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EH/APR 2011/CGE664

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

FACILITIES ENGINEERING

COURSE CODE

CGE664

EXAMINATION

APRIL 2011

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

This question paper consists of five (5) questions

2.

Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.

4.

Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:
i)
ii)

the Question Paper


an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 7 printed pages
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EH/APR 2011/CGE664

QUESTION 1
P02,C01,C1,C2, C3, C4
a) As a small field development project engineer, you and your team are considering the
use of a jacket platform or a floating production platform as the substructure of the field.
i.

Describe these two (2) types of platform with the aid of sketches.
(4 marks)

ii.

Describe the process from fabrication to installation of a jacket platform and


its topside facility for an offshore field.
(3 marks)

b) Discuss the importance for an offshore processing facility to be designed properly and
adequately during the development stage and the problems that will arise during
production stage due the design failures.
(3 marks)
c) Surface facilities have to be operated and maintained in safe and efficient manner
throughout the field life.
i.

One of the objectives of the production operation and maintenance policy is to


ensure that the products are delivered on time to customer at the agreed
quantities and according to specification. Explain how the facility operator works
towards achieving this objective
(4 marks)

ii.

Minimum manning policy is the preferred way to operate at offshore. Discuss the
possible reasons in your opinion for the operator to opt to this operating
condition.
(4 marks)

iii.

State the common safety facilities available at offshore location.


(2 marks)

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EH/APR 2011/CGE664

QUESTION 2
P02, P06, C02, C2, C3, C6
a) You are an Operations Engineer in charge of a gas processing platform. Your platform
glycol dehydration system is expecting a problem with its process flow. You have been
assigned by your supervisor to identify the root cause of the problem.
i.

Describe the importance of the gas dehydration process. Draw and label a
complete diagram of the system which includes a glycol/gas column, a glycol
boiler and a gas stripping column.
(7 marks)

ii.

Your investigation data shows that the water content of the "lean" glycol is
unreasonably high. Suggest the possible problem with the process or
equipment.
(3 marks)

b) Treatment of produced water in an oil and gas production facility is crucial to ensure
environmental protection regulations are not violated. Where do we dispose the treated
produced water from an onshore production facility and from an offshore production
facility?
(2 marks)
c) The most common type of plate coalescers used in oil facility is Corrugated Plate
Interceptor (CPI).
i.

Sketch and label a complete diagram of a CPI. Briefly describe how oil is
recovered from the CPI.
(6 marks)

ii.

Why does the plate pack in a CPI is inclined by a certain angle from
horizontal?
(2 marks)

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EH/APR 2011/CGE664

QUESTION 3
P02, P06, C02, C4, C5, C6
a) Power generation, compression and pumping equipment are generally installed on the
platform. This machinery is used to collect the hydrocarbons and convey them to
onshore receiving facilities, or for the re-injection of associated gas back into the well to
enhance production. One of the purposes of gas compressors in oilfields is to increase the
pressure of gas for transportation, fuel or injection purposes and there are various types
of compressors.
i.

Compare reciprocating and centrifugal compressors.


(6 marks)

ii.

Give two (2) advantages a rotary screw compressor has over a rotary slidingvane compressor.
(2 marks)

b) Pumps are widely used in an oilfield in order to provide sufficient pressure to a liquid so that
the liquid will arrive at the required place at the required rate of flow and pressure its duty
requires.
i.

Suggest suitable pump to be used for viscous oil. Justify your answer.
(2 marks)

ii.

Identify pump which requires low maintenance. Justify your answer.


(2 marks)

iii.

Explain why do most pumps use electric motors as their drivers?


(2 marks)

c) Utility systems are essential in the operation of a surface facility.


i.

Describe the components and delivery of a firewater system.


(4 marks)

ii.

Differentiate between an instrument air system and a starting air system.


(2 marks)

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EH/APR 2011/CGE664

QUESTION 4
P02, P06, C03, C3, C4, C5
a) Waxy crude is one of the natural behaviors of the crude. Due to the demand, waxy crude
is highly marketable even though it hard to be produced. With the sufficient knowledge
we can manage the wax formation. Explain the;
i. factors affecting the wax formation,
(4 marks)
ii. wax removal and prevention
(4 marks)
b) Describe basic process the crude go through from production to onshore terminal before
ready to be exported.
(4 marks)
c) Scrapper or commonly known in the industry as "pig" has a very crucial role in the
hydrocarbon transportation system. Explain the major function of the pig.
(3 marks)
d) Based on the Figure 1,

rminal/FSO

Export Meter Reading


and Tank Inventory
At Terminal / FSO

Platforms of
Different Owners

M e t e r Reading at
Respective Platforms

Figure 1 Oil Production Facilities Diagram


i.

Propose how you will line up the measurement and allocation for the above
arrangement. Discuss the how and the type of measuring system will be located
at each location.
(2 marks)

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ii.

EH/APR 2011/CGE664

Assuming the meter proving failed; recommend an acceptable method in


industry to obtain the reliable measurement. Rationalize your answers based on
the factors take into consideration for recommended method.
(3 marks)

QUESTION 5
P02, P06, C03, C2, C4, C5
a) Separation of oil, gas and water phases is the central activity in an upstream surface
production facility before each phases treated for sales. Separator is commonly used
equipment for this purpose. The proper sizing of the separator is very critical to ensure the
field produced at its maximum capacity without any limitation. As a production engineer you
are responsible to ensure a suitable separator design.
Table 1 shows the data used to size a vertical, two-phase separator.
Table 1 Design data for two-phase separator
Gas flow rate

15 MMSCFD at 0.5 specific gravity

Liquid flow rate

4 MBOPD at 35API

Operating pressure

1250 psia

Operating temperature

62F

Drag coefficient, CD

0.85

Gas compressibility, Z

0.84

Density of liquid, p,

53.03 lb/ft3

Density of gas, pg

3.85

Retention time, tr

2 mins

Particle size, dm

130 micron

Determine the slenderness ratio (SR), for diameter sizes 30", 36" and 42".
State any selection criteria used in the design.
(8 marks)

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EH/APR 2011/CGE664

ii.

Identify the possible size for the vertical separator if certain height
restrictions are imposed. State any selection criteria used. (Note: Use
standard separator lengths).
(2 marks)

iii.

Identify four (4) flow characteristics that could influence the size of this
separator.
(2 marks)

b) Treatment of emulsion is the process of separating water and oil phases that have been
mixed due to agitation and action of stabiliser agents.
i.

Explain how chemicals (demulsifier) can treat emulsion and the importance
of the right type and amount of demulsifier.
(4 marks)

ii.

Figure 1 is a picture of a vertical heater treater. Briefly describe the equipment


and its operating process.
(4 marks)

It
mHnmn

t
ij.ij.ii.i'.txrn

Figure 1 Schematic of vertical heater treater

END OF QUESTION PAPER


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