are:

H11

H21

H12

H22

q1

q2

hq 2

hq 1

hq 2 hq 1

0

q 1

q 2

g1

g2

=

1

2

where q = [q1 q2 ]T : the two joint angles, = [1 2 ]T : the joint inputs, and

2

2

H11 = m1 lc1

+ l1 + m2 [l12 + lc2

+ 2l1 lc2 cos q2 ] + I2

H22

2

2

= m2 lc2

+ I2 H12 = H21 = m2 l1 lc2 cos q2 + m2 lc2

+ I2

g1

g2

1

H11 H12

v1

hq 2 hq 2 hq 1

q 1

g1

=

+

+

2

H21 H22

v2

hq 1

0

q 2

g2

I q

d + 2q + 2 q = 0 where q converge to zero exponentially.

I

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

8/75

Input-State Linearization

I

use algebraic transformations

x = f (x, u)

1. finds a state transformation z = z(x) and an input transformation

u = u(x, v ) s.t. the nonlinear system dynamics is transformed into

z = Az + bv

2. Use standard linear techniques (such as pole placement) to design v .

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

9/75

Example:

I

Consider

x 2 = x2 cos x1 + u cos(2x1 )

I

I

I

The nonlinearity cannot be directly canceled by the control input u

Define a new set of variables:

z1 = x1

z2

z 1

z 2

I

I

I

I

= ax2 + sin x1

= 2z1 + z2

= 2z1 cos z1 + cos z1 sin z1 + au cos(2z1 )

1

(v cos z1 sin z1 + 2z1 cos z1 )

The control law: u = a cos(2z

1)

The new dynamics is linear and controllable: z 1 = 2z1 + z2 , z 2 = v

By proper choice of feedback gains k1 and k2 in v = k1 z1 k2 z2 , place

the poles properly.

Both z1 and z2 converge to zero,

the original state x converges to zero

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

10/75

I

transformation and an input transformation with state feedback used in

both.

To implement the control law, the new states (z1 , z2 ) must be available.

I

computed by measurable original state x.

of new state z as well as control input u.

the new state vector.

Two questions arise for more generalizations which will be answered in

next lectures:

I

I

How to find the proper transformations for those which can?

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

11/75

Input-Output Linearization

I

Consider

x

= f (x, u)

= h(x)

state bounded

yd (t) and its time derivatives up to a sufficiently high order are known

and bounded.

The difficulty: output y is only indirectly related to the input u

it is not easy to see how the input u can be designed to control the

tracking behavior of the output y .

1. Generating a linear input-output relation

2. Formulating a controller based on linear control

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

12/75

Example:

I

Consider

x 2 = x15 + x3

x 3 = x12 + u

y

= x1

differentiate the output y = x 1 = sin x2 + (x2 + 1)x3

No direct relationship

differentiate again: y = (x2 + 1)u + f (x), where

5

f (x) = (x1 + x3 )(x3 + cos x2 ) + (x2 + 1)x12

Choose v = yd k1 e k2 e,

where e = y yd is tracking error, k1 and k2

are pos. const.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

1

x2 +1 (v

f ).

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

13/75

Example Contd

I

x2 = 1

because the computations of both the derivative y and the input

transformation need the value of x.

If the output of a system should be differentiated r times to generate an

explicit relation between y and u, the system is said to have relative

degree r .

differentiations, the control input will appear to any output, i.e., r n.

I

If the control input never appears after more than n differentiations, the

system would not be controllable.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

14/75

Feedback Linearzation

I

input-output linearization.

I

1

yd (t)

x2 +1 (

k1 e k2 e + f )

depends on the stability of the internal dynamics.

I

Example: Consider

x 1

x 2

=

x23 + u

u

y = x1

(2)

I

I

I

I

The control law u = x23 e(t) + y d (t) exp. convergence of e :

e + e = 0

Internal dynamics: x 2 + x23 = y d e

Since e and y d are bounded (y d (t) e D) x2 is ultimately bounded.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

15/75

I

I

I

For previous example the objective will be y and y will be driven to zero

and stable internal dynamics guarantee stability of the whole system.

No restriction to choose physically meaningful h(x) in y = h(x)

Different choices of output function leads to different internal dynamics

which some of them may be unstable.

I

I

The problem will be input-state linearization

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

16/75

Summary

I

the closed-loop dynamics is in a linear form.

be applied to a class of nonlinear systems, named companion form, or

controllability canonical form.

When the nonlinear dynamics is not in a controllability canonical form,

input-state linearization technique is employed:

2. Use standard linear techniques to design controller

I

linearizaton is applied:

1. Generating a linear input-output relation (take derivative of y r n times)

2. Formulating a controller based on linear control

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

17/75

I

not easy since it is nonlinear. nonautonomous, and coupled to the

external closed-loop dynamics.

familiar context of linear systems.

x2 + u

x 1

=

u

x 2

y = x1

(3)

I

I

I

I

First differentiations of y y = x2 + u

The control law u = x2 e(t) + y d (t) exp. convergence of e : e + e = 0

Internal dynamics: x 2 + x2 = y d e

e and y d are bounded

x2 and therefore u are bounded.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

18/75

x 1

x2 + u

=

x 2

u

y = x1

(4)

using the same control law yields the following internal dynamics

x 2 x2 = e(t) y d

I

I

why the same tracking design method yields different results?

I

I

I

I

s2 .

Transfer function of (4) is: W2 (s) = s1

s2 .

Both have the same poles but different zeros

The system W1 which is minimum-phase tracks the desired trajectory

perfectly.

The system W2 which is nonminimum-phase requires infinite effort for

tracking.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

19/75

Internal Dynamics

I

x = Ax + bu, y = c T x

b0 +b1 s

u

a0 +a1 s+a2 s 2 +s 3

0

1

z 1

z 2 = 0

0

z 3

a0 a1

z1

y = [b0 b1 0] z2

z3

Farzaneh Abdollahi

(5)

Nonlinear Control

form:

0

0

z1

1

z2 + 0 u

z3

1

a2

(6)

Lecture 9

20/75

y = b0 z3 + b1 (a0 z1 a1 z2 a2 z3 + u)

Required number of differentiations (the relative degree) is indeed the

same as # of poles- # of zeros

I

Note that: the I/O relation is independent of the choice of state variables

two differentiations is required for u to appear if we use (5).

b0

b1 z3 )

1

b1 (k1 e

k2 e + yd )

The internal dynamics can be described by only one state equation

I

I

I

through a one-to-one transformation).

z1 = z2 = b11 (y b0 z1 )

y is bounded

stability of the internal dynamics depends on bb10

If the system is minimum phase the internal dynamics is stable

(independent of initial conditions and magnitude of desired trajectory)

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

21/75

Zero-Dynamics

I

the locations of the zeros.

To extend the results for nonlinear systems the concept of zero should be

modified.

Extending the notion of zeros to nonlinear systems is not trivial

and poles are its fundamental components. But in nonlinear systems we

cannot define transfer function

Zeros are intrinsic properties of a linear plant. But for nonlinear systems

the stability of the internal dynamics may depend on the specific control

input.

the system output is kept at zero by the input.(output and all of its

derivatives)

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

22/75

I we find input u to maintain the system output at zero uniquely (keep x

1

zero in this example),

I By Layap. Fcn V = x 2 it can be shown it is a.s

2

For linear system (5), the zero dynamics is z 1 + (b0 /b1 )z1 = 0

The poles of the zero-dynamics are exactly the zeros of the system.

internal dynamics.

I only local stability is guaranteed for the internal dynamics even if the

zero-dynamics is g.e.s.

depend on the choice of control law or the desired trajectories.

internal dynamics,But the result is local.

I Zero-dynamics only involves the internal states

I Internal dynamics is coupled to the external dynamics and desired trajs.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

g.s. of

23/75

Zero-Dynamics

I

asymptotically stable is called an asymptotically minimum phase system,

sought

As summary control design based on input-output linearization is in three

steps:

2. Choose u to cancel the nonlinearities and guarantee tracking convergence

3. Study the stability of the internal dynamics

I

same as the order of the system

the nonlinear system is fully linearized

satisfactory controller

whether or

not the controller is applicable depends on the stability of the internal

dynamics.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

24/75

Preliminary Mathematics

I

any required order.

h

h = h

x , where (h)j = xj

fi

(f)ij = x

j

Lf h = hf, where h : R n R: a smooth scalar, f : R n R n : a smooth

vector field.

i1

L0f h = h; Lif h = Lf (Li1

f h) = (Lf h)f

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

f

x ,

where

25/75

h

x = Lf h

y =

x

[Lf h]

y =

x = L2f h

x

[f, g] = gf f g, where f and g two vector field on R n .

The Lie bracket [f, g] is also written as adf g (ad stands for adjoint).

Example:

Consider x = f(x)

+ g(x)u

where

2x1 + ax2 + sin x1

0

f=

,g =

x2 cos x1

cos(2x1 )

So the Lie

bracket is:

a cos(2x1 )

[f, g] =

cos x1 cos(2x1 ) 2 sin(2x1 )(2x1 + ax2 + sin x1 )

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

26/75

1. bilinearity:

[1 f1 + 2 f2 , g]

= 1 [f1 , g] + 2 [f2 , g]

[f, 1 g1 + 2 g2 ]

= 1 [f, g1 ] + 2 [f, g2 ]

constant scalars.

2. skew-commutativity:

[f, g]

= [g, f]

3. Jacobi identity

Ladf g h

= Lf Lg h Lg Lf h

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

27/75

Diffeomorphism

I

system into another nonlinear system in terms of a new set of states.

diffeomorphism if it is smooth, and if its inverse 1 exists and is smooth.

the Jacobian matrix is non-singular at a point x = x0 of , then (x)

defines a local diffeomorphism in a subregion of

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

28/75

Diffeomorphism

I

x = f (x) + g (x)u, y = h(x)

z = f (z) + g (z)u, y = h (z)

z =

x x

x (f (x)

+ g (x)u)

where x = 1 (z).

Example

diffeomorphism:

Consider

of a non-global

z1

2x1 + 5x1 x22

= (x) =

z2

3 sin x2

I

I

2 + 5x22 10x1 x2

=

Its Jacobian matrix:

.

0

3 cos x2

rank is 2 at x = (0, 0) local diffeomorphism around the origin where

= {(x1 , x2 ), |x2 | < /2}.

outside the region, the inverse of does not uniquely exist.

I

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

29/75

Frobenius Theorem

I

h

h

h

f1 +

f2 +

f3 = 0

x1

x2

x3

h

h

h

g1 +

g2 +

g3 = 0

x1

x2

x3

(7)

h(x1 , x2 , x3 ) is an unknown function.

I

f = [f1 f2 f3 ]T , g = [g1 g2 g3 ]T .

completely integrable.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

30/75

Frobenius Theorem

I

Frobenius theorem states that Equation (7) has a solution h(x1 , x2 , x3 ) iff

there exists scalar functions 1 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) and 2 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) such that

[f , g ] = 1 f + 2 g

i.e., if the Lie bracket of f and g can be expressed as a linear combination of f

and g

Geometrically, it means that the vector field [f , g ] is in the plane formed by the

two vectors f and g

fields {f1 , f2 , ..., fm } on R n is said to be completely integrable, iff, there exist

n m scalar fcns h1 (x), h2 (x), ..., hnm (x) satisfying the system of PDEs:

hi fj = 0

where 1 i n m, 1 j m and hi are linearly independent.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

31/75

scalar fcns hi : (n-m), number of PDEs: m(n-m)

{f1 , f2 , ..., fm } on R n is said to be involutive iff, there exist scalar fcns

ijk : R N R s.t.

m

X

[fi , fj ](x) =

ijk (x) fk (x)

i, j

k=i

i.e., the Lie bracket of any two vector fields from the set {f1 , f2 , ..., fm }

can be expressed as the linear combination of the vectors from the set.

I

I

Constant vector fields are involutive since their Lie brackets are zero

A set composed of a single vector is involutive:

[f , f ] = (f )f (f )f = 0

Involutivity means:

rank (f1 (x) .... fm (x)) = rank (f1 (x) .... fm (x) [fi , fj ](x))

for all x and for all i, j.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

32/75

Frobenius Theorem

I

independent vector fields. The set is completely integrable iff it is

involutive.

h

h

x1 x2

h

h

h

x1

+ (x32 3x2 )

+ 2x3

x1

x2

x3

4x3

= 0

= 0

f1 = [4x3 1 0]T

Since [f1 , f2 ] = 3f1 + 0f2 , the set {f1 , f2 } is involutive and the set of

PDEs are solvable.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

33/75

Input-State Linearization

I

x = f (x) + g (x)u

(8)

I

x = f (x) + g (x)w (u + (x))

where w is an invertible scalar fcn and is an arbitrary fcn

I We can use v = w (u + (x)) to get the form (8).

I Control design is based on v and u can be obtained by inverting w :

u = w 1 (v ) (x)

I Conditions for system linearizability by an input-state transformation

I A technique to find such transformations

I A method to design a controller based on such linearization technique

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

34/75

Input-State Linearization

I

and g (x) are smooth vector fields in R n is input-state linearizable if there exist

region in R n , a diffeomorphism mapping : R n , and a control law:

u = (x) + (x)v

s.t. new state variable z = (x) and

z = Az + Bv

0 1 0

0 0 1

. . .

A =

. . .

0 0 0

0 0 0

... 0

... .

... .

... .

... 1

... 0

0

0

..

.

B=

0

1

(9)

The new state z is called the linearizing state and the control law u is called the

linearizing control law

Let z = z(x)

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

35/75

Input-State Linearization

I

This linear companion form can be obtained from any linear controllable

system by a transformation

if u leads to a linear system, (9) can be

obtained by another transformation easily.

relative degree r = n.

linearizable with y = z, r = n.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

36/75

Input-State Linearization

I

Lemma: An nth order nonlinear system is I/S linearizable iff there exists

a scalar fcn z1 (x) for which the system is I/O linearizable with r = n.

Conditions for Input-State Linearization:

I

I

Theorem: The nonlinear system (8) with f (x) and g (x) being smooth

vector field is input-state linearizable iff there exists a region s.t. the

following conditions hold:

The vector fields {g , adf g , ... adf n1 g } are linearly independent in

The set {g , adf g , ... adf n2 g } is involutive in

I

I

I

For linear system, the vector field above becomes {B, AB, ... An1 B}

Linear independency invertibility of controllability matrix

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

37/75

I

is always satisfied for linear systems since the vector fields are constant, but

for nonlinear system is not necessarily satisfied.

It is necessary according to Ferobenius theorem for existence of z1 (x).

Lg z = Lg Lf z = ... = Lg Lf k z = 0

is equivalent to

Lg z = Ladf

gz

= ... = Ladf

kg

z =0

Proof:

I

Ladf g z = Lf Lg z Lg Lf z = 0 0 = 0

Ladf

Farzaneh Abdollahi

2g

z = Lf 2 Lg z 2Lf Lg Lf z + Lg Lf 2 z = 0 0 + 0 = 0

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

38/75

I

I

Necessity:

I

u = (x) + (x)v s.t. z and v satisfy (9), i.e.

z1

(f + gu) = z2

z 1 =

x

similarly:

z1

z1

f +

gu

x

x

z2

z2

f +

gu

x

x

= z2

= z3

..

.

zn

zn

f +

gu

x

x

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

= v

39/75

Lg z1 = Lg z2 = ... Lg zn1 = 0, Lg zn 6= 0

Lf zi

= zi+1 , i = 1, 2, ..., n 1

z k = zk+1 , k = 1, ... n 1

z n = Lf n z1 + Lg Lf

n1

z1 u

z1 adf k g = 0, k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n 2

z1 adf

n1

n1

= (1)

Lg zn

First note that for above eqs to hold, the vector field g , adf g , ..., adf

must be linearly independent.

If for some i(i n 1) there exist scalar fcns 1 (x), ... i1 (x) s.t.

i1

X

adf i g =

k adf k g

(10)

(11)

n1

k=0

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

40/75

adf

n1

n2

X

k adf

k=ni1

z1 adf

n1

n2

X

k z1 adf

g =0

(12)

k=ni1

I

z1 adf k g = 0

From the necessity part of Frobenius theorem, we conclude that the set

of vector field must be involutive.

Sufficient condition

Lg z1 = Ladf g z1 = ... Ladf k g z1 = 0, implying

Lg z1

Farzaneh Abdollahi

= Lg Lf z1 = ... Lg Lf

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

z1 = 0

41/75

z k = zk+1

k = 1, ..., n 1

z n = Lf n z1 + Lg Lf

The question is whether Lg Lf

n1 z

1

n1

z1 u

(13)

n1 g }

are linearly independent in :

n1

z1 = (1)n1 Ladf n1 g z1

Lg Lf

satisfies

z1 [g , adf g , ..., adf n1 g ] = 0

i.e. z1 is normal to n linearly independent vector = impossible

Now, we have:

z n = Lf n z1 + Lg Lfn1 z1 u = a(x) + b(x)u

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

42/75

1

b(x) (a(x)

Now, select u =

+ v ) to get:

z n = v

Summary: how to perform input-state Linearization

1. Construct the vector fields g , adf g , ... adf n1 g

2. Check the controllability and involutivity conditions

3. If the conditions hold, obtain the first state z1 from:

z1 adf i g = 0 i = 0, ..., n 2

z1 adf

n1

6=

input transformation u = (x) + (x)v :

Lf n z1

(x) =

Lg Lf n1 z1

1

(x) =

Lg Lf n1 z1

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

n1

z1 ]T and the

43/75

I

Equations of motion:

I q1 + MgLsinq1 + K (q1 q2 ) = 0

J q2 K (q1 q2 ) = u

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

44/75

I

Equations of motion:

I q1 + MgLsinq1 + K (q1 q2 ) = 0

J q2 K (q1 q2 ) = u

nonlinearities appear in the first equation and torque is in the second equation

Let:

x2

q1

q 1

MgL sinx1 K (x1 x3 )

I

I

x =

q2 , f =

x4

K

q 2

J (x1 x3 )

I

0

0

0

0

[g adf g adf 2 g adf 3 g ] =

0 1

J

1

0

J

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

, g = 0

0

K

IJ

0

JK2

1

J

K

IJ

0

J2

0

45/75

Example: Contd

I

Its full rank for k > 0 and IJ < = vector fields are linearly

independent

I z1 = 0, z1 = 0, z1 = 0, z1 6= 0

x2

x3

x4

x1

I Hence, z1 is the fcn of x1 only. Let z1

= x1 , then

z2 = z1 f = x2

MgL

K

sinx1 (x1 x3 )

I

I

MgL

K

= z3 f =

x2 cosx1 (x2 x4 )

I

I

z3 = z2 f =

z4

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

46/75

Example: Contd

I

u

a(x)

=

+

IJ

(v a(x))

K

MgL

MgL

K

sinx1 (x22 +

cosx1 + )

I

I

I

K

K

K

MgL

(x1 x3 )( + +

cosx1 )

I

I

J

I

(v z4 f )/(z4 g ) =

z 1 = z2 , z 2 = z3

z 3

= z4 ,

z 4 = v

x1 = z1 , x2 = z2

MgL

I

x3 = z1 +

z3 +

sinz1

K

I

I

MgL

x4 = z2 +

z4 +

z2 cosz1

K

I

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

47/75

Example Contd

I

position, z2 : link velocity, z3 : link acceleration, z4 : link jerk.

q1 . (4 times)

z1 adf n1 g = 1 resulting in:

0

z1

0

x1

.. ..

0

1

n2

n1

[adf g adf g ... adf

g adf

g ] . = .

z1

0

xn

1

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

48/75

Control Design

I

stabilization problem can be solved

(4)

z1

I

=v

(4)

(3)

1 a1 z 1 a0 z1

v = z a3 z a2 z

d1

where z1 = z1 zd1 .

I

(4)

(3)

z1 + a3 z1 + a2 z

1 + a1 z 1 + a0 z1 = 0

s4 + a3 s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 is Hurwitz

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

49/75

Input-Output Linearization

I

= f (x) + g (x)u

= h(x)

(14)

y and the input v (similar to v in I/S Lin.)

I

I

What are the internal dynamics and zero-dynamics associated with this I/O

linearization

How to design a stable controller based on this technique?

I

appears, then design u to cancel nonlinearities

Sometime, cancelation might not be possible due to the undefined relative

degree.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

50/75

I

y = h(f + gu) = Lf h(x) + Lg h(x)u

if Lg h(x) 6= 0 for some x = x0 in x , then continuity implies that

Lg h(x) 6= 0 in some neighborhood of x0 . Then, the input

transformation

1

(Lf h(x) + v )

u=

Lg h(x)

results in a linear relationship between y and v , namely y = v .

y = Lf 2 h(x) + Lg Lf h(x)u

integer r , Lg Lf r 1 h(x) 6= 0 for some x = x0 x

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

51/75

Hence, we have

y (r ) = Lf r h(x) + Lg Lf

r 1

h(x)u

(15)

u=

1

Lg Lf

r 1 h(x)

(Lf r h(x) + v )

y (r ) = v

I

relative degree of the system.

Lg Lf i h(x) = 0

0 i r 2

Lg Lf

Farzaneh Abdollahi

r 1

h(x) 6= 0

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

52/75

I

specific operating point x0 .

Lg Lf

r 1

h(x0 ) 6= 0

r 1 h(x)

a close neighborhood of x0 .

Example:

x = (x, x)

+u

where is a smooth nonlinear fcn. Define x = [x x]

T and let y = x =

the system is in companion form with r = 2.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

53/75

y

= 2x x

y = 2x x + 2x 2 = 2x(x, x)

+ 2xu + 2x 2 =

Lg Lf h = 2x

(16)

Normal Forms

can transform the system into the so-called normal form.

Normal form allows a formal treatment of the notion of internal dynamics

and zero dynamics.

Let

= [1 2 ... r ]T = [y y ... y (r 1) ]T

in a neighborhood of a point x0 .

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

54/75

Normal Form

I

..

.

=

r

a(, ) + b(, )u

= w (, )

(17)

(18)

= 1

The first part of the Normal form, (17) is another form of (15), however in (18)

the input u does not appear.

The system can be transformed to this form if the state transformation (x) is a

local diffeomorphism: (1 ... r 1 ... nr )T

invertible, i.e. i and i are all linearly independent.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

55/75

Normal Form

I

output and its r 1 derivatives)

j g = 0 1 j n r

can be obtained by solving n r PDE above.

I

I

Zero Dynamics

I

1. external dynamics

2. internal dynamics

For tracking problems (y yd ), one can easily design v once the linear

relation is obtained.

The question is whether the internal dynamics remain bounded

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

56/75

Zero-Dynamics

I

gives an idea about the stability of internal dynamics

y (r ) (t) = Lf r h(x) + Lg Lf

Lf r h(x)

u0 (x) =

Lg Lf r 1 h(x)

r 1

h(x)u0 0 =

In normal form:

=

0

= w (0, )

a(0, )

u0 () =

b(0, )

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

(19)

57/75

Example

I

x

y

I

We have

2x

x1

e 2

= 2x1 x2 + sinx2 + 1/2 u

0

2x2

= h(x) = x3

Consider

= 2x2

y = 2x 2 = 2(2x1 x2 + sinx2 ) + u

I

Lf h(x) = 2x2

Lg h(x) = 0

Lg Lf h(x) = 1

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

58/75

Example Contd

I

1 = h(x) = x3

2 = Lf h(x) = 2x2

2x2 1

e +

=0

Lg =

x1

2 x2

Jacobian matrix is

0

0

1

0

2

0

2x

2

1 2e

0

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

59/75

Example Contd

I

by:

x1

x2

x3

= 1 + + e 2

1

2

=

2

= 1

State transformation is valid globally and the normal form is given by:

1

= (1 e 2 )(1 + 22 e 2 ) 2sin(2 /2)e 2

(20)

=

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

(21)

60/75

Zero-Dynamics

I

In order to obtain the zero dynamics, it is not necessary to put the system

into normal form

transformation.

internal dynamics.

is called asymptotically minimum phase

If the zero dynamics is stable for all x, the system is globally minimum

phase, otherwise the results are local.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

61/75

I

x = f (x) + g (x)u

y

h(x)

y (r ) = Lf r h(x) + Lg Lf r 1 h(x)u

and the control law

u=

yields a linear mapping:

I

1

Lg Lf

r 1 h(x)

(Lf r h(x) + v )

(22)

(23)

(24)

y (r ) = v

v = kr 1 y (r 1) ... k1 y k0 y

(25)

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

62/75

Then, provided that the zero-dynamics is asymptotically stable, the control law

(24) and (25) locally stabilize the whole system:

Theorem: Suppose the nonlinear system (22) has a well defined relative degree

r and its associated zero-dynamics is locally asymptotically stable. Now, if ki are

selected s.t. K (s) = s r + kr 1 s r 1 + ... + k1 s + k0 is Hurwitz, then the control

law (24) and (25) yields a locally asymptotically stable system.

0

1

0

...

0

0

0

1

...

.

.

.

...

.

= A

=

.

.

.

...

.

0

0

...

1

k0 k1 k2 . . . kr 1

= w (, ) = A1 + A2 + h.o.t.

h.o.t. is higher order terms in the Taylor expansion about x0 = 0.

The above Eq. can be written

as:

d

A

0

=

+ h.o.t.

A1 A2

dt

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

63/75

= A2

Now, since the zero dynamics is asymptotically stable, its linearization

is either asymptotically stable or marginally stable.

I If A is asymptotically stable, then all eigenvalues of the above system

2

matrix are in LHP and the linearized system is stable and the nonlinear

system is locally asymptotically stable

I If A is marginally stable, asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system

2

was shown in (Byrnes and Isidori, 1988).

Comparing the above method to local stabilization and using linear control:

I the above stabilization method can treat systems whose linearizations

contain uncontrollable but marginally stable modes,

I while linear control methods requires the linearized system to be strictly

stabilizable

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

64/75

choose y = h(x) to make zero-dynamics a.s.

x 1 = x12 x2

x 2 = 3x2 + u

System linearization at x = 0:

x 1 = 0

x 2 = 3x2 + u

thus has an uncontrollable mode

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

65/75

Example (contd)

I Define y = 2x x

1

2 =

y

I

2x 1 x 2 = 2x12 x2 3x2 u

x 1

2x13

u = 2x12 x2 4x2 2x1 locally stabilizes the system

degree is n in which case there is no internal dynamics

Can the idea of I/O linearization be used for global stabilization problem?

Can the idea of I/O linearization be used for systems with unstable zero

dynamics?

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

66/75

I

simply regard the problem as a standard Lyapunov controller design

problem

But simplified by the fact that in normal form part of the system

dynamics is now linear.

The basic idea is to view as the input to the internal dynamics and

as its output.

The first step: find the control law 0 = 0 () which stabilizes the internal

dynamics with the corresponding Lyapunov fcn V0 .

Then: find a Lyapunov fcn candidate for the whole system (as a modified

version of V0 ) and choose the control input v s.t. V be a Lyapunov fcn for

the whole closed-loop dynamics.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

67/75

Example:

I

y

= v

z + z 3 + yz = 0

(26)

T

Considering y as an input to internal dynamics (26), it would be

asymptotically stabilized by the choice of y = y0 = z 2

I

V0 =

1 2 1 4

z + z

2

4

V 0

Farzaneh Abdollahi

= z 4 z z(y

z 2)

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

68/75

Example Contd

I

term in y y0 to V0

V

V

1

= V0 + (y z 2 )2

2

= z 4 + (y z 2 )(v 3z z)

v = y + z 2 + 3z z

V = z 4 (y z 2 )2

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

69/75

I

y = v

z + z 3 z 5 + yz = 0

where again = [z z]

T

I The system is non-minimum phase since its zero-dynamics is unstable

I The zero-dynamics would be stable if we select y = 2z 4 :

1 2 1 6

V0 =

z + z

V0 = z 4 z z(y

2z 4 )

2

6

I

1

V = V0 + (y 2z 4 )2 V = z 4 + (y 2z 4 )(v 8z 3 z z z)

v = y + 2z 4 + 8z 3 z + z z V = z 4 (y 2z 4 )2

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

70/75

Tracking Control

I

Theorem: Assume the system (22) has a well defined relative degree r

and d is smooth and bounded and that the solution d :

d = w (d , d ), d (0) = 0

(r 1) T

]

(t) = (t) d (t)

K (s) = s r + kr 1 s r 1 + ... + k1 s + k0 is Hurwitz, then by using

1

(r )

[Lf r 1 + yd kr 1

r ... k0

1 ]

(27)

u=

r

1

Lg Lf

1

the whole system remains bounded and the tracking error

converge to

zero exponentially.

I

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

71/75

I

systems since they cannot be inverted

controllers that yields small tracking errors

One approach is the so-called Output redefinition

I

I

y1 is defined s.t. it is close to the original output y in the frequency range

of interest

Then, tracking y1 also implies good tracking the original output y

1 bs B0 (s)

u

y=

A(s)

b>0

s=b

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

72/75

Example Contd

I

y1 =

B0 (s)

u

A(s)

I

the actual tracking error?

s

s

y (s) = 1

y1 = 1

yd

b

b

y d (t)

y (t) yd (t) =

b

the frequency content of yd is well below b

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

73/75

Example Contd

I

y2 =

B0 (s)

u

A(s)(1 + bs )

s

s

s2

y (s) = 1

1+

yd = 1 2 yd

b

b

b

y (t) yd (t) =

yd (t)

b2

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

74/75

Tracking Control

I

I

I

I

I

neglect the terms containing the input

Keep differentiating n timed (system order)

Approximately, there is no zero dynamics

It is meaningful if the coefficients of u at the intermediate steps are small

or the system is weakly non-minimum phase system

The approach is similar to neglecting fast RHP zeros in linear systems.

and desired Trajectory. It cannot be changed by feedback:

I

I

I

I

and stiffness in a flexible robot)

Change the output (or the location of sensor)

Change the input (or the location of actuator)

Change the desired Traj.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Nonlinear Control

Lecture 9

75/75

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