# NST IA Materials and Mineral Sciences Course A, Lecture 4 Lattice Vectors, Lattice Planes and Miller Indices

The ‘language’ of crystallography

How does the arrangement of atoms in crystals affect growth (morphology), deformation etc?

[010] [100] [110]

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc

basis vectors

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc

basis vectors

written simply as :

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

written simply as :

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110]

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110]

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[101] [010] [100] [110]

General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W]

basis vectors

[1 0 1]

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

[0 1 1]

[101]

[0 1 1] General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W] basis vectors [1 0 1]

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

[0 1 1]

[101]

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W] basis vectors [1 0 1]

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

[0 1 1]

[101]

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W] 3 CP directions in one CP plane basis vectors [1 0 1]

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

[0 1 1]

[101]

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total basis vectors [1 0 1]

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[010] [100] [110]

[0 1 1]

[101]

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] General lattice vector: ! t = Ua + Vb + Wc [U V W] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>. basis vectors [1 0 1]

written simply as :

Easiest way to deform hcp metal is to slide layer through [010], [100],[110] and opposite directions: [010], [100],[110] 6 easy slip directions in close-packed plane

[0 1 1]

[101]

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] [1 0 1] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>.

[0 1 1]

[101]

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] [1 0 1] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>.

Cd crystal before deformation

[0 1 1]

[101] After deformation Cd crystal before deformation

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] [1 0 1] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>.

[0 1 1]

[101] After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] [1 0 1] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>.

[0 1 1]

[101] After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] [1 0 1] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>.

[0 1 1]

[101] After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps

[1 10] [1 10] [0 1 1] [1 0 1] 3 CP directions in one CP plane 12 easy slip directions in total 4 x 3 sets of [110] type directions group together as <110>.

slip planes

After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps

slip planes

After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps

slip planes

100/mm

300/mm

600/mm

After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: slip planes

100/mm

300/mm

600/mm

After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ

slip planes

100/mm

300/mm

600/mm

After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law)

slip planes

100/mm

300/mm

600/mm

After deformation Cd crystal before deformation Easy slip occurs along close-packed planes slip steps constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

slip planes

100/mm

300/mm

600/mm

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

Astrobiology Magnetotactic bacteria

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

morphologies of iron oxide crystals

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

procedure

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! ! select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! !

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! ! ( b )! ! ! !

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes.

intercepts of plane with axes

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! ! ( b )! ! ! !

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes.

intercepts of plane with axes

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! ! ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! !

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! ! ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! !

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell

procedure ( a )! ! ! ! ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! !

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin

constructive interference of diffracted x-rays occurs when: ! λ = 2 d hkl s i n θ (Bragg’s law) h k l are ‘Miller indices’ which define the lattice planes

select an origin at corner of unit cell from which intercepts of planes along axes can be seen.

determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

( 1 )! ! intercepts of plane with axes Defines origin at corner of unit cell

choose an origin

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers.

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

1 st

plane from origin

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1

1 st

plane from origin

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1

1 st

plane from origin

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞

1 st

plane from origin

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin

/0; k=0

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

origin

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

origin

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

origin a/2

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a

/h= a/2 ; h=2

origin a/2

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

lattice plane (hkl)

intercepts of plane with axes Defines

origin at corner of unit cell a/h

b/k

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

(2 1) planes 1 stp l a n e a w a y from origin procedure ( a )! s e l e c t a n o r i g i n a t c o r n e r o f ! unit cell from which ! intercepts of planes along ! axes can be seen. ( b )! ! ! ! ( c )! ! ! ! determine the positions of intercepts of the first plane away from the origin along x, y and z axes. intercepts are at a/h, b/k and c/l, where a,b,c are dimensions of the unit cell and hkl are integers. origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

lattice plane (hkl)

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k= b/1 ; k=1

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

x

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

chosen

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin

(2 0) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin

(2 0) planes

Intercepts: a/2, -b/2, -c/2

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin

(2 0) planes

Intercepts: a/2, -b/2, -c/2 (2 2 2 ) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin

(2 0) planes

Intercepts: a/2, -b/2, -c/2 (2 2 2 ) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin

(2 0) planes

Intercepts: a/2, -b/2, -c/2 (2 2 2 ) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin Intercepts: a/2, -b/2,c/0

(2 0) planes

Intercepts: a/2, -b/2, -c/2 (2 2 2 ) planes

b/k a/h (2 1) planes

( 1 )! ! ( 2 )! ! !

choose an origin c h o o s e 1 st plane away from origin -b/1 origin y

( 3 )! l o o k a t ! intercepts a /h= a/2 ; h=2
b

/k=

b

/1 ; k=1 x (3 1 ) planes

a/3

origin

Intercepts x-axis at 1 a /h= a/1 ; h=1 Intercepts y-axis at ∞
b ∞ = /k= b

1 st

plane from origin (1 0) planes

/0; k=0

c
a b

/h= a/2 ; h=2 /k

a

chosen

b

origin

origin a/2

=

∞ ; k=0 1st plane away from origin Intercepts: a/2, -b/2,c/0

(2 0) planes

Intercepts: a/2, -b/2, -c/2 (2 2 2 ) planes (2 2 0 )

Todays lecture:

Todays lecture: How to define crystallographic directions: [U V W]

Todays lecture: How to define crystallographic directions: [U V W]

How to define crystallographic planes: (h k l)

Todays lecture: How to define crystallographic directions: [U V W]

How to define crystallographic planes: (h k l)

Awareness of the importance of spacing and orientation of lattice planes for the interpretation of x-ray diffraction.