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Reef Resources Assessment and


Management Technical Paper
ISSN: 1607-7393
www.behaviorsciences.com

RRAMT2013

Reviewing the relation between Motivation, Expectation and


Preparation on the Educational Performance according to the
mediating role of Competence (Case Study: MA Students of
Accounting in Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch)
Somayeh Vaziri sarashka1, Ali Fazel Yazdi b, Majid Vaziri Sarashkc
a

Department of Accounting, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran


Department of Accounting, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran
c
Department of Industrial engineering Najafabad bromch, Islamic azad university.Isfahan, Iran
b

Abstract
Educational performance is one of the issues which were under focus from very past and devoted lots of researches to itself.
Educational experts have always attempted to provide a situation in which students can overdo their best efforts. The purpose of
current study is to review the relation between motivation, expectation and preparation on the educational performance according
to the role of competence among MA students of Accounting. The variables of motivation, expectation and preparation are
regarded as independent variables, and competence as a mediating variable and educational performance as a dependent variable
in this study. Statistical population of this research is MA students of Accounting in Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch and
the sampling method is selective and 144 acceptable samples were collected. The results show that preparation, expectation and
motivation and competence have positive relation with educational performance of students and also preparation, expectation and
motivation have positive and meaningful relation with competence. Moreover, the variables like preparation and expectation have
no effect on educational performance through the mediating variable of competence but motivation has some effects through the
mediating variable of competence on educational performance.
2013 Published by RRAMT France Ltd.
Keywords: Motivation, Expectation, Preparation, Competence, Educational Performance;

Tel: (++98)351-8211391; Fax: (++98)351-8214810; Email: Somayeh.vaziri@yahoo.com

Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper/ Vol. , 2013, , pp-

1. Introduction
The higher education systems, as the most salient sample of investing on manpower, have the main role in
education and training the competent manpower; these systems devote a considerable share of every countrys
budget to themselves and have a determinant role in different dimensions like economic, social, cultural and
political; therefore certainty in acceptable quality of their performance to prevent wasting the manpower and
physical equipments and also having the capacity to compete in future world in which Quality would be the most
significant factor of subsistence for every organization would be a incontrovertible necessity (Maroofi et al, 1386).
One of the aspect of progression in Higher Education is Educational Progression which means having knowledge
and acquirable general or technical skills in the subject courses which is usually assessed via experiments or
symbols or both which maters would determine for students (Sakaki, 1390). Today most youth come to this believe
that to increase their chances toward success in their lives and finding an appropriate job, they should focus their
attempt to acquire the favourable level of performance. In this regard, the most significant role of schools and
universities is that they should help their students to progress in their educations. The main purpose of education
throughout the world is to provide educational progression and all try to identify the effective factors on educational
progression and set every factor so that students get the best results in the process of learning and progression
(Zahabion, 1386). Today the educational systems has got increasing value and importance throughout the world and
all try their best to increase the quality and quantity of general and higher education; in this regard we can review
and focus on the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful persons regarding educational progression and
acquire valuable information. Higher education has always encountered problems regarding the limitations of
education and research, so achieving the predetermined aims depends much on the level of students success.
Students, due to some reasons, do not enjoy and use the educational and research equipments to a same level, so that
there are lots of students in most universities every year who face many problems due to their failure in education
(Sakaki, 1390). The academic education, which is of universities responsibilities, is going under fundamental
changes due to the external forces like competition in market, virtualization, and internationalization toward
progression to the new paths of knowledge and recognition. Universities should integrate their resources according
to human expertise, needed skills and competences, their relation with industry and other educational organizations
to reach strategic purposes and acquire perpetuity in competitive environment. Iranian universities should recognize
their capabilities, competences and competitive knowledge-based priorities if they want to compete and survive in
international context. In this information era, these competences and capabilities are based on the interactive
cooperation-based environments and knowledge but not on organizational interactions and traditional structures of
education and research. In such a situation, knowledge would be shared among all concerned effectively so that it
would make the university an antecessor in its strategic map (Sohrabi et al, 1389). The final goal of every
educational activity is make desirable changes among students behaviors and experiences and learning is but the
result of these changes. All wonderful advances of human in Today World are the results of learning. Human
acquires most of his capabilities though learning like Intellectual advancing, and activating his mental capabilities.
Interest in learning is more significant than the learning itself in educating process. Factors like previous
preparations, intellect, mind, motivation and self-confidence in students have much effect on learning capabilities.
Today most employers complain about the quality of education and claim that most youth have not the qualifications
to start their job after their graduation from universities or institutes. Regarding the role of Accounting in Economic
Progress and many changes occurred in Economic World, accountants should have more perfect expertise so that
they can serve better services and find their appropriate status. Among abovementioned points, postgraduates of
Accounting especially MA postgraduates have key role. In this study we tried to describe and review the effective
factors on educational performance of Accounting students like motivation, preparation, expectation, and also
review their relation with the mediating variable of competence.
2. Literature Review

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Soltan-al-Qaraee and Karimi (1385) reviewed the change in motivation to progress among students of Tabriz
University, 332 students of Daily Courses. The results show that there is no meaningful relation between motivation
to progress and educational progress, in students view. Rouhi (1386) reviewed the relation between educational
motivation and some other factors among students. His results show that there is meaningful, direct and weak
relation between the educational motivation and students welfare, the education of faculty, medicinal centers in
university, and future job. Khajir (1387) identified the current students attitudes toward job market and its effects on
their educational progression motivation in a research entitled Job Market and Educational Progression
Motivation. Results of this study show that there is reverse correlation between traditional attitude toward Job
Market and educational progression motivation, and direct correlation between modern attitude toward Job Market
(creating jobs) and educational progression motivation. Arboni (1387) reviews the gap between expectations and
educational services provided for students of Zanjan Medical University. Its Results show that there is a gap among
all five aspects of services quality (physical, trust, trustability, accountability, and empathy). Yusefi (1388) reviews
the role of educational motivation in educational progress among Medical Students of Medical University. Results
show that educational progress of students requires coordination and cooperation between different aspects of
motivation. Saeed et al (1388) reviews the effect of teamwork skills on educational and research performance
separately for male and female students. Results show that there is meaningful difference between female and male
students teamwork skills. Soltani-Nejad (1388) reviews the relation between foreground variables and educational
performance of MA students of Accounting. Results shows that educational performance of students has meaningful
relation with variables such as personal motivation in being accepted university, effect and dominance of friends and
family members in selecting the major and university, previous preparation, personal motivations to continue
education in higher levels and personal expectations from education. Salehi et al (1389) reviewed the effective
factors in decreasing educational motivation of female and male students in Islamic Azad University, Mazandaran
Branches. Results show that these students consider different factors like method and skill of teaching by teachers,
uncertainty about future job and employment, lack of educational equipments and non-participation and non-activity
in teaching and learning process as decreasing educational motivation factors. Sohrabi et al (1389) assesses the
knowledge-based competence in higher education. Results show that 5 factors of defect in knowledge-based
competence are (1) knowledge-based researches; (2) cooperation and learning; (3) a network to create idea; (4)
students welfare; and (5) determining educational policies. Bandarsoo (2002) in a study titled the effect of
teamwork and cooperation on the knowledge and attitude of senior students of dentistry showed that participation
in teamwork and time spent in courses discussion has positive relation with the output acquired by the higher
performance. Ahmad and Bronzema (2006) review the structural model of self-regulative, internal motivation and
educational progress of 181 graduates from Asian and European universities and came to the conclusion that selfregulative and self-government theories in different cultures are vastly various. Cybert and et al (2006) in a study
titled dependent factors to motivate students of agricultural economy classes among BA students of Texas, Pardio,
and Florida came to the conclusion that the electronic amusements, association and doing time-consuming
activities in a negative way has some relation with the educational motivation. Calfield (2007) in a study titled
what motivates students to give feedback about the teaching and learning process to teachers? emphasizing on the
theory of expectation, applies the Herdoum Model as his theoretical framework. Results show that the students
motivation depends on the significance of their comments in promoting the value of class and future classes and the
expectations in their formative feedback results in additional value for them, their classmates and future students.
Bayron and Flowd (2008) reviewed the effect of Ireland universities MA students expectations on their educational
performance whose result show that there is meaningful relation between expectations and educational performance.
Halabi (2009) reviews the educational performance of students in first courses of Accounting. Results show that
previous familiarity with Accounting justifies 25 % of educational performance. Raas et al (2009) in a study titled
the comparison of replaced conceptualization of variety in responsibilities in management teams: process and effect
of performance on the senior students of Dentistry; they reviewed the effect of teamwork on students knowledge
and attitude. Results show that the students taking team instructions have higher information and knowledge in
comparison with other students. Morfi (2010) reviews the effect of academic activities and teaching methods
regarding the previous knowledge of students. Results show that educational plans in some aspects have great
impact on the educational performance of students and the level of this impact depends much on the freshman
students. Bayron and et al (2011) compared the motivations, expectations, and preparation of sample MA and PHD
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Accounting students in 4 countries (England, Ireland, Spain, and Greek). Results show that these factors will impact
on the students motivation for learning process during their education and as a result would affect the quality of
learning results.
Assessing models of educational performance mostly assess the one-dimensional relation and or multidimensional relations of motivation, expectation, and preparation on educational performance. Provided that
educational performance is affected by a series of factors which are interrelated with each other, so that considering
them and their interrelation in this study would cause a more exact assessment. Lots of researches have been done in
this regard which cause to reviewing the relations between motivation, expectation and preparation on educational
and research performance of students; however, there is no research about the effect of foreground factors on
competence and finally educational performance; therefore, this research aims to review the educational
performance regarding the competence as a mediating variable, so this study is a new one which would extend the
related theories.
3. Theoretical Frameworks of Study
Motivation means action, inanition and movement and in fact an internal disposition which invigorates, activates
and moves the human behavior, and directs it toward the predetermined goals; in other words, motivation is a
searching behavior which follows the goal and satisfies the human needs (Bijani et al, 1390). The educational
motivation is not a result of individual intellect or hardware equipments in environment, but psychological aspects
like the characteristics of personality and learning styles also have significant roles and even the role of
characteristics of personality in educational success is more extensive than intellect. People, having educational
motivation, would have the necessary mobility to successfully end a task, achieve a goal or acquire a determinative
level of competence in their job (Moqimian and Karimi, 1391). People expectations of higher education regarding
its educational services should be clear and defined and include more self-awareness about their capabilities,
interests, and preferences, knowing all available related job choices, job searching skills, knowing the level of
acquiring their main skills, decision skills, and more knowledge about the information sources and how to apply
them (Movahedi Rad and Khaqani-Zade, 1389).

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Students motivation to continue their studies toward higher education has often close relation with their
expectation from the benefits of Higher education. Expectations, in every aspect, shows the prediction of one about
future events and condition (Kouh, 1999). Students have different expectations when coming to Higher education
which is formed by the previous experiences of students from teachings, individual concept of academy, promoting
principles about the organization and provision (Or lectures) of students or graduates (Bent et al, 2007); moreover,
students expectations from higher education often affects their choice of academic field, since they are searching for
coalition of plans and courses with their known capabilities, interests and personalities (Pike, 2006). As researching
about the motivations for entering higher education is valuable, since it provides some motivations for learning, the
students expectations can in a similar way affect the learning process and their success and satisfaction with higher
education. In fact, previous studies showed clearly that when students expectations are not satisfied, they would
remain unsatisfied and unhappy and they could possibly change their research plan or finally quit education (Bent et
al, 2007). One the most significant purposes of education in 21 st century is how to train learners who would qualify
the necessary preparation to encounter with ever changing society. Making preparation to ensure a beneficent and
satisfying work is one the preliminary purposes of education. Efficiency of students understanding about their
preparedness for higher education are identified through their successful transfer to a new learning environment
(Hugies & Poget, 2002). Unfortunately, many students face lots of problems since they do not know that the
learning process in higher education involves what matters. Having epistemological beliefs caused by their previous
experiences, they enter into a higher education level. Nevertheless, higher education motivations for the learning
need into a mental recognition of a supreme rank involves advancing the critical thinking and capability to integrate
and application of knowledge in different aspects (Gomich, 2002); however, these purposes in higher education are
somehow fixed for some years (Ramesdon, 2003). Most today students need help in acquiring these and promote
their recognition regarding producing science about the subject field (Li & Street, 1998). State constructions have
changed a lot in the last two decades. Changes like promotion and extension of personnel, appearance of experts in
all areas, organizational processes to become knowledge-based, the necessity of wisdom extension and dispersion
among all organizational levels, the high rate of development of new technologies, the increasing social role and
responsibility of states in responding to the citizens, increasing the coefficient of social capital significance and
manpower in development and extension process cause to state government to focus on qualified primacy extension.
In fact, governments activities toward the establishment of qualified primacy system start from the point that the
new role of government is regarded as the biggest entrepreneur and director of advancement plans; so above all,
governments are successful if they can employ the best experts having best capabilities and competences, then
promote them and can apply them in the best possible organizational posts. Regarding the scientific researches, the
concept of competence was firstly expressed by Mc Kolend. Mc Kolend defined the concept of competence as the
behavioral and psychological features which are related with the successful consequences in job and life (Dehqanan,
1385). Competence is generally regarded as the series of related behaviors or activities, types of knowledge, skills
and motivations which are the behavioral, technical and motivational prerequisites for a successful performance in a
defined job or work. Competence involves types of knowledge, skill, capability or personal quality which is
represented through behavior, and caused to sublimity and supremacy in service providing. Making competence and
strategic capabilities in universities are the most necessary needs in these organizations. First class universities
attempt to make a favourable equivalence among much demand for higher education and providing the best qualities
and give the best output (Sohrabi et al, 1389).
4. Research Method

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Achieving the purposes of science or scientific cognition would be possible, if the identifying methods would be
correct and exact; in other words, every research is valid if its method is valid but not its subject matter (Khaki,
1390). This research has two steps. First step to formulate the theoretical principles of research which was
bibliotheca to collect needed information; second step, the main step, is the purpose of modeling and responding to
the main questions of research. Research method in this descriptive step is of scaling. To review the existence of a
meaningful relation between dependent variable of educational performance with the independent variable and to
test the hypothesis with the purpose of assessing the relation among variables the one and multi Regression was
applied. Also the assumption of mediating role of competence was tested by the Sobel Test and EXCEL AND SPSS
were used to classify and analyze data. Statistical population includes complete series of possible amounts or
recorded information of qualitative feature about the complete collector of units which are going to be inferred.
Collecting data here means to extract some results about society (Khaki, 1390). Statistical population of this study is
MA students of Accounting in Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch. Statistical sample of this research is MA
students of Accounting in Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch in 1390-1391 academic year who have at least
passed two terms in MA courses and defined average workbook and total average workbook.
4.1. Research Hypotheses
Every scientific research is done to response some questions and or accepting or rejecting some hypotheses. The
posed hypotheses of this research in this regard are expressed below:
Hypothesis 1: Preparedness affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
Hypothesis 2: Expecting affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
Hypothesis 3: Motivation affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
4.2. Factors of Measuring the Research Variables
Table 1: Factors of Measuring the Research Variables
Variables

Measurement Components
Social Norm
Intellectual Development

Motivation

Social Opportunity
Personal Development
Job Concentration
Intellectual Development

Expectations

Social Opportunities
Scientific self-confidence

Preparation

Independent Trainee
Trust in Skills
Teamwork and cooperation

Competence

judgment and decision making


professional advancement

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5. Research Findings
The below points are expressed in the proceeding of tests and analyses related with the research hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Preparedness affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
H0: Preparedness doesnt affect the educational performance of MA students via competence.
H1: Preparedness affects the educational performance of MA students via competence.
According to Table No. 2, statistic f and meaningfulness level of them which is lower than 0.05; therefore
Regression functions were meaningful and according to the above table for the 1 st path the amount of T modulus
statistic equals 5.574 and meaningfulness level (0.000) lower than 0.05; therefore there is relation between
preparedness and competence, however, for path 2 the amount of T modulus statistic equals 1.915 and
meaningfulness level (0.057) more than 0.05, therefore there is no meaningful relation between competence and
educational performance.
Table 2: Test results of hypothesis 8

Path

Estimate

T-statistics

S.E

Significant
level

Standard
coefficient
beta

Preparation Competence

0.373

5.574

0.067

0.000

0.424

Competence Academic Performance

0.564

1.915

0.294

0.057

0.159

However, according to Table No. 3 statistic of Sebel Test (1.814) and meaningfulness level (0.070) is more than
0.05 and the Hypothesis0 is not rejected; therefore the variable of competence in relation with preparedness and
educational performance does not function as the mediating role; therefore Preparedness doesnt affect the
educational performance of MA students of Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch via competence.
Table 3: Sobel test results for Hypothesis 8

Test Statistic Z

S.E

Significant Level P

Indirect Effect

Standard Indirect Effect

1.814

0.116

0.07

0.21

0.067

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Hypothesis 2: Expectation affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
H0: Expectation does not affect the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
H1: Expectation affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of competence.
According to Table No. 4, statistic f and meaningfulness level of them which is lower than 0.05; therefore
Regression functions were meaningful and according to the above table for the 1 st path the amount of T modulus
statistic equals 5.38 and meaningfulness level (0.000) lower than 0.05; therefore there is relation between
expectation and competence, however, for path 2 the amount of T modulus statistic equals 1.63 and meaningfulness
level (0.105) more than 0.05, therefore there is no meaningful relation between competence and educational
performance.
Table 4: Test results of hypothesis 9

Path

Estimate

T-statistics

S.E

Significant
level

Standard
coefficient
beta

ExpectationCompetence

0.347

5.380

0.064

0.000

0.411

CompetenceAcademic Performance

0.460

1.630

0.282

0.105

0.129

However, according to Table No. 5 statistic of Sebel Test (1.562) and meaningfulness level (0.118) is more than
0.05 and the Hypothesis0 is not rejected; therefore the variable of competence in relation with expectation and
educational performance does not function as the mediating role; therefore Expectation doesnt affect the
educational performance of MA students of Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch via competence.
Table 5: Sobel test results for Hypothesis 9

Test Statistic Z

S.E

Significant Level P

Indirect Effect

Standard Indirect Effect

1.562

0.102

0.118

0.160

0.053

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Hypothesis 3: Motivation affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
H0: Motivation does not affect the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of
competence.
H1: Motivation affects the educational performance of MA students via the mediating variable of competence.
According to Table No. 6, statistic f and meaningfulness level of them which is lower than 0.05; therefore
Regression functions were meaningful and according to the above table for the 1 st path the amount of T modulus
statistic equals 3.571 and meaningfulness level (0.000) lower than 0.05; therefore there is meaningful relation
between motivation and competence, however, for path 2 the amount of T modulus statistic equals 2.470 and
meaningfulness level (0.015) lower than 0.05, therefore there is a meaningful relation between motivation and
educational performance.

Table 6: Test results of hypothesis 10

Path

Estimate

T-statistics

S.E

Significant
level

Standard
coefficient
beta

Motivation Competence

0.258

3.571

0.072

0.00

0.287

CompetenceAcademic Performance

0.654

2.470

0.265

0.015

0.184

However, according to Table No. 7 statistic of Sebel Test (2.033) and meaningfulness level (0.042) is more than
0.05 and the Hypothesis0 is rejected; therefore the variable of competence in relation with motivation and
educational performance function as the mediating role and its indirect effect is 0.169; therefore Motivation affect
the educational performance of MA students of Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch via competence.
Table 7: Sobel test results for Hypothesis 10

Test Statistic Z

S.E

Significant Level P

Indirect Effect

Standard Indirect Effect

2.033

0.083

0.042

0.169

0.053

6. Conclusion and Suggestions


This research attempts to describe, explain the effective factors on educational performance of Accounting
students like Motivation, Preparation and Expectation and review the relation of every one of them with the
mediating variable of competence. Statistical population of research is MA Accounting students of Islamic Azad
University, Yazd Branch 144 of whom were selected as sample with selective method. Research Method is
descriptive- scaling and questionnaire was used to collect information. To achieve this goal, firstly we examined
previous researches and related literature to review the relations of these variables with educational performance;
then to assess the accuracy and verification of these relations the statistical methods of one and multi variable
Regression and Sebel Test were applied.
In general, every variables of Motivation with 5 factors (Personal development, job concentration, intellectual
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development, social norm, social opportunity), Expectation with 3 factors (Scientific self-confidence, intellectual
development, social opportunities), Preparation with 2 factors (independent trainee, trust in skills) all were examined
as independent variable and Competence with 3 factors (Teamwork and cooperation, judgment and decision making,
professional advancement) was examined as mediating variable and educational performance was examined as
dependent variable whose findings show that the variables of Preparation, Expectation, Motivation and Competence
all have positive and meaningful relation with educational performance and Preparation, Expectation, Motivation
have positive and meaningful relation with Competence; moreover, findings show that none of Preparation and
Expectation variable affect the educational performance through the mediating variable of competence; but
motivation affect the educational performance through the mediating variable of competence. According to the
significance of assessing educational performance in macro educational programs and plans of scientific societies it
is suggested that they apply the current research in a scientific and practical way, due to its more effective
assessment of educational performance in comparison with previous models and plan and make decision based on
the related findings of this research. Moreover it is suggested to review other factors affecting educational
performance and even based on their relative significance in assessing performance, different weigh to be applied
for abovementioned factors in researches so that a more realistic assessment be done in this regard; also it could
review the different temporal effect of factors on educational performance. It is hoped that, with the above
suggestions, the most exact assessment can be made for educational performance so that its consequences and
output could be applied as the input for the planning and decision making system of education in Iran.
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