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Westminster Abbey: formally titled the Collegiate

Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic

abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located
just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the
most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and
has been the traditional place of coronation and burial site
for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and
1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560,
however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral,
having instead the status of a "Royal Peculiar"a church
responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is
the original abbey church.

The Great Vowel Shift:

was a major change in

the pronunciation of the English language that took place in

England between 1350 and 1700.[1][2] Through the Great
Vowel Shift, all Middle English long vowels changed their
pronunciation. English spelling was becoming standardized
in the 15th and 16th centuries, and the Great Vowel Shift is
responsible for many of the peculiarities of English spelling.

Edward the Confessor[a] (Old English:

adweard Andettere; Latin: Eduardus Confessor)
(between 1003 and 1005 5 January 1066) was
among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, and
usually considered the last king of the House of
Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066.
Edward's Norman sympathies are most clearly seen
in the major building project of his reign,
Westminster Abbey, the first Norman Romanesque

church in England.
Edward was allegedly not above accepting bribes.
According to the Ramsey Liber Benefactorum, the
monastery's abbot decided that it would be
dangerous to publicly contest a claim brought by "a
certain powerful man", but he claimed he was able to
procure a favourable judgment by giving Edward
twenty marks in gold and his wife five marks

William I: (Old Norman: Williame I; Old

English: Willelm I; c. 1028[1] 9 September 1087),
usually known as William the Conqueror and
sometimes William the Bastard,[2][a] was the first
Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his
death in 1087. The descendant of Viking raiders, he
had been Duke of Normandy since 1035. After a long
struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on
Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman
conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was
marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over
England and his continental lands and by difficulties
with his eldest son.
William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke
of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva. His
illegitimate status and his youth caused some
difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as
did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his

There are records of two tutors for the young duke

during the late 1030s and early 1040s, but the extent
of William's literary education is unclear. He was not
known as a patron of authors, and there is little
evidence that he sponsored scholarship or other
intellectual activities