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STONES

Definitions (http://dictionary.reference.com)
Stone
1. The hard substance formed of mineral matter, of which rocks consist.
2. A piece of rock quarried and worked into a specific size and shape for a particular purpose.
3. A small piece of rock, as a pebble.
Rock
1. A large mass of stone forming a hill, cliff, promontory, or the like.
2. Mineral matter of variable composition, consolidated or unconsolidated, assembled in
masses or considerable quantities in nature, as by the action of heat or water.

Classifications
1. Geological classification
2. Physical classifications
3. Chemical classification
Geological classification

Igneous rocks: Rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.


i.
Plutonic rocks
- Granite
ii. Hypabyssal rocks
- Dolerite
iii. Volcanic rocks
- Basalt
Sedimentary rocks: Rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface
and within bodies of water.
i.
Mechanical rocks
- Sand stone or Lime stone
ii. Chemical rocks
- Gypsum
iii. Organic rocks
- Coral
Metamorphic rocks: Rock that arises from the transformation of existing rock types, in a
process called metamorphism.
i.
Sand stone to Quartzite
ii. Lime stone to Marble

Physical classification

Stratified rocks: Rocks possess planes or layers of stratification or cleavage and can be split
up along these planes. From these rocks, stone in the form of thin slabs can be obtained.
SAND STONE, LIME STONE, SLATE
Un-stratified rocks: These rocks do not show any signs of stratification and cannot be easily
split into thin layers. Their structure may be crystalline or granular.
GRANITE, TRAP, BASALT
Foliated rocks: Rocks exhibiting foliation include the standard sequence formed by
the prograde metamorphism of MUDROCKS, PHYLLITE, SCHIST and GNEISS.

Chemical classification

Silicious rocks: Rocks contains SiO2 or silica as chief constituent mineral.


GRANITE, QUARTZITE
Argillaceous rocks: Rocks contains clay or alumina (Al2O3) as chief constituent mineral. They
are brittle and cannot withstand shocks. SLATE, LATERITE
Calcareous rocks: Rocks contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as chief constituent mineral.
Durability depends on the atmospheric constituents. LIMESTONE, MARBLE

Common Building Stones Used In India


1)
2)
3)
4)

Granite
Basalt
Trap
Sand Stone

5)
6)
7)
8)

Lime Stone
Marble
Slate
Gneiss

9) Laterite
10) Quartzite
11) Serpentine
12) Artificial stone

1. Granite
a) Origin & Composition: It is a plutonic igneous rock, composed of Quartz, Felspar and Mica.
b) Characteristics:
1. It is hard, durable & strong un-stratified rock, cracks badly under fire.
2. Its specific gravity varies from 2.6 to 2.8.
3. Its compressive strength is 1000 to 1400 kg/cm sq.
4. Available in white black, grey and pink colors (depends on felspar content)
5. Strength & weathering properties depend on quantity & quality of quartz & feldspar
respectively.
c) Uses:
1. Superior quality heavy & important engg. works like bridges, piers, abutments,
harbors and docks, lighthouses, barrages etc.
2. Inferior quality Road paving and metal, railway ballast and as aggregate in concrete.
3. Fine grained decorative cladding works.

2. Basalt and Trap


a) Origin & Composition: It is a silicious igneous rock, composed of Augite, Felspar, Alumina,
silica and other minerals.
b) Characteristics:
1. It is hard, compact, durable & heavy and as such difficult to work upon.
2. Its specific gravity varies from 2.9 to 3.0.
3. Its compressive strength is 1500 to 3000 kg/cm sq.
4. Available in grey, dark grey, green, blue, black, red and yellow colors.
5. Available in small blocks generally.
c) Uses:
1. Road metal, railway ballast and as aggregate in concrete.
2. Flag stone for paving streets and steps.
3. Soft Red and yellow for decorative works.
4. Used in rubble masonry in hilly areas.
3. Sand stone
a) Origin & Composition:
1. It is a silicious sedimentary rock of stratified nature, composed of Sand as chief and
lime, silicious and argillaceous minerals as binder.
2. It is named after the binder material i.e. it may be calcareous, silicious or argillaceous
sandstone.
b) Characteristics:
1. It is soft and moderately stratified stone and fine to coarse grained.
2. Porous in nature.
3. Its specific gravity varies from 2.3.
4. Its compressive strength is 200 to 1700 kg/cm sq.
5. Available in white, grey, light brown, red and yellow colors.
c) Uses:
1. For ashlar works in buildings.
2. Suitable for architectural works (fine grained ).
3. Rough and coarse used in rubble masonry.
4. Blocks of this are preferred for monumental buildings, dams, bridges, and docks.
4. Lime stone
Origin & Composition:
1. It is a calcareous sedimentary rock of stratified nature, composed of calcium carbonate
as chief mineral and small proportions of silica, magnesium carbonate, iron and clay.
2. Lime stone containing equal quantities of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate
is known as Dolomite.

Characteristics:
1. Its texture is bedded, granular and fine grained.
2. Its specific gravity varies from 2.6.
3. Its compressive strength is 500 kg/cm sq.
4. Available in dark grey, brown and yellow colors with dull and earthy appearance.
Uses:
1. Used for stone masonry, flooring, paving, roofing.
2. Manufacturing of Lime and Cement.
3. Blocks of this are preferred for monumental buildings, dams, bridges, and docks.
5. Marble
Origin & Composition:
It is a calcareous metamorphic rock, composed of calcium carbonate as chief mineral.
Characteristics:
5. Its fine to coarse grained, massive, granular and crystalline in texture.
6. Its specific gravity varies from 2.7.
7. Its compressive strength is 1000 kg/cm sq. and extremely durable
8. Available in white, grey, black, red, blue and yellow colors.
Uses:
4. Used for stone masonry, flooring, paving, roofing.
5. Manufacturing of Lime and Cement.
6. Blocks of this are preferred for monumental buildings, dams, bridges, and docks.