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Protective Relays Principles &

The electric relay is one of the most frequently used devices in modern technological
systems. It can be found in cars, washing machines, microwave ovens, and medical
equipment, as well as in tanks, aircraft, and ships. Practically no industry would
function without relays. In some complex automatic control systems in industry, the
number of relays is estimated in hundreds and even thousands.
This course contains a description of electrical relays, their principles of operation, and
applications for all basic types, for as widespread as knowledge of the subject is, it is
still not abundant.

Who should attend?

The course curriculum is designed specially for most engineers, electrical, mechanical,
and petroleum. Supervisors, foremen and qualified technicians can get considerable
upgrading education.

Program duration
- Five days

Program Documents
- Main Hard copy
- Course CD
Additional items upon request.

Course contents:
Day One
Introduction to Systems Protection
Relays history
Magnetic Systems of Relays
Basic Components of and Electromagnetic Relay
Differences between AC and DC Relays
Windings of Relays: Types and Design Features

Contact Systems
Designs of Basic Types of Contacts
Self-Cleaning & Self-Adjusting Contacts
Split, Make-Before-Break, High-Frequency Contacts
High-Power Contact Systems

Day Two
Faults types, causes, effects and calculation
External Design of Relays
Environmental Impact on Relays
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Wood and Cardboard: First Protection Shield for Relays

Indicators of Operation and Test Buttons
Relays That Do Not Look Like Relays at All

High-Voltage Relays
Open Relays for High-Voltage Switching
Vacuum and Gas-Filled High-Voltage Low Power Relays
High Power Vacuum Relays and Contactors
High-Voltage Reed Relays

Electronic Relays
How a Vacuum Tube Works?
Gas-Tubes with Relay Characteristics
Semiconductor Relays
Super-Power Electronic Relays
Hybrid Relays

Day Three
Time Relays
Electromagnetic Time Relays
Capacitor Time Relays
Relays with Clockwork
Pneumatic and Hydraulic Time-Delay Relays
Electronic Time-Delay Relays
Microprocessor-Based Time-Delay Relays
Accelerated (Forced) Relays

Thermal Relays
Relays Based on a Bimetal Thermal Element
Protective Thermal Relays
Automatic Circuit Breakers with Thermal Elements
Dilatometer Relays
Manometric Thermal Relays
Mercury Thermal Relays

Protective Current and Voltage Relays

Current and Voltage Transformers
Instantaneous Current and Voltage Relays
Protective Relays of the Electromagnetic Type
Electronic Current and Voltage Relays
Reed Switch Current Relays
Current Relays with Independent Time-Delays
Current Relays with Dependent Time-Delays
Harmonic and Voltage Restraint Relays
Pulse Current Relays

Day Four
Power and Power Directional Relays
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Induction-Type Relays
Characteristics of Power Direction Relays
Electro-Dynamic-Type Relays
Electronic Analogs of Power Direction Relays

Differential Relays
Principles of Differential Protection
High-Impedance Differential Relays
Biased Differential Relays
Electromagnetic Percentage Differential Relay
Induction-Type Differential Relays
Harmonic Restraint Differential Relays
Pilot-Wire Relays

Distance Relays
Principles and Basic Characteristics of Distance Protection
System Swing
Principles of Distance Relays Construction
Distance Relays with Higher Performance
Electronic Analogs of Impedance Relays

Day Five
Frequency Relay
Charles Steinmetz Inventor of the Frequency Relay
Induction Frequency Relays
Resonance Relays
Electronic Frequency Relays

Microprocessor-Based Relays: Prospects and Challenges

Advantages of Microprocessor-Based Relays
Disadvantages of Microprocessor-Based Relays
Summing Up

Special Relays
Polarized Relays
Latching Relays
Sequence Relays
Rotary Relays
Moving-Coil Relays
Amplifier-Driven Relays
Flashing-Light Relays
Buchholz Relays
Safety Relays
Ground Fault Relays

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