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- Balkan Energy Bulletin
- December 2008 $2.00
- Initialization of Wind Turbine Dynamic model
- Seismic Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines on Bottom-fixed Support Structures
- Research Paper Renewable Energy
- Wind Turbine Systems: United States
- Vertical Axis Turbine
- Wind Energy
- Wind
- Renewable Energy Subsidy Alternatives
- Answers to 4 Tough Questions About Clean Energy
- ifs paper
- JSDSHD
- Wind -Diesel Generation Power
- DESIGN_AND_FARICATION_OF_SPIRAL_WIND_TUR.docx
- A New Stability Enhanced Power System Based on Adaptive Controller and Space Vector Technique
- GYPARAKIS Et Al._an Approximate Method for Calculating Stochastic Loads on Wind Turbines-Annotated
- Energia Eólica
- Lecture 2 Version2 _Drag-Type Wind Energy Technology_slides
- JSIR 73(6) 375-380

You are on page 1of 19

Theory:

Let consider Earth fixed and radiation always come from the left. The Earth rotated

around axis with period 24 hours. This axis also rotate with period 365 days (one

year)

latitude is

x y1 z

Let

=56

will be time in days. Then day angle:

d=2 t

It is angle of rotation of the Earth around axis. Year angle:

y=2 y

It is angle of rotation of the Earth around the Sun.

Vector from the origin that poined to north pole:

|a|=1

To make rotation of the point E it is need to find two vectors

perpendicular to

a1

Normalize:

a1 =

cos

sin cos y

cos

sin sin y

,

2

2

sin sin y +cos sin2 sin2 y +cos 2

a2= 0,

, 0,

|a1|=1

|a2|=1

Vector then pointed at point E:

n =a sin +

a1 cos cos d+

a2 cos sin d

Radiation has constant direction from the left (x derection), then

If

nx 0

If

Also we have the roof that not horizontal but have angle:

=30

And also it rotated at angle

=0

south

and

a2

that

=45

south-east

=45

south-west.

n

a

u=

v= [u n ]

Vecors

u and v

[a n ]

|[a n ]|

is perpendicular to

.

p=n cos + v sin cos +u sin sin

S 0=S cos

P=

p0 p 0

= cos =P0 cos

S S0

power per area

cos = p x

S0

P0

p0

Where

px

is x component of

vector (because

|p|=1 )

Solar power flux on distance of Earth orbit is 1367 W/m2 , after atmosphere it is

1020 W/m2

P0=1020

W

m2

Also absent of light at night must be taken in to accont. Power per unit area of the

roof:

P=

P0 p x if nx 0 p x 0

0 otherwise

Result:

=0

(south):

1200

1000

Power, W

800

600

400

200

50

100

150

200

days

250

300

350

400

600

Power, W

500

400

300

200

100

0

0

days

400

=0o (south)

=45o (south-east)

350

Power, W

300

250

200

150

100

50

100

150

200

days

250

300

350

400

Avarege power along all year for South oriented roof is 276.5780

For South-East is 254.9144

W /m

W /m2

It is pipe that is double-glassed. Vacuum prevent losses of heat due to convection

with external air.

heat

a c c u m u la to r

More hot water in more light so it go up. Then it cooled in heat accumulator and

then move down. Pump not need.

Let make estimations for Flat-plate double-glassed collector.

When water move up from bottom to top of the collector its temperature increase

T 1 to

from

T2

1 to

2=1 ( T 2T 1) =1 T

In the bottom point two pressures not compencete each other:

Pressure of cold water:

p=1 gh

h

p= gh=

1 + 2

gh

2

Pressure difference:

p=

1 2

T

gh=gh

2

2

Friction constrain water move. It defined as Hagen-Poiseuille equation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagen-Poiseuille_flow

AV =

p R 4

8 L

A

Where

A= R2

V

- water velocity,

- pipe radius,

E= mc T = Vc T =A xc T

Where

x .

c :

E x=

E

=Ac T

x

(1)

P0=200

W

m2

PL =P0 2 R

This power makes energy increasing along pipe:

E x=

P L PL L

=

t

V

T=

PL L

VAc

T=

AV =

p R

8 L

p=gh

T

2

Let find

T=

T :

P L L2 16

cgh R4

T =34 C

PL L

VAc

(2)

p=567 Pa

V=0.0107 m/s

See matlab code for this calculation:

P0=200; % power per m^2

w=1; % width

h=2; % height

N=20; % number of loops

L=N*w+2*h; % pipe length

R=2e-3; % pipe radius

eta=1.1e-3; % water viscosity (Pa*s)

c=4.183e3; % water specific heat

rho=1000; % water density

al1=0.0017; % termal expansion coeeficient

al=rho*al1; % rho=rho1-al*(T-T1);

PL=P0*2*R;

g=9.8;

dT=sqrt(PL*L^2*16*eta/(c*rho*g*h*pi*R^4*al))

A=pi*R^2;

v=PL*L/(rho*A*c*dT)

dp=g*h*al*dT/2

Then more thin pipe then higher temperature but flow decrease.

Also the problem is that we can not make to two long pipe because than friction will

be big and velocity will decreas. To solve this it is need to connect pipes in parallel:

2. Evacuated-tube collector

Metal thingh on the left on this photo makes collection of heat from all avaluable arre in one pipe to

the tube.

3. Comparison

Diameter maut be small enough and liquid surface tension must big enough to

make liquid uniformly distributed along all pipe. Also disadvantage of

Evacuated-tube collector is that if temperature too height then it will be work

not effective. Because almost all liquid will be in vapuor and transfer will

decrease.

Flat-plate collector is cheaper to do because it is not need to make many evacuated

tubes just double-glass one pipe. In e vacuated-tube collector is easy to do full

covering of all available area. But fat-plate collector has gaps in area that not

used.

See cw1_data_wind_frequency.xlsx

Histogram of wind frequency:

Y axis number of hour per half year of such wind.

There is per 0.5 year but not per year because data is only for half year.

- it make noise that can be hear in house

- it is impossible to place big enough wind turbine to have about 3 kW power

- roof is close to the propeller, so air not slip at the roof. It is zero velocity on the

roof. And then it is not big value for velocity on the roof-top wind turbine.

- near houses decrease wind.

- if roof-top turbin will break, than it can break near houses, dangeros for

pedestrians

- the problem of strong mounting to the roof. Roof is not constructed as hard

construction

- require special design depending on roof.

Roof-top mounted turbine has many disadvantages. So let use usual wind turbine:

1 foot = 0.3048 meter

1 mile/hour = 0.44704 meter/second

Height, m

Velocity, m/s

100*0.3048

9.5*0.44705

500*0.3048

17.4*0.44705

1200*0.3048

20*0.44705

10

9

8

velocity, m/s

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0.25

approximation, v=2.1*h

0

50

100

150

200

height, m

250

300

350

400

The formula is

v =2.1h 0.25

Wind turbine propeller size and power relationship can be estimated as Betz law:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betz%27_law

In this law idealized case used, propeller is disc that mot makes air rotation just

decrease air velocity.

Short derivation of Betz law:

Conservation law of the mass:

m= v 1 A1 t= v 2 A 2 t=Sv t

Force is defined by momentum change:

p= m v 1 m v 2= m ( v 1v2 )

is the mass of thin layer of air. This mass is keep constant along the tube.

mass

mass of air come into the tube than simultaneously air with

Force:

F=

p

=Sv ( v 1v 2 )

t

Power:

P=Fv=S v 2 ( v 1v 2 )

Let find maximum possible value of power

P :

3

S v1

S

S

P=S v ( v 1v 2 ) = ( v 1+ v 2 )2 ( v 1v 2) = ( v 1+ v 2 ) ( v12v 22 )=

( 1+ x ) ( 1x 2 )

4

4

4

2

Where

P (x )

x=

v2

v1

is maximal when

dP ( x )

=0

dx

That give quadratic equation with solution:

x=

1

3

Pmax =P

( 13 )= S v

m

s

8

27

v 1=4.98

3

1

S= R =70 m

Air density:

=1.22

kg

m3

Then power:

Pmax =3.1 kW

So propeller radius must be about 5 meters:

5m

8m

top:

8+5

8

0.25

( )

=5.6 m/s

On the bottom:

85

8

0.25

( )

=3.9 m/s

This difference must be tacked in to accont when design propeller. This difference

make loads in propeller between blades. So propeller must be hard enough.

See cw1_data_profile.xls

Chart Title

120000

100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

0

x-data hours

y-data Power, W

The calculation of the power was made using mean value of velocity but more

correct way is calculate mean power. If we get 3.1 m radius propeller. Then mean

power:

P = R 2 v 13 8 = R 2 8 v 13 =3 kW

Where

27

27

- wind turbine

- inverter

- accumulators

From site http://www.sentex.ca/~sxing/generator/generator.htm

wind turbine price: $8100

inverter price: $ 5700

Let find accumulators price

From power profile it is possible to see that without wind period is about 24 hours.

Power is 3 kW, voltage 12 V, then current is 250 A. Then capacity is

250*24=6000A*h

Accumulator LEOCH DJM 12200 parameters:

Price: $426

Voltage: 12 V

Capacity: 200 A*h

Then we need 30 such accumulators, then total price is about $13000

Also power profile has long small wind periods about 600 hours long. This can not

be compencated with accumulators. So it is need to use solar panels or diesel

generators.

As we can see home use wind generator system has big price about $27000. So it is

better to use bigger wind generators with powers about megawatts. And use hydroaccumulation of energy, see detales here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power#Intermittency_and_penetration_limits

Alternative way for small power wind turbine is use its energy for heating water

(using turbular electric heating element). Big volume of hot water can be used as

chap energy accumulator. But in this case no electricity generated only hot water

for house heating and home using.

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